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Oral Diseases

Isaäc van der Waal
In a recent Research Letter in Nature an automated classification of a few selected skin lesions has been published, using a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) (Esteva et al, 2017). Convolutional neural network is an important innovation in the field of computer vision. A popular use is for image processing, e.g. applied in face recognition. In the reported study CNN has been applied to a dataset of almost 130,000 clinical images, including some 3,000 dermoscopic images. This article is protected by copyright...
March 22, 2017: Oral Diseases
Liang Hu, Yijuan Wang, Ana P Cotrim, Zhao Zhu, Runtao Gao, Changyu Zheng, Corinne M Goldsmith, Luyuan Jin, Chunmei Zhang, James B Mitchell, Bruce J Baum, Songlin Wang
OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to (i) establish a useful miniature pig (minipig) model for irradiation-induced oral mucositis and (ii) evaluate the effect of Tempol to prevent its development. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Minipigs were irradiated with 6Gy for 5 consecutive days targeting the entire oral cavity. To prevent radiation damage minipigs were treated with 30 mg/kg Tempol 10 minutes before irradiation (n=4), while, the radiation-alone group was similarly injected with saline (n=4)...
March 22, 2017: Oral Diseases
Richard Holliday, Ralf Kist, Linda Bauld, Philip M Preshaw
The topic of e-cigarettes and oral health is of utmost importance and we were pleased to see this addressed by a recent review that was published in Oral Diseases (Javed et al., 2017). However, we would like to raise several concerns with this review. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 20, 2017: Oral Diseases
G Bradley, M A Magalhaes, M Hyrcza
A recent publication by Alexandrov et al in Science (Alexandrov et al, 2016) presents a new approach to study the genomic changes in cancers associated with tobacco smoking. The genomic analyses, undertaken with a background of epidemiologic and clinical studies, indicate that tobacco smoking causes distinct mutations across the genome that are recognizable collectively as mutational signatures. By studying a range of cancer types that vary in the strength of association with tobacco smoking, including oral cavity cancer, the authors demonstrate the complex roles of tobacco smoke carcinogens in the mutational processes that lead to cancer...
March 13, 2017: Oral Diseases
Thantrira Porntaveetus, Chalurmpon Srichomthong, Atsushi Ohazama, Kanya Suphapeetiporn, Vorasuk Shotelersuk
OBJECTIVE: To characterize clinical features and identify genetic causes of a patient with oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Clinical, dental, radiological features were obtained. DNA was collected from an affected Thai family. Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) was employed to identify the disease-causing mutation causing ODDD. The presence of the identified variant was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The proband suffered with extensive enamel hypoplasia, polysyndactyly and clinodactyly of the 3(rd) -5(th) fingers, microphthalmia, and unique facial characteristics of ODDD...
March 4, 2017: Oral Diseases
Andrew Yeudall, Linah Shahoumi
Clinical outcomes for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma are, in large part, related to the tumor stage at diagnosis (Warnakulasuriya, 2009). In particular, loco-regional spread is a key predictor of poor prognosis. Knowledge of the molecular events that contribute to oral tumorigenesis is considerable (Agrawal et al., 2011, Hunter et al., 2005, Leemans et al., 2011, Stransky et al., 2011); yet, the processes that contribute to metastasis of primary oral tumor cells are poorly understood. This article is protected by copyright...
March 4, 2017: Oral Diseases
Sara Ferreira Dos Santos Costa, Núbia Braga Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves Pereira, Kelma Campos, Wagner Henriques de Castro, Marina Gonçalves Diniz, Carolina Cavaliéri Gomes, Ricardo Santiago Gomez
OBJECTIVES: DNA methylation is an important mechanism of gene control expression, and it has been poorly addressed in odontogenic tumours. On this basis, we aimed to assess the methylation pattern of 22 apoptosis-related genes in solid ameloblastomas MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ameloblastoma fresh samples (n=10) and dental follicles (n=8) were included in the study. The percentage fraction of methylated and unmethylated DNA promoter of 22 apoptosis-related genes was determined by using enzymatic restriction digestion and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) array...
