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Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537778/antibacterial-susceptibilities-of-escherichia-coli-from-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-faroe-islands-associations-with-antibacterial-sales-and-comparison-with-iceland-and-denmark
#1
Marita Debess Magnussen, Hannes Gislason, Shahin Gaini, Karl G Kristinsson
Currently, data on Escherichia coli antibacterial susceptibilities in the Faroe Islands are lacking. The aim was to investigate the antibacterial susceptibilities of E. coli from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections in the Faroe Islands, correlate with antibacterial sales, and compare with Iceland and Denmark. From 2009 to 2010 and in 2012, 12 general practitioners from the Faroe Islands were recruited to provide urine samples from patients. Antibacterial susceptibilities were determined by disc diffusion testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods and criteria...
May 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525287/occurrence-of-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-in-various-clinical-infections-detection-of-their-drug-resistance-and-virulence-determinants
#2
Ali Jahansepas, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Alka Hasani, Yaeghob Sharifi, Toofan Aghazadeh, Jalal Mardaneh
The aim of this study was to characterize virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance profiles in enterococci obtained from various clinical sources in the northwest of Iran. A total of 160 enterococcal clinical isolates from various wards of University Teaching Hospitals were collected and specified by biochemical test, from September 2014 to July 2015. Identification of enterococci was confirmed by multiplex PCR in the genus and species level. Antibiotic resistance properties and virulence determinants were examined by phenotypic and molecular methods...
May 19, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520511/upregulation-of-acref-in-quinolone-resistance-development-in-escherichia-coli-when-acrab-tolc-function-is-impaired
#3
Chuan-Zhen Zhang, Man-Xia Chang, Lei Yang, Yan-Yan Liu, Pin-Xian Chen, Hong-Xia Jiang
We studied mechanisms of drug resistance development in Escherichia coli strains lacking efflux pump components. E. coli K12 deletion mutants were subjected to increasing concentrations of ciprofloxacin (CIP) to determine the frequency of target gene mutations. We generated a series of mutants that were selected based on their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to CIP, as well as their corresponding point mutations in target genes. The mutants displayed a number of target modifications and, in particular, gyrA mutations altering codons Ser83Leu, Asp87Gly, and Asp87His as well as a change in parC at 78 (substitution of Gly for Asp)...
May 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520501/molecular-characterization-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-bovine-clinical-mastitis-and-pigs-in-the-vojvodina-province-serbia
#4
Dalibor Todorović, Maja Velhner, Edita Grego, Dejan Vidanović, Dubravka Milanov, Dejan Krnjaić, Corinna Kehrenberg
The aim of the study was to characterize multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli isolates collected in Serbia from bovine clinical mastitis cases and diseased pigs, mainly with molecular methods. A total of 48 E. coli isolates was collected during the years 2013-2014, of which 22 were MDR and were included in further analysis. Phylogenetic typing showed that 17 isolates belonged to group A, while two isolates were classified in group B1 and a single one in group D. All isolates showed unique macrorestriction patterns...
May 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520499/genome-wide-identification-of-potential-drug-target-in-enterobacteriaceae-family-a-homology-based-method
#5
Morteza Hadizadeh, Seyyede Nasim Tabatabaiepour, Seyyede Zahra Tabatabaiepour, Hossein Hosseini Nave, Mohsen Mohammadi, Seyyed Mohsen Sohrabi
The Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-spore forming rod-shaped bacteria that includes harmless and pathogenic organisms. The emergence and development of drug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is complicating the treatment of serious infections. The aim of this study is to predict and characterize putative drug targets in Enterobacteriaceae family employing a homology-based computational method. The final putative drug targets were qualitatively characterized via cellular function prediction, subcellular localization prediction, broad-spectrum, and druggability analyses...
May 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504916/contribution-of-type-ii-topoisomerase-mutations-to-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-enterococcus-faecium-from-japanese-clinical-setting
#6
Noriko Urushibara, Keisuke Suzaki, Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Meiji Soe Aung, Masaaki Shinagawa, Satoshi Takahashi, Nobumichi Kobayashi
High-level fluoroquinolone resistance is conferred by the mutation of conserved serine and acidic amino acids in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the A subunits of the type II topoisomerases, DNA gyrase (GyrA) and topoisomerase IV (ParC). In Japan, fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterococcus faecium continues to emerge in clinical settings. We analyzed 131 Japanese E. faecium clinical isolates for susceptibility to levofloxacin (LVFX), and QRDR mutational status. The bacterial collection had a high percentage of resistance (79%) and showed elevated drug minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs)...
