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International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology

Michela Novelli, Marta Menegazzi, Pascale Beffy, Svetlana Porozov, Alex Gregorelli, Daniela Giacopelli, Vincenzo De Tata, Pellegrino Masiello
The extract of the herbaceous plant St. John's wort (SJW) and its phloroglucinol component hyperforin (HPF) were previously shown to inhibit cytokine-induced STAT-1 and NF-κB activation and prevent damage in pancreatic β cells. To further clarify the mechanisms underlying their protective effects, we evaluated the phosphorylation state of various factors of cytokine signaling pathways and the expression of target genes involved in β-cell function, inflammatory response and apoptosis induction. In the INS-1E β-cell line, exposed to a cytokine mixture with/without SJW extract (2-5μg/ml) or HPF (1-5μM), protein phosphorylation was assessed by Western blotting and expression of target genes by real-time quantitative PCR...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Jina Kim, Yu-Jin Lee, Jung Min Kim, So Young Lee, Myung-Ae Bae, Jin Hee Ahn, Dong Cho Han, Byoung-Mog Kwon
PPARγ agonists induced obesity in animal models as a side effect. Microarray experiments reveal that PPARγ agonist upregulates the expression of lipin-1 and this upregulation is correlated with the activity of the agonists. Lipin-1 induced by PPARγ agonists decreased the levels of PPARγ and ERK1/2 phosphorylation through direct interaction with these proteins in 3T3-L1 cells. In PPARγ agonist-treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the knockdown of lipin-1 expression by small interfering RNA inhibited the adipogenesis that was induced by PPARγ agonists...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
William Fai Ka Tse
Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS, OMIM: 154500), an autosomal-dominant craniofacial developmental syndrome that occurs in 1 out of every 50,000 live births, is characterized by craniofacial malformation. Facial formation involves tight regulation of the craniofacial neural crest cells (NCCs). Mutations in TCOF1, POLR1C, or POLR1D have been identified in affected individuals. In addition to established mouse models, zebrafish models have recently emerged as an valuable method to study facial disease. In this report, we summarized the two updated articles working on the pathogenesis of the newly identified polr1c and polr1d TCS mutations (Lau et al...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Dana Marcus, Michal Lichtenstein, Natali Cohen, Rita Hadad, Tal Erlich-Hadad, Hagar Greif, Haya Lorberboum-Galski
Mitochondrial Targeting Sequences (MTSs) are responsible for trafficking nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria. Once entering the mitochondria, the MTS is recognized and cleaved off. Some MTSs are long and undergo two-step processing, as in the case of the human frataxin (FXN) protein (80aa), implicated in Friedreich's ataxia (FA). Therefore, we chose the FXN protein to examine whether nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins can efficiently be targeted via a heterologous MTS (hMTS) and deliver a functional protein into mitochondria...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Erica T Goddard, Ryan C Hill, Alexander Barrett, Courtney Betts, Qiuchen Guo, Ori Maller, Virginia F Borges, Kirk C Hansen, Pepper Schedin
Normal epithelium exists within a dynamic extracellular matrix (ECM) that is tuned to regulate tissue specific epithelial cell function. As such, ECM contributes to tissue homeostasis, differentiation, and disease, including cancer. Though it is now recognized that the functional unit of normal and transformed epithelium is the epithelial cell and its adjacent ECM, we lack a basic understanding of tissue-specific ECM composition and abundance, as well as how physiologic changes in ECM impact cancer risk and outcomes...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Thosrdur Oskarsson, Gertraud Orend
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Pedro G Carranza, Pablo R Gargantini, César G Prucca, Alessandro Torri, Alicia Saura, Staffan Svärd, Hugo D Lujan
During evolution, parasitic microorganisms have faced the challenges of adapting to different environments to colonize a variety of hosts. Giardia lamblia, a common cause of intestinal disease, has developed fascinating strategies to adapt both outside and inside its host's intestine, such as trophozoite differentiation into cyst and the switching of its major surface antigens. How gene expression is regulated during these adaptive processes remains undefined. Giardia lacks some typical eukaryotic features, like canonical transcription factors, linker histone H1, and complex promoter regions; suggesting that post-transcriptional and translational control of gene expression is essential for parasite survival...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Marion Rouzaire, Aurélie Comptour, Corinne Belville, Damien Bouvier, Gaël Clairefond, Flora Ponelle, Vincent Sapin, Denis Gallot, Loïc Blanchon
