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Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193664/corrigendum-to-questions-propositions-and-assessing-different-levels-of-evidence-forensic-voice-comparison-in-practice
#1
Vincent Hughes, Richard Rhodes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193663/fingermark-visualisation-on-metal-surfaces-an-initial-investigation-of-the-influence-of-surface-condition-on-process-effectiveness
#2
M Pitera, V G Sears, S M Bleay, S Park
Fingermark recovery from metal surfaces is an area of operational interest, both from the association of metals with weapons used in violent crime and from the increasing incidence in metal theft. This paper reports a feasibility study into the effectiveness of a range of fingermark visualisation processes in developing fingermarks on clean metals (brass, bronze and stainless steel), and on the same metals after prolonged exposure to an outdoor environment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate how the surface type and condition could influence the development of fingermarks for each of the processes used...
September 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193662/is-australia-ready-for-fentanyl
#3
REVIEW
Hugh E McKeown, Trevor J Rook, James R Pearson, Oliver A H Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193661/extraction-and-isolation-of-cannabinoids-from-marijuana-seizures-and-characterization-by-1-h-nmr-allied-to-chemometric-tools
#4
Júlia de A Leite, Marcos V L de Oliveira, Raphael Conti, Warley de S Borges, Thalles R Rosa, Paulo R Filgueiras, Valdemar Lacerda, Wanderson Romão, Álvaro C Neto
Marijuana, a drug derived from the Cannabis sativa L. plant, is the world's most consumed illicit drug. In this paper, a total of 156 marijuana samples seized in the state of Espírito Santo (ES), Brazil were studied and analysed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) spectroscopy to identify the major cannabinoids present. A crude extract of all samples was purified using high performance liquid chromatography so that these compounds could serve as reference substances. Nine fractions were obtained and analysed by 1 H NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with five presented cannabinoids...
September 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193660/a-comparative-study-of-standing-fleshed-foot-and-walking-and-jumping-bare-footprint-measurements
#5
Nicolas Howsam, Andrew Bridgen
Approximating true fleshed foot length and forefoot width from crime scene footprints is primarily based on anecdotal observations and fails to consider effects of different dynamic activities on footprint morphology. A literature search revealed numerous variables influencing footprint formation including whether the print was formed statically or dynamically. The aim of this study was to investigate if length and width measurements of the fleshed foot differ to the same measurements collected from walking and jumping footprints...
September 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193659/the-united-kingdom-and-ireland-association-of-forensic-toxicologists-forensic-toxicology-laboratory-guidelines-2018
#6
Simon P Elliott, Duncan W S Stephen, Sue Paterson
In 2010, the United Kingdom and Ireland Association of Forensic Toxicologists (UKIAFT) created forensic toxicology laboratory guidelines. This represents a revision of those guidelines as a result of the changing toxicological and technical landscape.
September 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193658/impact-of-aging-on-fingerprint-ridge-density-anthropometry-and-forensic-implications-in-sex-inference
#7
Angeles Sánchez-Andrés, José Antonio Barea, Noemí Rivaldería, Concepción Alonso-Rodríguez, Esperanza Gutiérrez-Redomero
The variation in the epidermal ridge's width between the sexes, during various growth stages, and among different populations has been previously assessed. However, the changes that occur with aging are barely known. The goal of this study was to analyse the degree of variation in epidermal ridge width due to aging. So that, fingerprint ridge density was estimated to establish their relationship with body and hand size changes that typically occur in adulthood. In this study, a sample of 213 adults of both sexes from a Spanish native population of different age ranges-18-30 years old ("junior" group) and 50-66 years old ("senior" group)-was used...
September 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193657/are-dna-data-a-valid-source-to-study-the-spatial-behavior-of-unknown-offenders
#8
Sabine De Moor, Christophe Vandeviver, Tom Vander Beken
Studying the spatial behaviour of unknown offenders (i.e. undetected offenders) is difficult, because police recorded crime data do not contain information about these offenders. Recently, forensic DNA data has been used to study unknown offenders. However, DNA data are only a subset of the crimes committed by unknown offenders stored in police recorded crime data. To establish the suitability of DNA data for studying the spatial offending behaviour of unknown offenders, we examine the concentration and spatial similarity of detected but unsolved crimes in police recorded crime data (N = 181,483) and DNA data (N = 1913) over 27 Belgian judicial districts for four crime types...
September 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193656/a-preliminary-assessment-of-the-effect-of-precr%C3%A2-dna-repair-treatment-on-mixture-ratios-in-two-person-mixtures
#9
David San Pietro, Franco Tagliaro, Michael S Adamowicz
In this study, DNA extracted from known buccal samples was combined into two component mixture samples. These were subjected to UV exposure prior to their amplification with the Promega PowerPlex® 16HS amplification kit, and subsequent capillary electrophoresis on the ABI 3130xl instrument. Damaged samples were subjected to enzymatic repair treatment and retested to assess the amount of repair. Data showed that there is fidelity associated with the application with profile concordance after its use, and a corresponding increase in the amount of recovered alleles post damage...
September 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193655/a-novel-fta%C3%A2-elute-card-collection-method-that-improves-direct-dna-amplification-from-bloodstained-concrete
#10
Stephen G Lipic, Lucille M Giordullo, Jamie D Fredericks
Concrete is a common construction material found in residential and commercial buildings, bridges and parking lots that is a composite matrix containing aggregate held together with cement. The porous nature of concrete can make the collection and genotyping of biological fluids, such as blood, challenging. Forensic evidence can become embedded within the matrix, potentially reducing the amount of DNA available for analysis. In forensic science, "direct" amplification refers to a genotyping method that amplifies a DNA profile directly from a sample without DNA extraction, saving time and money...
