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Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895465/regulation-what-is-there-not-to-like
#1
Martin Paul Evison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895464/reply-to-letter-to-the-editor-response-to-a-study-of-the-perception-of-verbal-expressions-of-the-strength-of-evidence
#2
LETTER
James French, Eleanor Arscott, Ruth Morgan, Georgina Meakin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895463/a-review-of-the-historical-use-and-criticisms-of-gait-analysis-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Michael Nirenberg, Wesley Vernon, Ivan Birch
The use of gait analysis is a well-established facet of practice for many professions and a fundamental aspect of clinical practice. In recent times, gait analysis evidence has emerged as a new area of forensic practice. As its use has continued to spread and develop, the area of work has come under close scrutiny and subsequent criticism. The purpose of this paper is to examine the historical use of gait analysis evidence and consider the criticisms of this work. Through the use of the historical records of cases within the public domain it has been determined that gait analysis as evidence was first presented in court over 175 years ago, although it has only been utilized by experts in more recent times...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895462/biological-sex-variation-in-bone-mineral-density-in-the-cranium-and-femur
#4
Anna Paschall, Ann H Ross
OBJECTIVES: Sex and age trends in bone mineral density (BMD) play an important role in the estimation of age-at-death (AAD) of unidentified human remains. Current methodologies lack the ability to precisely estimate age in older individuals. In this study, BMD of the cranium and femur measured by DXA were examined to establish their applicability for age estimation in older adults. BMD as measured by DXA, is most commonly used clinically for prediction of osteoporotic fracture risk. We hypothesized that weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones, the femur and cranium, respectively, would provide valuable insights for aging...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895461/the-use-of-the-m-vac%C3%A2-wet-vacuum-system-as-a-method-for-dna-recovery
#5
Toby Vickar, Katherine Bache, Barbara Daniel, Nunzianda Frascione
Collecting sufficient template DNA from a crime scene sample is often challenging, especially with low quantity samples such as touch DNA (tDNA). Traditional DNA collection methods such as double swabbing have limitations, in particular when used on certain substrates which can be found at crime scenes, thus a better collection method is advantageous. Here, the effectiveness of the M-Vac® Wet-Vacuum System is evaluated as a method for DNA recovery on tiles and bricks. It was found that the M-Vac® recovered 75% more DNA than double swabbing on bricks...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895460/background-survey-of-polyethylene-in-the-australian-capital-territory-a-demonstration-of-variability-in-isotopic-abundance-values-and-their-application-to-forensic-casework
#6
Kylie Jones, Felicity Koens, Timothy Simpson
Plastics including adhesive tapes, cable ties, and packaging are common evidence types encountered in forensic investigations and casework. Traditional examination techniques such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy lack specificity and are unable to discern differences within the same polymer structures leaving the analyst with a generic identification. High quality manufacturing methods further amplify the limitations in detecting variability between samples. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) has been shown to be a valuable technique in further discriminating plastics...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895459/the-influence-of-alcohol-content-variation-in-uk-packaged-beers-on-the-uncertainty-of-calculations-using-the-widmark-equation
#7
Peter D Maskell, Calum Holmes, Margaux Huismann, Struan Reid, Martin Carr, Benjamin J Jones, Dawn L Maskell
It is common for forensic practitioners to calculate an individual's likely blood alcohol concentration following the consumption of alcoholic beverage(s) for legal purposes, such as in driving under the influence (DUI) cases. It is important in these cases to be able to give the uncertainty of measurement on any calculated result, for this reason uncertainty data for the variables used for any calculation are required. In order to determine the uncertainty associated with the alcohol concentration of beer in the UK the alcohol concentration (%v/v) of 218 packaged beers (112 with an alcohol concentration of ≤5...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895458/application-of-mesocellular-siliceous-foams-mcf-for-surface-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-saldi-ms-analysis-of-fingermarks
#8
R M Barros, M C H Clemente, G A V Martins, L P Silva
Recent advances in nanotechnology applied in forensic sciences have contributed to consider new approaches including chemical evaluation of latent fingermarks. Significant improvement to the detection of small organic molecules has been reached with matrix-free methods associated to laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The present study investigated the application of mesocellular siliceous foam (MCF) as an ionizing agent for laser desorption/ionization (LDI-MS) analysis of fingermarks as a proof of concept research...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895457/a-part-declared-blind-testing-program-in-firearms-examination
#9
W Kerkhoff, R D Stoel, E J A T Mattijssen, C E H Berger, F W Didden, J H Kerstholt
In 2015 and 2016 the Central Unit of the Dutch National Police created and submitted 21 cartridge case comparison tests as real cases to the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI), under supervision of the University of Twente (UT). A total of 53 conclusions were drawn in these 21 tests. For 31 conclusions the underlying ground truth was "positive", in the sense that it addressed a cluster of cartridge cases that was fired from the same firearm. For 22 conclusions the ground truth was "negative", in the sense that the cartridge cases were fired from different firearms...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895456/questions-propositions-and-assessing-different-levels-of-evidence-forensic-voice-comparison-in-practice
#10
Vincent Hughes, Richard Rhodes
This paper contributes to the ongoing discussion about the distinction between observations and propositions in forensic inference, with a specific focus on forensic voice comparison casework conducted in the UK. We outline both linguistic and legal issues which make the evaluation of voice evidence and the refinement of propositions problematic in practice, and illustrate these using case examples. We will argue that group-level observations from the offender sample will always be evidential and that the value of this evidence must be determined by the expert...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895455/editorial
#11
EDITORIAL
