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Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407115/comparative-analysis-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-sequence-types-in-southern-brazil-from-the-first-outbreak-2007-2008-to-the-endemic-period-2013-2014
#1
Mariana Pagano, Luciana S Nunes, Marina Niada, Afonso Luís Barth, Andreza F Martins
Acinetobacter baumannii is considered an important pathogen of clinical significance that is responsible for a wide range of nosocomial infections. Carbapenem resistance among A. baumannii isolates has increased dramatically in the Past years because of the emergence and dissemination of specific epidemic clones. We aimed to characterize the population structure of A. baumannii isolates from Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil, in two distinct periods: during the first carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) outbreak (2007-2008) and 5 years later when the CRAB reached endemic levels (2013-2014)...
November 8, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403553/characterization-of-acquired-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-environmental-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-isolates-from-brazil
#2
João Pedro Rueda Furlan, Danilo Garcia Sanchez, Inara Fernanda Lage Gallo, Eliana Guedes Stehling
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunist pathogen that has intrinsic resistance to the majority of antibiotics and has a high ability to adapt in different environments; however, there are few reports of acquired resistance genes in S. maltophilia. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile, the presence of mutations in the quinolone-resistance determining region, the presence of acquired resistance genes, and the different plasmid families in S. maltophilia isolated from Brazilian soils...
November 7, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403547/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-in-tunisia-emergence-of-novel-clones
#3
Raoudha Dziri, Feriel El Kara, Farouk Barguellil, Hadda-Imen Ouzari, Mohamed Selim El Asli, Naouel Klibi
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) are a major public health problem worldwide, since they are commonly implicated in nosocomial infections in various regions in the world. The aim of our study was to investigate genetic features and clonal relationship of VRE in the Military hospital of Tunisia. A total of 10 VRE strains were initially detected and identified by the Viteck II compact® (BioMérieux® ) automated system, then confirmed by PCR using specific primers. These VRE strains were isolated during the period extended between September 2015 and January 2017 from anal and blood samples from patients hospitalized mainly in the neonatology service and intensive care unit...
November 7, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403546/mls-b-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-central-greece-rate-of-resistance-and-molecular-characterization
#4
Stela Sarrou, Ergina Malli, Katerina Tsilipounidaki, Zoi Florou, Matej Medvecky, Anargyros Skoulakis, Jaroslav Hrabak, Costas C Papagiannitsis, Efi Petinaki
The aim of the present study was to determine the rate and mechanisms of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B (MLSB ) antibiotics of Staphylococcus aureus collected in Central Greece. Of the 2,893 S. aureus collected during 2012-2017, 1,161 isolates (40.2%) exhibited resistance to at least one of the MLSB agents. The rate of erythromycin resistance was statistically significantly higher in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (58.6%) than in methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates (20...
November 7, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394846/prevalence-and-mechanisms-of-carbapenem-resistance-among-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates-in-egypt
#5
Abdalbagi Basheer Benmahmod, Heba Shehta Said, Ramdan Hassan Ibrahim
The increasing number of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates is a major concern, which restricts therapeutic options for treatment of serious infections caused by this emerging pathogen. The aim of this work is to assess the antimicrobial resistance profile and identify the molecular mechanisms involved in carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii isolated from different clinical sources in Mansoura University Hospitals, Egypt. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing has shown that resistance to carbapenem has dramatically increased (98%) with concomitant elevated levels of resistance to quinolones, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and aminoglycosides...
November 3, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332336/are-the-hands-of-veterinary-staff-a-reservoir-for-antimicrobial-resistant-bacteria-a-randomized-study-to-evaluate-two-hand-hygiene-rubs-in-a-veterinary-hospital
#6
Eva Espadale, Gina Pinchbeck, Nicola J Williams, Dorina Timofte, K Marie McIntyre, Vanessa M Schmidt
Hand hygiene (HH) is the most successful intervention for hospital infection control. HH rubs with residual action are desired. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of alcohol (A-HH) and lactic acid (LA-HH) rubs, with the latter being marketed as having residual activity. We investigated reductions in bacterial colony-forming units (CFUs), prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) organisms, and risk factors for increased counts on the hands of veterinary staff. A randomized, crossover study (53 individuals) was performed in a referral veterinary teaching hospital...
November 2, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379606/clinical-and-molecular-characterization-of-panton-valentine-leukocidin-positive-invasive-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-in-korea
#7
Kyoung-Ho Song, Eu Suk Kim, Kyung-Hwa Park, Hee Jung Choi, Kye-Hyung Kim, Shinwon Lee, Jeong-Hwan Hwang, Eun Ju Choo, Yoonseon Park, Eun Jung Lee, Young Keun Kim, Min Hyok Jeon, Chisook Moon, Joo-Hee Hwang, Jeong Su Park, Kyoung Un Park, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Ji Hwan Bang, Myoung-Don Oh, Hong Bin Kim
AIM: Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a virulent cytotoxin and an indicator of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and clinical and molecular characteristics of PVL-positive invasive S. aureus (ISA) infections in Korea. RESULTS: A collection of 1,962 nonduplicate clinical isolates were screened for multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), accessory gene regulator typing, major toxins, and antimicrobial susceptibility...
