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Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628752/high-prevalence-of-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-and-tetracycline-campylobacter-spp-isolated-from-poultry-in-poland
#1
Anna Woźniak-Biel, Gabriela Bugla-Płoskońska, Alicja Kielsznia, Kamila Korzekwa, Anna Tobiasz, Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal, Alina Wieliczko
Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of foodborne diseases in humans, particularly when transmitted by the handling or consumption of undercooked poultry meat. Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting, but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., fluoroquinolones and macrolides) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. The indiscriminate use of these drugs, both in clinical medicine and animal production, has a major impact on public health. The aim of the present study was to identify Campylobacter strains, isolated from turkey and broilers, using both PCR and the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) methods to reveal the accuracy of identification, as well to evaluate the antimicrobial and genetic resistance of the investigated strains...
June 19, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613981/detection-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-variants-ndm-4-ndm-5-and-ndm-7-in-enterobacter-aerogenes-isolated-from-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-of-a-north-india-hospital-a-first-report
#2
Nayeem Ahmad, Syed Manazir Ali, Asad U Khan
A total 402 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were recovered from blood and rectal swabs of 1,000 infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of the Jawaharlal Medical College and Hospital Aligarh, India. Carbapenamase producers were determined by Carba NP phenotype biochemical assay. Out of 402 isolates, it was the first time three of the isolates were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes carrying blaNDM-4, blaNDM-5, and blaNDM-7 genes. These genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis...
June 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604274/routine-prophylactic-antimicrobial-use-is-associated-with-increased-phenotypic-and-genotypic-resistance-in-commensal-escherichia-coli-isolates-recovered-from-healthy-fattening-pigs-on-farms-in-thailand
#3
Kittitat Lugsomya, Thanitta Chatsuwan, Waree Niyomtham, Padet Tummaruk, David J Hampson, Nuvee Prapasarakul
This study examined antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles in commensal Escherichia coli derived from healthy fattening pigs in Thai farms that used prophylactic antimicrobials (in-feed tiamulin fumarate and amoxicillin) [PAs], therapeutic antimicrobials (injectable enrofloxacin or gentamicin) [TAs], or no antimicrobials [NAs]. Commensal E. coli were used as a proxy for overall AMR on the farms. There was a high level of multidrug resistance in all three categories of farm, with isolates showing resistance to β-lactams (amoxicillin, ampicillin, and piperacillin) and tetracyclines (tetracycline), and commonly possessing tetA, blaTEM, and plasmid replicons FIB and F...
June 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604259/reduced-susceptibility-to-antiseptics-is-conferred-by-heterologous-housekeeping-genes
#4
Supathep Tansirichaiya, Liam J Reynolds, Gianmarco Cristarella, Li Chin Wong, Kimie Rosendahl, Adam P Roberts
Antimicrobial resistance is common in the microbial inhabitants of the human oral cavity. Antimicrobials are commonly encountered by oral microbes as they are present in our diet, both naturally and anthropogenically, and also used in oral healthcare products and amalgam fillings. We aimed to determine the presence of genes in the oral microbiome conferring reduced susceptibility to common antimicrobials. From an Escherichia coli library, 12,277 clones were screened and ten clones with reduced susceptibility to triclosan were identified...
June 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598251/molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-australian-animals-and-veterinarians
#5
Kate A Worthing, Sam Abraham, Stanley Pang, Geoffrey W Coombs, Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Hui S Wong, Rebecca J Abraham, Darren J Trott, Jacqueline M Norris
This study aimed to determine the frequency and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Australian animals and whether animal-derived MRSA was similar to that from Australian veterinarians. A total of 1,080 clinical coagulase positive Staphylococcus isolates from Australian animals were collected during 2013. Sixteen (4%) of 360 S. aureus isolates were MRSA. Most MRSA came from companion animals, while none came from livestock. MRSA isolates were characterized using whole genome sequencing...
June 9, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594635/epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infections-in-a-chinese-children-s-hospital-predominance-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-1
#6
Fang Dong, Ye Zhang, Kaihu Yao, Jie Lu, Lingyun Guo, Shuang Lyu, Ying Yang, Yan Wang, Hongyan Zheng, Wenqi Song, Gang Liu
The spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) has become a significant problem worldwide; however, relevant data in children are limited. We performed a retrospective study to better understand the epidemiology of CRKp bloodstream infections at Beijing Children's Hospital. A total of 164 K. pneumoniae strains were collected from blood cultures between January 2011 and September 2014, of which 52 (31.7%) were CRKp strains. All 52 CRKp strains were multidrug resistant; 46 (88.5%) and 49 (94...
June 8, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594634/dissemination-of-blaoxa-23-blaoxa-24-blaoxa-58-and-blandm-1-genes-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-from-four-tertiary-hospitals-in-thailand
#7
Udomluk Leungtongkam, Rapee Thummeepak, Suchada Wongprachan, Pollawat Thongsuk, Thawatchai Kitti, Kwanjai Ketwong, Chakkaphan Runcharoen, Narisara Chantratita, Sutthirat Sitthisak
Acinetobacter baumannii is a major threat to public health due to the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii isolates collected from four tertiary hospitals in Thailand during the period November 2013-February 2015. We screened 339 A. baumannii, nonrepetitive clinical isolates to determine drug susceptibility. Among all isolates, we found that 7.9% was nondrug-resistant A. baumannii (NR-AB)...
