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Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685307/persistence-of-spermatozoa-lessons-learned-from-going-to-the-sources
#1
REVIEW
James DiFrancesco, Elizabeth Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685306/a-new-method-for-the-recovery-and-evidential-comparison-of-footwear-impressions-using-3d-structured-light-scanning
#2
T J U Thompson, P Norris
Footwear impressions are one of the most common forms of evidence to be found at a crime scene, and can potentially offer the investigator a wealth of intelligence. Our aim is to highlight a new and improved technique for the recovery of footwear impressions, using three-dimensional structured light scanning. Results from this preliminary study demonstrate that this new approach is non-destructive, safe to use and is fast, reliable and accurate. Further, since this is a digital method, there is also the option of digital comparison between items of footwear and footwear impressions, and an increased ability to share recovered footwear impressions between forensic staff thus speeding up the investigation...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685305/the-detection-of-metallic-residues-in-skin-stab-wounds-by-means-of-sem-eds-a-pilot-study
#3
Elisa Palazzo, Alberto Amadasi, Michele Boracchi, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maciocco, Matteo Marchesi, Riccardo Zoja
The morphological analysis of stab wounds may often not be accurate enough to link it with the type of wounding weapon, but a further evaluation may be performed with the search for metallic residues left during the contact between the instrument and the skin. In this study, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was applied to the study of cadaveric stab wounds performed with kitchen knives composed of iron, chromium and nickel, in order to verify the presence of metallic residues on the wound's edge...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685304/contextual-information-management-an-example-of-independent-checking-in-the-review-of-laboratory-based-bloodstain-pattern-analysis
#4
Nikola K P Osborne, Michael C Taylor
This article describes a New Zealand forensic agency's contextual information management protocol for bloodstain pattern evidence examined in the laboratory. In an effort to create a protocol that would have minimal impact on current work-flow, while still effectively removing task-irrelevant contextual information, the protocol was designed following an in-depth consultation with management and forensic staff. The resulting design was for a protocol of independent-checking (i.e. blind peer-review) where the checker's interpretation of the evidence is conducted in the absence of case information and the original examiner's notes or interpretation(s)...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685303/the-use-of-a-quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-qsar-model-to-predict-gaba-a-receptor-binding-of-newly-emerging-benzodiazepines
#5
Laura Waters, Kieran R Manchester, Peter D Maskell, Caroline Haegeman, Shozeb Haider
The illicit market for new psychoactive substances is forever expanding. Benzodiazepines and their derivatives are one of a number of groups of these substances and thus far their number has grown year upon year. For both forensic and clinical purposes it is important to be able to rapidly understand these emerging substances. However as a consequence of the illicit nature of these compounds, there is a deficiency in the pharmacological data available for these 'new' benzodiazepines. In order to further understand the pharmacology of 'new' benzodiazepines we utilised a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685302/avoiding-overstating-the-strength-of-forensic-evidence-shrunk-likelihood-ratios-bayes-factors
#6
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison, Norman Poh
When strength of forensic evidence is quantified using sample data and statistical models, a concern may be raised as to whether the output of a model overestimates the strength of evidence. This is particularly the case when the amount of sample data is small, and hence sampling variability is high. This concern is related to concern about precision. This paper describes, explores, and tests three procedures which shrink the value of the likelihood ratio or Bayes factor toward the neutral value of one. The procedures are: (1) a Bayesian procedure with uninformative priors, (2) use of empirical lower and upper bounds (ELUB), and (3) a novel form of regularized logistic regression...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685301/single-source-dna-profile-recovery-from-single-cells-isolated-from-skin-and-fabric-from-touch-dna-mixtures-in-mock-physical-assaults
#7
Katherine Farash, Erin K Hanson, Jack Ballantyne
The ability to obtain DNA profiles from trace biological evidence is routinely demonstrated with so-called 'touch DNA evidence', which is generally perceived to be the result of DNA obtained from shed skin cells transferred from a donor's hands to an object or person during direct physical contact. Current methods for the recovery of trace DNA employ swabs or adhesive tape to sample an area of interest. While of practical utility, such 'blind-swabbing' approaches will necessarily co-sample cellular material from the different individuals whose cells are present on the item, even though the individuals' cells are principally located in topographically dispersed, but distinct, locations on the item...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685300/validation-studies-in-forensic-odontology-part-1-accuracy-of-radiographic-matching