March 1, 2017: Oral Diseases
Jun-Yu Ke, Wan-Jing Cen, Xue-Zhong Zhou, Ye-Rong Li, Wei-Dong Kong, Jian-Wei Jiang
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the inhibitory effect of iron overload on MC3T3-E1 cells and its molecular mechanism. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 cells were grown under different concentrations of FAC (ferric ammonium citrate), the WST-8 assay was used to investigate the proliferation of cells following FAC with or without deferasirox. DCFH-DA fluorescence probe was applied to detect the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. The apoptotic cells were analyzed with Annexin V-FITC/PI and the Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay...
March 1, 2017: Oral Diseases
Yuan F Liu, Yohanan Kim, Timothy Yoo, Peter Han, Jared C Inman
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain syndrome that primarily affects peri- and postmenopausal women. It is characterized by oral mucosal burning and may be associated with dysgeusia, paresthesia, dysesthesia, and xerostomia. The etiology of the disease process is unknown, but is thought to be neuropathic in origin. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of the various treatments for BMS. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases, which identified 22 randomized, controlled trials...
March 1, 2017: Oral Diseases
Jie Du, Ran Li, Feiyan Yu, Fang Yang, Jinhua Wang, Qingyong Chen, Xiangyu Wang, Bin Zhao, Fang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective function of vitamin D (VD)/vitamin D receptor (VDR) on the development of oral lichen planus (OLP) and elaborate the underling mechanism of it. METHODS: H&E staining, myeloid Peroxidase (MPO) assays, quantitative PCR (qPCR), western blotting and Elisa were used to test the human biopsies and serum. QPCR, western blotting, Elisa and siRNA transfection were also performed in LPS-induced keratinocytes to observe the functions of vitamin D and VDR...
February 23, 2017: Oral Diseases
Sadiye Gunpinar, Nilgun Ozlem Alptekin, Niyazi Dundar
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein (MCP)-1 in aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and whether GCF MCP-1 levels differ among localized (L) AgP and generalized (G) AgP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 160 subjects including, 80 AgP and 80 age and gender matched periodontally healthy (H) controls were recruited in this cross-sectional study (NCT02927704). GCF samples were collected from 160 patients including 50 LAgP, 30 GAgP and 80 H...
February 23, 2017: Oral Diseases
Yuan He, Diping Gong, Cong Shi, Fangyang Shao, Jiahao Shi, Jian Fei
OBJECTIVE: The bacterial community structure of buccal mucosa in patients with oral lichen planus was evaluated and compared with healthy control. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Buccal scraping samples have been taken on 43 oral lichen planus patients (21 erosive and 22 non-erosive) and 21 mucosal healthy volunteers. The V3 hypervariable 16S rDNA region were amplified and sequenced by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. RESULTS: 94.26% of the total buccal bacteria were classified into 15 abundant genera...
February 15, 2017: Oral Diseases
Joseph T Guidry, Christine E Birdwell, Rona S Scott
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous gammaherpesvirus that establishes a lifelong persistent infection in the oral cavity and is intermittently shed in the saliva. EBV exhibits a biphasic life cycle, supported by its dual tropism for B lymphocytes and epithelial cells, which allows the virus to be transmitted within oral lymphoid tissues. While infection is often benign, EBV is associated with a number of lymphomas and carcinomas that arise in the oral cavity and at other anatomical sites. Incomplete association of EBV in cancer has questioned if EBV is merely a passenger or a driver of the tumorigenic process...
February 11, 2017: Oral Diseases
Ganesan Arunkumar, Avaniyapuram Kannan Murugan, Maharajan Nagarajan, Chandrasekar Ajay, Ramamurthy Rajaraman, Arasambattu Kannan Munirajan
OBJECTIVES: Somatic mutations of the PIK3CA, CASP8 and NOTCH1 have been frequently detected in various human cancers. Our study aims to analyze the mutational status of these genes in South Indian oral cancers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We performed mutational analysis of the PIK3CA (exons 9 & 20), CASP8 (exon 9) and NOTCH1 (exons 5, 6, 7, 8 & 9) genes in 96, 48 and 44 oral cancer samples, respectively. All the specified exons were PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplified and directly sequenced by Sanger sequencing...
