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Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915364/nosocomial-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-mexico-city-produce-robust-biofilms-on-abiotic-surfaces-but-not-on-human-lung-cells
#1
Martha Lorena Ostria-Hernandez, Karla Cecilia Juárez-de la Rosa, Patricia Arzate-Barbosa, Antonino Lara-Hernández, Fuminori Sakai, J Antonio Ibarra, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli, Jorge E Vidal
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kpn) strains are a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia. Resistance to antibiotics, biofilm formation, and the production of certain fimbriae play an important role in the pathogenesis. AIM: We investigated the genetic relatedness, antibiotic resistance, virulence potential, and ability to form biofilms of Kpn strains isolated from hospital-acquired infections (n = 76). Strains were isolated at three major hospitals serving the largest metropolitan urban area in Mexico City, Mexico...
September 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915359/presence-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-encoding-genes-in-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-isolated-from-soil
#2
João Pedro Rueda Furlan, Danilo Garcia Sanchez, Ana Lúcia Fachin, Eliana Guedes Stehling
Burkholderia cepacia complex has emerged as an important opportunistic bacteria group for immunocompromised patients, and it has a high level of intrinsic resistance for different antibiotic classes. Hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics by β-lactamases is the most common resistance mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria, and the presence of such enzymes complicates the selection of appropriate therapy. This study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial resistance profile and the presence of β-lactamase encoding genes in B...
September 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876169/ndm-1-hazard-in-the-balkan-states-evidence-of-the-first-outbreak-of-ndm-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-bulgaria
#3
Encho Savov, Lida Politi, Nicholas Spanakis, Angelina Trifonova, Elena Kioseva, Athanasios Tsakris
New Delhi MBL (NDM) carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has become one of the most concerning multidrug-resistant pathogens. The Balkan counties are considered a reservoir for the spread of such strains based on several reports documenting NDM infections after hospitalization in this region. Nevertheless, NDM-producing K. pneumoniae have been only occasionally documented from Balkans. The current study documents the first polyclonal outbreak caused by NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae in Bulgaria. From July 2015 to April 2016, all 25 single-patient carbapenem-nonsusceptible K...
September 6, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876168/complete-sequence-of-pcy-ctx-a-plasmid-carrying-a-phage-like-region-and-an-isecp1-mediated-tn2-element-from-enterobacter-cloacae
#4
Zhenbo Xu, Jinhong Xie, Ling Yang, Dingqiang Chen, Brian M Peters, Mark E Shirtliff
A plasmid pCY-CTX carrying a phage-like backbone from an extensively drug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae strain Guangzhou-ECL001 (previously known as CY01) was identified in this study. By Illumina MiSeq 2 × 250-bp paired-end sequencing, de novo assembly, and PCR, full sequence of pCY-CTX was obtained. Plasmid pCY-CTX was a circular plasmid with a length of 116,700 bp, harboring 136 putative open reading frames with the average G + C content of 50.8%. The backbone of pCY-CTX showed high identity to previously reported phage-like plasmid pHCM2 and phage SSU5...
September 6, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853989/genomic-analysis-and-resistance-mechanisms-in-shigella-flexneri-2a-strain-301
#5
Zhen Zhu, Xuzheng Zhou, Bing Li, Sihan Wang, Fusheng Cheng, Jiyu Zhang
Shigella flexneri is one of the most prominent pathogenic bacteria in developing countries. In the battle against shigellosis and other bacterial diseases, antibiotic resistance has become an increasing global public health threat. Although the serious phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) has been identified as one of the top three burdens on human health, resistance mechanisms are still poorly understood at the molecular level. In this study, we analyzed genomic data and the evolution of resistance in Shigella flexneri under sequential selection stress from three separate antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (CIP), ceftriaxone (CRO), and tetracycline...
August 30, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829687/prevalence-of-ctx-m-producing-klebsiella-spp-in-broiler-kuroiler-and-indigenous-poultry-in-west-bengal-state-india
#6
Achintya Mahanti, Pratik Ghosh, Indranil Samanta, Siddhartha Narayan Joardar, Samiran Bandyopadhyay, Debaraj Bhattacharyya, Jaydeep Banerjee, Subhasis Batabyal, Tapas Kumar Sar, Tapan Kumar Dutta
This study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp. in healthy broiler, indigenous, and kuroiler birds reared in West Bengal (India) during November 2014-February 2015. In addition to CTX-M gene, the study was also conducted to reveal the occurrence of other β-lactamase and class I integron genes in Klebsiella spp. isolates along with their clonal relationship. A total of 321 cloacal swabs from healthy broiler, indigenous, and kuroiler birds were collected from different places of West Bengal, India...
