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Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986090/late-life-depressive-symptoms-are-associated-with-functional-impairment-cross-sectionally-and-over-time-results-of-the-agemoode-study
#1
Kathrin Heser, Janine Stein, Melanie Luppa, Birgitt Wiese, Silke Mamone, Siegfried Weyerer, Jochen Werle, Hans-Helmut König, André Hajek, Martin Scherer, Anne Stark, Hanna Kaduszkiewicz, Wolfgang Maier, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Michael Wagner
Objectives: This study examines the relationship between late-life depressive symptoms, cognitive and functional impairment in a cohort of very old community-based participants. Methods: A sample of 1226 primary care patients was assessed at baseline (Mage = 80.6 years). Statistical analyses were conducted using baseline and 12 month follow-up data. Results: At baseline, depressed participants showed minor cognitive deficits compared to non-depressed participants, whereas functional deficits were pronounced...
July 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982835/back-to-the-future-examining-age-differences-in-processes-before-stressor-exposure
#2
Shevaun D Neupert, Andreas B Neubauer, Stacey B Scott, Jinshil Hyun, Martin J Sliwinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982726/the-role-of-a-health-protection-scheme-in-health-services-utilisation-among-community-dwelling-older-persons-in-ghana
#3
Razak M Gyasi, David R Phillips, Daniel Buor
Objectives: This study examines the relationships between National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) enrollment and the frequency and 'timing' of health services utilisation among community-dwelling older Ghanaians. It also investigates whether the NHIS policy has improved equity in access to healthcare in later life. Methods: Cross-sectional data were derived from an Ageing, Health, Psychological Wellbeing and Health-seeking Behaviour Study collected between August 2016 and January 2017 (N = 1200)...
July 2, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982815/daily-control-beliefs-and-cognition-the-mediating-role-of-physical-activity
#4
Stephanie A Robinson, Margie E Lachman
Objectives: Recent work suggests that physical activity may underlie the positive relationship between control beliefs and cognition. Despite the well-known cognitive benefits, most adults do not engage in enough physical activity, perhaps due to low perceived control. The current study aimed to expand upon past work by investigating these constructs over the short-term by studying the intraindividual variability in daily control beliefs, physical activity, and cognition. We examined whether these constructs were related on a day-to-day basis and if daily physical activity mediated the relationship between control beliefs and cognition...
June 30, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955844/neuronal-responses-to-a-postural-dual-task-with-differential-attentional-prioritizations-compensatory-resource-allocation-with-healthy-aging
#5
Shu-Han Yu, Ing-Shiou Hwang, Cheng-Ya Huang
Objectives: Restricted central processing in older adults prevents optimization of a dual task with a flexible prioritization strategy. This study investigated the neural mechanisms of task-priority in young and older adults when performing a posture-motor dual-task. Method: Sixteen healthy young and 16 older adults performed a force-matching task on a mobile-platform under posture-focus (PF) and supraposture-focus (SF) conditions. The platform movement, force-matching performance, and event-related potentials in the preparatory period were recorded...
June 28, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947779/qualitative-research-in-gerontology-why-it-is-needed-and-how-we-can-do-it-better
#6
Cassandra Phoenix
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 26, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939328/reframing-aging-effect-of-a-short-term-framing-intervention-on-implicit-measures-of-age-bias
#7
Daniel S Busso, Andrew Volmert, Nathaniel Kendall-Taylor
Objectives: Evidence suggests that ageist biases may operate implicitly (i.e. automatically and unconsciously) to affect discriminatory attitudes and behaviors toward older adults. However, few studies have tested the malleability of implicit age bias. The present study tests the effect of a framing intervention on implicit age bias in a nationally-representative sample of American adults. Method: Participants (N=767) were randomly assigned to read one of three framed messages, to an unframed message about aging, or to a control message unrelated to aging...
