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Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004292/reversing-antimicrobial-resistance-in-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-of-clinical-origin-using-1-1-naphthylmethyl-piperazine
#1
João Anes, Marta Martins, Séamus Fanning
Eleven clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were tested to access the potential of adjuvant therapies to reduce antimicrobial resistance using fixed concentrations of the chemosensitizers chlorpromazine (CPZ), thioridazine (TZ), phenylalanine-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN), and 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine-(NMP) with varying concentrations of antimicrobial agents nalidixic acid (NAL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), moxifloxacin (MXF), tetracycline (TET), and chloramphenicol (CHL). Ethidium bromide dye was used together with the chemosensitizers to investigate permeabilization effects...
July 13, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958064/prevalence-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-harboring-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-genes-in-bangladesh
#2
Emily Rahman Khan, Meiji Soe Aung, Shyamal Kumar Paul, Salma Ahmed, Nazia Haque, Farid Ahamed, Santana Rani Sarkar, Sangjukta Roy, Mohammad Mustafizur Rahman, Muhammad Chand Mahmud, Muhammad Akram Hossain, Noriko Urushibara, Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Ayako Sumi, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Spread of Gram-negative bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases constitutes a growing challenge in control of bacterial infections. In this study, prevalence and genetic characteristics of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring ESBL and/or carbapenemase genes, with other beta-lactamase/resistance genes, were investigated for a total of 375 clinical isolates in Mymensingh located in north-central Bangladesh. The major ESBL gene was blaCTX-M-1 group, which was detected in 33...
June 29, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957128/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-sequence-type-131-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-children-with-bacteremia-in-2000-2015
#3
Ji Young Park, Ki Wook Yun, Eun Hwa Choi, Hoan Jong Lee
Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 has emerged as a higher virulent and multidrug-resistant pathogen worldwide. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and characteristics of E. coli ST131 isolated from Korean children with bacteremia at a single center for 16 years. We retrospectively reviewed culture-proven E. coli bacteremia cases of children aged ≤18 years between 2000 and 2015. E. coli isolates were analyzed using multilocus sequence typing, fimH typing, and CTX-M typing. Among 177 children with E...
June 29, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957118/antimicrobial-peptides-features-action-and-their-resistance-mechanisms-in-bacteria
#4
Hoda Moravej, Zahra Moravej, Maryam Yazdanparast, Mohammad Heiat, Ali Mirhosseini, Mehrdad Moosazadeh Moghaddam, Reza Mirnejad
In recent years, because of increased resistance to conventional antimicrobials, many researchers have started to study the synthesis of new antibiotics to control the disease-causing effects of infectious pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are among the newest antibiotics; these peptides are integral compounds in all kinds of organisms and play a significant role in microbial ecology, and critically contribute to the innate immunity of organisms by destroying invading microorganisms. Moreover, AMPs may encourage cells to produce chemokines, stimulate angiogenesis, accelerate wound healing, and influence programmed cell death in multicellular organisms...
June 29, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957103/characterization-of-clinical-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-in-eastern-hungary
#5
Dorottya Franyó, Balázs Kocsi, Virág Lesinszki, Judit Pászti, Anita Kozák, Evelin Erzsébet Bukta, Judit Szabó, Zsuzsanna Dombrádi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to characterize and elicit the genetic relatedness of emerging vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated between 2012 and 2015 at a teaching hospital in Debrecen, Hungary. RESULTS: Altogether 43 nonduplicate vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) clinical isolates were obtained. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for species identification. Isolates showed 100% resistance to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin while 81...
June 29, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927719/first-report-of-shv-148-type-esbl-and-cmy-42-type-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamase-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clinical-isolates-in-tunisia
#6
Olfa Dziri, Raoudha Dziri, Abderrahmen Maraoub, Chedly Chouchani
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae present a real problem worldwide. We aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics among Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from a Hospital in the southeast of Tunisia. Eighteen cephalosporin-resistant K. pneumoniae were recovered between April 2015 and August 2016. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance encoding genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. Results revealed several types of Ambler class A β-lactamase encoding genes among our isolates: [blaCTXM-15 (15), blaSHV-28 (6), blaSHV-1 (2), blaSHV-148 (1), blaSHV-61 (1), blaSHV-76 (1), blaSHV-186 (1), blaTEM-1 (8)]...
June 21, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927700/adaptations-of-vancomycin-intermediate-sequence-type-72-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-for-daptomycin-nonsusceptibility
#7
Gi Yong Lee, Kyung Mi Kang, Seung Hyun Back, Jin Yang Baek, So Hyun Kim, Jong-Hwan Park, Soo-Jin Yang
In Korea, the major clonal type of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is sequence type 72 (ST72) with staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV (ST72-MRSA-IV). In this study, we used a previously well-characterized isogenic pair of ST72 vancomycin (VAN) susceptible-and VAN intermediate-MRSA strains (VSSA303 and VISA072) and several VSSA strains complemented with plasmids expressing single-point mutated genes (dprAG196C , femAF92C , vraRE127K , and vraSRE127K ) identified in the VISA strain...
