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Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063592/the-consequences-of-understanding-expert-probability-reporting-as-a-decision
#1
A Biedermann, S Bozza, F Taroni, C Aitken
In this paper we reiterate that the personalist interpretation of probability is inevitable and as least as informed as any other allegedly more 'objective' definition of probability. We also argue that the problem faced by forensic scientists, the reporting on imperfect personal knowledge, in terms of probabilities, can be reconstructed as a decision problem. Tackling this problem through a rigorous decision theoretic analysis provides further argument in support of the view that optimal probability reporting is in terms of single numbers, not intervals...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063591/on-the-likelihood-of-encapsulating-all-uncertainty
#2
Kristy A Martire, Gary Edmond, Daniel J Navarro, Ben R Newell
The assignment of personal probabilities to form a forensic practitioner's likelihood ratio is a mental operation subject to all the frailties of human memory, perception and judgment. While we agree that beliefs expressed as coherent probabilities are neither 'right' nor 'wrong' we argue that debate over this fact obscures both the requirement for and consideration of the 'helpfulness' of practitioner's opinions. We also question the extent to which a likelihood ratio based on personal probabilities can realistically be expected to 'encapsulate all uncertainty'...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063590/forensic-likelihood-ratio-statistical-problems-and-pitfalls
#3
A Philip Dawid
This article is a response to the position papers published in the Science & Justice virtual special issue on measuring and reporting the precision of forensic likelihood ratios. I point out a number of serious statistical errors in some of these papers. These issues need to be properly addressed before the philosophical debate can be conducted in earnest.
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063589/guest-editor-s-note
#4
EDITORIAL
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063588/the-united-kingdom-and-ireland-association-of-forensic-toxicologists-establishing-best-practice-for-professional-training-development-in-forensic-toxicology
#5
Simon Cosbey, Simon Elliott, Sue Paterson
The current status of forensic toxicology in the United Kingdom is discussed with an emphasis on professional training and development. Best practice is proposed using a blend of modular foundation knowledge training, continuing professional development, academic study, research & development and ongoing analytical practice. The need for establishing a professional career structure is also discussed along with a suggested example of a suitable model. The issues discussed in this paper are intended to provoke discussion within the forensic toxicology community, industry regulators and other government bodies responsible for the administration of justice...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063587/indirect-chiral-separation-of-8-novel-amphetamine-derivatives-as-potential-new-psychoactive-compounds-by-gc-ms-and-hplc
#6
Jennifer A Weiß, Kian Kadkhodaei, Martin G Schmid
Amphetamine and its derivatives gained high popularity on the illegal drug market. In the last few years, a lot of new psychoactive compounds structurally related to amphetamine, such as 4-fluoroamphetamine and 4-fluoromethamphetamine swamped the drug market. They were designed to circumvent prohibition of amphetamine and N-methylamphetamine and are distributed via the Internet. Often, a halogen atom is introduced into the phenyl ring of amphetamine to turn the illegal amphetamine legal. Since amphetamines possess a chiral centre, two enantiomers are available, which might differ in activity...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063586/juvenile-age-estimation-from-facial-images
#7
Eilidh Ferguson, Caroline Wilkinson
Age determination from images can be of vital importance, particularly in cases involving suspected child sexual abuse (CSA). It is imperative to determine if an individual depicted in such an image is indeed a child, with a more concise age often sought, as this may affect the severity of offender sentencing. The aims of this study were to establish the accuracy of visual age estimation of the juvenile face in children aged between 0 and 16years and to determine if varying levels of exposure to children affected an individual's ability to assess age from the face...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063585/extraneous-fibre-traces-brought-by-river-water-a-case-study
#8
L Lepot, T Vanden Driessche, K Lunstroot, A Barret, F Gason, K De Wael
The fibre traces on a young victim found underwater were mostly single fibre traces besides small amounts of fibre collectives indistinguishable from his parents clothes (mainly wool). Most of those single fibre traces were blue-grey polyester fibres showing tiny differences among each other. They were unexpected according to known population fibre studies. One year after the victim's discovery experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible contamination with fibres from river water. A small amount of extraneous fibres were collected among which blue and grey-black cotton and man-made (mainly polyester) fibres...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063584/an-investigation-into-the-factors-that-influence-toolmark-identifications-on-ammunition-discharged-from-semi-automatic-pistols-recovered-from-car-fires