Thirty percent of preterm births directly result from preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes (PPROM). Clinical management currently proposes using a collagen plug to mechanically stop loss of amniotic fluid. Vitamin A and its active metabolite (retinoic acid) have well-known pro-healing properties and could thus make good candidates as a proposable adjuvant to this mechanical approach. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the pro-healing properties of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) in fetal membranes via an approach using an in vitro primary amniocyte wound model and transcriptomics...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Yajie Hu, Jie Song, Longding Liu, Jing Li, Beibei Tang, Jingjing Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Ying Zhang, Lichun Wang, Yun Liao, Zhanlong He, Qihan Li
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the predominant pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Although these viruses exhibit genetic homology, the clinical manifestations caused by the two viruses have some discrepancies. In addition, the underlying mechanisms leading to these differences remain unclear. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in numerous biological or pathological processes, including host responses to viral infections. Here, we focused on differences in miRNA expression patterns in rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with EV71 and CA16 at various time points using high-throughput sequencing...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Natalia D Magnani, Timoteo Marchini, Mariana Garcés, Andrea Mebert, Lourdes Cáceres, Luis Diaz, Martín Desimone, Pablo A Evelson
Several epidemiological studies have shown a positive correlation between daily increases in airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration and the occurrence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Transition metals present in air PM were associated with adverse health effects after PM exposure. The aim of this work was to study lung O2 metabolism after an acute exposure to transition metal-coated nanoparticles (NPs). Female Swiss mice (25g) were intranasally instilled with a suspension of silica NP containing Ni (II), Cd (II), Fe (III), or Cr (VI) at 0, 0...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Chunya Ni, Marie-Sophie Narzt, Ionela-Mariana Nagelreiter, Cheng Feng Zhang, Lionel Larue, Heidemarie Rossiter, Johannes Grillari, Erwin Tschachler, Florian Gruber
Autophagy is a recycling program which allows cells to adapt to metabolic needs and to stress. Defects in autophagy can affect metabolism, aging, proteostasis and inflammation. Autophagy pathway genes, including autophagy related 7 (Atg7), have been associated with the regulation of skin pigmentation, and autophagy defects disturb the biogenesis and transport of melanosomes in melanocytes as well as transfer and processing of melanin into keratinocytes. We have previously shown that mice whose melanocytes or keratinocytes lack Atg7 (and thus autophagy) as a result of specific gene knockout still retained functioning melanosome synthesis and transfer, and displayed only moderate reduction of pigmentation...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Subir K Nagdas, Virginia P Winfrey, Gary E Olson
Nevertheless, a nonviable sperm population is present in the cauda epididymidis of many species. Degenerating spermatozoa release enzymes that could have detrimental effects on the viability of neighboring cells, and they are source of autoantigens that induce an autoimmune response if they escape the blood-epididymis barrier. Does the epididymis have specialized protective mechanism(s) to segregate the viable sperm population from defective spermatozoa? Previously, we identified a fibrinogen-like protein-2 (fgl2) that specifically binds to and polymerizes into a cocoon-like complex coating defective spermatozoa and sperm fragments...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
John M Heddleston, Teng-Leong Chew
Capturing dynamic processes in live samples is a nontrivial task in biological imaging. Although fluorescence provides high specificity and contrast compared to other light microscopy techniques, the photophysical principles of this method can have a harmful effect on the sample. Current advances in light sheet microscopy have created a novel imaging toolbox that allows for rapid acquisition of high-resolution fluorescent images with minimal perturbation of the processes of interest. Each unique design has its own advantages and limitations...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Jin Zhang, Linfeng Zheng, Xiangning Yuan, Chunyan Liu, Qiongjing Yuan, Feifei Xie, Sisi Qiu, Zhangzhe Peng, Yiting Tang, Jie Meng, Jiao Qin, Gaoyun Hu, Lijian Tao