August 22, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813625/detection-of-first-line-drug-resistance-mutations-and-drug-protein-interaction-dynamics-from-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-india
#7
Somanna Ajjamada Nachappa, Sumana M Neelambike, Chokkanna Amruthavalli, Nallur B Ramachandra
Diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis predominantly relies on culture-based drug susceptibility testing, which take weeks to produce a result and a more time-efficient alternative method is multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR). Also, understanding the role of mutations in causing resistance helps better drug designing. AIMS: To evaluate the ability of MAS-PCR in the detection of drug resistance and to understand the mechanism of interaction of drugs with mutant proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
August 16, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813617/environmental-stress-affects-the-formation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-persisters-tolerant-to-antibiotics
#8
Lucie Kubistova, Lukas Dvoracek, Jan Tkadlec, Oto Melter, Irena Licha
The ability to form persisters has been observed in many microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, mainly in the context of chronic infections and the pathogenicity of these microbes. In our research, we have demonstrated that salt or oxidative stress could play a role in the formation of S. aureus persisters outside the host's intracellular interface. We pre-exposed planktonic growing bacterial culture to an oxidative or salt stress and monitored the dynamics of persister formation after ciprofloxacin and gentamicin treatment...
August 16, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805537/high-prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-wild-fish-from-the-mediterranean-sea-in-algeria
#9
Soumia Brahmi, Abdelaziz Touati, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Albert Sotto, Alix Pantel, Jean-Philippe Lavigne
AIM: We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae among wild fish from the coast of Bejaia (Algeria) in the Mediterranean Sea. RESULTS: From March 2012 to August 2013, gut and gill samples of wild fish were screened for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Strains were characterized with regard to antibiotic resistance, β-lactamase content, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, aminoglycoside resistance genes, and clonality (repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction profiles and multilocus sequence typing)...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799881/prevalence-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-qaca-b-positive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-a-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#10
Oh-Hyun Cho, Ki-Ho Park, Ji Young Song, Jeong Min Hong, Taeeun Kim, Sun In Hong, Sunjoo Kim, In-Gyu Bae
The increasing use of chlorhexidine for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonization has raised concerns about the emergence of resistance to or tolerance of this antiseptic. We examined the frequency and characteristics of qacA/B chlorhexidine tolerance genes among MRSA isolates in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) where MRSA-colonized patients are decolonized by chlorhexidine bathing. The MRSA isolates were evaluated for chlorhexidine susceptibility, mupirocin resistance, molecular typing, agr functionality, and the heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799835/occurrence-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-in-the-wildlife-first-report-of-oxa-48-in-wild-boars-in-algeria
#11
Taous Bachiri, Sofiane Bakour, Rym Lalaoui, Nadia Belkebla, Meriem Allouache, Jean Marc Rolain, Abdelaziz Touati
The aim of the present study was to screen for the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) isolates from wild boars and Barbary macaques in Algeria. Fecal samples were collected from wild boars (n = 168) and Barbary macaques (n = 212), in Bejaia, Algeria, between September 2014 and April 2016. The isolates were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. Carbapenem resistance determinants were studied using PCR and sequencing, while clonal relatedness was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799833/plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-1-in-an-escherichia-coli-st10-bloodstream-isolate-in-the-sultanate-of-oman
#12
Jalila Mohsin, Tibor Pál, Jorgen Eskild Petersen, Dania Darwish, Akela Ghazawi, Tanveer Ashraf, Agnes Sonnevend
AIMS: To identify plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates in Oman, where this resistance mechanism has not been encountered yet. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty-two colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates collected between July 2014 and June 2016 in a tertiary care hospital in Muscat were screened by PCR for the mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes. The strain identified as mcr-1 positive was genotyped and its antibiotic susceptibility was established...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783429/characterization-of-livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-cc398-and-mecc-positive-cc130-from-zoo-animals-in-the-united-kingdom
#13
Alessio Bortolami, Ranieri Verin, Julian Chantrey, Michela Corrò, Ian Ashpole, Javier Lopez, Dorina Timofte
Little is known about the characteristics and diseases associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nondomestic animals. Four presumptive MRSA isolates, obtained from clinical (n = 3) and surveillance specimens (n = 1) from dwarf (Helogale parvula) and yellow mongooses (Cynictis penicillata) from a United Kingdom zoo, were analyzed by PCR for detection of mecA and mecC-mediated methicillin resistance, and virulence genes. Isolates were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and spa sequence typing...
August 7, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783427/molecular-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-egypt-clonal-spread-of-blaoxa-23
#14
Afaf Mohamed Samy El Bannah, Nada Nabil Nawar, Reem Mostafa Mohamed Hassan, Sherifa Tarek Bassiouni Salem
Of great concern is the increased frequency of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) causing healthcare-associated infections. Different classes of β-lactamases are involved in this resistance through hydrolyzing carbapenems. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has been applied successfully for characterizing different varieties of bacterial pathogens epidemiologically. In the present study, we aimed to type and characterize the resistance profile of clinical isolates of CRAB causing healthcare-associated infections in patients admitted to Kasr Al-Aini hospital, using MLST, and compare with sequence types (STs) from other countries...