October 31, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379604/genetic-analysis-of-p17s-208-plasmid-encoding-the-colistin-resistance-mcr-3-gene-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-swine-in-south-korea
#8
Kuastros Mekonnen Belaynehe, Seung Won Shin, Kyung Yoon Park, Ji Young Jang, Ho Geun Won, In Joong Yoon, Han Sang Yoo
We screened, for the first time, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mcr-3 genes among 636 Escherichia coli isolates collected from swine in South Korea. Whole-genome sequencing showed that the E. coli strain harbored the mcr-3 gene in a p17S-208 plasmid with an IncHI2-ST3 plasmid type and a size of 260,399 base pairs. The deduced amino acid sequences revealed that persistent evolution in the bacterial genome has resulted in mcr gene variants. There is a need for extensive surveillance to prevent the dissemination of colistin resistance mcr genes from animal to human...
October 31, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379599/first-detection-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-5-producing-escherichia-coli-from-companion-animals-in-korea
#9
Jun Sung Hong, Wonkeun Song, Hee-Myung Park, Jae-Young Oh, Jong-Chan Chae, Jae-Ik Han, Seok Hoon Jeong
The gene for New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-5 (NDM-5) in Escherichia coli has been identified in many countries mainly from human clinical specimens. The isolates carrying this gene are even more rarely isolated from companion animals. In this study, four carbapenem-resistant isolates were recovered from four dogs in Korea. All isolates carried blaNDM-5 and exhibited resistance to meropenem and imipenem, and were susceptible to colistin. Epidemiological analysis showed that all four isolates were sequence type 410 (ST410) and shared 99% similarity as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis...
October 31, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30351186/molecular-epidemiology-and-drug-resistance-pattern-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-iran
#10
Zeinab Jafari, Ahad Ali Harati, Mehri Haeili, Jalil Kardan-Yamchi, Sirous Jafari, Fereshteh Jabalameli, Alipasha Meysamie, Alireza Abdollahi, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi
The emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) isolates and their involvement in several nosocomial outbreaks are of high concern. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic relatedness and molecular determinants of carbapenem resistance in 100 CRKP isolates. Susceptibility to carbapenems as well as other antibiotics was determined by using disk diffusion method. The Modified Hodge test was performed for detection of carbapenemase production. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of selected antibiotics were determined by broth microdilution method...
October 23, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339100/evaluation-of-the-inter-and-intrahospital-spread-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-in-lithuanian-hospitals
#11
Tatjana Kirtikliene, Donatas Naugzemys, Ana Steponkiene, Robert Bogdevic, Greta Vizuje, Donatas Zvingila, Nomeda Kuisiene
Spread of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria became one of the greatest threats in healthcare worldwide. It is generally accepted that both inter- and intrahospital transmissions of these bacteria contribute significantly to this problem. The purpose of the current study was the evaluation of the inter- and intrahospital spread of multidrug resistant Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria in Lithuania. Clinical isolates of Acinetobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were subjected for the screening for extended spectrum β-lactamase, carbapenemase, as well as plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase genes...
October 19, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328753/molecular-characterization-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-genetic-basis-of-antimicrobial-drug-resistance-and-plasmid-diversity-in-ampicillin-resistant-isolates
#12
Vanesa García, Xenia Vázquez, Margarita Bances, Laura Herrera-León, Silvia Herrera-León, M Rosario Rodicio
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the most common cause of human salmonellosis worldwide. In this study, all clinical isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis recovered between January 2008 and June 2014 in a Spanish region (491) were screened for antimicrobial drug resistance and the phage type (PT) was determined for a significant number (265). PT1, PT14b, PT56, PT6, PT4, and PT8 were the predominant PTs, accounting together for 82% of the isolates. A total of 38.3% of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, 46...
October 17, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328745/isolation-of-fully-vancomycin-resistant-streptococcus-thoraltensis-from-the-nasal-cavity-of-a-healthy-young-adult
#13
Mohammad Al-Tamimi, Nisreen Himsawi, Jumana Abu-Raideh, Deaa Abu Jazar, Hussam Al-Jawaldeh
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus thoraltensis was first isolated from pigs and rabbits. Later, isolation from human oral and nasal cavities and from throat and oropharynx was documented. S. thoraltensis was isolated from patients with periodontitis, tonsillopharyngitis, and chorioamnionitis suggesting a possible pathological role in human infections. All S. thoraltensis isolates of animal and human origins were sensitive to vancomycin. METHODS: Standard microbiological identification methods, biochemical analysis, and antibiotic susceptibility testing using disk diffusion and E methods were used...