June 8, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590820/activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-against-clinical-isolates-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-including-kpc-carrying-isolates-endemic-to-new-york-city
#8
Nyla Manning, Gregory Balabanian, Michael Rose, David Landman, John Quale
In this report, we examined the (1) activity of ceftazidime-avibactam against clinical isolates Klebsiella pneumoniae, including those harboring blaKPC, (2) potential mechanisms leading to reduced susceptibility, and (3) activity of ceftazidime-avibactam when combined with other agents. Of 802 carbapenem-resistant isolates of K. pneumoniae gathered from New York City from 1999 to 2014, all were susceptible to ceftazidime-avibactam. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were higher in isolates with K. pneumoniae, with the carbapenemase (KPC)-3 (compared to KPC-2), and those with a frameshift mutation in ompK35...
June 7, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581359/in-vitro-activity-of-sitafloxacin-and-additional-newer-generation-fluoroquinolones-against-ciprofloxacin-resistant-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates
#9
Ryoichi Hamasuna, Makoto Ohnishi, Masahiro Matsumoto, Ryo Okumura, Magnus Unemo, Tetsuro Matsumoto
Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern globally, and new antimicrobials for treatment of gonorrhea are imperative. In this study, the in vitro activity of sitafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone mainly used for respiratory tract or urogenital infections in Japan, and additional newer generation fluoroquinolones were determined against ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, sitafloxacin, pazufloxacin, and tosufloxacin against 47 N...
June 5, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570834/in-vitro-antistaphylococcal-synergistic-effect-of-isoflavone-metabolite-demethyltexasin-with-amoxicillin-and-oxacillin
#10
Johana Rondevaldova, Jana Hummelova, Jan Tauchen, Ladislav Kokoska
Staphylococcal infections are often hard to treat due to increasing resistance, especially to β-lactams. Previous studies described the synergy between common antibiotics and isoflavonoids; however, little is yet known about the combinatory effects of antibiotics with products of human isoflavone metabolism. In this study, demethyltexasin (DT), a human body metabolite of soybean isoflavones, was evaluated for its possible antistaphylococcal combinatory effect with amoxicillin and oxacillin. For comparison, common therapeutically used combination of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was tested...
June 1, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570118/distinct-genetic-diversity-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-from-colombian-hospitals
#11
Adriana Correa, Rosa Del Campo, Kevin Escandón-Vargas, Marcela Perenguez, Mercedes Rodríguez-Baños, Cristhian Hernández-Gómez, Christian Pallares, Federico Perez, Cesar A Arias, Rafael Cantón, María V Villegas
The global success of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been associated with the dissemination of a high-risk clone designated clonal complex (CC) 92(B) (Bartual scheme)/CC2(P) (Pasteur scheme), which is the most frequent genetic lineage in European, Asian, and North American carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter isolates. In these isolates, carbapenem resistance is mainly mediated by β-lactamases encoded by blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-51-like, and/or blaOXA-58-like genes. In this study, we characterized the population genetics of 121 carbapenem-resistant A...
June 1, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537778/antibacterial-susceptibilities-of-escherichia-coli-from-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-faroe-islands-associations-with-antibacterial-sales-and-comparison-with-iceland-and-denmark
#12
Marita Debess Magnussen, Hannes Gislason, Shahin Gaini, Karl G Kristinsson
Currently, data on Escherichia coli antibacterial susceptibilities in the Faroe Islands are lacking. The aim was to investigate the antibacterial susceptibilities of E. coli from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections in the Faroe Islands, correlate with antibacterial sales, and compare with Iceland and Denmark. From 2009 to 2010 and in 2012, 12 general practitioners from the Faroe Islands were recruited to provide urine samples from patients. Antibacterial susceptibilities were determined by disc diffusion testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods and criteria...
May 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525287/occurrence-of-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-in-various-clinical-infections-detection-of-their-drug-resistance-and-virulence-determinants
#13
Ali Jahansepas, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Alka Hasani, Yaeghob Sharifi, Toofan Aghazadeh, Jalal Mardaneh
The aim of this study was to characterize virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance profiles in enterococci obtained from various clinical sources in the northwest of Iran. A total of 160 enterococcal clinical isolates from various wards of University Teaching Hospitals were collected and specified by biochemical test, from September 2014 to July 2015. Identification of enterococci was confirmed by multiplex PCR in the genus and species level. Antibiotic resistance properties and virulence determinants were examined by phenotypic and molecular methods...