June 21, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927695/prevalence-and-characterization-of-%C3%AE-lactamases-genes-and-class-1-integrons-in-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-chicken-meat-in-korea
#8
Kwang Won Seo, Young Ju Lee
Antimicrobial resistance has become a serious public health threat throughout the world, and therapeutic options for several infectious diseases are currently limited by the presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. This study was designed to examine the drug resistance patterns, the prevalence of the β-lactamases, and class 1 integrons in MDR Escherichia coli isolates from chicken meat in Korea. Among 200 chicken meat samples, 101 isolates were observed to be positive for E. coli, of which 57 were identified as MDR E...
June 21, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920161/streptococcus-pneumoniae-antimicrobial-resistance-and-serotypes-of-strains-carried-by-children-and-causing-invasive-disease-in-the-faroe-islands
#9
Marita Debess Magnussen, Helga Erlendsdóttir, Shahin Gaini, Thorolfur Gudnason, Karl G Kristinsson
Knowledge about pneumococcal carriage, antibacterial resistance, serotype prevalence, and prevalence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) is lacking in the Faroe Islands. PCV-7 was introduced in 2008 and PCV-13 in 2010. The aim was to obtain knowledge on serotypes and antimicrobial resistance in pneumococci from carriage in children attending day-care centers (DCCs) and invasive isolates. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 607 healthy children attending DCCs in the Faroe Islands in January to March in 2009, 2010, and 2011...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920160/analysis-of-virulence-factors-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-salmonella-using-molecular-techniques-and-identification-of-clonal-relationships-among-the-strains
#10
Ozge Unlu, Zerrin Aktas, Hamdi Murat Tugrul
A total of 50 Salmonella enterica strains were isolated from clinical samples from 2009 to 2012 and analyzed for the presence of virulence genes found in SPI-1, SPI-2, and plasmids. The distribution and frequency of the antimicrobial resistance genes and plasmids were revealed, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were investigated. Five genes were identified from the seven strains with resistance or intermediate resistance to ampicillin: blaSHV-1 (present in six strains), qnrS1 (present in five strains), blaTEM-1 (present in three strains), blaCTX-M-1 (present in one strain), and qnrB1 (present in one strain)...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920143/molecular-characterization-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-the-intensive-care-unit-of-uruguay-s-university-hospital-identifies-the-first-rmtc-gene-in-the-species
#11
Inés Bado, Romina Papa-Ezdra, Jose F Delgado-Blas, Micaela Gaudio, Claudia Gutiérrez, Nicolás F Cordeiro, Virginia García-Fulgueiras, Lucía Araújo Pirez, Verónica Seija, Julio C Medina, Gloria Rieppi, Bruno Gonzalez-Zorn, Rafael Vignoli
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections are an increasing concern in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. The combination of carbapenemases and 16S rRNA-methyltransferases (16S-RMTases) further reduces the therapeutic options. OXA-carbapenemase/A. baumannii clone tandems in Latin America have already been described; however, no information exists in this region regarding the occurrence of 16S-RMTases in this microorganism. In addition, the epidemiology of A. baumannii in ICUs and its associated resistance profiles are poorly understood...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902105/characterization-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-persister-cells
#12
Rashad Alkasir, Yanan Ma, Fei Liu, Jing Li, Na Lv, Yong Xue, Yongfei Hu, Baoli Zhu
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nonfermenting Gram-negative bacillus. A. baumannii resistance is a significant obstacle to clinical infection treatment. The existence of persister cells (persisters) might represent the reason for therapy failure and relapse, and such cells may be the driving force behind rising resistance rates. In this study, A. baumannii ATCC 19606 was used as a target to explore the essential features of A. baumannii persisters. Antibiotic treatment of A. baumannii cultures at 50-fold the minimum inhibitory concentration resulted in a distinct plateau of surviving drug-tolerant persisters...
June 14, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894282/characteristics-of-resistance-mechanisms-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-fluoroquinolone-nonsusceptible-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-and-paratyphi-a-isolates-from-a-tertiary-hospital-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#13
Takashi Okanda, Anwarul Haque, Tomoko Ehara, Qumrul Huda, Kiyofumi Ohkusu, Ruhul Amin Miah, Tetsuya Matsumoto
The aim of this study was to characterize the fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance mechanism of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi A in Bangladesh. Salmonella Typhi isolates were classified into sequence type (ST) 1, ST2, and ST2209 and Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates were classified into ST85 and ST129. The most common STs of the FQ-nonsusceptible strain were ST1 (44.4%) and ST129 (66.6%). Thirty-nine percent of Salmonella Typhi isolates were multidrug resistant, and these were all ST1, which is the type prevalent in the Indian subcontinent...
