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Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332700/corrigendum-to-preventing-miscarriages-of-justice-a-review-of-forensic-firearm-identification-sci-justice-56-2-2016-129-142
#1
Rachel S Bolton-King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332699/aiding-the-interpretation-of-forensic-gait-analysis-development-of-a-features-of-gait-database
#2
LETTER
Ivan Birch, Claire Gwinnett, Jeremy Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332698/response-to-a-study-of-the-perception-of-verbal-expressions-of-the-strength-of-evidence
#3
LETTER
Charles E H Berger, Reinoud D Stoel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332697/acid-alteration-of-several-ignitable-liquids-of-potential-use-in-arsons
#4
Carlos Martín-Alberca, Héctor Carrascosa, Itxaso San Román, Luis Bartolomé, Carmen García-Ruiz
Ignitable liquids such as fuels, alcohols and thinners can be used in criminal activities, for instance arsons. Forensic experts require to know their chemical compositions, as well as to understand how different modification effects could impact them, in order to detect, classify and identify them properly in fire debris. The acid alteration/acidification of ignitable liquids is a modification effect that sharply alters the chemical composition, for example, of gasoline and diesel fuel, interfering in the forensic analysis and result interpretation...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332696/a-comparison-of-plastic-cable-ties-based-on-physical-chemical-and-stable-isotopic-measurements
#5
Lisa M Nienaber, Sarah L Cresswell, James F Carter, Tony Peter
Plastic cable ties can be utilised in a range of serious criminal activities and a comparison of cable ties, or fragments, may form part of the physical evidence presented to a Court of law. This research assessed the potential value of evidence based on the analysis of plastic cable ties. Twenty packets of black coloured plastic cable ties (nominally 200mm×4.8mm) were purchased in pack sizes ranging from 25 to 100 individual cable ties (Brisbane, Australia, March 2015). Representative samples from each packet were visually examined, compared and tested to determine their physical dimensions, chemical compositions and stable isotopic compositions (δ2H, δ13C and δ15N)...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332695/variation-of-%C3%AE-2h-%C3%AE-18o-%C3%AE-13c-in-crude-palm-oil-from-different-regions-in-malaysia-potential-of-stable-isotope-signatures-as-a-key-traceability-parameter
#6
Syahidah Akmal Muhammad, Eng-Keng Seow, A K Mohd Omar, Ainolsyakira Mohd Rodhi, Hasnuri Mat Hassan, Japareng Lalung, Sze-Chi Lee, Baharudin Ibrahim
A total of 33 crude palm oil samples were randomly collected from different regions in Malaysia. Stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) was determined using Flash 2000 elemental analyzer while hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions (δ2H and δ18O) were analyzed by Thermo Finnigan TC/EA, wherein both instruments were coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The bulk δ2H, δ18O and δ13C of the samples were analyzed by Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA)...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332694/score-based-procedures-for-the-calculation-of-forensic-likelihood-ratios-scores-should-take-account-of-both-similarity-and-typicality
#7
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison, Ewald Enzinger
Score based procedures for the calculation of forensic likelihood ratios are popular across different branches of forensic science. They have two stages, first a function or model which takes measured features from known-source and questioned-source pairs as input and calculates scores as output, then a subsequent model which converts scores to likelihood ratios. We demonstrate that scores which are purely measures of similarity are not appropriate for calculating forensically interpretable likelihood ratios...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332693/ink-dating-part-ii-interpretation-of-results-in-a-legal-perspective
#8
Agnès Koenig, Céline Weyermann
The development of an ink dating method requires an important investment of resources in order to step from the monitoring of ink ageing on paper to the determination of the actual age of a questioned ink entry. This article aimed at developing and evaluating the potential of three interpretation models to date ink entries in a legal perspective: (1) the threshold model comparing analytical results to tabulated values in order to determine the maximal possible age of an ink entry, (2) the trend tests that focusing on the "ageing status" of an ink entry, and (3) the likelihood ratio calculation comparing the probabilities to observe the results under at least two alternative hypotheses...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332692/dead-weight-validation-of-mass-regression-equations-on-experimentally-burned-skeletal-remains-to-assess-skeleton-completeness
#9
D Gonçalves, J d'Oliveira Coelho, A Amarante, C Makhoul, I Oliveira-Santos, D Navega, E Cunha
In very fragmentary remains, the thorough inventory of skeletal elements is often impossible to accomplish. Mass has been used instead to assess the completeness of the skeleton. Two different mass-based methods of assessing skeleton completeness were tested on a sample of experimentally burned skeletons with the objective of determining which of them is more reliable. The first method was based on a simple comparison of the mass of each individual skeleton with previously published mass references. The second method was based on mass linear regressions from individual bones to estimate complete skeleton mass...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332691/ink-dating-part-i-statistical-distribution-of-selected-ageing-parameters-in-a-ballpoint-inks-reference-population
#10
Agnès Koenig, Céline Weyermann
The development of ink dating methods requires an important amount of work in order to be reliably applicable in practice. Major tasks include the definition of ageing parameters to monitor ink ageing. An adequate parameter should ideally fulfil the following criteria: it should evolve as a function of time in a monotonic way, be measurable in a majority of ink entries, be as accurate and reproducible as possible, and finally it should not be influenced too much by transfer and storage conditions. This work aimed at evaluating the potential of seven ageing parameters for ink dating purposes: the phenoxyethanol quantity, relative peak areas (RPA), three solvent loss ratios (R%, R%*, NR%) and two solvent loss parameters (RNORM, NRNORM)...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332690/editorial
#11
EDITORIAL
Lisa L Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173463/the-meaning-of-justified-subjectivism-and-its-role-in-the-reconciliation-of-recent-disagreements-over-forensic-probabilism
#12
A Biedermann, S Bozza, F Taroni, C Aitken
