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International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology

Hugo R Arias, Xiaotao Jin, Dominik Feuerbach, Ryan M Drenan
The inhibitory activity of coronaridine congeners on human (h) α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) is determined by Ca(2+) influx assays, whereas their effects on neurons in the ventral inferior (VI) aspect of the mouse medial habenula (MHb) are determined by patch-clamp recordings. The Ca(2+) influx results clearly establish that coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with higher selectivity compared to hα4β2 and hα7 subtypes, and with the following potency sequence, for hα4β2: (±)-18-methoxycoronaridine [(±)-18-MC]>(+)-catharanthine>(±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine [(±)-18-MAC] ∼ (±)-18-hydroxycoronaridine [(±)-18-HC]; and for hα7: (+)-catharanthine>(±)-18-MC>(±)-18-HC>(±)-18-MAC...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
YoungHo Shin, Sungkyoung Lee, MyungHee Ku, Min-Kyu Kwak, Sa-Ouk Kang
D-erythroascorbate peroxidase (EAPX1) deficiency causes glutathione deprivation, leading to the accumulation of methylglyoxal and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and especially, induction of cytochrome c peroxidase (Ccp1) in Candida albicans. Nevertheless, reciprocal effects between changes in Ccp1 activity and the antioxidative D-erythroascorbic acid- and glutathione-dependent redox status, which reflects methylglyoxal biosynthesis altering pathophysiology are unclear in eukaryotes. To elucidate the effect of CCP1 expression on EAPX1 and glutathione reductase (Glr1) activity-mediated D-erythroascorbic acid biosynthesis and redox homeostasis, the CCP1 gene was disrupted and overexpressed...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Bob Meeusen, Veerle Janssens
Aberrant protein phosphorylation is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, and in many cases a prerequisite to sustain tumor development and progression. Like protein kinases, protein phosphatases are key regulators of cell signaling. However, their contribution to aberrant signaling in cancer cells is overall less well appreciated, and therefore, their clinical potential remains largely unexploited. In this review, we provide an overview of tumor suppressive protein phosphatases in human cancer. Along their mechanisms of inactivation in defined cancer contexts, we give an overview of their functional roles in diverse signaling pathways that contribute to their tumor suppressive abilities...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Sara Ayatollahi, Zahra Salmasi, Maryam Hashemi, Saeedeh Askarian, Reza Kazemi Oskuee, Khalil Abnous, Mohammad Ramezani
RNAi-based gene therapy has been recently considered as a promising approach against cancer. Targeted delivery of drug, gene or therapeutic RNAi-based systems to tumor cells is one of the important issues in order to reduce side effects on normal cells. Several strategies have been developed to improve the safety and selectivity of cancer treatments including antibodies, peptides and recently aptamers with various attractive characteristics including higher target specificity, affinity and reduced toxicity...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
C Watkins, K Murphy, S Yen, I Carafa, C A O'Shea, E A Vercoe, R P Ross, C Stanton, C A Ryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Yung-Lung Chang, Li-Chun Huang, Ying-Chuan Chen, Yi-Wen Wang, Dueng-Yuan Hueng, Shih-Ming Huang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary central nervous system malignant tumor. It responds poorly to standard therapies, such as surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Many chemotherapeutic drugs are focused on apoptosis induction and radiation sensitivity. Inhibition of histone acetylation via histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) is one such strategy. Statins (or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors) are classical drugs used to lower cholesterol but also inhibitors of histone deacetylation activity...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Paulina Jackowiak, Anna Hojka-Osinska, Katarzyna Gasiorek, Michal Stelmaszczuk, Dorota Gudanis, Zofia Gdaniec, Marek Figlerowicz
