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International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology

Geou-Yarh Liou
Cancer stem cells are the cancer cells that have abilities to self-renew, differentiate into defined progenies, and initiate and maintain tumor growth. They also contribute to cancer metastasis and therapeutic resistance, both of which are the major causes of cancer mortality. Among the reported makers of the cancer stem cells, CD133 is the most well-known marker for isolating and studying cancer stem cells in different types of cancer. The CD133high population of cancer cells are not only capable of self-renewal, proliferation, but also highly metastatic and resistant to therapy...
November 3, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Petr Ježek, Tomáš Špaček, Jan Tauber, Vojtěch Pavluch
The mitochondrion owns an autonomous genome. Double-stranded circular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is organized in complexes with a packing/stabilizing transcription factor TFAM, having multiple roles, and proteins of gene expression machinery in structures called nucleoids. From hundreds to thousands nucleoids exist distributed in the matrix of mitochondrial reticulum network. A single mtDNA molecule contained within the single nucleoid is a currently preferred but questioned model. Nevertheless, mtDNA replication should lead transiently to its doubling within a nucleoid...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Yong Guo, Yi Li, Fang-Fang Wang, Bing Xiang, Xiao-Ou Huang, Hong-Bing Ma, Yu-Ping Gong
P53 dysfunction has been associated with various malignant tumors, including acute leukemia. The overexpression of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) causes the inactivation of p53 in acute leukemia. MDM2 inhibitors that activate p53 and induce apoptosis are currently being developed for potential treatment of acute leukemia. However, MDM2 inhibitors alone have limited efficacy in acute leukemia therapeutics. Combining other drugs to enhance the efficacy of MDM2 inhibitors is the thus considered as a potential treatment scheme...
October 30, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Fardos N M Naguib, Craig M Wilson, Mahmoud H El Kouni
Malaria remains a significant public health problem worldwide with an estimated annual global incidence of 200 million and an estimated 450,000 annual deaths. Among the five known human malarial species, Plasmodium falciparum is the deadliest and most resistant to antimalarials. Hence, there is a need for new antimalarial targets. The rational design of a drug is usually based on biochemical and physiological differences between pathogens and their hosts. In view of their high rate of replication, parasites require very active nucleic acid synthesis which necessitates large supplies of the indispensable pyrimidine nucleotides...
October 28, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Aibin Tao, Xuemei Xu, Peter Kvietys, Raymond Kao, Claudio Martin, Tao Rui
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has a negative impact on clinical outcomes for patients with myocardial infarction. The aim of the present study was to assess whether decreased myocardial levels of Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) contribute to the increased susceptibility of the diabetic myocardium to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In vivo, myocardial levels of Sirt1 expression and activity were decreased in mice with STZ-induced DM. Increasing Sirt1 activity prevented the DM-induced exacerbation of myocardial mitochondrial fission, apoptosis and dysfunction elicited by I/R...
October 28, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Daguia Zambe John Clotaire, Xiaomin Du, Yudong Wei, Donghui Yang, Jinlian Hua
Jak-Stat pathway is the first pathway identified to stimulate spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) self-renewal and maintenance activity. Recent studies have showed that stat3 a crucial gene implicated in this pathway can regulate self-renewal in male germline stem cell. In our previous study, we demonstrated that miR-19b-3p induces cell proliferation and reduces heterochromatin through Plzf which also regulates the balance between cell self-renewal and differentiation. Because miRNA can target several genes and to understand more about Plzf, a crucial transcription factor of SSCs, we performed microarray and found that miR-19b-3p integrate Jak-Stat through Plzf to regulate cell self-renewal...
October 27, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
JiEun Yun, Dong Gun Lee
Cells contain a variety of proteins, including those forming a cellular defense system against oxidative stress and DNA damage. In this study, we examined the antibacterial effect of Tat (47-58) peptide, a cell-penetrating peptide, derived from human immunodeficiency virus-1 by focusing on the glutathione and SOS response. First, total glutathione levels were measured to reveal the cellular defense capacity against oxidative stress. Tat (47-58) decreased total glutathione and generated excessive reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative damage...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Mostafa Nasr, Mohamed Farghaly, Tarek Elsaba, Mohamed El-Mokhtar, Radwa Radwan, Mahmoud Elsabahy, Ahmed Abdelkareem, Hussein Fakhry, Noha Mousa
Female sex steroid hormones have a fundamental role in breast cancer. Meanwhile, current evidence supports the contribution of breast cancer stem cells in carcinogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the interaction between breast cancer stem cells with sex hormones or key hormonal antagonists remains elusive. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of diverse sex hormonal stimulation and suppression regimens on the proliferation of a primary human breast cancer cells with stem cell activity...