August 7, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783417/molecular-characterization-of-italian-isolates-of-fluoroquinolone-resistant-streptococcus-agalactiae-and-relationships-with-chloramphenicol-resistance
#15
Serena Simoni, Chiara Vincenzi, Andrea Brenciani, Gianluca Morroni, Patrizia Bagnarelli, Eleonora Giovanetti, Pietro E Varaldo, Marina Mingoia
A total number of 368 clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) were collected in 2010-2016 from three hospitals in a region of central Italy. Fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant isolates were selected using levofloxacin. Levofloxacin-resistant (LR) strains (11/368, 2.99%) were characterized for several features, and their FQ resistance was analyzed phenotypically and genotypically using seven additional FQs. Their gyrA and parC quinolone resistance-determining regions were sequenced...
August 7, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759328/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-quinolone-resistance-associated-t86i-and-p104s-mutations-in-campylobacter-jejuni-gyra-unraveling-structural-repercussions
#16
Kusum Mehla, Jayashree Ramana
gyrA is a clinically validated therapeutic drug target that catalyzes changes in DNA topology by introducing negative supercoils into DNA. The broad-spectrum quinolones are hitherto the most potent antibacterial agents targeted toward gyrA. Increasing resistance to quinolones is accompanied by several mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA. In the present study, we report a comprehensive picture of the dynamic behavior of wild-type, T86I, and T86I/P104S mutants (MTs) of gyrA from Campylobacter jejuni in complex with ciprofloxacin to unravel the atomistic details of the mechanism underlying resistance to quinolones...
July 31, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759321/first-report-on-a-randomized-investigation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-fecal-indicator-bacteria-from-livestock-poultry-and-humans-in-tanzania
#17
Abdul A S Katakweba, Amandus P Muhairwa, Athumani M Lupindu, Peter Damborg, Jesper T Rosenkrantz, Uswege M Minga, Madundo M A Mtambo, John E Olsen
This study provides an estimate of antimicrobial resistance in intestinal indicator bacteria from humans (n = 97) and food animals (n = 388) in Tanzania. More than 70% of all fecal samples contained tetracycline (TE), sulfamethoxazole (STX), and ampicillin (AMP)-resistant coliforms, while cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant coliforms were observed in 40% of all samples. The average Log10 colony forming units/g of CTX-resistant coliforms in samples from humans were 2.20. Of 390 Escherichia coli tested, 66.4% were resistant to TE, 54...
July 31, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749714/risk-factors-for-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-a-meta-analysis
#18
Pin Liu, Xuan Li, Mei Luo, Xuan Xu, Kewen Su, Shuai Chen, Ying Qing, Yingli Li, Jingfu Qiu
AIMS: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infection has been rapidly emerging as a life-threatening nosocomial disease in many countries. However, studies on the corresponding risk factors of CRKP infection showed inconsistent results. To resolve these inconsistencies, we conducted a meta-analysis of previous studies on the potential risk factors of CRKP infection. The results of this study could be used to develop CRKP infection prevention strategies. METHODS: Relevant works were systematically searched from five electronic databases up to September 2016...
July 27, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737463/prevalence-of-a-new-variant-oxa-204-and-oxa-48-carbapenemases-plasmids-encoded-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clinical-isolates-in-tunisia
#19
Rym Ouertani, Mariem Ben Jomàa-Jemili, Haythem Gharsa, Anne Limelette, Thomas Guillard, Lucien Brasme, Christophe de Champs, Chedly Chouchani
Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have emerged as a major problem for healthcare systems. The aim of this study was to determine the role and diversity of plasmids harboring carbapenemases encoding genes from a collection of K. pneumoniae isolates recovered between July 2011 and January 2012, with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems. Imipenem (IPM), ertapenem (ETP), meropenem (MEM), and doripenem (DOR) minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by E-test. Carbapenemase production was detected with the modified Hodge test...
July 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708476/a-long-term-study-of-the-diversity-of-oxa-48-like-carbapenemase-producing-bacterial-strains-in-infected-patients-and-carriers
#20
Paul-Louis Woerther, Taha Jardak, Inès Ben Hassine, Sébastien Forget, Elisabeth Chachaty, Guillaume Arlet, Dominique Decré
PURPOSE: Since their emergence at the beginning of the century, OXA-48 carbapenemases have spread in the community and in hospitals. To assess the diversity of OXA-48-producing bacterial strains and plasmids in the hospital setting, we studied the strains isolated from patients in three hospitals in the Paris area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All possible OXA-48-like strains were included in the study. OXA-48-like and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-encoding genes were identified, and fingerprinting analysis was performed for all Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains...
July 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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