#9
Mark A Collender, Kevin A J Doherty, Kenneth T Stanton
Following a shooting incident where a vehicle is used to convey the culprits to and from the scene, both the getaway car and the firearm are often deliberately burned in an attempt to destroy any forensic evidence which may be subsequently recovered. Here we investigate the factors that influence the ability to make toolmark identifications on ammunition discharged from pistols recovered from such car fires. This work was carried out by conducting a number of controlled furnace tests in conjunction with real car fire tests in which three 9mm semi-automatic pistols were burned...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063583/analysis-of-fingerprint-samples-testing-various-conditions-for-forensic-dna-identification
#10
Lana Ostojic, Elisa Wurmbach
Fingerprints can be of tremendous value for forensic biology, since they can be collected from a wide variety of evident types, such as handles of weapons, tools collected in criminal cases, and objects with no apparent staining. DNA obtained from fingerprints varies greatly in quality and quantity, which ultimately affects the quality of the resulting STR profiles. Additional difficulties can arise when fingerprint samples show mixed STR profiles due to the handling of multiple persons. After applying a tested protocol for sample collection (swabbing with 5% Triton X-100), DNA extraction (using an enzyme that works at elevated temperatures), and PCR amplification (AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® using 31cycles) extensive analysis was performed to better understand the challenges inherent to fingerprint samples, with the ultimate goal of developing valuable profiles (≥50% complete)...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063582/cross-border-patterns-in-dna-matches-between-the-netherlands-and-belgium
#11
M D Taverne, A P A Broeders
In this article we present the results of a study to explore if cross-border DNA matches between the Netherlands and Belgium are relatively more likely to occur in areas near the Dutch-Belgian border than in areas at some distance from this border. For this study we used the results of the transnational DNA profile exchange and comparison between the Belgian and Dutch DNA databases, which first took place in 2014. It appears that the Dutch regions adjacent to Belgium, i.e., Zeeland-West-Brabant, Oost-Brabant and Limburg, have relatively more DNA matches with Belgium than the other Dutch regions...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063581/results-of-an-inter-and-intra-laboratory-exercise-on-the-assessment-of-complex-autosomal-dna-profiles
#12
Corina C G Benschop, Edward Connolly, Ricky Ansell, Bas Kokshoorn
The interpretation of complex DNA profiles may differ between laboratories and reporting officers, which can lead to discrepancies in the final reports. In this study, we assessed the intra and inter laboratory variation in DNA mixture interpretation for three European ISO17025-accredited laboratories. To this aim, 26 reporting officers analyzed five sets of DNA profiles. Three main aspects were considered: 1) whether the mixed DNA profiles met the criteria for comparison to a reference profile, 2) the actual result of the comparison between references and DNA profiling data and 3) whether the weight of the DNA evidence could be assessed...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063580/investigation-into-ethylene-oxide-treatment-and-residuals-on-dna-and-downstream-dna-analysis
#13
L Wilson-Wilde, D Yakovchyts, S Neville, P Maynard, P Gunn
Recent years have seen a significant increase in the sensitivity of DNA testing, enabling the determination of DNA profiles from low levels of cellular material. However, the increased sensitivity is in many ways a double-edged sword as background contaminating DNA generated during the manufacture of consumables and sampling devices is now being detected and may compromise the interpretation of the DNA profile results. This study initially demonstrated the effectiveness of ethylene oxide (EO) as a post-production treatment to eliminate DNA on swabs, used as a sampling device for the recovery of cellular material...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063579/classification-of-nine-malathion-emulsion-samples-by-using-carbon-isotope-ratios-and-the-ratio-of-organic-solvents
#14
Nana Suto, Hiroto Kawashima
The compound specific isotope analysis is nowadays an important and powerful tool in geochemical, environmental and forensics field. On November 2013, Aqli Foods Corporation in Japan dealt with complaints about stench from frozen foods produced. Subsequently, very high concentrations of organophosphorus pesticide as malathion, ethylbenzene and xylene were detected in recovered frozen foods. In particular case, we present the method to measure the stable carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of nine malathion emulsion pesticides using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) to identify the source...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914558/karad%C3%A5-i%C3%A4-s-guilty-verdict-and-forensic-evidence-from-bosnia-s-mass-graves
