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Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454632/evaluating-evidence-in-linked-crimes-with-multiple-offenders
#1
Jacob de Zoete, Marjan Sjerps, Ronald Meester
In de Zoete et al. (2015) a framework for the evaluation of evidence when an individual is a suspect of two separate offenses (based on Evett et al., 2006) is implemented using a Bayesian network. Here, we extend this to situations with multiple offenders. When we have multiple offenders, new questions arise: (1) Can we distinguish between the offenders, even if we do not know their identity? (2) Do we know that certain pieces of evidence originate from the same person? (3) Do we know the number of offenders? With the aid of a mock case example, we show that such subtle differences between situations can lead to substantially different conclusions in terms of posterior probabilities of a certain suspect being one of the offenders in a particular crime...
May 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454631/understanding-forensic-expert-evaluative-evidence-a-study-of-the-perception-of-verbal-expressions-of-the-strength-of-evidence
#2
Eleanor Arscott, Ruth Morgan, Georgina Meakin, James French
Verbal expressions of evidential strength are routinely used when presenting forensic expert evaluative evidence. The degree to which these verbal expressions are interpreted uniformly among different individuals requires further empirical study. This study focussed on groups of individuals with different roles within the criminal justice system and individuals with varying degrees of expertise and knowledge. Three groups of individuals were identified: laypeople, legal professionals and those with some forensic or investigative knowledge...
May 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454630/towards-a-bayesian-evaluation-of-features-in-questioned-handwritten%C3%A2-signatures
#3
Lorenzo Gaborini, Alex Biedermann, Franco Taroni
In this work, we propose the construction of a evaluative framework for supporting experts in questioned signature examinations. Through the use of Bayesian networks, we envision to quantify the probative value of well defined measurements performed on questioned signatures, in a way that is both formalised and part of a coherent approach to evaluation. At the current stage, our project is explorative, focusing on the broad range of aspects that relate to comparative signature examinations. The goal is to identify writing features which are both highly discriminant, and easy for forensic examiners to detect...
May 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454629/study-of-fingerprints-in-argentina-population-for-application-in-personal-identification
#4
Noemí Rivaldería, Esperanza Gutiérrez-Redomero, Concepción Alonso-Rodríguez, José E Dipierri, Luis M Martín
The fingerprints of the Buenos Aires and Chubut provinces in Argentina have been studied, with the aim of knowing and quantifying the variability of these features, which are used in the identification process. The data studied for this research was obtained from 330 individuals, of both sexes, from two Argentinian population samples (170 individuals from Buenos Aires and 160 from Chubut), which amounts to a total of 3300 fingerprints. The different types of minutiae were located, identified, and visually quantified in four areas on the fingerprint...
May 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454628/accessible-biometrics-a-frustrated-total-internal-reflection-approach-to-imaging-fingerprints
#5
Nathan D Smith, James S Sharp
Fingerprints are widely used as a means of identifying persons of interest because of the highly individual nature of the spatial distribution and types of features (or minuta) found on the surface of a finger. This individuality has led to their wide application in the comparison of fingerprints found at crime scenes with those taken from known offenders and suspects in custody. However, despite recent advances in machine vision technology and image processing techniques, fingerprint evidence is still widely being collected using outdated practices involving ink and paper - a process that can be both time consuming and expensive...
May 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454627/implementation-and-assessment-of-a-likelihood-ratio-approach-for-the-evaluation-of-la-icp-ms-evidence-in-forensic-glass-analysis
#6
Andrew van Es, Wim Wiarda, Maarten Hordijk, Ivo Alberink, Peter Vergeer
For the comparative analysis of glass fragments, a method using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is in use at the NFI, giving measurements of the concentration of 18 elements. An important question is how to evaluate the results as evidence that a glass sample originates from a known glass source or from an arbitrary different glass source. One approach is the use of matching criteria e.g. based on a t-test or overlap of confidence intervals. An important drawback of this method is the fact that the rarity of the glass composition is not taken into account...