Lisa Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685307/persistence-of-spermatozoa-lessons-learned-from-going-to-the-sources
#12
REVIEW
James DiFrancesco, Elizabeth Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685306/a-new-method-for-the-recovery-and-evidential-comparison-of-footwear-impressions-using-3d-structured-light-scanning
#13
T J U Thompson, P Norris
Footwear impressions are one of the most common forms of evidence to be found at a crime scene, and can potentially offer the investigator a wealth of intelligence. Our aim is to highlight a new and improved technique for the recovery of footwear impressions, using three-dimensional structured light scanning. Results from this preliminary study demonstrate that this new approach is non-destructive, safe to use and is fast, reliable and accurate. Further, since this is a digital method, there is also the option of digital comparison between items of footwear and footwear impressions, and an increased ability to share recovered footwear impressions between forensic staff thus speeding up the investigation...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685305/the-detection-of-metallic-residues-in-skin-stab-wounds-by-means-of-sem-eds-a-pilot-study
#14
Elisa Palazzo, Alberto Amadasi, Michele Boracchi, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maciocco, Matteo Marchesi, Riccardo Zoja
The morphological analysis of stab wounds may often not be accurate enough to link it with the type of wounding weapon, but a further evaluation may be performed with the search for metallic residues left during the contact between the instrument and the skin. In this study, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was applied to the study of cadaveric stab wounds performed with kitchen knives composed of iron, chromium and nickel, in order to verify the presence of metallic residues on the wound's edge...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685304/contextual-information-management-an-example-of-independent-checking-in-the-review-of-laboratory-based-bloodstain-pattern-analysis
#15
Nikola K P Osborne, Michael C Taylor
This article describes a New Zealand forensic agency's contextual information management protocol for bloodstain pattern evidence examined in the laboratory. In an effort to create a protocol that would have minimal impact on current work-flow, while still effectively removing task-irrelevant contextual information, the protocol was designed following an in-depth consultation with management and forensic staff. The resulting design was for a protocol of independent-checking (i.e. blind peer-review) where the checker's interpretation of the evidence is conducted in the absence of case information and the original examiner's notes or interpretation(s)...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685303/the-use-of-a-quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-qsar-model-to-predict-gaba-a-receptor-binding-of-newly-emerging-benzodiazepines
#16
Laura Waters, Kieran R Manchester, Peter D Maskell, Caroline Haegeman, Shozeb Haider
The illicit market for new psychoactive substances is forever expanding. Benzodiazepines and their derivatives are one of a number of groups of these substances and thus far their number has grown year upon year. For both forensic and clinical purposes it is important to be able to rapidly understand these emerging substances. However as a consequence of the illicit nature of these compounds, there is a deficiency in the pharmacological data available for these 'new' benzodiazepines. In order to further understand the pharmacology of 'new' benzodiazepines we utilised a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685302/avoiding-overstating-the-strength-of-forensic-evidence-shrunk-likelihood-ratios-bayes-factors
#17
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison, Norman Poh
When strength of forensic evidence is quantified using sample data and statistical models, a concern may be raised as to whether the output of a model overestimates the strength of evidence. This is particularly the case when the amount of sample data is small, and hence sampling variability is high. This concern is related to concern about precision. This paper describes, explores, and tests three procedures which shrink the value of the likelihood ratio or Bayes factor toward the neutral value of one. The procedures are: (1) a Bayesian procedure with uninformative priors, (2) use of empirical lower and upper bounds (ELUB), and (3) a novel form of regularized logistic regression...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685301/single-source-dna-profile-recovery-from-single-cells-isolated-from-skin-and-fabric-from-touch-dna-mixtures-in-mock-physical-assaults
#18
Katherine Farash, Erin K Hanson, Jack Ballantyne
The ability to obtain DNA profiles from trace biological evidence is routinely demonstrated with so-called 'touch DNA evidence', which is generally perceived to be the result of DNA obtained from shed skin cells transferred from a donor's hands to an object or person during direct physical contact. Current methods for the recovery of trace DNA employ swabs or adhesive tape to sample an area of interest. While of practical utility, such 'blind-swabbing' approaches will necessarily co-sample cellular material from the different individuals whose cells are present on the item, even though the individuals' cells are principally located in topographically dispersed, but distinct, locations on the item...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685300/validation-studies-in-forensic-odontology-part-1-accuracy-of-radiographic-matching
#19
Mark Page, Russell Lain, Richard Kemp, Jane Taylor
As part of a series of studies aimed at validating techniques in forensic odontology, this study aimed to validate the accuracy of ante-mortem (AM)/postmortem (PM) radiographic matching by dentists and forensic odontologists. This study used a web-based interface with 50 pairs of AM and PM radiographs from real casework, at varying degrees of difficulty. Participants were shown both radiographs as a pair and initially asked to decide if they represented the same individual using a yes/no binary choice forced-decision...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685299/the-introduction-of-forensic-advisors-in-belgium-and-their-role-in-the-criminal-justice-system
#20
Sonja Bitzer, Laetitia Heudt, Aurélie Barret, Lore George, Karolien Van Dijk, Fabrice Gason, Bertrand Renard
Forensic advisors (FA) at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology (NICC), generalists in forensic science, act as an advising body to the magistrate to improve communication between the various parties involved in the investigation: magistrate, police and crime scene investigators, and forensic experts. Their role is manifold, but their main objectives are to optimise trace processing by selecting the most pertinent traces in the context of the case and by advising magistrates on the feasibility of forensic analyses in particular circumstances in regards to the latest technical advances...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
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