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Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702460/using-sensitivity-analyses-in-bayesian-networks-to-highlight-the-impact-of-data-paucity-and-direct-future-analyses-a-contribution-to-the-debate-on-measuring-and-reporting-the-precision-of-likelihood-ratios
#1
Duncan Taylor, Tacha Hicks, Christophe Champod
Bayesian networks are being increasingly used to address complex questions of forensic interest. Like all probabilities, those that underlie the nodes within a network rely on structured data and knowledge. Obviously, the more structured data we have, the better. But, in real life, the numbers of experiments that can be carried out are limited. It is thus important to know if/when our knowledge is sufficient and when one needs to perform further experiments to be in a position to report the value of the observations made...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702459/posterior-distributions-for-likelihood-ratios-in-forensic-science
#2
Ardo van den Hout, Ivo Alberink
Evaluation of evidence in forensic science is discussed using posterior distributions for likelihood ratios. Instead of eliminating the uncertainty by integrating (Bayes factor) or by conditioning on parameter values, uncertainty in the likelihood ratio is retained by parameter uncertainty derived from posterior distributions. A posterior distribution for a likelihood ratio can be summarised by the median and credible intervals. Using the posterior mean of the distribution is not recommended. An analysis of forensic data for body height estimation is undertaken...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702458/reframing-the-debate-a-question-of-probability-not-of-likelihood-ratio
#3
A Biedermann, S Bozza, F Taroni, C Aitken
Evidential value is measured by a likelihood ratio. This ratio has two components, the probability, or probability density, of the evidence if the prosecution proposition is true and the probability (density) of the evidence if the defence proposition is true. It takes the form of a single value, even if these probabilities are subjective measures of belief of the reporting forensic scientist.
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702457/the-lr-does-not-exist
#4
Charles E H Berger, Klaas Slooten
More than 40years ago, De Finetti warned that probability is a misleading misconception when regarded as objectively existing exterior to the mind. According to De Finetti, probabilities are necessarily subjective, and quantify our belief in the truth of events in the real world. Given evidence of a shared feature of a trace and an accused, we apply this framework to assign an evidential value to this correspondence. Dividing 1 by the objectively existing proportion of the population sharing that feature would give that evidential value - expressed as a likelihood ratio (LR) - only if that proportion were known...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702456/an-argument-against-presenting-interval-quantifications-as-a-surrogate-for-the-value-of-evidence
#5
Danica M Ommen, Christopher P Saunders, Cedric Neumann
In the various forensic science disciplines, recent analytical developments paired with modern statistical computational tools have led to the proliferation of adhoc techniques for quantifying the probative value of forensic evidence. Many legal and scientific scholars agree that the value of evidence should be reported as a likelihood ratio or a Bayes Factor. Quantifying the probative value of forensic evidence is subjected to many sources of variability and uncertainty. There is currently a debate on how to characterize the reliability of the value of evidence...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702455/admitting-to-uncertainty-in-the-lr
#6
James M Curran
In this paper I argue that, given our current state of knowledge, reporting uncertainty in the likelihood ratio is best practice. This may in time be replaced by reporting a Bayes factor, but we are currently unable to do this in all but the simplest of examples.
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702454/what-should-a-forensic-practitioner-s-likelihood-ratio-be
#7
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison, Ewald Enzinger
We argue that forensic practitioners should empirically assess and report the precision of their likelihood ratios. Once the practitioner has specified the prosecution and defence hypotheses they have adopted, including the relevant population they have adopted, and has specified the type of measurements they will make, their task is to empirically calculate an estimate of a likelihood ratio which has a true but unknown value. We explicitly reject the competing philosophical position that the forensic practitioner's likelihood ratio should be based on subjective personal probabilities...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702453/special-issue-on-measuring-and-reporting-the-precision-of-forensic-likelihood-ratios-introduction-to-the-debate
#8
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison
The present paper introduces the Science & Justice virtual special issue on measuring and reporting the precision of forensic likelihood ratios - whether this should be done, and if so how. The focus is on precision (aka reliability) as opposed to accuracy (aka validity). The topic is controversial and different authors are expected to express a range of nuanced opinions. The present paper frames the debate, explaining the underlying problem and referencing classes of solutions proposed in the existing literature...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702452/discussion-on-how-to-implement-a-verbal-scale-in-a-forensic-laboratory-benefits-pitfalls-and-suggestions-to-avoid-misunderstandings
#9
Raymond Marquis, Alex Biedermann, Liv Cadola, Christophe Champod, Line Gueissaz, Geneviève Massonnet, Williams David Mazzella, Franco Taroni, Tacha Hicks
In a recently published guideline for evaluative reporting in forensic science, the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the use of the likelihood ratio for the measurement of the value of forensic results. As a device to communicate the probative value of the results, the ENFSI guideline mentions the possibility to define and use a verbal scale, which should be unified within a forensic institution. This paper summarizes discussions held between scientists of our institution to develop and implement such a verbal scale...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702451/sex-estimation-from-the-scapula-in-a-contemporary-chilean-population
#10
Tanya R Peckmann, Ciara Logar, Susan Meek