October 17, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328756/high-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-and-integrons-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-urban-river-water-india
#14
Megha Kaushik, Neha Khare, Sanjay Kumar, Pooja Gulati
The contamination of surface waters with multidrug resistant (MDR) coliforms is a major public health concern in developing countries. This study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence of antibiotic resistance and role of integrons in the spread of resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from urban waters of river Yamuna. One hundred and forty-one strains of E. coli were isolated and assessed for antibiotic resistance wherein high resistance was observed for Cefazolin. Integrons (class 1 and class 2) were detected in 32% of the isolates...
October 16, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325688/overview-of-prevalence-characteristics-risk-factors-resistance-and-virulence-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-saudi-arabia
#15
Mohammad Abdallah, Mohammad Al-Saafin
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to vancomycin. Infections caused by VRE are associated with adverse outcomes such as extended length of hospital stay, increased cost, and high mortality rate. Clinical and surveillance VRE isolates have been reported from Saudi Arabia. In this review, prevalence, characteristics, risk factors, resistance, and virulence of VRE isolates associated with infection and colonization in Saudi Arabia are described.
October 16, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307807/fluoroquinolone-resistance-mechanisms-in-shigella-isolates-in-shanghai-china-between-2010-and-2015
#16
Wen-Xia Zhang, Hong-You Chen, Li-Hong Tu, Man-Fang Xi, Min Chen, Jue Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella isolated in Shanghai, China and to determine the genetic basis of its resistance to fluoroquinolones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 402 strains of Shigella, including 145 Shigella flexneri and 257 Shigella sonnei isolates, were analyzed. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of the strains to 13 antimicrobials. Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin was determined by E-test...
October 10, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281385/highly-synergistic-effects-of-melittin-with-conventional-antibiotics-against-multidrug-resistant-isolates-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Reza Akbari, Mojdeh Hakemi-Vala, Fatemeh Pashaie, Parvaneh Bevalian, Ali Hashemi, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are of great concern in burn patients. In this critical condition, synergism between antimicrobial peptides and conventional antibiotics would be a promising strategy. Accordingly, this study aimed to determine the therapeutic value of melittin as a natural peptide by examining its synergistic effect with conventional antibiotics against MDR isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen clinical isolates for each kind of bacteria were collected from burn patients...
October 3, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277840/efflux-pump-inhibitors-alpha-tocopherol-and-aspirin-role-in-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-fluoroquinolone-resistance
#18
Ashraf A Abd El-Tawab, Ahmed M Ammar, Heba A Ahmed, Ahmed A Hefny
This study aimed to investigate how efflux pump activity contributes to high fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates and to evaluate the modulatory effects of α-tocopherol and aspirin on FQ phenotypic resistance profiles. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were obtained for different FQ agents following exposure to different efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs), including PaβN (50 μg/mL), which targets the cmeABC efflux system, and chlorpromazine (45 μg/mL) and verapamil (120 μg/mL), which target the MFS efflux system...
October 2, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277830/first-report-of-extended-spectrum-betalactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-among-fecal-carriage-in-iran-high-diversity-of-clonal-relatedness-and-virulence-factor-profiles
#19
Shadi Aghamohammad, Farzad Badmasti, Hamid Solgi, Zohreh Aminzadeh, Zahra Khodabandelo, Fereshteh Shahcheraghi
Increasing rate of silent intestinal carriers with extended-spectrum betalactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumonia (ESBL-KP) has given rise to a serious healthcare problem in clinical settings. Various epidemiological studies are being conducted to determine clonal relatedness among carriers. In this study, we investigated the intestinal carriage of ESBL-KP and clonal relatedness among ESBL-KP isolated from fecal carriage in Iran for the first time. A total of 120 rectal swabs (RSs) were collected including 61 from inpatients of intensive care unit and 59 from outpatients...
October 2, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30256175/emergence-of-cmy-2-producing-salmonella-heidelberg-associated-with-inci1-plasmids-isolated-from-poultry-in-brazil
#20
Monique Ribeiro Tiba-Casas, Carlos Henrique Camargo, Flávia Barrosa Soares, Yohei Doi, Sueli Aparecida Fernandes
In this study we report the characterization of plasmid-mediated CMY-2-producing Salmonella Heidelberg recovered from food, poultry, and poultry environment in Brazil, between 2014 and 2016. The blaCMY-2 resistance gene was allocated in large (90-148 kb) IncI1 type transferable plasmids. Salmonella Heidelberg isolates were genetically related, indicating the dissemination of closely related isolates among food, poultry, and its environment. This is the first report of IncI1 replicon-types of plasmids encoding the blaCMY-2 resistance gene in Salmonella Heidelberg isolates in Brazil, the world's biggest exporter of chickens...
September 25, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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