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Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788310/trajectories-of-aging-among-us-older-adults-mixed-evidence-for-a-hispanic-paradox
#1
Wassim Tarraf, Gail A Jensen, Heather E Dillaway, Priscilla Vásquez, Hector M Gonzalez
Objectives: A well-documented paradox is that Hispanics tend to live longer than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), despite structural disadvantages. We evaluate whether the "Hispanic paradox" extends to more comprehensive longitudinal aging classifications and examine how lifecourse factors relate to these groupings. Methods: We used biennial data (1998-2014) on adults 65-years and older at baseline from the Health and Retirement Study. We use joint latent class discrete time and growth curve modeling to identify trajectories of aging, and multinomial logit models to determine whether US-born (USB-H) and Foreign-born (FB-H) Hispanics experience healthier styles of aging than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), and test how lifecycle factors influence this relationship...
May 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788464/confucian-values-as-a-buffer-against-age-based-stereotype-threat-for-chinese-older-adults
#2
Shyuan Ching Tan, Sarah J Barber
Objectives: Research has shown that stereotype threat can impair older adults' memory in Western cultures. We tested whether this also occurs for older adults from the East Asian Chinese culture. We also tested whether an intervention that highlighted Confucian principles would protect Chinese older adults from stereotype threat's detrimental effects. Method : Culturally-Chinese older adults residing in the United States completed a memory test either under age-based stereotype threat about cognitive decline or not...
May 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788363/early-life-military-exposures-and-functional-impairment-trajectories-among-older-male-veterans-the-buffering-effect-of-psychological-resilience
#3
Miles G Taylor, Stephanie Ureña, Dawn C Carr, Stella Min
Objectives: Drawing on the life course framework and theoretical concept of resilience, we examine the impact of early-life service-related exposures (SREs) on later-life functional impairment trajectories among older U.S. male veterans. We conceptualize resilience as a psychological resource potentially moderating the lasting negative consequences of traumatic military exposures. Method: Using the 2013 Veterans Mail Survey linked to the Health and Retirement Study 2006-2014 Leave Behind Questionnaire and RAND Data File (v...
May 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767767/waking-up-on-the-wrong-side-of-the-bed-the-effects-of-stress-anticipation-on-working-memory-in-daily-life
#4
Jinshil Hyun, Martin J Sliwinski, Joshua M Smyth
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association between stress anticipated for the upcoming day and cognitive function later on that day, and how this relationship differed across age. Method: A diverse adult community sample (N = 240, age 25-65 years) completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports for 2 weeks on a smartphone; each day they completed a morning survey upon waking, beeped surveys at five times during a day, and an end-of-day survey...
May 15, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762752/variability-and-coupling-of-olfactory-identification-and-episodic-memory-in-older-adults
#5
Jamie E Knight, David A Bennett, Andrea M Piccinin
Objectives: To determine whether assessment-to-assessment fluctuations in episodic memory (EM) reflect fluctuations in olfaction over time. Methods: Within-person coupled variation in EM and the Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) was examined in 565 participants aged 58-106 with autopsy data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. A growth model for up to 15 years of EM data, with BSIT as time-varying covariate, was estimated accounting for main effects of sex, education, ε4 allele, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, BSIT and time-varying BSIT, as well as the interaction between AD pathology and time-varying BSIT...
May 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762741/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-health-inequality
#6
Andrea E Willson, Kim M Shuey
Objectives: Empirical investigations of cumulative dis/advantage typically treat health inequality as an intra-individual process rooted in early-life conditions and operating within the span of the individual life course, while literature on processes of intergenerational transmission has historically focused on socioeconomic mobility, largely overlooking health. The current study examines the persistence of work disability across generations and multiple explanations for this relationship, including the role of early life disadvantage, childhood health, educational attainment, and social mobility...
May 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757433/the-effects-of-useful-field-of-view-training-on-brain-activity-and-connectivity
#7
Lesley A Ross, Christina E Webb, Christine Whitaker, Jarrod M Hicks, Erica L Schmidt, Shaadee Samimy, Nancy A Dennis, Kristina M Visscher
Objectives: Useful Field of View training (UFOVt) is an adaptive computerized cognitive intervention that improves visual attention and transfers to maintained health and everyday functioning in older adults. Although its efficacy is well established, the neural mechanisms underlying this intervention are unknown. This pilot study used functional MRI (fMRI) to explore neural changes following UFOVt. Method: Task-driven and resting-state fMRI were used to examine changes in brain activity and connectivity in healthy older adults randomized to 10 hr of UFOVt (n = 13), 10 hr of cognitively stimulating activities (CSA; n = 11), or a no-contact control (NC; n = 10)...