Mefunidone is a new pyridone agent that attenuates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. However, the signaling pathways involved in the effect of mefunidone on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis have not been well explained. Inflammatory response initiates and promotes renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase beta (IKKβ) is a master regulator of inflammation. This study is determined to clarify the influence of mefunidone on renal inflammation and the phosphorylation of IKKβ...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Jun Pan, Sheng Yan, Jun-Jie Gao, Ying-Ying Wang, Zhong-Jie Lu, Chen-Wei Cui, Yao-Hui Zhang, Yan Wang, Xue-Qin Meng, Lin Zhou, Hai-Yang Xie, Jessica Zheng, Ming H Zheng, Shu-Sen Zheng
Organ decellularization is emerging as a promising regenerative medicine approach as it is able to provide an acellular, three-dimensional biological scaffold material that can be seeded with living cells for organ reengineering. However this application is currently limited to donor-derived decellularized organs for reengineering in vitro and no study has been conducted for re-engineering the decellularized organ in vivo. We developed a novel technique of a single liver lobe decellularization in vivo in live animals...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Sarah E Allison, Yongjuan Chen, Nenad Petrovic, Stefanie Zimmermann, Bjoern Moosmann, Mirko Jansch, Pei H Cui, Colin R Dunstan, Peter I Mackenzie, Michael Murray
Secondary metastases are the leading cause of mortality in patients with breast cancer. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2J2 (CYP2J2) is upregulated in many human tumors and generates epoxyeicosanoids from arachidonic acid that promote tumorigenesis and metastasis, but at present there is little information on the genes that mediate these actions. In this study MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells were stably transfected with CYP2J2 (MDA-2J2 cells) and Affymetrix microarray profiling was undertaken. We identified 182 genes that were differentially expressed in MDA-2J2 cells relative to control (MDA-CTL) cells (log[fold of control] ≥2)...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Mélanie Faria da Cunha, Juliette Simonin, Ali Sassi, Romain Freund, Aurélie Hatton, Charles-Henry Cottart, Nadia Elganfoud, Rachid Zoubairi, Corina Dragu, Jean Philippe Jais, Alexandre Hinzpeter, Aleksander Edelman, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus
The nasal epithelium of the mouse closely mimics the bioelectrical phenotype of the human airways. Ion transport across the nasal epithelium induces a nasal transepithelial potential difference. Its measurement by a relatively non-invasive method adapted from humans allows in vivo longitudinal measurements of CFTR-dependent ionic transport in the murine nasal mucosa. This test offers a useful tool to assess CFTR function in preclinical studies for novel therapeutics modulating CFTR activity. Here we extensively review work done to assess transepithelial transport in the murine respiratory epithelium in the basal state and after administration of CFTR modulators...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Chao Qian, Chenyuan Zhu, Weiqiang Yu, Xinquan Jiang, Fuqiang Zhang, Jian Sun
Type 2 diabetes mellitus impairs osteogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) has been extensively applied for bone defect restoration and has been shown to activate the Wnt signaling pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of BMP2 on the cell proliferation and osteogenesis of type 2 diabetic BMSCs in rats and explore whether BMP2 induced osteogenesis via the stimulation of Wnt signaling pathway. The cell experiments were divided into DM (diabetic BMSCs), BMP25 (induced with 25ng/ml BMP2), BMP100 (induced with 100ng/ml BMP2) and BMP25 +XAV groups...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Chao Zhu, Changchun Cao, Xiaofei Wang, Jie Yuan, Lai Jin, Shengnan Li
Urocortins (UCNs) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have been demonstrated to participate in various cardiovascular diseases, many of which involve vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) release is an important cause of VSMCs proliferation. The work was to investigate the regulation of VSMCs proliferation by UCN/TGF-beta and whether cPLA2 was a link between their signaling pathways. VSMCs proliferation was measured by colorimetric assay and immunofluorescence microscopy...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Tra Ly Nguyen, Raúl V Durán
The prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes regulate the stability of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in response to oxygen availability. During oxygen limitation, the inhibition of PHD permits the stabilization of HIF, allowing the cellular adaptation to hypoxia. This adaptation is especially important for solid tumors, which are often exposed to a hypoxic environment. However, and despite their original role as the oxygen sensors of the cell, PHD are currently known to display HIF-independent and hydroxylase-independent functions in the control of different cellular pathways, including mTOR pathway, NF-kB pathway, apoptosis and cellular metabolism...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
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