#8
Mark Page, Russell Lain, Richard Kemp, Jane Taylor
As part of a series of studies aimed at validating techniques in forensic odontology, this study aimed to validate the accuracy of ante-mortem (AM)/postmortem (PM) radiographic matching by dentists and forensic odontologists. This study used a web-based interface with 50 pairs of AM and PM radiographs from real casework, at varying degrees of difficulty. Participants were shown both radiographs as a pair and initially asked to decide if they represented the same individual using a yes/no binary choice forced-decision...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685299/the-introduction-of-forensic-advisors-in-belgium-and-their-role-in-the-criminal-justice-system
#9
Sonja Bitzer, Laetitia Heudt, Aurélie Barret, Lore George, Karolien Van Dijk, Fabrice Gason, Bertrand Renard
Forensic advisors (FA) at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology (NICC), generalists in forensic science, act as an advising body to the magistrate to improve communication between the various parties involved in the investigation: magistrate, police and crime scene investigators, and forensic experts. Their role is manifold, but their main objectives are to optimise trace processing by selecting the most pertinent traces in the context of the case and by advising magistrates on the feasibility of forensic analyses in particular circumstances in regards to the latest technical advances...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685298/the-suitability-of-visual-taphonomic-methods-for-digital-photographs-an-experimental-approach-with-pig-carcasses-in-a-tropical-climate
#10
Agathe Ribéreau-Gayon, Carolyn Rando, Ruth M Morgan, David O Carter
In the context of increased scrutiny of the methods in forensic sciences, it is essential to ensure that the approaches used in forensic taphonomy to measure decomposition and estimate the postmortem interval are underpinned by robust evidence-based data. Digital photographs are an important source of documentation in forensic taphonomic investigations but the suitability of the current approaches for photographs, rather than real-time remains, is poorly studied which can undermine accurate forensic conclusions...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526271/profiling-the-scent-of-weathered-training-aids-for-blood-detection-dogs
#11
Baree Chilcote, LaTara Rust, Katie D Nizio, Shari L Forbes
At outdoor crime scenes, cadaver-detection and blood-detection dogs may be tasked with locating blood that is days, weeks or months old. Although it is known that the odour profile of blood will change during this time, it is currently unknown how the profile changes when exposed to the environment. Such variables must be studied in order to understand when the odour profile is no longer detectable by the scent-detection dogs and other crime scene tools should be implemented. In this study, blood was deposited onto concrete and varnished wood surfaces and weathered in an outdoor environment over a three-month period...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526270/changes-in-illicit-cocaine-hydrochloride-processing-identified-and-revealed-through-multivariate-analysis-of-cocaine-signature-data
#12
Jennifer R Mallette, John F Casale, Valerie L Colley, David R Morello, James Jordan
For nearly 30years, the methods utilized in illicit cocaine hydrochloride production have remained relatively consistent. Cocaine hydrochloride is typically produced one kilogram at a time. As a result, each individual kilogram is unique and distinct from other kilograms in any particular seizure based on the total alkaloid profile, occluded solvent profile, and isotopic signature. Additionally, multi-kilogram cocaine seizures are often comprised of cocaine from several different coca growing regions. There has been a documented shift in this type of processing based on the recent analysis of a large cocaine seizure in the Eastern Pacific...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526269/the-effect-of-antifreeze-ethylene-glycol-on-the-survival-and-the-life-cycle-of-two-species-of-necrophagous-blowflies-diptera-calliphoridae
#13
Abrar Essarras, Marco Pazzi, Ian R Dadour, Paola A Magni
Entomotoxicology involves the analysis of the presence and the effects of toxicological substances in necrophagous insects. Results obtained by entomotoxicological studies may assist in the investigation of both the causes and the time of death of humans and animals. Ethylene glycol (EG) is easy to purchase, sweet and extremely toxic. It may be consumed accidentally or purposefully, in an attempt to cause death for suicidal or homicidal intent. Several cases report fatalities of humans and animals. The present study is the first to examine the effects of EG on the survival, developmental rate and morphology of two blowfly species, (Diptera: Calliphoridae) typically found on corpses and carcasses: Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and L...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526268/analysing-and-exemplifying-forensic-conclusion-criteria-in-terms-of-bayesian-decision-theory
#14
A Biedermann, S Bozza, F Taroni