#15
REVIEW
Melanie Klinkner
The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia's Karadžić verdict, eagerly awaited, was unsurprising. He was found guilty of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. One part of the judgment was concerned with the Srebrenica events in which much forensic evidence from mass graves featured. Whilst this was to be expected, forensic evidence from the horrific crime scenes continues to be important in determining aspects of the crime base. This paper discusses the evidence and examines how the Chamber came to the conclusion that systematic killing of thousands of Bosnian Muslim men occurred and attempts had been made to conceal the crimes and human remains in secondary graves thus confirming the actus reus of genocide...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914557/refining-the-relevant-population-in-forensic-voice-comparison-a-response-to-hicks-et-alii-2015-the-importance-of-distinguishing-information-from-evidence-observations-when-formulating-propositions
#16
LETTER
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison, Ewald Enzinger, Cuiling Zhang
Hicks et alii [Sci. Just. 55 (2015) 520-525. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scijus.2015.06.008] propose that forensic speech scientists not use the accent of the speaker of questioned identity to refine the relevant population. This proposal is based on a lack of understanding of the realities of forensic voice comparison. If it were implemented, it would make data-based forensic voice comparison analysis within the likelihood ratio framework virtually impossible. We argue that it would also lead forensic speech scientists to present invalid unreliable strength of evidence statements, and not allow them to conduct the tests that would make them aware of this problem...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914556/numerical-likelihood-ratios-outputted-by-lr-systems-are-often-based-on-extrapolation-when-to-stop-extrapolating
#17
Peter Vergeer, Andrew van Es, Arent de Jongh, Ivo Alberink, Reinoud Stoel
A recent trend in forensic science is the development of objective, automated systems for the comparison of trace and reference material that give as output numerical likelihood ratios (LRs). For well discriminating LR systems, often the probability of the evidence given one or the other hypothesis depends on the density from the tail of a probability distribution. The models for probability distributions are trained by data. Since there is no proof of the applicability of the models beyond the data range, LR systems are sensitive to extrapolation errors...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914555/forensic-expectations-investigating-a-crime-scene-with-prior-information
#18
Claire A J van den Eeden, Christianne J de Poot, Peter J van Koppen
In a large body of research the influence of contextual information on decisions made in a broad range of disciplines has been studied. To date, the influence of these expectancy effects on the crime scene investigation has not been studied. In the present study we explored the effect of prior information given to crime scene investigators on their perception and interpretation of an ambiguous crime scene. Participants (N=58) were experienced crime scene investigators who were provided with a panoramic photograph of an ambiguous mock crime scene...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914554/comparative-performance-of-ampflstr%C3%A2-identifiler%C3%A2-plus-pcr-amplification-kit-and-qiagen%C3%A2-investigator%C3%A2-idplex-plus-kit
#19
Dalad Mattayat, Thitika Kitpipit, Sukanya Phetpeng, Watee Asawutmangkul, Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai
Many forensic STR kits are currently available in the market. The AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® Plus kit, which targets 15 STRs, is commonly used worldwide. The Thai forensic DNA community is built around it in terms of instrument, databases, and interpretation. QIAGEN's IDplex Plus kit targets the same loci, but the PCR cycling time is shorter by about 90min. A direct comparison that assesses forensic parameters and applicability to casework between the two kits has never been carried out. In this study, we performed a direct comparison between the two kits using serial dilutions of two control DNA samples and 60 randomly selected casework samples, including samples taken from improvised explosive devices and terrorist raids...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914553/determination-of-fluoxetine-in-dermestes-maculatus-coleoptera-dermestidae-by-a-spectrophotometric-method
#20
Noelia I Zanetti, Adriana A Ferrero, Néstor D Centeno
The aims of this study were to detect and quantify fluoxetine, an antidepressant, from entomological samples. Larvae, pupae and adults of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) were reared on pig muscle previously treated with fluoxetine. The concentration selected, 2000mg/kg, emulates a fluoxetine overdose lethal to humans and laboratory animals. Thirty larvae on the fourth and fifth stages, 50 adults and several exuviae were analyzed for fluoxetine content. Detection of fluoxetine was performed by UV spectrophotometry at 270 and 277nm...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
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