February 9, 2017: Oral Diseases
Amal Dafar, Maria Bankvall, Vegard Garsjö, Mats Jontell, Hülya Çevik-Aras
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the levels of salivary epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as interleukin-8 (IL-8) in patients with geographic tongue (GT), as compared to control subjects. METHODOLOGY: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the levels of IL-8, EGF, and VEGF in whole saliva samples collected from 34 patients with GT and 38 control subjects. The patients and controls were grouped and matched according to age, gender, and the presence of systemic diseases, which are factors that may influence the levels of salivary biomarkers...
February 8, 2017: Oral Diseases
Fawad Javed, Sergio V Kellesarian, Isaac K Sundar, Georgios E Romanos, Irfan Rahman
E-cigarette derived inhaled nicotine may contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal and pulmonary diseases in particular via lung inflammation, injurious and dysregulated repair responses. Nicotine is shown to have anti-proliferative properties and affects fibroblasts in vitro, which may interfere in tissue myofibroblast differentiation in e-cig users. This will affect the ability to heal wounds by decreasing wound contraction. In periodontics, direct exposure to e-vapor has been shown to produce harmful effects in periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts in culture...
February 6, 2017: Oral Diseases
M Siponen, L Huuskonen, S Kallio-Pulkkinen, P Nieminen, T Salo
OBJECTIVE: To carry out a double-blind RCT to compare the effectiveness of topical tacrolimus (TAC), triamcinolone acetonide (TRI) and placebo (PLA) in symptomatic OLP. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A clinical score (CS, range 0-130) was developed to measure the clinical signs and symptoms of OLP. Twenty-seven OLP patients with a CS of ≥ 20 were randomly allocated to receive 0.1% TAC ointment (n=11), 0.1% TRI paste (n=7) or Orabase(®) paste as PLA (n=9) for 3 weeks. If the CS dropped ≥ 20% (interpreted as response), the patients continued the same medication for another 3 weeks...
February 6, 2017: Oral Diseases
Reiri Takeuchi, Hiroko Matsumoto, Kazumune Arikawa, Chieko Taguchi, Ryuji Nakayama, Ikuo Nasu, Koichi Hiratsuka
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the role of phenytoin (PHT) in death receptor-induced apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts to clarify the mechanism of PHT-induced gingival overgrowth. METHODS: Human gingival fibroblasts were cultured to semi-confluence and treated with PHT (0.025, 0.1, 0.25, and 1.0 μM) for 48 h, and then the apoptotic cell numbers were relatively determined by absorptiometry. After 24 h of 0.25 μM PHT treatment, caspase activity was measured by absorptiometry, apoptotic and cell cycle phase distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry, expression levels of apoptotic genes were quantified by real-time qPCR, and expression of apoptotic proteins was detected by western blot analysis...
February 4, 2017: Oral Diseases
Shinnosuke Nogami, Kensuke Yamauchi, Yoshinaka Shimizu, Bunichi Hirayama, Akira Kumasaka, Masahiro Iikubo, Hiroyuki Kumamoto, Tetsu Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: We experimentally compared the effects of compressive and tractional mechanical stress on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rabbits to assess the etiology of progressive condylar resorption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cortical osteotomy using custom-made devices that were lengthened by 0.25 mm every 12 h for 1 week after surgery. During this time, the rabbit TMJ was under compressive or tractional mechanical stress. The samples in each group were examined using micro-computed tomography and histological staining...
January 31, 2017: Oral Diseases
Tomoaki Higuchi, Ikuko Haruta, Noriyuki Shibata, Naoko Yanagisawa, Junji Yagi
OBJECTIVE: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that primarily affects lacrimal and salivary glands. We previously reported that FliC derived from E. coli could induce autoimmune pancreatitis-like lesions. From these results, we speculated that FliC could also induce SS-like exocrinopathy. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure to FliC on lacrimal and salivary glands and the possibility that it might lead to an autoimmune response. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were repeatedly injected with FliC and histological changes, serum levels of cytokine/chemokines and autoantibodies were evaluated at different time points after the final injection...
January 31, 2017: Oral Diseases
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