September 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895465/regulation-what-is-there-not-to-like
#11
Martin Paul Evison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895464/reply-to-letter-to-the-editor-response-to-a-study-of-the-perception-of-verbal-expressions-of-the-strength-of-evidence
#12
LETTER
James French, Eleanor Arscott, Ruth Morgan, Georgina Meakin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895463/a-review-of-the-historical-use-and-criticisms-of-gait-analysis-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Michael Nirenberg, Wesley Vernon, Ivan Birch
The use of gait analysis is a well-established facet of practice for many professions and a fundamental aspect of clinical practice. In recent times, gait analysis evidence has emerged as a new area of forensic practice. As its use has continued to spread and develop, the area of work has come under close scrutiny and subsequent criticism. The purpose of this paper is to examine the historical use of gait analysis evidence and consider the criticisms of this work. Through the use of the historical records of cases within the public domain it has been determined that gait analysis as evidence was first presented in court over 175 years ago, although it has only been utilized by experts in more recent times...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895462/biological-sex-variation-in-bone-mineral-density-in-the-cranium-and-femur
#14
Anna Paschall, Ann H Ross
OBJECTIVES: Sex and age trends in bone mineral density (BMD) play an important role in the estimation of age-at-death (AAD) of unidentified human remains. Current methodologies lack the ability to precisely estimate age in older individuals. In this study, BMD of the cranium and femur measured by DXA were examined to establish their applicability for age estimation in older adults. BMD as measured by DXA, is most commonly used clinically for prediction of osteoporotic fracture risk. We hypothesized that weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones, the femur and cranium, respectively, would provide valuable insights for aging...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895461/the-use-of-the-m-vac%C3%A2-wet-vacuum-system-as-a-method-for-dna-recovery
#15
Toby Vickar, Katherine Bache, Barbara Daniel, Nunzianda Frascione
Collecting sufficient template DNA from a crime scene sample is often challenging, especially with low quantity samples such as touch DNA (tDNA). Traditional DNA collection methods such as double swabbing have limitations, in particular when used on certain substrates which can be found at crime scenes, thus a better collection method is advantageous. Here, the effectiveness of the M-Vac® Wet-Vacuum System is evaluated as a method for DNA recovery on tiles and bricks. It was found that the M-Vac® recovered 75% more DNA than double swabbing on bricks...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895460/background-survey-of-polyethylene-in-the-australian-capital-territory-a-demonstration-of-variability-in-isotopic-abundance-values-and-their-application-to-forensic-casework
#16
Kylie Jones, Felicity Koens, Timothy Simpson
Plastics including adhesive tapes, cable ties, and packaging are common evidence types encountered in forensic investigations and casework. Traditional examination techniques such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy lack specificity and are unable to discern differences within the same polymer structures leaving the analyst with a generic identification. High quality manufacturing methods further amplify the limitations in detecting variability between samples. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) has been shown to be a valuable technique in further discriminating plastics...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895459/the-influence-of-alcohol-content-variation-in-uk-packaged-beers-on-the-uncertainty-of-calculations-using-the-widmark-equation
#17
Peter D Maskell, Calum Holmes, Margaux Huismann, Struan Reid, Martin Carr, Benjamin J Jones, Dawn L Maskell
It is common for forensic practitioners to calculate an individual's likely blood alcohol concentration following the consumption of alcoholic beverage(s) for legal purposes, such as in driving under the influence (DUI) cases. It is important in these cases to be able to give the uncertainty of measurement on any calculated result, for this reason uncertainty data for the variables used for any calculation are required. In order to determine the uncertainty associated with the alcohol concentration of beer in the UK the alcohol concentration (%v/v) of 218 packaged beers (112 with an alcohol concentration of ≤5...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895458/application-of-mesocellular-siliceous-foams-mcf-for-surface-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-saldi-ms-analysis-of-fingermarks
#18
R M Barros, M C H Clemente, G A V Martins, L P Silva
Recent advances in nanotechnology applied in forensic sciences have contributed to consider new approaches including chemical evaluation of latent fingermarks. Significant improvement to the detection of small organic molecules has been reached with matrix-free methods associated to laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The present study investigated the application of mesocellular siliceous foam (MCF) as an ionizing agent for laser desorption/ionization (LDI-MS) analysis of fingermarks as a proof of concept research...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895457/a-part-declared-blind-testing-program-in-firearms-examination
#19
W Kerkhoff, R D Stoel, E J A T Mattijssen, C E H Berger, F W Didden, J H Kerstholt
In 2015 and 2016 the Central Unit of the Dutch National Police created and submitted 21 cartridge case comparison tests as real cases to the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI), under supervision of the University of Twente (UT). A total of 53 conclusions were drawn in these 21 tests. For 31 conclusions the underlying ground truth was "positive", in the sense that it addressed a cluster of cartridge cases that was fired from the same firearm. For 22 conclusions the ground truth was "negative", in the sense that the cartridge cases were fired from different firearms...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895456/questions-propositions-and-assessing-different-levels-of-evidence-forensic-voice-comparison-in-practice
#20
Vincent Hughes, Richard Rhodes
This paper contributes to the ongoing discussion about the distinction between observations and propositions in forensic inference, with a specific focus on forensic voice comparison casework conducted in the UK. We outline both linguistic and legal issues which make the evaluation of voice evidence and the refinement of propositions problematic in practice, and illustrate these using case examples. We will argue that group-level observations from the offender sample will always be evidential and that the value of this evidence must be determined by the expert...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
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