The scapula is valuable for sex estimation in human skeletons. Muscles provide protection to the scapula making it difficult to fracture, therefore increasing the potential for undamaged scapulae at forensic scenes. The goal of this project is to evaluate the accuracy of discriminant functions, created using an indigenous Guatemalan and contemporary Mexican population, when applied to a contemporary Chilean sample for estimation of sex from the scapula. The length of the glenoid cavity (LGC) and breadth of the glenoid cavity (BGC) were measured...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702450/the-identification-of-emotions-from-gait
#11
Ivan Birch, Tabitha Birch, Diane Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702449/shoeprint-retrieval-core-point-alignment-for-pattern-comparison
#12
Chih-Ying Gwo, Chia-Hung Wei
PURPOSE: Shoeprint recognition has been widely used as forensic evidence in criminal cases. The purpose of this study is to propose a shoeprint retrieval method based on core point alignment for pattern analysis. METHOD: The proposed method firstly detects contour points in a black-and-white shoeprint image. These reliable contour points are selected to simulate the left and right sidelines of the shoeprint by a curve fitting method. Subsequently, the most concave points along the left and right sidelines can determine the core point of the shoeprint, thereby partitioning the shoeprint into circular regions...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702448/laser-ablation-coupled-with-dapne-nsi-ms-applied-to-redacted-documents
#13
Vivian Huynh, Zachary J Sasiene, Phillip M Mach, Teresa D Golden, Guido F Verbeck
Laser ablation has been applied to redacted documents, where the text has been concealed by other ink. This technique strips the redacting ink revealing the text that was once redacted. Once removed, a nanomanipulation technique is used to extract the ink of the underlying text where mass spectrometry is then implemented to analyze its ink chemistry. In order to facilitate microscopy with direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization mass spectrometry (DAPNe-NSI-MS), laser ablation must be executed prior to ink extraction...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702447/a-method-for-rapid-sampling-and-characterization-of-smokeless-powder-using-sorbent-coated-wire-mesh-and-direct-analysis-in-real-time-mass-spectrometry-dart-ms
#14
Frederick Li, Joseph Tice, Brian D Musselman, Adam B Hall
Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are often used by terrorists and criminals to create public panic and destruction, necessitating rapid investigative information. However, backlogs in many forensic laboratories resulting in part from time-consuming GC-MS and LC-MS techniques prevent prompt analytical information. Direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS) is a promising analytical technique that can address this challenge in the forensic science community by permitting rapid trace analysis of energetic materials...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702446/the-effect-of-mark-enhancement-techniques-on-the-subsequent-detection-of-saliva
#15
Patricia McAllister, Eleanor Graham, Paul Deacon, Kevin J Farrugia
There appears to be a limited but growing body of research on the sequential analysis/treatment of multiple types of evidence. The development of an integrated forensic approach is necessary to maximise evidence recovery and to ensure that a particular treatment is not detrimental to other types of evidence. This study aims to assess the effect of latent and blood mark enhancement techniques (e.g. fluorescence, ninhydrin, acid violet 17, black iron-oxide powder suspension) on the subsequent detection of saliva...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702445/forensic-sciences-anthropology-archaeology-pathology-and-international-criminal-justice
#16
Caroline Fournet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320402/structural-recognition-and-nomenclature-standardization-in-forensic-knot-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Robert Charles Chisnall
The analysis of knots during civil and criminal investigations is characterized by two fundamental challenges: the precise recognition of all structural nuances and the application of accurate, universally recognized terms. These challenges are exacerbated by inconsistencies, contradictions and regional terminology, which occur in common practice and in mainstream books as well as within forensic science. Some knots bear multiple or value-laden names, even misnomers, and some terms have manifold applications...
July 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320401/providing-scientific-guidance-on-dna-to-the-judiciary
#18
Ian Evett, Susan Pope, Roberto Puch-Solis
A series of short documents have been written in response to a request from the UK Judiciary for explanations of research that was commissioned in response to questions they had raised. These related principally to the potential impact of primer binding site mutation (PBSM) but it became clear at an early stage that it was necessary to explain related issues. The three scientific guidance papers (SGPs) that have been prepared thus far are presented in their entirety so that UK scientists may be aware of what has been presented to judges...
July 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320400/demining-dogs-in-colombia-a-review-of-operational-challenges-chemical-perspectives-and-practical-implications
#19
REVIEW
Paola A Prada, Mario Chávez Rodríguez
Within the framework of an internal armed conflict in Colombia, the use of antipersonnel mines by revolutionary armed forces represents a strategic factor for these groups. Antipersonnel mines are used by these revolutionary forces as a mean to hinder the advancement of the national armed forces in the recovery of territory and to protect tactical natural resources and illegal economies within a given area. These antipersonnel mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are not of industrial manufacturing, and have a variety of activating mechanisms as well as non-metal materials which make them difficult for successful detection...
July 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320399/a-combined-protocol-for-identification-of-maggots-of-forensic-interest
#20
Fabiola Tuccia, Giorgia Giordani, Stefano Vanin
In Forensic Entomology the estimation of the age of insects is used for the estimation of the minimum post-mortem interval. As insect development is temperature dependent and species specific, a correct species identification is therefore fundamental. In the majority of cases the molecular identification is based on a destructive approach. In this paper a working protocol for molecular identification of fly larvae without affecting the anatomical characters used for morphological identification is presented...
July 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
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