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Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304216/characterizing-the-multidrug-resistance-of-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-cattle-farms-and-abattoirs
#1
Carrie-Ann Kennedy, Séamus Fanning, Maria Karczmarczyk, Brian Byrne, Áine Monaghan, Declan Bolton, Torres Sweeney
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) are not as well characterized as O157 STEC cases, despite their similar prevalence in many countries. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic basis of multidrug resistance (MDR) in non-O157 STEC farm- and abattoir-sourced isolates and assess the potential dissemination of these MDR profiles in vitro. Susceptibility testing to 20 antimicrobials was performed on 146 non-O157 STECs isolated from farm and abattoir environments...
March 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304213/characterization-of-the-genetic-environment-of-the-blaveb-4-gene-associated-with-a-transposable-region-in-a-proteus-mirabilis-clinical-isolate
#2
Paula Espinal, Elisenda Miró, Laia Ramoneda, Manel Flores, Alba Rivera, Pere Coll, Ferran Navarro
Proteus mirabilis is the second most common cause of urinary tract infections and is also an important cause of nosocomial infections. TEM-type and CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are the most widely distributed in this bacterial species, but minor ESBLs such as the VEB-type have also been identified. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic environment of the blaVEB-4 gene found in a P. mirabilis clinical isolate recovered in Spain. P. mirabilis N2231 showed resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides, remaining susceptible to imipenem, cefoxitin, β-lactamases inhibitors, and quinolones...
March 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287910/transferability-of-the-mcr-1-colistin-resistance-gene
#3
Valérie Dénervaud Tendon, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287903/cytotoxic-effect-associated-with-overexpression-of-qnr-proteins-in-escherichia-coli
#4
Jesús Machuca, Paula Diaz de Alba, Esther Recacha, Álvaro Pascual, José Manuel Rodriguez-Martinez
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect associated with overexpression of multiple Qnr-like plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) mechanisms in Escherichia coli. METHODS: Coding regions of different PMQR genes (qnrA1, qnrB1, qnrC, qnrD1, qnrS1, and qepA2) and efsqnr were cloned into pET29a(+) vector and overexpressed in E. coli BL21. E. coli BL21 with and without an empty pET29a(+) vector were used as controls. The cytotoxic effect associated with PMQR mechanism overexpression was determined by transmission electron microscopy and viability assays...
March 13, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191865/high-carbapenem-resistance-in-clinical-gram-negative-pathogens-isolated-in-egypt
#5
Hazim O Khalifa, Ahmed M Soliman, Ashraf M Ahmed, Toshi Shimamoto, Toshinori Hara, Mitsuyasu Ikeda, Yuta Kuroo, Shizuo Kayama, Motoyuki Sugai, Tadashi Shimamoto
The emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria poses a serious threat to human health worldwide. Currently, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying carbapenem resistance and their prevalence among gram-negative bacteria in Egypt. In this study, we analyzed carbapenemase production in gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients in Egypt in 2014. All isolates were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic susceptibility testing for carbapenem resistance. Our results indicated a high level of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria in Egypt, with 50...
February 13, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177853/antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-associated-genes-of-campylobacter-spp-isolated-from-raw-milk-fish-poultry-and-red-meat
#6
Mojtaba Raeisi, Rahem Khoshbakht, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi, Mahsan Bayani, Mohammad Hashemi, Navisa Sadat Seyedghasemi, Hesamaddin Shirzad-Aski
This study was designed and conducted to evaluate the frequency, antimicrobial resistance, and presence of six virulence-associated genes among thermophilic Campylobacters isolated from raw milk, poultry (chicken, turkey, and duck), fish, cattle, and sheep meat. Out of 590 samples, which were recovered from different origins, 141 (23.9%) samples were positive for Campylobacters. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 40.8% (106/260), 14% (28/200), and 8.7% (7/80) of poultry meat, red meat, and milk samples, respectively...
February 8, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156193/characterization-of-ndm-7-carbapenemase-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-in-the-arabian-peninsula
#7
Tibor Pál, Akela Ghazawi, Dania Darwish, Laura Villa, Alessandra Carattoli, Rayhan Hashmey, Zulfa Aldeesi, Wafaa Jamal, Vincent Rotimi, Amina Al-Jardani, Seif S Al-Abri, Ágnes Sonnevend
AIM: The purpose of this study was to characterize the New Delhi metallo-beta lactamase (NDM)-7-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the Arabian Peninsula. METHODS: Enterobacteriaceae identified to carry blaNDM-7 in a collection of 157 NDM-producing isolates from Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were investigated for their antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility, and resistance gene content. The virulence profile, phylogenetic and sequence types of the isolates were also determined...
