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Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918694/ceftaroline-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-from-u-s-medical-centers-2014-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-single-ceftaroline-nonsusceptible-isolate
#1
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Robert K Flamm, Ronald N Jones, Helio S Sader
Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (2,614) were collected from patients at 135 U.S. Medical Centers during 2014. Isolates were evaluated for multidrug resistance to penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin. A single isolate (853008) demonstrated a ceftaroline nonsusceptible minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value, and it was subjected to molecular characterization. Ceftaroline (MIC50/90, ≤0.015/0.12 μg/ml) was eightfold more potent than ceftriaxone (MIC50/90, ≤0...
December 5, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893949/phenotypic-and-genotypic-resistance-of-salmonella-isolates-from-healthy-and-diseased-pigs-in-china-during-2008-2015
#2
Yueguang Jiu, Shun Zhu, Sher Bahadar Khan, Mengzhen Sun, Geng Zou, Xianrong Meng, Bin Wu, Rui Zhou, Shaowen Li
The antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella strains is rapidly increasing worldwide, which poses significant threats to animal and public health. In this study, a total of 249 porcine Salmonella isolates collected in China during 2008-2015 were examined, including 155 clinical isolates from diseased pigs and 94 nonclinical isolates from healthy pigs. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration of seven antimicrobial agents, 96.4% of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the tested antibiotics and 81...
November 28, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869532/molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-outpatients-in-northern-japan-increasing-tendency-of-st5-st764-mrsa-iia-with-arginine-catabolic-mobile-element
#3
Meiji Soe Aung, Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Ayako Sumi, Masahiko Ito, Kenji Kudo, Shigeo Morimoto, Shino Hosoya, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is a genomic island of staphylococcus and is considered to confer enhanced ability to survive and growth on host bacterial cells. ACME has been typically identified in Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-positive ST8 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with SCCmec type IVa (USA300 clone), and it is also found in other lineages at low frequency. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of PVL(+)and/or ACME(+) MRSA were investigated for 624 clinical isolates collected from outpatients in northern Japan from 2013 to 2014...
November 21, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860531/two-clusters-of-fluoroquinolone-and-clindamycin-resistant-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-001-strain-recognized-by-capillary-electrophoresis-ribotyping-and-multilocus-variable-tandem-repeat-analysis
#4
Otakar Nyc, Renata Tejkalova, Zdenek Kriz, Filip Ruzicka, Lubos Kubicek, Jana Matejkova, Ed Kuijper, Marcela Krutova
AIM: To perform a retrospective analysis of the high occurrence of Clostridium difficile infection in the surgical department of a Czech tertiary care hospital and to identify weaknesses in C. difficile infection (CDI) prevention and control policies. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological data on eleven CDI cases were collected. C. difficile isolates were characterized by capillary electrophoresis ribotyping, multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), gyrA gene fragment sequencing, and erm(B) fragment PCR amplification...
November 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854165/antimicrobial-resistance-mechanisms-and-genetic-diversity-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-a-teaching-hospital-in-malaysia
#5
Shirin Biglari, Alfizah Hanafiah, Shaliawani Mohd Puzi, Ramliza Ramli, Mostafizur Rahman, Bruno Silvester Lopes
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii has increasingly emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance profiles and genetic diversity in A. baumannii clinical isolates in a tertiary medical center in Malaysia. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem), cephalosporins (ceftazidime and cefepime), and ciprofloxacin were determined by E-test. PCR and sequencing were carried out for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes and mutations...
November 17, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854150/response-of-escherichia-coli-to-prolonged-berberine-exposure
#6
Nilay Budeyri Gokgoz, Fatma Gizem Avci, Kubra Karaosmanoglu Yoneten, Begum Alaybeyoglu, Elif Ozkirimli, Nihat Alpagu Sayar, Dilek Kazan, Berna Sariyar Akbulut
Berberine is a plant-derived alkaloid possessing antimicrobial activity; unfortunately, its efflux through multidrug resistance pumps reduces its efficacy. Cellular life span of Escherichia coli is generally shorter with prolonged berberine exposure; nevertheless, about 30% of the cells still remain robust following this treatment. To elucidate its mechanism of action and to identify proteins that could be involved in development of antimicrobial resistance, protein profiles of E. coli cells treated with berberine for 4...