In this paper we reply to recent comments in this Special Issue according to which subjective probability is not considered to be a concept fit for use in forensic evaluation and expert reporting. We identify the source of these criticisms to lie in a misunderstanding of subjective probability as unconstrained subjective probability; a lack of constraint that neither corresponds to the way in which we referred to subjective probability in our previous contributions, nor to the way in which probability assignment is understood by current evaluative guidelines (e...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173462/what-should-a-forensic-practitioner-s-likelihood-ratio-be-ii
#13
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison
In the debate as to whether forensic practitioners should assess and report the precision of the strength of evidence statements that they report to the courts, I remain unconvinced by proponents of the position that only a subjectivist concept of probability is legitimate. I consider this position counterproductive for the goal of having forensic practitioners implement, and courts not only accept but demand, logically correct and scientifically valid evaluation of forensic evidence. In considering what would be the best approach for evaluating strength of evidence, I suggest that the desiderata be (1) to maximise empirically demonstrable performance; (2) to maximise objectivity in the sense of maximising transparency and replicability, and minimising the potential for cognitive bias; and (3) to constrain and make overt the forensic practitioner's subjective-judgement based decisions so that the appropriateness of those decisions can be debated before the judge in an admissibility hearing and/or before the trier of fact at trial...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173461/response-paper-to-the-likelihood-of-encapsulating-all-uncertainty-the-relevance-of-additional-information-for-the-lr
#14
Klaas Slooten, Charles E H Berger
In this response paper, part of the Virtual Special Issue on "Measuring and Reporting the Precision of Forensic Likelihood Ratios", we further develop our position on likelihood ratios which we described previously in Berger et al. (2016) "The LR does not exist". Our exposition is inspired by an example given in Martire et al. (2016) "On the likelihood of encapsulating all uncertainty", where the consequences of obtaining additional information on the LR were discussed. In their example, two experts use the same data in a different way, and the LRs of these experts change differently when new data are taken into account...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173460/conceptualising-forensic-science-and-forensic-reconstruction-part-ii-the-critical-interaction-between-research-policy-law-and-practice
#15
R M Morgan
This paper builds on the FoRTE conceptual model presented in part I to address the forms of knowledge that are integral to the four components of the model. Articulating the different forms of knowledge within effective forensic reconstructions is valuable. It enables a nuanced approach to the development and use of evidence bases to underpin decision-making at every stage of a forensic reconstruction by enabling transparency in the reporting of inferences. It also enables appropriate methods to be developed to ensure quality and validity...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173459/conceptualising-forensic-science-and-forensic-reconstruction-part-i-a-conceptual-model
#16
R M Morgan
There has been a call for forensic science to actively return to the approach of scientific endeavour. The importance of incorporating an awareness of the requirements of the law in its broadest sense, and embedding research into both practice and policy within forensic science, is arguably critical to achieving such an endeavour. This paper presents a conceptual model (FoRTE) that outlines the holistic nature of trace evidence in the 'endeavour' of forensic reconstruction. This model offers insights into the different components intrinsic to transparent, reproducible and robust reconstructions in forensic science...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173458/can-we-continue-to-effectively-police-digital-crime
#17
REVIEW
Graeme Horsman
Now approximately 30years old, the field of digital forensics is arguably facing some of its greatest challenges to date. Whilst currently supporting law enforcement in numerous criminal cases annually, questions are beginning to emerge regarding whether it can sustain this contribution, with digital crime remaining prevalent. In his first live interview in September 2015, Head of MI5, Andrew Parker indicated that individuals are now engaging in computing acts which are beyond the control of authorities, confirming earlier remarks made by British Prime Minister David Cameron in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo attacks...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173457/blast-injury-prevalence-in-skeletal-remains-are-there-differences-between-bosnian-war-samples-and-documented-combat-related-deaths
#18
Marie Christine Dussault, Ian Hanson, Martin J Smith
Court cases at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) have seen questions raised about the recognition and causes of blast-related trauma and the relationship to human rights abuses or combat. During trials, defence teams argued that trauma was combat related and prosecutors argued that trauma was related to executions. We compared a sample of 81 cases (males between 18 and 75) from a Bosnian mass grave investigation linked to the Kravica warehouse killings to published combat-related blast injury data from World War One, Vietnam, Northern Ireland, the first Gulf War, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Afghanistan...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173456/recognition-of-computerized-facial-approximations-by-familiar-assessors
#19
Adam H Richard, Keith L Monson
Studies testing the effectiveness of facial approximations typically involve groups of participants who are unfamiliar with the approximated individual(s). This limitation requires the use of photograph arrays including a picture of the subject for comparison to the facial approximation. While this practice is often necessary due to the difficulty in obtaining a group of assessors who are familiar with the approximated subject, it may not accurately simulate the thought process of the target audience (friends and family members) in comparing a mental image of the approximated subject to the facial approximation...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173455/rapid-identification-information-and-its-influence-on-the-perceived-clues-at-a-crime-scene-an-experimental-study
#20
Madeleine de Gruijter, Claire Nee, Christianne J de Poot
Crime scenes can always be explained in multiple ways. Traces alone do not provide enough information to infer a whole series of events that has taken place; they only provide clues for these inferences. CSIs need additional information to be able to interpret observed traces. In the near future, a new source of information that could help to interpret a crime scene and testing hypotheses will become available with the advent of rapid identification techniques. A previous study with CSIs demonstrated that this information had an influence on the interpretation of the crime scene, yet it is still unknown what exact information was used for this interpretation and for the construction of their scenario...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
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