May 19, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520511/upregulation-of-acref-in-quinolone-resistance-development-in-escherichia-coli-when-acrab-tolc-function-is-impaired
#14
Chuan-Zhen Zhang, Man-Xia Chang, Lei Yang, Yan-Yan Liu, Pin-Xian Chen, Hong-Xia Jiang
We studied mechanisms of drug resistance development in Escherichia coli strains lacking efflux pump components. E. coli K12 deletion mutants were subjected to increasing concentrations of ciprofloxacin (CIP) to determine the frequency of target gene mutations. We generated a series of mutants that were selected based on their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to CIP, as well as their corresponding point mutations in target genes. The mutants displayed a number of target modifications and, in particular, gyrA mutations altering codons Ser83Leu, Asp87Gly, and Asp87His as well as a change in parC at 78 (substitution of Gly for Asp)...
May 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520501/molecular-characterization-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-bovine-clinical-mastitis-and-pigs-in-the-vojvodina-province-serbia
#15
Dalibor Todorović, Maja Velhner, Edita Grego, Dejan Vidanović, Dubravka Milanov, Dejan Krnjaić, Corinna Kehrenberg
The aim of the study was to characterize multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli isolates collected in Serbia from bovine clinical mastitis cases and diseased pigs, mainly with molecular methods. A total of 48 E. coli isolates was collected during the years 2013-2014, of which 22 were MDR and were included in further analysis. Phylogenetic typing showed that 17 isolates belonged to group A, while two isolates were classified in group B1 and a single one in group D. All isolates showed unique macrorestriction patterns...
May 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520499/genome-wide-identification-of-potential-drug-target-in-enterobacteriaceae-family-a-homology-based-method
#16
Morteza Hadizadeh, Seyyede Nasim Tabatabaiepour, Seyyede Zahra Tabatabaiepour, Hossein Hosseini Nave, Mohsen Mohammadi, Seyyed Mohsen Sohrabi
The Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-spore forming rod-shaped bacteria that includes harmless and pathogenic organisms. The emergence and development of drug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is complicating the treatment of serious infections. The aim of this study is to predict and characterize putative drug targets in Enterobacteriaceae family employing a homology-based computational method. The final putative drug targets were qualitatively characterized via cellular function prediction, subcellular localization prediction, broad-spectrum, and druggability analyses...
May 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504916/contribution-of-type-ii-topoisomerase-mutations-to-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-enterococcus-faecium-from-japanese-clinical-setting
#17
Noriko Urushibara, Keisuke Suzaki, Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Meiji Soe Aung, Masaaki Shinagawa, Satoshi Takahashi, Nobumichi Kobayashi
High-level fluoroquinolone resistance is conferred by the mutation of conserved serine and acidic amino acids in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the A subunits of the type II topoisomerases, DNA gyrase (GyrA) and topoisomerase IV (ParC). In Japan, fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterococcus faecium continues to emerge in clinical settings. We analyzed 131 Japanese E. faecium clinical isolates for susceptibility to levofloxacin (LVFX), and QRDR mutational status. The bacterial collection had a high percentage of resistance (79%) and showed elevated drug minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs)...
May 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504897/clonal-complexes-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profiles-of-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-isolates-from-dogs-in-the-united-states
#18
Ricardo Videla, Samar M Solyman, Akshar Brahmbhatt, Leslie Sadeghi, David A Bemis, Stephen A Kania
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the primary cause of canine pyoderma and has been associated with diseases in other animals, including human beings. A high prevalence of methicillin and multidrug resistance has been reported in this bacterium in some geographic regions of the United States. Multilocus sequence type (MLST) 68 was implicated, initially, as the major clonal genotype based on a limited number of samples. The objectives of this study were to determine the population genetics of S. pseudintermedius isolated from a cross-section of the United States using a seven-locus multilocus sequence typing method, to identify clonal complexes (CCs), and to correlate sequence types with antimicrobial susceptibility profiles...
May 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504889/genetic-characterization-of-vana-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-from-wild-red-legged-partridges-in-portugal
#19
Vanessa Silva, Gilberto Igrejas, Isabel Carvalho, Fernando Peixoto, Lucas Cardoso, José Eduardo Pereira, Rosa Del Campo, Patricia Poeta
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been detected in wild animals representing a public health concern. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) is a common game bird and its meat is consumed in several countries, including Portugal. Three hundred five fecal samples of red-legged partridge from the north of Portugal were screened for VRE. Samples were cultured on Slanetz-Bartley agar supplemented with vancomycin (4 mg/L) and six vanA-Enterococcus faecium were recovered. Isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance and virulence genes...
May 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486078/characterization-of-clinically-isolated-antibiotic-resistant-salmonella-typhimurium-exposed-to-subinhibitory-concentrations-of-ceftriaxone-and-ciprofloxacin
#20
Jeongjin Kim, Juhee Ahn
This study was designed mainly to assess the phenotypic properties of clinically isolated Salmonella Typhimurium exposed to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. The antibiotic susceptibility, β-lactamase activity, efflux activity, bacterial motility, biofilm-forming ability, and gene expression were determined in S. Typhimurium ATCC 19585 and S. Typhimurium CCARM 8009 when exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. S. Typhimurium CCARM 8009 was highly resistant to ampicillin, kanamycin, penicillin G, and streptomycin, showing minimum inhibitory concentration values of more than 512 μg/ml, while S...
May 9, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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