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Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148915/the-frequency-of-mutations-in-quinolone-resistance-determining-regions-and-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-in-shigella-isolates-recovered-from-pediatric-patients-in-tehran-iran-an-overlooked-problem
#1
Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mohammad Kazem Sharifi-Yazdi
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in clinical isolates of Shigella species has been increasing reported in recent years. This study was carried out to find the mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) and the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants among the clinical isolates of Shigella sp. in Tehran, Iran. A total of 50 Shigella isolates were collected from five teaching therapeutic centers in Tehran, Iran and analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility over a period of 20 months from July 2015 to January 2017...
November 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148895/characterization-of-cefotaxime-and-ciprofloxacin-resistant-commensal-escherichia-coli-originating-from-belgian-farm-animals-indicates-high-antibiotic-resistance-transfer-rates
#2
Ellen Lambrecht, Eva Van Meervenne, Nico Boon, Tom Van de Wiele, Pierre Wattiau, Lieve Herman, Marc Heyndrickx, Els Van Coillie
Food-producing animals represent one of the sources of antibiotic resistant commensal bacteria. There is an increasing awareness that these bacteria might have the potential to transfer their resistance genes to other (pathogenic) bacteria. In this study, 50 commensal Escherichia coli strains originating from food-producing animals and resistant to the "highest priority, critically important antibiotics" cefotaxime and/or ciprofloxacin, were selected for further characterization. For each strain (i) an antibiogram, (ii) the phylogenetic group, (iii) plasmid replicon type, (iv) presence and identification of integrons, and (v) antibiotic resistance transfer ratios were determined...
November 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106325/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-shigella-with-high-rate-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-production-two-predominant-etiological-agents-of-acute-diarrhea-in-shiraz-iran
#3
Maneli Aminshahidi, Amir Arastehfar, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Esmayil Arman, Fereshteh Fani
This study was conducted to find the etiology of acute diarrhea in Iranian children and determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns. The pathogenic bacteria were recovered from 110/269 (40.9%) diarrheal fecal samples with the following profiles: the most predominant pathogen was diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) (43.6%), comprising enteroaggregative E. coli (23.6%), enteropathogenic E. coli (10.9%), enteroinvasive E. coli (5.5%), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (3.6%); Shigella spp. (37.3%), Salmonella spp...
November 6, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090981/characterization-of-unexpressed-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-genes-in-antibiotic-sensitive-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates
#4
Zhao Zhang, Yao Zhai, Yatao Guo, Daixi Li, Zhanwei Wang, Jing Wang, Yusheng Chen, Qi Wang, Zhancheng Gao
OBJECTIVE: The current investigation explores whether extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes exist in clinical non-ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. METHODS: A total of 202 clinical isolates with non-ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae were collected from southern and middle of China. Thirteen β-lactamase genes (blaSHV, CTX-M, TEM, OXA-2, OXA-10, VEB, PER, SFO, GES, CSP, TLA, BEL, and IBC) were screened by PCR and their identity confirmed by sequencing of PCR products...
November 1, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064348/the-activity-of-fosfomycin-against-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-isolates-of-enterobacteriaceae-recovered-from-urinary-tract-infections-a-single-center-study-over-a-period-of-12-years
#5
Parisa Aris, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Mohammad Rahbar, Masoumeh Douraghi
Despite global efforts to tackle resistance in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates via old antibiotics, there are limited data on the efficacy of fosfomycin-an old oral antibiotic-against Enterobacteriaceae in the Middle East. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of fosfomycin against urinary ESBL-producing isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. Between 2004 and 2015, 363 isolates of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were recovered from high-risk patients suffering from cardiac disorders and were subjected to polymerase chain reaction using specific primers for the blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes...
October 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058560/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-a-review-of-antimicrobial-resistance-mechanisms-and-perspectives-of-human-and-animal-health
#6
Mohamed O Ahmed, Keith E Baptiste
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are both of medical and public health importance associated with serious multidrug-resistant infections and persistent colonization. Enterococci are opportunistic environmental inhabitants with a remarkable adaptive capacity to evolve and transmit antimicrobial-resistant determinants. The VRE gene operons show distinct genetic variability and apparently continued evolution leading to a variety of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and various environmental and livestock reservoirs for the most common van genes...
October 23, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058526/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-of-the-beijing-genotype-in-iran-and-the-who-eastern-mediterranean-region-a-meta-analysis
#7
Sven Hoffner, Leyla Sahebi, Khalil Ansarin, Siamak Sabour, Parviz Mohajeri
OBJECTIVE: The Beijing genotype is a distinct genetic lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is distributed worldwide, and may cause large outbreaks of multidrug resistance-tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The distribution of such strains in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) is unclear, and clarifying the data is our purpose apart from the presence of Beijing TB in Iran. METHODS: We searched Published literature from CINAHL Cochrane Library, Current Contents, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), ProQuest Google Scholar PubMed, PsycINFO, Thomson Reuters, (SID), and Medical Library (MedLib) to detect relevant studies from the year 2000 to July 2015 with the following keywords: M...