May 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454626/combined-recovery-of-biological-and-fibre-traces
#7
Radha Samlal-Soedhoe, Laura M Willemstein, Martin Baiker, Jaap van der Weerd
We present a method in which DNA and fibre traces are jointly recovered by taping. The DNA traces are isolated by standard laboratory procedures. Fibre traces are isolated afterwards in order to improve efficiency. Two tests have been carried out to evaluate the suitability of the presented method. In the first test, possible changes in appearance of fibres due to the DNA isolation procedures are investigated. In the second test, the recovery of fibres from a contaminated surface and their possible loss due to the DNA isolation procedure are investigated...
May 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454625/age-estimation-by-chest-plate-radiographs-in-a-thai-male-population
#8
Tawachai Monum, Karnda Mekjaidee, Nuttaya Pattamapaspong, Sukon Prasitwattanaseree
Costal cartilage ossification on chest plate radiographs is one of the useful methods in age estimation for adults. This study was performed in 136 remains yielding a regression formula for age estimation in Thai male population. Eight features on chest plate imaging were scored based on Garvin's method. Composite scores were calculated by summation of all scores and analyzed to generate the regression of age as: Age=16.664×e(0.161 (composite score)) with a 95% prediction interval. The predicted age intervals in all composite scores were overlapping except for score 0 and 7...
May 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454624/the-use-of-immunochromatographic-rapid-test-for-soft-tissue-remains-identification-in-order-to-distinguish-between-human-and-non-human-origin
#9
Dominic Gascho, Nadja V Morf, Michael J Thali, Sarah Schaerli
Clear identification of soft tissue remains as being of non-human origin may be visually difficult in some cases e.g. due to decomposition. Thus, an additional examination is required. The use of an immunochromatographic rapid tests (IRT) device can be an easy solution with the additional advantage to be used directly at the site of discovery. The use of these test devices for detecting human blood at crime scenes is a common method. However, the IRT is specific not only for blood but also for differentiation between human and non-human soft tissue remains...
May 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454623/effects-of-different-storage-and-measuring-methods-on-larval-length-values-for-the-blow-flies-diptera-calliphoridae-lucilia-sericata-and-calliphora-vicina
#10
Valentina Bugelli, Carlo Pietro Campobasso, Marcel A Verhoff, Jens Amendt
In forensic entomology, the methods of sampling, killing, and storing entomological samples can affect larval age estimation, and, hence, the estimation of the minimum post-mortem interval. In the existing manuals, there is a certain amount of heterogeneity regarding methods and the recommendations for best practice in forensic entomology are insufficiently validated. This study evaluated three different length-measurement methods for larval stages and examined the influence of different killing and storing methods on the larval length of two forensically important blow flies, Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vicina...
May 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454622/basic-research-and-applied-science-in-forensic-entomology
#11
EDITORIAL
Valentina Bugelli, Carlo Pietro Campobasso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284444/investigating-tnt-loss-between-sample-collection-and-analysis
#12
Niamh Nic Daeid, Holly A Yu, Matthew S Beardah
Explosives residues are often collected from explosion scenes, and from surfaces suspected of being in contact with explosives, by swabbing with solvent-wetted cotton swabs. It is vital that any explosives traces present on the swabs are successfully extracted and detected when received in a laboratory. However, a 2007 proficiency test initiated by the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) Expert Working Group on Explosives involving TNT-spiked cotton swabs highlighted that explosives may not always be detected from such samples...