October 22, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Nayanendu Saha, Dorothea Robev, Emilia Mason, Juha P Himanen, Dimitar B Nikolov
The Eph-ephrin signaling pathway mediates developmental processes and the proper functioning of the adult human body. This distinctive bidirectional signaling pathway includes a canonical downstream signal cascade inside the Eph-bearing cells, as well as a reverse signaling in the ephrin-bearing cells. The signaling is terminated by ADAM metalloproteinase cleavage, internalization, and degradation of the Eph/ephrin complexes. Consequently, the Eph-ephrin-ADAM signaling cascade has emerged as a key target with immense therapeutic potential particularly in the context of cancer...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Xiao-Lin Wang, Wei Sun, Yuan-Li Zhou, Li Li
Background Cluster of differentiation 40 ligand (CD40L) and rosuvastatin (RSV) affect atherosclerotic plaque stability, but little is known about their roles in extracellular matrix (ECM) production. We investigated the effects of CD40L and RSV on pre-existing advanced plaques. Methods and results Pre-existing advanced plaques were induced in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/- ) mice by the surgical placement of carotid constrictive silastic collars. Two weeks after surgery, mice were divided into the following treatment groups: control, empty adenovirus, CD40L adenovirus, CD40L adenovirus + RSV, and RSV...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Jin-Sheng Zeng, Zhen-Dong Zhang, Li Pei, Zhi-Zhu Bai, Yong Yang, Hong Yang, Qiu-Hong Tian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Xiukun Cui, Jiuli Han, Jing Li, Wen-Wen Cui, Dan-Dan Wu, Shiyuan Liu, Wenxian Xue, Xiang-Xiang Wang, Yuanfang Ma, Jing Zhang, Jun Zhang, Hongmei Mu, Fengyan Zhang, Yanzhong Hu
Dysfunction of HSF4 is associated with congenital cataracts. HSF4 transcription activity is turned on and regulated by phosphorylation during early postnatal lens development. Our previous data suggested that mutation HSF4b/S299A can upregulate HSF4 transcription activity in vitro, but the biological significance of posttranslational modification on HSF4/S299 during lens development remains unclear. Here, we found that the mutation HSF4/S299A can upregulate the expression of HSP25 and alpha B-crystallin at both protein and mRNA levels in mouse the lens epithelial cell line, but HSF4/S299D does not...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
R Eric Blue, Amrita Koushik, Nichlas M Engels, Hannah J Wiedner, Thomas A Cooper, Jimena Giudice
Alternative splicing is a regulatory mechanism by which multiple mRNA isoforms are generated from single genes. Numerous genes that encode membrane trafficking proteins are alternatively spliced. However, there is limited information about the functional consequences that result from these splicing transitions. Here, we developed appropriate tools to study the functional impact of alternative splicing in development within the most in vivo context. Secondly, we provided evidence of the physiological implications of splicing regulation during muscle development...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Chun Sun, Lu Sun, Kai Jiang, Dong-Mei Gao, Xiao-Nan Kang, Cun Wang, Shu Zhang, Shan Huang, Xue Qin, Yan Li, Yin-Kun Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Peng Wang, Wenhui Chu, Xi Zhang, Bing Li, Junzhou Wu, Lihua Qi, Yu Yu, Hongquan Zhang
Integrin-interacting protein Kindlin-2, as a focal adhesion protein, promotes growth and progression of breast cancer. However, the precise mechanism that underlie the role of Kindlin-2 in breast cancer is elusive. Here, we report that the expression of Kindlin-2 positively correlated with DNA methyltransferase 1(DNMT1) in breast cancer patients. Further, we found that DNMT1 was upregulated in mammary gland tissues of mammary specific Kindlin-2 transgenic mice. More importantly, high expression of DNMT1 was observed in mammary tumors formed by Kindlin-2 transgenic mice...