The folding of tRNA fragments (tRFs) into G-quadruplex structures and the implications of G-quadruplexes in translational inhibition have been studied mainly in mammalian systems. To increase our knowledge of these phenomena, we determined the influence of human and plant tRFs and model G-quadruplexes on translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract. The efficiency of translational inhibition in the mammalian system was strongly associated with the type of G-quadruplex topology. In the plant system, the ability of a small RNA to adopt the G-quadruplex conformation was not sufficient to repress translation, indicating the importance of other structural determinants...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Hardik Patel, Nahla Zaghloul, Ki Lin, Shu Fang Liu, Edmund J Miller, Mohamed Ahmed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary Hypertension (pH) is a chronic progressive disease. Endothelial cells (EC) play a central and critical role in the initiation and progression of pH. The NF-κB family (NF-κB1 (p50/p105), NF-κB2 (p52/p100), RelA (p65), RelB, and C-Rel) regulates a wide array of genes involved in inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, and survival. The involvement of specific NF-κB family members in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced pH remains to be determined...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Sachin N Meshram, Debasish Paul, Rajeshkumar Manne, Srinadh Choppara, Ganga Sankaran, Yashika Agrawal, Manas Kumar Santra
In response to diverse stresses, the canonical NF-κB pathway gets activated primarily to protect the cells and maintain their genomic integrity. It activates the cell cycle checkpoints allowing the cells with limited damage to restore a normal life cycle. One of the key events in activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway is the selective proteasomal degradation of IκBα. It has been previously shown that F-box protein βTRCP1 has limited role in directing the proteasomal degradation of IκBα during stress conditions...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Jia-Jun Qiu, Yan-Na Liu, Zhao-Rui Ren, Jing-Bin Yan
Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal disorder and underlies Down syndrome. Epigenetics, such as DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications, plays a vital role in Down syndrome. However, the functions of epigenetics-related long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), found to have an impact on neural diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, remain unknown in Down syndrome. In this study, we analyzed the RNA sequencing data from Down syndrome-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and normal iPSCs. A large number of lncRNAs were identified differentially expressed in Down syndrome-iPSCs...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Ming-Chang Chiang, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Christopher J Nicol, Chien-Hung Lin
Hyperglycemia is accompanied by an accelerated formation rate of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic neuronal deficits. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) belongs to a family of ligand-activated nuclear receptors and its ligands are known to control many physiological, pathological and inflammatory pathways. Weinvestigated the hypothesis that the PPARγ agonist (rosiglitazone) would abrogate AGEs-mediated neurotoxic effects on human neural stem cells (hNSCs), by whichAGEs may play a role in diabetic-related neuronal impairment...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Haribalan Perumalsamy, Karuppasamy Sankarapandian, Narendran Kandaswamy, Sri Renukadevi Balusamy, Dhaiveegan Periyathambi, Nanthini Raveendiran
BACKGROUND: Coumarins occurs naturally across plant kingdoms exhibits significant pharmacological properties and pharmacokinetic activity. The conventional, therapeutic agents are often associated with poor stability, absorption and increased side effects. Therefore, identification of a drug that has little or no-side effect on humans is consequential. Here, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of styrene substituted biscoumarin against various human breast cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7, (ER-) MDA-MB-231 and (AR+) MDA-MB-453...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Zhuohui Wei, Chang Shu, Changsheng Zhang, Jingying Huang, Hongmin Cai
The field of single-cell sequencing is fleetly expanding, and many techniques have been developed in the past decade. With this technology, biologists can study not only the heterogeneity between two adjacent cells in the same tissue or organ, but also the evolutionary relationships and degenerative processes in a single cell. Calling variants is the main purpose in analyzing single cell sequencing (SCS) data. Currently, some popular methods used for bulk-cell-sequencing data analysis are tailored directly to be applied in dealing with SCS data...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Hilda van den Bos, Bjorn Bakker, Diana C J Spierings, Peter M Lansdorp, Floris Foijer
The use of single-cell DNA sequencing (sc-seq) techniques for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer is a rapidly developing field. Sc-seq research is gaining momentum by decreased sequencing costs and continuous improvements in techniques. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advancements in the field of sc-seq in cancer and we discuss how sc-seq can contribute to improved care for cancer patients. Sc-seq has made it possible to study the genomes of individual cancer cells from primary tumors, metastases and circulating tumor cells, revealing inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity, which cannot be detected using other methods...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Nidhish Francis, Alison L Every, Babatunde A Ayodele, Robert N Pike, Eleanor J Mackie, Charles N Pagel