June 12, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894277/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clones-carrying-the-panton-valentine-leukocidin-genes-disseminating-in-iranian-hospitals
#14
Mehdi Goudarzi, Masoumeh Navidinia, Elham Beiranvand, Hossein Goudarzi
The spread of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-carrying Staphylococcus aureus strains in both hospital and the community is a significant worldwide problem. The aim of the study was to investigate the clonal dissemination pattern of PVL-producing S. aureus strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 70 PVL-carrying S. aureus strains were recovered from 240 clinical specimens and characterized by antibiotic susceptibility testing, agr typing, SCCmec typing, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, and virulence and adhesion gene profiling...
June 12, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883257/molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-and-vancomycin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-isolated-from-hospitalized-patients
#15
Aidin Jahanshahi, Habib Zeighami, Fakhri Haghi
OBJECTIVES: Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and emergence of vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA) have led to great concern in healthcare settings worldwide. METHODS: A total of 100 S. aureus clinical isolates from hospitalized patients were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of resistance (mecA, vanA, and vanB) and virulence (hlaA, fnbpA, cna, clfA, tsst-1, eta, and spa) encoding genes, and molecular typing based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of spa gene...
June 8, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883253/attitudes-and-knowledge-regarding-antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-among-pharmacy-and-medical-students-at-the-university-of-split-croatia
#16
Doris Rusic, Josko Bozic, Marino Vilovic, Josipa Bukic, Piero Marin Zivkovic, Dario Leskur, Ana Seselja Perisin, Sinisa Tomic, Darko Modun
PURPOSE: Future physicians and pharmacists have to be educated and prepared to rationally manage the use of antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes and knowledge regarding the use of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance of medical and pharmacy students. METHODS: We conducted a survey-based cross-sectional study at the University of Split School of Medicine (USSM). The survey consisted of 50 items. A total of 161 students participated in the study across 3 study programs as follows: Medicine (N = 78), Medical Studies in English (MSE; N = 37), and Pharmacy (N = 46)...
June 8, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883247/prevalence-of-st131-clone-producing-both-esbl-ctx-m-15-and-aac-6-ib-cr-among-ciprofloxacin-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-yemen
#17
Sameer Ahmed Alsharapy, Betitera Yanat, Lorena Lopez-Cerero, Samar Saeed Nasher, Paula Díaz-De-Alba, Álvaro Pascual, José-Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Abdelaziz Touati
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the O25b/ST131 clone in ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from Yemen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli strains were collected from clinical samples of inpatients and outpatients from Sana'a (Yemen) from January to December 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, polymerase chain reaction amplification, and sequencing were used for detection of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the target genes gyrA and parC...
June 8, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847746/antibiotic-resistance-in-czech-urban-wastewater-treatment-plants-microbial-and-molecular-genetic-characterization
#18
Kateřina Svobodová, Jaroslav Semerád, Denisa Petráčková, Čeněk Novotný
Quantitative changes in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated in six urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) treating municipal and industrial wastewaters. In a selected WWTP, the fate of ARGs was studied in a 1-year time interval and in two phases of wastewater treatment process. Nine ARGs (tetW, tetO, tetA, tetB, tetM, blaTEM , ermB, sul1, and intl1) were quantified in total and their relative abundance assessed by ARG copies/16SrRNA copies. From the tetracycline resistance genes, tetW was the only one detected in all sampled WWTPs...
May 30, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792781/is-bla-ctx-m-1-riding-the-same-plasmid-among-horses-in-sweden-and-france
#19
Agnese Lupo, Marisa Haenni, Estelle Saras, Joanna Gradin, Jean-Yves Madec, Stefan Börjesson
A predominance of the blaCTX-M-1 /IncHI1 plasmid combination in horses has been reported in Czech-Republic, Denmark, and The Netherlands. To clarify a possible specific plasmid epidemiology of blaCTX-M-1 in horses in a European perspective, a collection of 74 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli recovered from diseased horses in France and Sweden during the period 2009-2014 was investigated in respect of their genetic relatedness, plasmid content, and molecular features. Overall, 80% of E...
May 24, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792779/association-of-colistin-resistant-kpc-clonal-strains-with-subsequent-infections-and-colonization-and-biofilm-production
#20
Melina Lorraine Ferreira, Bruna Fuga Araújo, Iara Rossi Gonçalves, Sabrina Royer, Paola Amaral Campos, Luiz Gustavo Machado, Deivid William Fonseca Batistão, Cristiane Silveira Brito, Paulo P Gontijo-Filho, Rosineide Marques Ribas
Carbapenemase-producing organisms are pandemic and a significant threat to public health. We investigated the clonal relatedness of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing KPC-type carbapenemase (KPC-KP) causing subsequent infections or colonization. Moreover, we aimed to gain insight into the ability of biofilm production in K. pneumoniae strains producing carbapenemase. Twenty-two consecutive KPC-KP and one KPC-negative strain was identified from an adult intensive care unit in Brazil. Seventy-five percent of isolates that harbored the blaKPC gene exhibited genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and none presented the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 and blaNDM genes...
May 24, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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