June 25, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939343/the-role-of-movement-specific-reinvestment-in-visuo-motor-control-of-walking-by-older-adults
#8
Liis Uiga, Catherine M Capio, Donghyun Ryu, William R Young, Mark R Wilson, Thomson W L Wong, Andy C Y Tse, Rich S W Masters
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association between conscious monitoring and control of movements (i.e., movement specific reinvestment) and visuo-motor control during walking by older adults. Method: The Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale (MSRS; Masters, Eves, & Maxwell, 2005) was administered to ninety-two community-dwelling older adults, aged 65-81 years, who were required to walk along a 4.8-meter walkway and step on the middle of a target as accurately as possible...
June 22, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931247/age-differences-in-proactive-coping-with-minor-hassles-in-daily-life
#9
Andreas B Neubauer, Joshua M Smyth, Martin J Sliwinski
Objectives: Age differences in the exposure to minor hassles in daily life have been postulated by socioemotional selectivity theory and reported by previous research, with older adults reporting fewer stressors. The present study examined two potential mechanisms explaining this reduction in reported stressor exposure with advancing age: age-related changes in proactive coping and in the threshold of labeling an event as stressor. Method: Participants (N = 178; 20-79 years; M = 49...
June 21, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924366/preparation-for-old-age-the-role-of-cultural-context-and-future-perceptions
#10
Anna E Kornadt, Peggy Voss, Helene H Fung, Thomas M Hess, Klaus Rothermund
Objectives: Preparation for age-related changes is a central task in midlife and older age and a determinant of functioning and well-being in later life. If and how people prepare is influenced by societal and institutional circumstances and also by beliefs about aging and the future. Method: We assessed domain-specific preparation for age-related changes in samples from three countries with high population aging but different premises regarding preparation, and analyzed data from N=1,830 individuals aged 35-85 years from urban regions in Germany, the USA, as well as China (Hong Kong)...
June 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924362/the-role-of-current-family-relationships-in-associations-between-childhood-abuse-and-adult-psychological-functioning
#11
Jooyoung Kong, Sara M Moorman, Lynn M Martire, David M Almeida
Objectives: Childhood abuse has long-term negative effects on adult psychological well-being. This study examined whether and how adults with a history of childhood abuse may experience poor psychological functioning partly due to aspects of current family relationships. Method: We estimated multilevel mediation models using three waves of longitudinal data from 3,487 participants in the study of Midlife Development in the United States. Outcomes measured included negative affect, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being...
June 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917098/guilt-in-adult-mother-child-relationships-connections-to-intergenerational-ambivalence-and-support
#12
Matthijs Kalmijn
Objectives: The concept of guilt is often mentioned in studies on intergenerational ambivalence but its theoretical status in that literature is not clear and the concept is rarely measured. The current study examines how feelings of guilt that adult children have toward their ageing mothers are related to intergenerational ambivalence and support. Method: Using representative survey data from the Netherlands (N = 2,450), adult children (average age 43) were asked to evaluate the relationship with their mother (average age 71)...
June 18, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878249/failure-to-meet-generative-self-expectations-is-linked-to-poorer-cognitive-affective-well-being
#13
Molli R Grossman, Tara L Gruenewald
Objectives: Generativity, or concern with contributing to others, is theorized to be an important goal of mid-to-late life. Greater self-perceptions of generativity are associated with better well-being over time. The aim of this study is to examine how generative self-perceptions and failure to meet generative expectations over time are linked to specific cognitive-affective states (feelings of connectedness, self-worth, and positive affect), and consequently, life satisfaction. Method: Analyses used data from Waves 2 and 3 of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS)...
June 7, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878278/onset-time-of-inhibition-of-return-is-a-promising-index-for-assessing-cognitive-functions-in-older-adults
#14
Tingni Li, Lei Wang, Wanyi Huang, Yanfen Zhen, Chupeng Zhong, Zhe Qu, Yulong Ding
Objectives: Developing efficient tools for assessing general cognitive functions in older adults is essential. Previous studies found that inhibition of return (IOR) occurred later in the older adults than in the younger (e.g., Castel, Chasteen, Scialfa, & Pratt, 2003). However, little is known about the relationship between the onset time of IOR (IOR-OT) and cognitive functions in the aging population. The present study examined this issue and investigated the potential of using IOR-OT as an index of cognitive functioning in older adults...