November 17, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854149/dissemination-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-drug-resistance-genes-associated-with-class-1-and-class-2-integrons-among-gram-negative-bacteria-from-hiv-patients-in-south-india
#7
Marimuthu Ragavan Ramesh Kumar, Narasingam Arunagirinathan, Seetharaman Srivani, Aridoss Dhanasezhian, Nallusamy Vijaykanth, Natesan Manikandan, Sethuramalingam Balakrishnan, Ramachandran Vignesh, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan, Suniti Solomon, Sunil S Solomon
The antibiotic, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), is generally used for prophylaxis in HIV individuals to protect them from Pneumocystis jiroveci infection. Long-term use of TMP-SMX develops drug resistance among bacteria in HIV patients. The study was aimed to detect the TMP-SMX resistance genes among gram-negative bacteria from HIV patients. TMP-SMX-resistant isolates were detected by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. While TMP resistance genes such as dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, and dfrA17 and SMX resistance genes such as sul1 and sul2 were detected by multiplex PCR, class 1 and class 2 integrons were detected by standard monoplex PCR...
November 17, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854148/first-detection-of-ges-5-carbapenemase-producing-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolate
#8
Mohamed H Al-Agamy, Katy Jeannot, Taghrid S El-Mahdy, Atef M Shibl, Wael Kattan, Patrick Plésiat, Patrice Courvalin
This study was conducted to investigate the molecular epidemiology of resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates collected at a hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January through December 2010. Twenty-seven A. baumannii were highly resistant (MIC90 > 256 μg/ml) to ceftazidime, cefepime, and aztreonam. Imipenem resistance was seen in 24 isolates, of which 18 had an minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >32 μg/mL. Ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and amikacin resistance was found in 93%, 52%, and 37% of all the isolates, respectively...
November 17, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841958/decreased-susceptibility-to-azithromycin-among-clinical-shigella-isolates-from-china
#9
Chuanling Zhang, Rulin Zhang, Qi Yu, Xu Chu, Jingyong Sun, Qingzhong Liu
The aim of this study was to detect the decreased susceptibility to azithromycin (DSA) and associated mechanisms in Shigella from China. Three hundred and ninety-two Shigella isolates, including 134 Shigella flexneri and 258 Shigella sonnei isolates, were examined for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone sizes to azithromycin by broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods, respectively. The MICs were compared with corresponding zone diameters to find whether there was uniformity between both tests...
November 14, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834610/regional-spread-of-ctx-m-2-producing-proteus-mirabilis-with-the-identical-genetic-structure-in-japan
#10
Karin Kato, Yasufumi Matsumura, Masaki Yamamoto, Miki Nagao, Shunji Takakura, Satoshi Ichiyama
AIMS: In this study, we analyzed the molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis isolates collected from the central region of Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2005 and 2012, 820 clinical P. mirabilis isolates were obtained from ten acute care hospitals in Japan. We characterized ESBL confirmatory test-positive isolates by sequencing the ESBL genes and their flanking regions, detecting plasmid replicons, and performing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
November 11, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828759/prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-ctx-m-8-and-ctx-m-2-producing-salmonella-serotypes-from-clinical-and-nonhuman-isolates-in-brazil
#11
Sueli Aparecida Fernandes, Carlos Henrique Camargo, Gabriela Rodrigues Francisco, Maria Fernanda Campagnari Bueno, Doroti Oliveira Garcia, Yohei Doi, Monique Ribeiro Tiba Casas
We characterized extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) enzymes among Salmonella strains isolated in Brazil from 2009 to 2014. Salmonella recovered from both clinical and nonhuman (food, poultry, and environment) sources were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. β-lactamases genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction/sequencing; plasmid profiles and transferability were assessed by S1-pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genetic diversity was evaluated by XbaI-PFGE. Out of 630 Salmonella strains screened, 46 displayed ESBL phenotype, distributed across 11 different serotypes...