February 3, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151090/monitoring-the-decrease-in-susceptibility-to-ribosomal-rnas-targeting-antimicrobials-and-its-molecular-basis-in-clinical-mycoplasma-bovis-isolates-over-time
#8
Dima Khalil, Claire A M Becker, Florence Tardy
Mycoplasma bovis is considered an emerging threat to bovine production in industrialized countries. Its control depends on good husbandry and efficient chemotherapy practices. In France, clinical isolates collected after 2009 showed a drastic loss of susceptibility to most antimicrobials when compared with isolates collected in 1978-1979. The aim of the present study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying the shift toward resistance to macrolides and tetracyclines and to assess whether the clinical origin of the isolates or their molecular subtypes could have influenced their pattern of evolution...
February 2, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151044/dissemination-of-genes-encoding-aminoglycoside-modifying-enzymes-and-arma-among-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-in-northwest-iran
#9
Reza Ghotaslou, Fatemeh Yeganeh Sefidan, Mohammad Taghi Akhi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Yalda Mohammadzadeh Asl
INTRODUCTION: Enzymatic inactivation is one of the most important mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of armA and diversity of the genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and their associations with resistance phenotypes in Enterobacteriaceae isolates. METHODS: Three hundred and seven Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from five hospitals in northwest Iran. The disk diffusion method for amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and streptomycin, as well as the minimum inhibitory concentration for amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and kanamycin were done for susceptibility testing...
February 2, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151042/occurrence-of-blandm-1-and-blandm-5-in-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-of-north-india
#10
Deepjyoti Paul, Atul Garg, Amitabha Bhattacharjee
Antimicrobial resistance poses a great challenge to clinicians leaving very limited treatment options available. A panel of carbapenem-resistant bacterial isolates was selected based on Rapidec Carba NP test from a total of 900 samples, which were collected from different specialities hospitals of Kanpur, India. Carba NP-positive isolates were screened for carbapenemases, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), quinolone resistance, and 16s methyltransferase genes. Presence of diverse blaNDM (blaNDM-1 and blaNDM-5) were detected and horizontal transferability was determined by transformation and conjugation assay...
February 2, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118088/antimicrobial-and-antiradical-activity-of-extracts-obtained-from-leaves-of-five-species-of-the-genus-bergenia-identification-of-antimicrobial-compounds
#11
Beata Żbikowska, Roman Franiczek, Alina Sowa, Grażyna Połukord, Barbara Krzyżanowska, Zbigniew Sroka
An important focus of modern medicine is the search for new substances and strategies to combat infectious diseases, which present an increasing threat due to the growth of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Another problem concerns free radicals, which in excess can cause several serious diseases. An alternative to chemical synthesis of antimicrobial and antiradical compounds is to find active substances in plant raw materials. We prepared extracts from leaves of five species of the genus Bergenia: B. purpurascens, B...
January 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103180/fluoroquinolone-macrolide-and-ketolide-resistance-in-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-from-south-africa
#12
Regina Esinam Abotsi, Usha Govinden, Krishnee Moodley, Sabiha Essack
Fluoroquinolones and ketolides are among the drugs of choice for the treatment of Haemophilus parainfluenzae infections. There has been a report of an emerging fluoroquinolone and telithromycin resistance in H. parainfluenzae isolates from the private sector of KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa that necessitates molecular investigation. The aim of this study is to characterize these resistance delineating mutations in genes commonly associated with reduced susceptibility. Ten H. parainfluenzae isolates retrieved from the sputum of 10 patients with H...
January 19, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099062/rectal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-in-intensive-care-units-in-tunisia
#13
Samia Hammami, Chaima Dahdeh, Kelthoum Mamlouk, Sana Ferjeni, Elaa Maamar, Zeineb Hamzaoui, Mabrouka Saidani, Salma Ghedira, Mohamed Houissa, Amin Slim, Ilhem Boutiba-Ben Boubaker
This study was conducted to evaluate the rate of fecal carriage of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (third GC) in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis and to identify the enzymatic mechanisms involved. From February to April 2014, rectal swabs were collected from all patients (n = 38) at admission and once weekly thereafter to identify acquisition. They were cultured on desoxycholate-lactose-agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2 mg/L)...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099061/iodometric-and-molecular-detection-of-esbl-production-among-clinical-isolates-of-e-coli-fingerprinted-by-eric-pcr-the-first-egyptian-report-declares-the-emergence-of-e-coli-o25b-st131clone-harboring-blages
#14
Mohamed F El-Badawy, Wael M Tawakol, Ibrahim A Maghrabi, Moselhy S Mansy, Mohamed M Shohayeb, Mohammed S Ashour
The extensive use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to emergence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of 7 different ESBL genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaVEB, blaPER, blaGES, and blaOXA-10) and O25b-ST131 high-risk clone among 61 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Also, one broad-spectrum β-lactamase (blaOXA-1) was investigated. This study was also constructed to evaluate iodometric overlay method in detection of ESBL production...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095119/fecal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-strains-is-associated-with-worse-outcome-in-patients-hospitalized-in-the-pediatric-oncology-unit-of-beni-messous-hospital-in-algiers-algeria
#15
Chafiaa Medboua-Benbalagh, Abdelaziz Touati, Rachida Kermas, Alima Gharout-Sait, Lucien Brasme, Halima Mezhoud, Djamila Touati, Thomas Guillard, Christophe de Champs
OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) fecal carriage in children with different cancers admitted in the pediatric oncology unit of Beni-Messous Hospital (Algiers, Algeria). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs from children with cancer were sampled from February 2012 to May 2013 within 48 hours following their admission. After species identification and detection of ESBL production by double-disk synergy test (DD test), antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the standard disk diffusion method...
