Read by QxMD icon Read

Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease

Caroline Rouard, Elisabeth Aslangul, Alexandre Rivière, Claire Deback, Marie-José Butel, Florence Doucet-Populaire, Nadège Bourgeois-Nicolaos
Linezolid (LZD) has arisen as an alternative treatment in diabetic foot osteitis due to staphylococci. LZD resistance selection is difficult and involved various molecular mechanisms. As a better knowledge of those mechanisms could be beneficial for pathogenic strains' screening, we simulated in vitro the spontaneous mutagenesis process that leads to LZD-resistant strains from two Staphylococcus epidermidis strains responsible for monomicrobial diabetic foot osteitis. LZD high resistance was selected for both strains, with the same timeline of mutation appearance...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Silvia Gómez-Zorrilla, Francisco Morandeira, María José Castro, Fe Tubau, Elisabet Periche, Rosario Cañizares, María Angeles Dominguez, Javier Ariza, Carmen Peña
The severity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection may be determined by the interaction with the host immune system. We designed a prospective study to assess the relationship between the inflammatory response and the clinical presentation and outcome of PA infection. We also investigated whether there are differences in the inflammatory response depending on the resistance profile of PA. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Sixty-nine infection episodes were recorded; 40 caused by non-multidrug-resistant (non-MDR) strains [29 (73%) respiratory; 8 (20%) bacteremia], 12 by MDR non-extensively drug-resistant (MDR-non-XDR) [9 (75%) respiratory; 3 (25%) bacteremia], and 17 by XDR strains [9 (53%) respiratory; 7 (41%) bacteremia]...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Yu Huang, Qingqing Wu, Shuiyang Xu, Jieming Zhong, Songhua Chen, Jinghang Xu, Liping Zhu, Haibo He, Xiaomeng Wang
With 25% of the global burden, China has the highest incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in the world. However, surveillance data on extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) from China are scant. To estimate the prevalence of XDR-TB in Zhejiang, Eastern China, 30 of 90 TB treatment centers in Zhejiang were recruited. Patients with suspected TB who reported to the clinics for diagnosis were requested to undergo a smear sputum test. Positive sputum samples were tested for drug susceptibility. Data on anti-TB drug resistance from 1999 to 2008 were also collected to assess drug resistance trends...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Charlene Babra Waryah, Kelsi Wells, Dulantha Ulluwishewa, Nigel Chen-Tan, Jully Gogoi-Tiwari, Joshua Ravensdale, Paul Costantino, Anke Gökçen, Andreas Vilcinskas, Jochen Wiesner, Trilochan Mukkur
Staphylococcus aureus in biofilms is highly resistant to the treatment with antibiotics, to which the planktonic cells are susceptible. This is likely to be due to the biofilm creating a protective barrier that prevents antibiotics from accessing the live pathogens buried in the biofilm. S. aureus biofilms consist of an extracellular matrix comprising, but not limited to, extracellular bacterial DNA (eDNA) and poly-β-1, 6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG). Our study revealed that despite inferiority of dispersin B (an enzyme that degrades PNAG) to DNase I that cleaves eDNA, in dispersing the biofilm of S...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Farah Ben Tanfous, Carla Andrea Alonso, Wafa Achour, Laura Ruiz-Ripa, Carmen Torres, Assia Ben Hassen
The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular features among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains showing a resistant/intermediate-resistant phenotype to ertapenem (R/IR-ERT), implicated in colonization/infection in patients of the Hematology and Graft Units of the National Bone Marrow Transplant Center of Tunisia (3-year period, 2011-2014). The major carbapenemase, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamase genes were analyzed and characterized by PCR and sequencing...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Yancheng Yang, Zhen Hu, Weilong Shang, Qiwen Hu, Junmin Zhu, Jie Yang, Huagang Peng, Xiaopeng Zhang, Hui Liu, Yanguang Cong, Shu Li, Xiaomei Hu, Renjie Zhou, Xiancai Rao
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for ∼40% of staphylococcal infections in China. However, the molecular characterization of MSSA is not well described. In this study, 124 MSSA strains collected in 2013 from a comprehensive teaching hospital in Chongqing, Southwestern China, were subjected to antibiotics susceptibility testing and molecular typing, including multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) gene detection, and antibiotic-resistant gene detection...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Zhijie Pan, Rong Liu, Pei Zhang, Hua Zhou, Yiqi Fu, Jianying Zhou
Raoultella planticola is a gram-negative bacterium that rarely causes diseases in humans. Here, we present a case of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by R. planticola that likely originated in the gastrointestinal tract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report describing the detection of the gene New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (blaNDM-1) in multidrug-resistant R. planticola. Clinical samples were collected for bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing from a patient during hospitalization...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Betitera Yanat, Radia Dali Yahia, Leila Yazi, Jesús Machuca, Paula Díaz-De-Alba, Abdelaziz Touati, Álvaro Pascual, José-Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez
QepA is a plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant of low prevalence described worldwide, mainly in Enterobacteriaceae. This study describes, for the first time in Algeria, two clonally related, QepA-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates positive for CTX-M-15. The clonal spread of these multidrug-resistant isolates is a major public health concern.