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284443/a-study-of-gunshot-residue-distribution-for-close-range-shots-with-a-silenced-gun-using-optical-and-scanning-electron-microscopy-x-ray-microanalysis-and-infrared-spectroscopy
#13
Zuzanna Brożek-Mucha
Detailed physical and chemical analysis of gunshot residue deposited in the nearest vicinity of a submachine gun alone and with a sound suppressor was performed. The studies were inspired by recent shooting cases with the use of a firearm with a silencer and the need to estimate the shooting distance to human body naked and covered with clothing. A series of experiments were performed in the shooting range using a machine pistol and the appropriate ammunition cal. 7.65mm Browning. Targets were placed in the range of 0-30cm from the gun and covered either with white cotton fabric or a porcine skin that mocked people's clothing and the naked skin...
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284442/corrigendum-to-preserved-brains-from-the-spanish-civil-war-mass-grave-1936-at-la-pedraja-1-burgos-spain-sci-justice-56-2016-453-463
#14
F Serrulla, L Herrasti, C Navarro, J L Cascallana, A M Bermejo, N Márquez-Grant, F Etxeberría
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284441/further-to-the-evolution-of-best-practice-in-forensic-biochemical-toxicology
#15
LETTER
William P Tormey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284440/thinking-forensics-cognitive-science-for-forensic-practitioners
#16
REVIEW
Gary Edmond, Alice Towler, Bethany Growns, Gianni Ribeiro, Bryan Found, David White, Kaye Ballantyne, Rachel A Searston, Matthew B Thompson, Jason M Tangen, Richard I Kemp, Kristy Martire
Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback...
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284439/when-age-progressed-images-are-unreliable-the-roles-of-external-features-and-age-range
#17
William Blake Erickson, James Michael Lampinen, Charlie D Frowd, Gregory Mahoney
When children go missing for many years, investigators commission age-progressed images from forensic artists to depict an updated appearance. These images have anecdotal success, and systematic research has found they lead to accurate recognition rates comparable to outdated photos. The present study examines the reliability of age progressions of the same individuals created by different artists. Eight artists first generated age progressions of eight targets across three age ranges. Eighty-five participants then evaluated the similarity of these images against other images depicting the same targets progressed at the same age ranges, viewing either whole faces or faces with external features concealed...
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284438/analysis-of-metallic-medical-devices-after-cremation-the-importance-in-identification
#18
Danilo De Angelis, Federica Collini, Enrico Muccino, Annalisa Cappella, Emanuela Sguazza, Alessandra Mazzucchi, Cristina Cattaneo
The recovery of a charred cadaver raises many issues concerning personal identification; the presence of prosthetic materials may provide very important and decisive information. Who is involved in the recovery of a charred body or of burnt human fragments, should therefore be able to recognize medical devices even if modified by fire effects. Metallic residues (585kg) that came from 2785 cremations were studied. Medical devices were then divided by type and material in order to esteem the representativeness of each typology...
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284437/detection-and-characterization-of-volatile-organic-compounds-from-burned-human-and-animal-remains-in-fire-debris
#19
John D DeHaan, Eimi I Taormina, David J Brien
Debris collected from various test sites where mammalian remains (human and porcine) had been burned in a variety of full-scale fire scenarios was evaluated for the presence of volatile residues that could be characteristic of those remains. Levels of volatiles were measured using the method commonly used for fire debris analysis: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Homologous n-aldehydes (from n-pentanal to n-nonanal) proved to be a significant indicator of the presence of burned animal tissue as they were observed in nearly all of the samples...
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284436/the-environmental-variables-that-impact-human-decomposition-in-terrestrially-exposed-contexts-within-canada
#20
Diane Lyn Cockle, Lynne S Bell
Little is known about the nature and trajectory of human decomposition in Canada. This study involved the examination of 96 retrospective police death investigation cases selected using the Canadian ViCLAS (Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System) and sudden death police databases. A classification system was designed and applied based on the latest visible stages of autolysis (stages 1-2), putrefaction (3-5) and skeletonisation (6-8) observed. The analysis of the progression of decomposition using time (Post Mortem Interval (PMI) in days) and temperature accumulated-degree-days (ADD) score found considerable variability during the putrefaction and skeletonisation phases, with poor predictability noted after stage 5 (post bloat)...
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
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