There is ongoing discussion in forensic science and the law about the nature of the conclusions reached based on scientific evidence, and on how such conclusions - and conclusion criteria - may be justified by rational argument. Examples, among others, are encountered in fields such as fingermarks (e.g., 'this fingermark comes from Mr. A's left thumb'), handwriting examinations (e.g., 'the questioned signature is that of Mr. A'), kinship analyses (e.g., 'Mr. A is the father of child C') or anthropology (e.g...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526267/massively-parallel-sequencing-and-the-emergence-of-forensic-genomics-defining-the-policy-and-legal-issues-for-law-enforcement
#15
Nathan Scudder, Dennis McNevin, Sally F Kelty, Simon J Walsh, James Robertson
Use of DNA in forensic science will be significantly influenced by new technology in coming years. Massively parallel sequencing and forensic genomics will hasten the broadening of forensic DNA analysis beyond short tandem repeats for identity towards a wider array of genetic markers, in applications as diverse as predictive phenotyping, ancestry assignment, and full mitochondrial genome analysis. With these new applications come a range of legal and policy implications, as forensic science touches on areas as diverse as 'big data', privacy and protected health information...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526266/novel-messenger-rnas-for-body-fluid-identification
#16
Patricia P Albani, Rachel Fleming
In forensic investigations, the identification of the cellular or body fluid source of biological evidence can provide crucial probative information for the court. Messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling has become a valuable tool for body fluid and cell type identification due to its high sensitivity and compatibility with DNA analysis. However, using a single marker to determine the somatic origin of a sample can lead to misinterpretation as a result of cross-reactions. While false positives may be avoided through the simultaneous detection of multiple markers per body fluid, this approach is currently limited by the small number of known differentially expressed mRNAs...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526265/soil-forensics-how-far-can-soil-clay-analysis-distinguish-between-soil-vestiges
#17
R S Corrêa, V F Melo, G G F Abreu, M H Sousa, J A Chaker, J A Gomes
Soil traces are useful as forensic evidences because they frequently adhere to individuals and objects associated with crimes and can place or discard a suspect at/from a crime scene. Soil is a mixture of organic and inorganic components and among them soil clay contains signatures that make it reliable as forensic evidence. In this study, we hypothesized that soils can be forensically distinguished through the analysis of their clay fraction alone, and that samples of the same soil type can be consistently distinguished according to the distance they were collected from each other...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526264/a-systematic-analysis-of-misleading-evidence-in-unsafe-rulings-in-england-and-wales
#18
Nadine M Smit, Ruth M Morgan, David A Lagnado
Evidence has the potential to be misleading if its value when expressing beliefs in hypotheses is not fully understood or presented. Although the knowledge base to understand uncertainties is growing, a challenge remains to prioritise research and to continuously assess the magnitude and consequences of misleading evidence in criminal cases. This study used a systematic content analysis to identify misleading evidence, drawing information from case transcripts of rulings argued unsafe by the Court of Appeal of England and Wales...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526263/a-study-of-the-intermolecular-interactions-of-lipid-components-from-analogue-fingerprint-residues
#19
Andrew Johnston, Keith Rogers
A compositionally simplified analogue of a latent fingermark was created by combining single representatives of each major component of a natural fingermark. Further modified analogues were also produced each having one component removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the intermolecular interactions that occurred within these analogue samples using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Microspectroscopy. FT-IR microspectroscopy showed that the absence of squalene and cholesterol significantly restricted the interactions between the other organic constituents within the analogue samples...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526262/a-comparison-of-penetration-and-damage-caused-by-different-types-of-arrowheads-on-loose-and-tight-fit-clothing
#20
Nichole MacPhee, Anne Savage, Nikolas Noton, Eilidh Beattie, Louise Milne, Joanna Fraser
Bows and arrows are used more for recreation, sport and hunting in the Western world and tend not to be as popular a weapon as firearms or knives. Yet there are still injuries and fatalities caused by these low-velocity weapons due to their availability to the public and that a licence is not required to own them. This study aimed to highlight the penetration capabilities of aluminium arrows into soft tissue and bones in the presence of clothing. Further from that, how the type and fit of clothing as well as arrowhead type contribute to penetration capacity...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
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