June 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878250/lifespan-socioeconomic-context-associations-with-cognitive-functioning-in-later-life
#15
April B Scott, Rebecca G Reed, Natasha E Garcia-Willingham, Karen A Lawrence, Suzanne C Segerstrom
Objectives: Early socioeconomic status (SES) correlates with later-life cognition. However, the effect of socioeconomic context (SEC), which reflects influences from broader ecological contexts, has not been examined. The present study developed a measure of SEC using lifetime residential addresses and examined SEC and residential mobility effects on later-life cognition. Method: Older adults (N=117, Mage=75) reported addresses since birth. Latent SEC was constructed from census income, employment, and education (1920-2010) for each county and census year, extrapolated between census years...
June 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878211/improving-inferences-about-null-effects-with-bayes-factors-and-equivalence-tests
#16
Daniël Lakens, Neil McLatchie, Peder M Isager, Anne M Scheel, Zoltan Dienes
Researchers often conclude an effect is absent when a null-hypothesis significance test yields a non-significant p-value. However, it is neither logically nor statistically correct to conclude an effect is absent when a hypothesis test is not significant. We present two methods to evaluate the presence or absence of effects: Equivalence testing (based on frequentist statistics) and Bayes factors (based on Bayesian statistics). In four examples from the gerontology literature we illustrate different ways to specify alternative models that can be used to reject the presence of a meaningful or predicted effect in hypothesis tests...
June 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878196/disentangling-the-stress-process-race-ethnic-differences-in-the-exposure-and-appraisal-of-chronic-stressors-among-older-adults
#17
Lauren L Brown, Uchechi A Mitchell, Jennifer Ailshire
Objectives: Exposure to stressors is differentially distributed by race/ethnicity with minority groups reporting a higher stress burden than their white counterparts. However, to really understand the extent to which some groups bear a disproportionate stress burden we need to consider race/ethnic differences in stress appraisal, specifically how upsetting stressors may be, in addition to stress exposure. We examine racial/ethnic differences in both the number of reported chronic stressors across 5 domains (health, financial, residential, relationship and caregiving) and their appraised stressfulness among a diverse sample of older adults...
June 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878189/aging-influences-the-efficiency-of-attentional-maintenance-in-verbal-working-memory
#18
Gabriel Jarjat, Sophie Portrat, Pascal Hot
Objectives: Numerous studies reported an age-related deficit in verbal working memory (WM). Beyond the well-established general factors of cognitive aging, the alteration of the specific WM maintenance mechanisms may account for this deficit. This paper aims to investigate the hypothesis that WM attentional maintenance is impaired with age. Method: In a WM task adapted to individual short-term memory and processing speed, younger and older participants maintained letters while verbally responding to a concurrent processing task, in order to constrain the use of rehearsal...
June 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878185/additive-effects-of-forecasted-and-reported-stressors-on-negative-affect
#19
Stacey B Scott, Jinhyuk Kim, Joshua M Smyth, David M Almeida, Martin J Sliwinski
Objectives: Many studies of daily life have framed stressors as unpredictable disruptions. We tested age differences in whether individuals forecast upcoming stressors, whether individuals show anticipatory stress responses prior to stressors, and whether having previously forecasted any stressors moderates stressor exposure on negative affect. Methods: Adults (n=237; age 25-65) completed surveys 5 times daily for 14 days on current negative affect, stressor exposure, and stressor forecasts...
June 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878183/population-priorities-for-successful-aging-a-randomized-vignette-experiment
#20
Elise Whitley, Michaela Benzeval, Frank Popham
Objectives: Aging populations have led to increasing interest in "successful aging" but there is no consensus as to what this entails. We aimed to understand the relative importance to the general population of six commonly-used successful aging dimensions (disease, disability, physical functioning, cognitive functioning, interpersonal engagement, and productive engagement). Method: Two thousand and ten British men and women were shown vignettes describing an older person with randomly determined favorable/unfavorable outcomes for each dimension and asked to score (0-10) how successfully the person was aging...
June 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
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