May 11, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741729/domain-specific-views-on-aging-and-preparation-for-age-related-changes-development-and-validation-of-three-brief-scales
#8
Anna E Kornadt, Thomas M Hess, Klaus Rothermund
Objectives: We developed brief versions of our questionnaires to assess domain-specific views on aging (age stereotypes and future self-views) and preparation for age-related changes. Methods: The brief scales were validated in an online study with N = 301 participants aged 23 - 88 years. Results: Mean values across domains show a differentiated picture for all three constructs, yielding evidence for the multi-dimensionality of views on aging and preparation for age-related changes...
May 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741714/variety-of-enriching-early-life-activities-linked-to-late-life-cognitive-functioning-in-urban-community-dwelling-african-americans
#9
Thomas Chan, Jeanine M Parisi, Kyle D Moored, Michelle C Carlson
Objectives: The early environment is thought to be a critical period in understanding the cognitive health disparities African Americans face today. Much is known about the positive role enriching environments have in mid- and late-life and the negative function adverse experiences have in childhood; however, little is known about the relationship between enriching childhood experiences and late life cognition. The current study examines the link between variety of enriching early life activities with late life cognitive functioning in a sample of sociodemographic at-risk older adults...
May 7, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741663/statistical-model-of-dynamic-markers-of-the-alzheimer-s-pathological-cascade
#10
Steve Balsis, Lisa Geraci, Jared Benge, Deborah A Lowe, Tabina K Choudhury, Robert Tirso, Rachelle S Doody
Objectives: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive disease reflected in markers across assessment modalities, including neuroimaging, cognitive testing, and evaluation of adaptive function. Identifying a single continuum of decline across assessment modalities in a single sample is statistically challenging because of the multivariate nature of the data. To address this challenge, we implemented advanced statistical analyses designed specifically to model complex data across a single continuum...
May 5, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718387/investigating-predictors-of-cognitive-decline-using-machine-learning
#11
Ramon Casanova, Santiago Saldana, Michael W Lutz, Brenda L Plassman, Maragatha Kuchibhatla, Kathleen M Hayden
Objectives: Genetic risks for cognitive decline are not modifiable; however their relative importance compared to modifiable factors is unclear. We used machine learning to evaluate modifiable and genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease(AD), to predict cognitive decline. Methods: Health and Retirement Study participants, aged 65-90, with DNA and >2 cognitive evaluations, were included (n=7,142). Predictors included age, body mass index, gender, education, APOE ε4, CVD, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, neighborhood socio-economic status(NSES), and AD risk genes...
April 27, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688560/no-spouse-no-son-no-daughter-no-kin-in-contemporary-china-prevalence-correlates-and-differences-in-economic-support
#12
Zhangjun Zhou, Ashton M Verdery, Rachel Margolis
Objectives: China's recent demographic and social changes might undermine the sustainability of family-oriented system for elder care. We investigate kin availability among adults aged 45+ in contemporary China, with an emphasis on child gender. Method: Using nationally representative survey data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (2011), we examine the prevalence and correlates of lacking different kin types and combinations, and we test associations between kin availability and received economic support...
April 24, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688534/which-factors-do-older-adults-consider-when-estimating-the-time-left-for-them-to-live
#13
Yuval Palgi, Amit Shrira, Gitit Kavé, Tom Rubinstein, Dov Shmotkin
Objectives: The present study examines which factors older adults consider as important when rating their subjective nearness-to-death (SNtD), as well as the associations between corresponding variables as reported in a multi-dimensional questionnaire and responses on a SNtD question. In addition, we examine whether importance ratings fit or diverge from the actual associations between corresponding variables and SNtD. Method: 272 participants (average age 80.75) reported their health and functioning, their SNtD, and the importance of each of 13 pre-selected factors in evaluating SNtD...