October 23, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058515/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamases-in-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-from-india
#8
Mohibur Rahman, Kashi Nath Prasad, Shefali Gupta, Sanjay Singh, Avinash Singh, Ashutosh Pathak, Kamlesh Kumar Gupta, Saheem Ahmad, Bruno Gonzalez Zorn
New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-mediated carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii is a major concern. We investigated the presence of NDM and its variants in P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii at a tertiary hospital in North India. A total of 236 isolates (130 P. aeruginosa and 106 A. baumannii) were included; 38 (29.23%) P. aeruginosa and 20 A. baumannii isolates (18.8%) were resistant to carbapenems and all of them were blaNDM positive. All 38 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa harbored blaNDM-1, while 12 (60%) of 20 A...
October 23, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058514/transmissible-plasmids-and-integrons-shift-escherichia-coli-population-toward-larger-multiple-drug-resistance-numbers
#9
Suhartono Suhartono, Mary C Savin, Edward E Gbur
Transmissible plasmids and integrons may play important roles in the persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria throughout aquatic environment by accumulating antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). Class 1 and class 2 integron (intI), mobilization (mob), sulfamethoxazole resistance (sul), and trimethoprim resistance (dfr) genes were PCR-amplified and confirmed through DNA sequencing following plasmid extraction from 139 antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli. E. coli had previously been recovered from wastewater treatment plant effluent and receiving stream water in Northwest Arkansas and isolates had expressed resistance to one to six antibiotics...
October 23, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053085/rifampicin-resistance-and-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-detection-using-xpert-mtb-rif-in-wuhan-china-a-retrospective-study
#10
Hai Huang, Yanlin Zhang, Sheng Li, Jun Wang, Jun Chen, Zhiyun Pan, Hui Gan
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF test (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) can simultaneously detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex DNA and rifampicin (RFP) resistance and can rapidly determine RFP resistance and predict multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In this study, we analyzed clinical examination results of a hospital specializing in TB treatment in Wuhan, Hubei, China, and examined the use of traditional culture and drug-sensitive test (DST) results as a gold standard to assess the diagnosis value of the Xpert MTB/RIF test in RFP resistance and MDR-TB...
October 20, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039729/antimicrobial-activity-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-tested-against-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-with-various-resistance-patterns-isolated-in-u-s-hospitals-2013-2016-as-part-of-the-surveillance-program-program-to-assess-ceftolozane-tazobactam-susceptibility
#11
Dee Shortridge, Michael A Pfaller, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitalized patients in the United States. Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor. A total of 18,960 organisms (15,223 Enterobacteriaceae and 3,737 P. aeruginosa) were consecutively collected from 32 medical centers located in all nine U.S. census divisions from 2013 to 2016...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039719/resistance-in-in-vitro-selected-tigecycline-resistant-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-sequence-type-5-is-driven-by-mutations-in-mepr-and-mepa-genes
#12
Andrei Nicoli Gebieluca Dabul, Juliana Sposto Avaca-Crusca, Daria Van Tyne, Michael S Gilmore, Ilana Lopes Baratella Cunha Camargo
A tigecycline-susceptible (TGC-S) Sequence Type (ST) 5 clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain was cultured in escalating levels of tigecycline, yielding mutants eightfold more resistant. Their genomes were sequenced to identify genetic alterations, resulting in resistance. Alterations in rpsJ, commonly related to tigecycline resistance, were also investigated. Tigecycline resistance was mediated by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional repressor mepR, resulting in derepression of the efflux pump mepA...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039717/high-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-libyan-war-casualties-admitted-to-a-tertiary-care-hospital-germany
#13
Benedikt Lohr, Yvonne Pfeifer, Ursel Heudorf, Christoph Rangger, Douglas E Norris, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld
The ongoing Libyan conflict constantly causes victims among the military and civilian population. Cross-border transfer of patients represents a high risk of introducing multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), for example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and carbapenem-resistant gram-negative organisms (CROs), into the country of destination. This study assessed the MDRO status in Libyan war casualties (n = 67) admitted to Northwest Medical Centre in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, from August 2016 till January 2017...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039715/antibiotic-resistance-in-salmonella-from-retail-foods-of-animal-origin-and-its-association-with-disinfectant-and-heavy-metal-resistance
#14
Wenwen Deng, Yuan Quan, Shengzhi Yang, Lijuan Guo, Xiuli Zhang, Shuliang Liu, Shujuan Chen, Kang Zhou, Li He, Bei Li, Yunfu Gu, Shaohua Zhao, Likou Zou