October 2, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Raymond Kaempfer, Lise Sarah Namer, Farhat Osman, Lena Ilan
Once activated by double-helical RNA, mammalian RNA-dependent stress protein kinase, PKR, phosphorylates its substrate, translation initiation factor eIF2α, to inhibit translation. eIF2α phosphorylation is critical for mounting a cellular stress response. We describe short, 100-200 nucleotide elements within cellular genes that, once transcribed, form RNA structures that potently activate PKR in the vicinity of the RNA and thereby tightly regulate gene expression in cis. Intragenic RNA activators of PKR can (a) attenuate translation of the encoded mRNA by activating PKR and inducing eIF2α phosphorylation, exemplified by the IFN-γ gene, or (b) greatly enhance mRNA splicing efficiency by activating PKR and inducing nuclear eIF2α phosphorylation, thus enabling efficient early spliceosome assembly, exemplified by the adult and fetal globin genes and the TNF-α gene that activates PKR through an RNA pseudoknot conserved from fish to humans...
September 30, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Baocai Liu, Dongmei Han, Tingting Zhang, Guanghui Cheng, Lu Yinliang, Jinbao Wang, Hongfu Zhao, Zhipeng Zhao
Treatment failure through radioresistance of tumors is associated with activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Tumor cell proliferation, DNA-repair, hypoxia and metastases-formation are four mechanisms in which EGFR signaling has an important role. However, the effect of hypoxia on EGFR expression is still controversial. In this study, we demonstrated that hypoxia enhanced EGFR expression and sustained cell survival in SiHa, CAL 27 and A549 cells at both low and high cell desnities, while in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HeLa cells, EGFR and cell survival were regulated by hypoxic treatment in a cell-density dependent manner: upregulated at low cell density and downregulated at high cell density...
September 29, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Sohee Son, Eun Ji Park, Yejin Kim, Kang Choon Lee, Dong Hee Na
Endoplasmic reticulum stress has been considered a major cause of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis leading to diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation and chemical chaperones have been known to reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress and improve β-cell function and survival. The purpose of this study was to prepare and evaluate the chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid-conjugated exendin-4 as a protective agent for pancreatic β-cells. Mono-tauroursodeoxycholic acid-Lys27 -exendin-4 conjugate (TUM1-Ex4) showed better receptor binding affinity than other conjugates with strong in vitro insulinotropic activity in rat pancreatic β-cells and in vivo hypoglycemic activity in type 2 diabetic db/db mice...
September 28, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Taishu Wang, Duchuang Wang, Yue Zhang, Jinrui Zhang, Xiuna Sun, Yue Wu, Shanshan Wang, Yang Zhang, Lu Xu, Qingxia Kong, Yurou Gao, Yueguang Wu, Fang Liu, Shuyan Liu, Yingqiu Zhang, Ting Lei, Han Liu
Lung cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, with mutations in EGFR frequently detected that render this receptor tyrosine kinase constantly active. Targeted therapy against EGFR has proved effective in lung cancer treatment, but secondary mutations in EGFR frequently cause drug resistance. In the efforts made to investigate alternative ways to inhibit mutant EGFR, we observed that the dynamin inhibitor dynasore effectively suppressed the exon 19-deleted mutant of EGFR. This agent inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, cell migration, and cell cycle progression of HCC827 and H1650 cells driven by the exon 19-deleted EGFR mutant...
September 28, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Arman Akşit, Ida J van der Klei
Peroxisomes are single membrane enclosed cell organelles, which are present in almost all eukaryotic cells. In addition to the common peroxisomal pathways such as β-oxidation of fatty acids and decomposition of H2 O2 , these organelles fulfil a range of metabolic and non-metabolic functions. Peroxisomes are very important since various human disorders exist that are caused by a defect in peroxisome function. Here we describe our current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of peroxisome biogenesis in yeast, including peroxisomal protein sorting, organelle dynamics and peroxisomal membrane contact sites...
September 27, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
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