Activation of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) expressed by T cells has been linked to the bone loss associated with periodontitis. We generated PAR2 conditional-null mice and crossed these with mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the Lck proximal promoter, to produce T cell-specific PAR2-null mice in order to further study the cellular mechanism involved in periodontitis. Here we report that efficient deletion of PAR2 in thymocytes isolated from T cell-specific PAR2-null mice resulted in thymic and splenic hypoplasia and a reduction in the cells of the cortex and a loss of distinction between the cortex and the medulla of the thymus...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
John S Lazo, Kelley E McQueeney, James C Burnett, Peter Wipf, Elizabeth R Sharlow
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) undeniably have a central role in the development and progression of human cancers. Historically, however, PTPs have not been viewed as privileged drug targets, and progress on identifying potent, selective, and cell-active small molecule PTP inhibitors has suffered accordingly. This situation is rapidly changing, however, due to biochemical advances in the study of PTPs and recent small molecule screening campaigns, which have identified potent and mechanistically diverse lead structures...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Ari Elson
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is critical for proper function of cells and organisms. Phosphorylation is regulated by the concerted but generically opposing activities of tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which ensure its proper regulation, reversibility, and ability to respond to changing physiological situations. Historically, PTKs have been associated mainly with oncogenic and pro-tumorigenic activities, leading to the generalization that protein dephosphorylation is anti-oncogenic and hence that PTPs are tumor-suppressors...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Kyria Santiago Nascimento, Mayara Queiroz Santiago, Vanir Reis Pinto-Junior, Vinicius Jose Silva Osterne, Francisco William Viana Martins, Ana Paula Machado Nascimento, Ingrid Alessandra Victoria Wolin, Isabella Aparecida Heinrich, Maria Gleiciane Queiroz Martins, Mayara Torquato Lima Silva, Claudia Figueiredo Lossio, Cíntia Renata Costa Rocha, Rodrigo Bainy Leal, Benildo Sousa Cavada
Lectins are multidomain proteins that specifically recognize various carbohydrates. The structural characterization of these molecules is crucial in understanding their function and activity in systems and organisms. Most cancer cells exhibit changes in glycosylation patterns, and lectins may be able to recognize these changes. In this work, Dioclea lasiocarpa seed lectin (DLL) was structurally characterized. The lectin presented a high degree of similarity with other lectins isolated from legumes, presenting a jelly roll motif and a metal-binding site stabilizing the carbohydrate-recognition domain...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Simin Shao, Chonghua Ren, Zhongtian Liu, Yichun Bai, Zhilong Chen, Zehui Wei, Xin Wang, Zhiying Zhang, Kun Xu
Precise genome editing with desired point mutations can be generated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair (HDR) and is of great significance for gene function study, gene therapy and animal breeding. However, HDR efficiency is inherently low and improvements are necessitated. Herein, we determined that the HDR efficiency could be enhanced by expressing Rad52, a gene that is involved in the homologous recombination process. Both the Rad52 co-expression and Rad52-Cas9 fusion strategies yielded approximately 3-fold increase in HDR during the surrogate reporter assays in human HEK293T cells, as well as in the genome editing assays...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Huai Wang, Jiang Feng, Tong Zhou, Lijun Wei, Jianming Zhou
Previously, we demonstrated that P-3F, a podophyllum derivative, exhibits a 297-fold enhancement in antitumor activity than VP-16, used as anticancer agent in clinical. The purpose of our present study was to investigate the precise antitumor mechanism action of P-3F. It showed that P-3F inhibited microtubule polymerization in a concentration-dependent manner. The results were in overall agreement with modeling and docking studies performed on P-3F and tubulin. In addition, P-3F increased the levels of P53, this in turn prolonged P53 half-life...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
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