May 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504897/clonal-complexes-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profiles-of-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-isolates-from-dogs-in-the-united-states
#7
Ricardo Videla, Samar M Solyman, Akshar Brahmbhatt, Leslie Sadeghi, David A Bemis, Stephen A Kania
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the primary cause of canine pyoderma and has been associated with diseases in other animals, including human beings. A high prevalence of methicillin and multidrug resistance has been reported in this bacterium in some geographic regions of the United States. Multilocus sequence type (MLST) 68 was implicated, initially, as the major clonal genotype based on a limited number of samples. The objectives of this study were to determine the population genetics of S. pseudintermedius isolated from a cross-section of the United States using a seven-locus multilocus sequence typing method, to identify clonal complexes (CCs), and to correlate sequence types with antimicrobial susceptibility profiles...
May 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504889/genetic-characterization-of-vana-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-from-wild-red-legged-partridges-in-portugal
#8
Vanessa Silva, Gilberto Igrejas, Isabel Carvalho, Fernando Peixoto, Lucas Cardoso, José Eduardo Pereira, Rosa Del Campo, Patricia Poeta
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been detected in wild animals representing a public health concern. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) is a common game bird and its meat is consumed in several countries, including Portugal. Three hundred five fecal samples of red-legged partridge from the north of Portugal were screened for VRE. Samples were cultured on Slanetz-Bartley agar supplemented with vancomycin (4 mg/L) and six vanA-Enterococcus faecium were recovered. Isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance and virulence genes...
May 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486078/characterization-of-clinically-isolated-antibiotic-resistant-salmonella-typhimurium-exposed-to-subinhibitory-concentrations-of-ceftriaxone-and-ciprofloxacin
#9
Jeongjin Kim, Juhee Ahn
This study was designed mainly to assess the phenotypic properties of clinically isolated Salmonella Typhimurium exposed to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. The antibiotic susceptibility, β-lactamase activity, efflux activity, bacterial motility, biofilm-forming ability, and gene expression were determined in S. Typhimurium ATCC 19585 and S. Typhimurium CCARM 8009 when exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. S. Typhimurium CCARM 8009 was highly resistant to ampicillin, kanamycin, penicillin G, and streptomycin, showing minimum inhibitory concentration values of more than 512 μg/ml, while S...
May 9, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475464/rhodomyrtus-tomentosa-leaf-extract-inhibits-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-adhesion-invasion-and-intracellular-survival-in-human-hacat-keratinocytes
#10
Sutthirat Srisuwan, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has an ability to invade nonprofessional phagocytic cells, resulting in persistent infections and most likely host cell death. Series of our studies have claimed pronounced antibacterial efficacy of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf extract. This study was to further investigate potency of the extract in intracellular killing of human HaCaT keratinocytes. Pretreatment of MRSA with the extract resulted in a remarkable reduction in the bacterial adhesion to HaCaT keratinocytes, compared with untreated control (p < 0...
May 5, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467251/a-first-insight-into-escherichia-coli-st131-high-risk-clone-among-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-urine-isolates-in-istanbul-with-the-use-of-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-and-real-time-pcr
#11
Elif Aktaş, Barış Otlu, Duygu Erdemir, Hatice Ekici, Emin Bulut
OBJECTIVES: We aim to investigate, as a first insight, the presence and rates of high-risk Escherichia coli ST131 clone in Istanbul and evaluate antimicrobial resistance and CTX-M-15 production of ST131 and non-ST131 isolates. The use of MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry) to detect E. coli ST131 clone is also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 203 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing urinary isolates from a training hospital in Istanbul were investigated...
May 3, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467172/simple-and-fast-detection-of-resistance-to-antibiotic-inhibitors-of-protein-synthesis-in-gram-negative-pathogens-through-evaluation-of-mitomycin-c-induced-cell-elongation
#12
Fátima Otero, Jaime Gosálvez, Germán Bou, José Luis Fernández
Increasing the resistance of Gram-negative pathogens to antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis is of great concern. In life-threatening situations, an early detection of antibiotic resistance may improve patient outcome. A rapid assay for the identification of antibiotic resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, and tigecycline has been designed and tested in clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the Enterobacteriaceae Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Exponentially growing cultures were incubated with 0...
May 3, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447869/mitigation-of-discordant-rifampicin-susceptibility-results-obtained-by-xpert-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rifampicin-and-mycobacterium-growth-indicator-tube
#13
Elmira Gurbanova, Rafail Mehdiyev, Kai Blondal, Rasim Tahirli, Fuad Mirzayev, Doris Hillemann, Asker Ismayilov, Alan Altraja
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous use of genotypic and phenotypic diagnostic tools for detection of rifampicin (RIF) susceptibility may yield discrepant results. OBJECTIVE: To measure the discordance between the RIF-susceptibility results by Xpert MTB/RIF and Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), to evaluate if application of both tests to the same sample affects the discrepancy, and to evaluate treatment outcome in patients with the discordant strains. DESIGN: Sputa from patients with tuberculosis managed in the penitentiary system of Azerbaijan during 2011-2015 were examined for RIF susceptibility using Xpert MTB/RIF and MGIT...