November 9, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828758/gentamicin-and-ciprofloxacin-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-cattle-farms-in-israel-risk-factors-for-carriage-and-the-effect-of-microbiological-methodology-on-the-measured-prevalence
#12
Amos Adler, Na'ama Sturlesi, Noga Fallach, Deniz Zilberman-Barzilai, Omar Hussein, Shlomo E Blum, Eyal Klement, Mitchell J Schwaber, Yehuda Carmeli
Our objectives were to establish a methodology for surveillance of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and gentamicin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CPRE and GNRE, respectively) in cattle and to study the prevalence and risk factors for carriage of these bacteria in a national survey. This was a point prevalence study conducted from July to October 2013 in Israel. Stool samples were collected from 1,226 cows in 123 sections of 40 farms of all production types. The number of CPRE- and GNRE-positive cows was highest in quarantine stations and fattening farms and was lowest in pasture farms (p < 0...
November 9, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828730/characterization-of-resistance-genes-and-plasmids-from-outbreaks-and-illness-clusters-caused-by-salmonella-resistant-to-ceftriaxone-in-the-united-states-2011-2012
#13
Jason P Folster, Julian E Grass, Amelia Bicknese, Julia Taylor, Cindy R Friedman, Jean M Whichard
Salmonella is an important cause of foodborne illness; however, quickly identifying the source of these infections can be difficult, and source identification is a crucial step in preventing additional illnesses. Although most infections are self-limited, invasive salmonellosis may require antimicrobial treatment. Ceftriaxone, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin, is commonly used for treatment of salmonellosis. Previous studies have identified a correlation between the food animal/retail meat source of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella and the type of resistance gene and plasmid it carries...
November 9, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809653/incidence-and-genetic-bases-of-nitrofurantoin-resistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-two-successful-multidrug-resistant-clones-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-pandemic-dt-104-and-puo-stvr2
#14
Vanesa García, Ignacio Montero, Margarita Bances, Rosaura Rodicio, M Rosario Rodicio
In this study, the incidence and genetic bases of nitrofurantoin resistance were established for clinical isolates of two successful clones of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the pandemic "DT 104" and the pUO-StVR2 clone. A total of 61 "DT 104" and 40 pUO-StVR2 isolates recovered from clinical samples during 2008-2014 and assigned to different phage types, were tested for nitrofurantoin susceptibility. As previously shown for older isolates, all newly tested pUO-StVR2 isolates were highly resistant to nitrofurantoin (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] of 128 μg/ml), while 42...
November 3, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802107/clonal-spread-of-colistin-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-coproducing-kpc-and-vim-carbapenemases-in-neonates-at-a-tunisian-university-hospital
#15
Hajer Battikh, Chiraz Harchay, Amal Dekhili, Khaoula Khazar, Fehima Kechrid, Meriem Zribi, Afef Masmoudi, Chedlia Fendri
In this study, we have attempted to report the first clonal spread of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae coproducing KPC and VIM carbapenemases in the neonatal unit of Rabta Teaching Hospital of Tunis (Tunisia). This retrospective study was performed from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014 in the Microbiology Laboratory at the Rabta University Hospital of Tunis. Twenty-one nonreplicate colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae were isolated from 19 patients hospitalized in the neonatal unit and 2 patients in the adult intensive care unit (ICU)...