October 13, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Ezequiel Albornoz, Celeste Lucero, Genara Romero, María Paula Quiroga, Melina Rapoport, Leonor Guerriero, Patricia Andres, Cecilia Rodriguez, Marcelo Galas, Daniela Centrón, Alejandra Corso, Alejandro Petroni
This first nationwide study was conducted to analyze the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in phenotypically unselected (consecutive) clinical enterobacteria. We studied 1,058 isolates that had been consecutively collected in 66 hospitals of the WHONET-Argentina Resistance Surveillance Network. Overall, 26% of isolates were nonsusceptible to at least one of the three quinolones tested (nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin). The overall prevalence of PMQR genes was 8...
October 11, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Angeliki Mavroidi, Maria Katsiari, Eleftheria Palla, Sofia Likousi, Zoi Roussou, Charikleia Nikolaou, Evangelia D Platsouka
A rapid increase was observed in the incidence of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR Aba) isolates in a Greek hospital during 2014. To investigate the causes of this rise, the antimicrobial resistance profiles of all carbapenem-resistant (CARB-R) Aba isolates recovered during 2014-2015 were determined. Selected XDR Aba isolates (n = 13) were characterized by molecular methods. XDR Aba (48 isolates) represented 21.4% of the 224 CARB-R Aba recovered during the study period. The 13 selected XDR Aba isolates were positive for the blaOXA-23, the intrinsic blaOXA-51, and the adeB gene of the AdeABC efflux pump, and all belonged to the 3LST ST101, corresponding to the international clone II...
October 11, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Parviz Mohajeri, Laya Yazdani, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Amirhoshang Alvandi, Sara Atashi, Abbas Farahani, Ali Almasi, Mansour Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria are habitants of environment, especially in aquatic systems. Some of them cause problems in immunodeficient patients. Over the last decade, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was established in 45 novel species of nontuberculous mycobacteria. Experiences revealed that this method underestimates the diversity, but does not distinguish between some of mycobacterium subsp. To recognize emerging rapidly growing mycobacteria and identify their subsp, rpoB gene sequencing has been developed...
September 26, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Alexey S Vasilchenko, Eugene A Rogozhin, Alexander V Valyshev
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to purify and characterize a bacteriocin-like antimicrobial substance produced by an antagonistic active strain of Enterococcus faecium. METHODS AND RESULTS: A novel bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) produced by the E. faecium ICIS 8 strain was purified and characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed the following partial sequence: NH2-APKEKCFPKYCV...
August 30, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Mahmoud A F Khalil, Abdelaziz Elgaml, Mohammed El-Mowafy
Despite expansion of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) worldwide, the incident of outbreaks regarding Egypt is still uncommon. In this survey, we denounce the emanation of multidrug-resistant NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Egypt. We have reclaimed 46 unrepeatable carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates at El-demerdash hospital, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. All the isolates showed a decreased sensitivity to imipenem and meropenem via the disc diffusion method. Among the isolates, 10 were proven as NDM-1 producers by utilizing the phenotypic methods (modified Hodge test and EDTA synergistic test) and specific PCR detection of NDM-1 encoding gene, blaNDM-1...
August 30, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Elif Aktaş, Gülşah Malkoçoğlu, Barış Otlu, Ayşegül Çopur Çiçek, Canan Külah, Füsun Cömert, Cemal Sandallı, Nafia Canan Gürsoy, Duygu Erdemir, Mehmet Emin Bulut
Timely detection of carbapenemases by both phenotypic and genotypic methods is essential for developing strategies to control the spread of infections by carbapenem-resistant isolates and related morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a commercial kit, the RAPIDEC(®) CARBA NP, and an in-house technique, the carbapenem inactivation method (CIM), against a panel of 136 carbapenemase- and noncarbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates...