January 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085571/systematic-review-of-antimicrobial-resistance-of-clinical-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-in-iran-an-update
#16
Hadi Razavi Nikoo, Abdollah Ardebili, Jalal Mardaneh
Treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii has become a medical challenge because of the increasing incidence of multiresistant strains and a lack of viable treatment alternatives. This systematic review attempts to investigate the changes in resistance of A. baumannii to different classes of antibiotics in Iran, with emphasis on the antimicrobial activity of polymyxin B (PMB) and colistin (COL). Biomedical databases were searched for English-published articles evaluating microbiological activity of various antimicrobial agents, including PMB and COL...
January 13, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085562/in-vitro-development-of-ciprofloxacin-resistance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-typhimurium-enteritidis-and-indiana-isolates-from-food-animals
#17
Wen-Hui Zhang, Chuan-Zhen Zhang, Zhi-Jie Liu, Xi-Xi Gu, Wan Li, Ling Yang, Ya-Hong Liu, Zhen-Ling Zeng, Hong-Xia Jiang
Difference in the development of resistance may be associated with the epidemiological spread and drug resistance of different Salmonella enterica serovar strains. In the present study, three susceptible S. enterica serovars, Typhimurium (ST), Enteritidis (SE), and Indiana (SI) strains, were subjected to stepwise selection with increasing ciprofloxacin concentrations. The results indicated that the mutation frequencies of the SI group were 10(1)-10(4) higher and developed resistance to ciprofloxacin more rapidly compared with the ST and SE groups...
January 13, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085553/emergence-of-imipenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-isolates-from-egypt-coharboring-vim-and-imp-carbapenemases
#18
Ramadan Ahmed El-Domany, Mohamed Emara, Mohammed A El-Magd, Walaa H Moustafa, Nesma M Abdeltwab
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human pathogen and the leading cause of nosocomial infections. P. aeruginosa is characterized by massive intrinsic resistance to a multiple classes of antibiotics with carbapenems being the most potent inhibitor of P. aeruginosa and considered the first choice for its treatment. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate novel mechanisms of resistance of P. aeruginosa to carbapenems for achieving successful therapy. A total of 114 P. aeruginosa isolates from two university hospitals in Egypt were recruited in this study...
January 13, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080217/synergistic-effects-of-tetrandrine-with-posaconazole-against-aspergillus-fumigatus
#19
Shui-Xiu Li, Yan-Jun Song, Ling Jiang, Ya-Jing Zhao, Hui Guo, Dong-Mei Li, Kun-Ju Zhu, Hong Zhang
In our earlier in vitro and in vivo studies, synergistic effects were observed when itraconazole or voriconazole were combined with tetrandrine (TET) against Aspergillus fumigatus, and the synergistic mechanism was related to inhibition of the drug efflux pump. Posaconazole (PCZ) is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent used for the treatment of diverse fungal infections, including aspergillosis and candidiasis. Herein, the antifungal effects of TET are further investigated in vitro and in vivo alone or combined with PCZ against 20 clinical isolates of A...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080212/heterogeneity-of-carbapenem-resistance-mechanisms-among-gram-negative-pathogens-in-lebanon-results-of-the-first-cross-sectional-countrywide-study
#20
Dalal Hammoudi Halat, Carole Ayoub Moubareck, Dolla Karam Sarkis
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens have progressively disseminated to different countries worldwide, presenting a serious public health concern. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria in Lebanon, to elucidate molecular mechanisms, and to identify genetic relatedness of incriminated strains. Carbapenem nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas were collected from 11 Lebanese hospitals in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed with phenotypic tests, genes encoding carbapenemases were screened via PCR-sequencing, and genetic relatedness was examined by PGFE and ERIC-PCR...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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