April 27, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445109/distinct-prevalence-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-gansu-china-a-retrospective-study-on-drug-susceptibility-profiles-between-2010-and-2014
#14
XingFang Li, Lei Wang, Yanling Tan, Jun Hou, Jianjun Ma
Limited knowledge is available on regional distribution of antituberculosis (TB) drug resistance and on province-specific time-trends in TB drug susceptibility in China. To obtain the latest information about the dynamics of drug-resistant TB in Gansu province, we conducted a retrospective study and analyzed data on drug resistance among new TB cases diagnosed between June 2010 and May 2014 in Gansu, China. The data were collected from the only TB surveillance and treatment hospital in Gansu and, therefore, represented the epidemiology of TB in the province...
April 26, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445079/multiple-antimicrobial-resistance-and-novel-point-mutation-in-fluoroquinolone-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-mangalore-india
#15
Santhosh Kogaluru Shivakumaraswamy, Deekshit Vijaya Kumar, Venugopal Moleyuru Nagarajappa, Iddya Karunasagar, Indrani Karunasagar
Fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria is usually associated with mutations in the topoisomerase regions. We report a novel point mutation in fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains. E. coli isolated from the environment in and around Mangalore, India, were examined for their antimicrobial resistance profile to 12 antibiotics and for the antibiotic resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 67 E. coli isolated, 24 (35.8%) were sensitive to all antibiotics and 43 (64.2%) showed resistance to at least one of the 12 antibiotics used in the study...
April 26, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437233/in-vitro-activity-of-various-antibiotics-in-combination-with-tigecycline-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Jian Li, Xianghai Yang, Lidan Chen, Xinran Duan, Zhihui Jiang
Given that tigecycline-based combination therapy is recognized as a valuable option for the treatment of tigecycline-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the overall evidence of its effectiveness. The synergy rate was defined as the primary outcome that was calculated separately for time-kill, Etest, and checkerboard microdilution methods. The secondary outcomes were bactericidal activity and the efficacy of combination treatment on the development of resistance...
April 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414572/molecular-characterization-of-fluoroquinolone-resistant-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-clinical-isolates-in-spain
#17
Inmaculada López-Hernández, Jesús Machuca, Paula Díaz de Alba, Carolina Sarvisé, Frederic Gómez, José Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Alvaro Pascual
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to characterize a group of clinical isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant Haemophilus parainfluenzae collected in Northern Spain (March-December 2014). METHODS: Twelve clinical isolates of H. parainfluenzae were studied by performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the QRDR (quinolone resistance-determining region) of gyrA, parC, gyrB, and parE genes. Screening for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) was also studied...
April 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402182/analysis-of-point-mutations-in-the-pbp2x-pbp2b-and-pbp1a-genes-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-and-their-relation-with-a-reduced-susceptibility-to-cephalosporins
#18
Giorgio Piccinelli, Giuseppe Carlentini, Franco Gargiulo, Arnaldo Caruso, Maria Antonia De Francesco
The emergence of group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) and their tendency to be nonsusceptible to fluoroquinolones prompted us to analyze the possible presence of amino acid mutations in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) (PBP2X, PBP1A, and PBP2B) from a collection of fluoroquinolone-resistant GBS isolates. We analyzed 21 GBS isolates resistant to levofloxacin. Sequence analysis of genes for PBPs was performed. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for penicillin, ceftibuten, cefaclor, cefixime, cefotaxime, and ceftizoxime were performed by the Etest method and by broth microdilution method...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380311/spread-of-ctx-type-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-of-epidemic-clone-b2-o25-st131-among-dogs-and-cats-in-japan
#19
Kumiko Kawamura, Tae Sugawara, Nao Matsuo, Kengo Hayashi, Chihiro Norizuki, Kiyoko Tamai, Takaaki Kondo, Yoshichika Arakawa
This study was performed to investigate the carriage rates of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli among ill companion animals in Japan. Among the 178 nonrepetitive E. coli isolates, including 131 from dogs and 47 from cats, collected between September and November 2015, 42 (23.6%) isolates from 29 dogs and 13 cats were identified as ESBL producers. The antimicrobial susceptibility, O serotype, phylogenetic group, β-lactamase genotype, plasmid replicon type, and sequence type (ST) of each isolate were analyzed...
April 5, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375698/extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-pharmaceutical-wastewaters-in-south-western-nigeria
#20
Avemaria Obasi, SimonCyril Nwachukwu, Esther Ugoji, Christian Kohler, André Göhler, Veronica Balau, Yvonne Pfeifer, Ivo Steinmetz
Emergence and spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) present a major threat to public health. In this study, we characterized β-lactam-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from six wastewater samples obtained from two pharmaceutical industries located in Lagos and Ogun States, Nigeria. Bacteria were isolated by using MacConkey agar; species identification and antibacterial susceptibility testing were performed by Vitek 2. Etest was used for ESBL phenotype confirmation...
April 4, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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