November 1, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792585/comparison-of-detection-rate-and-mutational-pattern-of-drug-resistant-mutations-between-a-large-cohort-of-genotype-b-and-genotype-c-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-patients-in-north-china
#16
Xiaodong Li, Yan Liu, Shaojie Xin, Dong Ji, Shaoli You, Jinhua Hu, Jun Zhao, Jingjing Wu, Hao Liao, Xin-Xin Zhang, Dongping Xu
The study aimed to investigate the association of prevalent genotypes in China (HBV/C and HBV/B) with HBV drug-resistant mutations. A total of 13,847 nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-treated patients with chronic HBV infection from North China were enrolled. HBV genotypes and resistant mutations were determined by direct sequencing and confirmed by clonal sequencing if necessary. HBV/B, HBV/C, and HBV/D occupied 14.3%, 84.9%, and 0.8% across the study population, respectively. NA usage had no significant difference between HBV/B- and HBV/C-infected patients...
October 28, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792476/pan-drug-resistant-environmental-isolate-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-from-croatia
#17
Ivana Goic-Barisic, Martina Seruga Music, Ana Kovacic, Marija Tonkic, Jasna Hrenovic
Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen with also emerging resistance to different antibiotics. Multidrug and pan drug-resistant clinical isolates were reported worldwide. Here we report the first evidence of pan drug-resistant environmental isolate of A. baumannii. The isolate was recovered from the effluent of secondary treated municipal wastewater of the City of Zagreb, Croatia. The isolate was resistant to penicillins/β-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, folate pathway inhibitors, and polymyxins, except intermediately susceptible to minocycline and tigecycline...
October 28, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754824/mutation-in-the-l3-ribosomal-protein-could-be-associated-with-risk-of-selection-of-high-level-linezolid-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-strains
#18
Caroline Rouard, Elisabeth Aslangul, Alexandre Rivière, Claire Deback, Marie-José Butel, Florence Doucet-Populaire, Nadège Bourgeois-Nicolaos
Linezolid (LZD) has arisen as an alternative treatment in diabetic foot osteitis due to staphylococci. LZD resistance selection is difficult and involved various molecular mechanisms. As a better knowledge of those mechanisms could be beneficial for pathogenic strains' screening, we simulated in vitro the spontaneous mutagenesis process that leads to LZD-resistant strains from two Staphylococcus epidermidis strains responsible for monomicrobial diabetic foot osteitis. LZD high resistance was selected for both strains, with the same timeline of mutation appearance...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754817/acute-inflammatory-response-of-patients-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections-a-prospective-study
#19
Silvia Gómez-Zorrilla, Francisco Morandeira, María José Castro, Fe Tubau, Elisabet Periche, Rosario Cañizares, María Angeles Dominguez, Javier Ariza, Carmen Peña
The severity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection may be determined by the interaction with the host immune system. We designed a prospective study to assess the relationship between the inflammatory response and the clinical presentation and outcome of PA infection. We also investigated whether there are differences in the inflammatory response depending on the resistance profile of PA. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Sixty-nine infection episodes were recorded; 40 caused by non-multidrug-resistant (non-MDR) strains [29 (73%) respiratory; 8 (20%) bacteremia], 12 by MDR non-extensively drug-resistant (MDR-non-XDR) [9 (75%) respiratory; 3 (25%) bacteremia], and 17 by XDR strains [9 (53%) respiratory; 7 (41%) bacteremia]...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754791/laboratory-based-surveillance-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-eastern-china
#20
Yu Huang, Qingqing Wu, Shuiyang Xu, Jieming Zhong, Songhua Chen, Jinghang Xu, Liping Zhu, Haibo He, Xiaomeng Wang
With 25% of the global burden, China has the highest incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in the world. However, surveillance data on extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) from China are scant. To estimate the prevalence of XDR-TB in Zhejiang, Eastern China, 30 of 90 TB treatment centers in Zhejiang were recruited. Patients with suspected TB who reported to the clinics for diagnosis were requested to undergo a smear sputum test. Positive sputum samples were tested for drug susceptibility. Data on anti-TB drug resistance from 1999 to 2008 were also collected to assess drug resistance trends...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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