April 24, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684199/patterns-of-ses-health-disparities-among-older-adults-in-three-upper-middle-and-two-high-income-countries
#14
Mary McEniry, Rafael Samper-Ternent, Carmen Elisa Flórez, Renata Pardo, Carlos Cano-Gutierrez
Objectives: To examine the socioeconomic status (SES) health gradient for obesity, diabetes, and hypertension within a diverse group of health outcomes and behaviors among older adults (60+) in upper middle-income countries benchmarked with high-income countries. Method : We used data from three upper middle-income settings (Colombia-SABE-Bogotá, Mexico-SAGE, and South Africa-SAGE) and two high-income countries (England-ELSA and US-HRS) to estimate logistic regression models using age, gender, and education to predict health and health behaviors...
April 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669095/choosing-solitude-age-differences-in-situational-and-affective-correlates-of-solitude-seeking-in-midlife-and-older-adulthood
#15
Jennifer C Lay, Theresa Pauly, Peter Graf, Atiya Mahmood, Christiane A Hoppmann
Objectives: Despite a basic need for social connection, individuals across the adult lifespan sometimes seek solitude - a phenomenon that is not well understood. This study examined the situational and affective correlates of solitude-seeking and how they may differ between middle-aged and older adults. Method: 100 community-dwelling adults aged 50-85 years (64% female, 56% East Asian, 36% European, 8% other) completed approximately 30 electronic daily life assessments over 10 days regarding their current location, affect, activities, and current and desired social context...
April 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669015/decomposition-analyses-of-the-trend-in-poverty-among-older-adults-the-case-of-south-korea
#16
Inhoe Ku, Chang-O Kim
Objectives: We examine the sharp increase in poverty among older adults since the mid-1990s in South Korea. Method: We apply decomposition analyses to quantify the contributions of demographic and household characteristics, as well as income sources, to the rise in poverty among older adults. Results: A rapid increase in the number of older adults living independently, combined with an increase in the number of old older adults, largely explains the rising poverty rate among Korean older adults...
April 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669010/double-disadvantage-in-the-process-of-disablement-race-as-a-moderator-in-the-association-between-chronic-conditions-and-functional-limitations
#17
Ben Lennox Kail, Miles G Taylor, Nick Rogers
Objectives: This study evaluated (a) whether the association between chronic conditions and functional limitations vary by race/ethnicity, and (b) whether socioeconomic status accounted for any observed racial variation in the association between chronic conditions and functional limitations. Method: The Health and Retirement Study data were used to assess whether race/ethnicity moderated the association between chronic conditions and functional limitations, and whether education, income, and/or wealth mediated any of the observed moderation by race/ethnicity...
April 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669133/uncovering-susceptibility-risk-to-online-deception-in-aging
#18
Natalie C Ebner, Donovan M Ellis, Tian Lin, Harold A Rocha, Huizi Yang, Sandeep Dommaraju, Adam Soliman, Damon L Woodard, Gary R Turner, R Nathan Spreng, Daniela S Oliveira
Objectives: Fraud in the aged is an emerging public health problem. An increasingly common form of deception is conducted online. However, identification of cognitive and socioemotional risk factors has not been undertaken yet. In this endeavor, this study extended previous work suggesting age effects on susceptibility to online deception. Methods: Susceptibility was operationalized as clicking on the link in simulated spear-phishing emails that young (18-37 years), young-old (62-74 years), and middle-old (75-89 years) Internet users received, without knowing that the emails were part of the study...
April 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669043/life-course-socioeconomic-status-daily-stressors-and-daily-well-being-examining-chain-of-risk-models
#19
Agus Surachman, Britney Wardecker, Sy-Miin Chow, David Almeida
Objectives: This article models the chain of risk that links life course socioeconomic status (SES), daily stressor exposure and severity, and daily well-being. Method: Data from the main survey and the daily diary project of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) Refresher study were combined, resulting in 782 participants (55.6% female; age 25-74, Mage = 47.9) who reported on 5,849 days of information on daily stressors and daily well-being. Data were measured at both person and day levels...
April 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669029/retrospective-attention-in-short-term-memory-has-a-lasting-effect-on-long-term-memory-across-age
#20
Jonathan Strunk, Lauren Morgan, Sarah Reaves, Paul Verhaeghen, Audrey Duarte
Objectives: Declines in both short- and long-term memory are typical of healthy aging. Recent findings suggest that retrodictive attentional cues ("retro-cues") that indicate the location of to-be-probed items in short-term memory (STM) have a lasting impact on long-term memory (LTM) performance in young adults. Whether older adults can also use retro-cues to facilitate both STM and LTM is unknown. Method: Young and older adults performed a visual STM task in which spatially informative retro-cues or non-informative neutral-cues were presented during STM maintenance of real-world objects...
April 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
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