This study aims to demonstrate the antibiotic resistance and its association with disinfectant and heavy metal resistance in 152 Salmonella isolates recovered from retail foods of animal origins. Susceptibility testing demonstrated that 92.8% isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and the resistance was highest to oxytetracycline (80.9%), followed by trimethoprim (64.5%), amoxicillin (28.9%), ampicillin (28.3%), levofloxacin (21.7%), ciprofloxacin (16.4%), and gentamicin (10.5%), respectively. The blaTEM and tetA genes (44...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028174/could-frequent-carbapenem-use-be-a-risk-factor-for-colistin-resistance
#15
Aycan Gundogdu, Aysegul Ulu-Kilic, Huseyin Kilic, Esra Ozhan, Dilek Altun, Ozlem Cakir, Emine Alp
AIMS: The antibiotic colistin, which had been previously abandoned, is being brought back as a last line of defense against bacterial infection. However, colistin resistance was reported shortly after its reintroduction. This study evaluated the risk factors for colonization/infections due to colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (ColR-Ab) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ColR-Kp) strains and characterized the molecular epidemiology of these two strains. RESULTS: Age, previous hospitalization duration, and previous use of carbapenem and colistin were risk factors for ColR-Kp, whereas previous use of carbapenem and colistin was a risk factor for ColR-Ab...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022829/migratory-white-stork-ciconia-ciconia-a-potential-vector-of-the-oxa-48-producing-escherichia-coli-st38-clone-in-algeria
#16
Amira Bouaziz, Lotfi Loucif, Ammar Ayachi, Karima Guehaz, Esma Bendjama, Jean-Marc Rolain
The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health worldwide. The aim of this study was to screen for the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in white stork (Ciconia ciconia) migratory bird stools, and to investigate their molecular support on β-lactamase production. In March 2015, 32 fecal samples of white stork were collected in the Commune of El Madher Wilaya de Batna, in eastern Algeria. Samples were subjected to selective isolation of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae...
October 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016230/antimicrobial-resistance-and-genotypes-of-campylobacter-jejuni-from-pig-and-cattle-carcasses-isolated-in-poland-during-2009-2016
#17
Kinga Wieczorek, Jacek Osek
Between 2009 and 2016, 317 and 529 swabs from cattle and pig carcasses, respectively, were collected all over Poland and tested for the presence of Campylobacter. Among 37 (11.7%) and 161 (30.4%) positive samples, 44 Campylobacter jejuni isolates were detected. A total of 29 different sequence types (STs) and 12 various clonal complexes were identified. Antimicrobial resistance revealed that 17 (38.6%) C. jejuni (10 from cattle and 7 from pig carcasses, respectively) were susceptible to all antimicrobials used in the study, whereas the remaining 27 (61...
October 10, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981392/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-ampc-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-broiler-farms-transmission-dynamics-at-farm-level
#18
Katrin Daehre, Michaela Projahn, Torsten Semmler, Uwe Roesler, Anika Friese
The occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL) and/or AmpC beta-lactamase- (AmpC) producing Enterobacteriaceae in livestock, especially in broiler fattening flocks, has been demonstrated in previous studies. Nevertheless, data on transmission routes of these resistant bacteria into the fattening farms are rare. Therefore, seven broiler fattening flocks were investigated for the occurrence of ESBL-/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae during the course of the fattening period with the special focus on horizontal transmission routes...
October 5, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972863/diversity-of-class-1-integrons-and-disruption-of-caro-and-dacd-by-insertion-sequences-among-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-in-tehran-iran
#19
Maryam Mirshekar, Fereshteh Shahcheraghi, Omid Azizi, Hamid Solgi, Farzad Badmasti
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen which causes a wide range of infections. In this study, we addressed the role of class 1 integron, ISAba1 and ISAba125 associated with antimicrobial resistance in 72 clinical isolates of A. baumannii collected from clinical settings in Tehran, Iran. Moreover, to study the clonal relatedness of strains, repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR) assay was carried out. PCR revealed that blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24/40-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaNDM, integrase gene (intI1), ISAba1, and ISAba125 were present in 86...
October 3, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972857/identification-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-with-emphasis-on-new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-1-blandm-1-in-bandar-abbas-south-of-iran
#20
Saeed Shoja, Maryam Ansari, Forogh Faridi, Mohsen Azad, Parivash Davoodian, Sedigheh Javadpour, Abbas Farahani, Banafsheh Douzandeh Mobarrez, Afsaneh Karmostaji
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae especially blaNDM-1-carrying isolates is a great concern worldwide. In this study we describe the molecular basis of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in three teaching hospitals at Bandar Abbas, south of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 170 nonduplicate clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were investigated. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion method...
October 3, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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