August 30, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Chaitra Shankar, Laura E B Nabarro, Shalini Anandan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Carbapenem-resistant organisms are increasingly common worldwide, particularly in India and are associated with high mortality rates especially in patients with severe infection such as bacteremia. Existing drugs such as carbapenems and polymyxins have a number of disadvantages, but remain the mainstay of treatment. The tetracycline class of antibiotics was first produced in the 1940s. Minocycline, tetracycline derivative, although licensed for treatment of wide range of infections, has not been considered for treatment of multidrug-resistant organisms until recently and needs further in vivo studies...
August 26, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Fábio Campioni, Roberto Antonio Souza, Vinicius Vicente Martins, Eliana Guedes Stehling, Alzira Maria Morato Bergamini, Juliana Pfrimer Falcão
Salmonella Enteritidis strains that are resistant to nalidixic acid and exhibit reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones have been increasing worldwide. In Brazil, few studies have been conducted to elucidate the quinolone resistance mechanisms of S. Enteritidis strains. This study analyzed the profile of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE mutations and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) mechanisms in S. Enteritidis Nal(R) strains isolated in Brazil. Moreover, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin were evaluated in 84 Nal(R) strains and compared with 20 Nal(S) strains...
August 25, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Joel Manyahi, Marit Gjerde Tellevik, Faustine Ndugulile, Sabrina J Moyo, Nina Langeland, Bjørn Blomberg
Cotrimoxazole is widely used, particularly as a prophylactic drug in HIV patients. We assessed resistance mechanisms among cotrimoxazole resistant-Gram negative bacterial isolates (n = 123) obtained from blood (n = 69) and urine (n = 54) from Tanzanian patients. sul genes were detected in 98% (121/123) of the isolates. Coexistence of sul1 and sul2 was common (49/123). The dfr genes were found in 63% (77/123) of all isolates. sul1, dfrA15, and dfrA5 genes predominated among Klebsiella pneumoniae, while sul2 and dfrA1 genes were frequent in Escherichia coli isolates...
August 17, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Silvia D'Arezzo, Antonio Mazzarelli, Carolina Venditti, Carla Nisii, Nicola Petrosillo, Chiara De Giuli, Antonella Vulcano, Maria Grazia Paglia, Eugenio Bordi, Antonino Di Caro, Fabrizio Taglietti
In an era of increasing drug resistance and limited numbers of antimicrobials in the drug production pipeline, healthcare-associated infections represent a growing public health threat. When therapeutic options are limited, clinicians often resort to using antimicrobial combinations that produce a synergistic effect on the target pathogen. Novel antibiotics are therefore welcome in the daily practice of medicine. For example, ceftaroline is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin active against a variety of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but with limited activity against enterococci, particularly Enterococcus faecium...
August 15, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Lucia Pulzova, Lucie Navratilova, Lubos Comor
The increasing number of infections caused by multidrug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria represents a serious worlwide problem. Drug resistance limits available antimicrobials and can lead to suboptimal treatment of bacterial infections. It can be predicted that resistance to more antimicrobial drugs will be acquired by even more bacteria in the future. Among the distinct resistance strategies, preventing drug entrance to intracellular compartment through modification of membrane permeability (bacterial influx) and active export of compounds to the external environment (bacterial efflux) are of particular importance as they limit the interaction of the drug with its intracellular targets and, consequently, its deleterious effects on the cell...
August 15, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Alice Laudisio, Felice Marinosci, Antonella Gemma, Isaura Rossi Bartoli, Nicola Montenegro, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
Urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are common among nursing home patients, are associated with adverse outcomes and increased healthcare costs. Antibiotic resistance is an emerging problem, associated with excess morbidity and mortality; it has been suggested that this condition might be more prevalent among subjects with comorbid conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the association, if any, of antibiotic resistance with the burden of comorbidity in elderly with UTIs. This retrospective study enrolled 299 patients with culture-positive UTI consecutively admitted to the nursing home of the "Fondazione San Raffaele Cittadella della Carità", Taranto, Italy, which includes 80 beds under the direction of two geriatricians...
August 15, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"