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International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology

Jun Tian, Zhaoqun Lu, Yanzhen Wang, Man Zhang, Xueyan Wang, Xudong Tang, Xue Peng, Hong Zeng
The antifungal activity of Nerol (NEL) against Candida albicans, a pathogenic fungus, has a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4.4mM that causes noteworthy candidacidal activity through an apoptosis-like mechanism. Calcium (Ca(2+)) levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which are the major causes of apoptosis, were determined in C. albicans cells treated with NEL and were found to increase, which related to mitochondrial dysfunction and disruption. A series of characteristic changes of apoptosis caused by NEL, including mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c (cyt c) release, and metacaspase activation were examined using a flow cytometer and Western blot...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Hideaki Ohtsubo, Yusuke Sato, Takahiro Suzuki, Wataru Mizunoya, Mako Nakamura, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Yoshihide Ikeuchi
Recently we found that the deficiency of APOBEC2, a member of apoB mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like family, leads to a diminished muscle mass and increased myofiber with centrally-located nuclei known as dystrophic phenotypes. APOBEC2 expression is predominant in skeletal and cardiac muscles and elevated exclusively at the early-differentiation phase of wild-type (WT) myoblast cultures; however the physiological significance is still un-known. Here we show that APOBEC2 is a key negative regulator of myoblast differentiation in muscle regeneration...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Felipe Alcántara-Sánchez, Lourdes Elizabeth Leyva-Castillo, Alicia Chagolla-López, Luis González de la Vara, Carlos Gómez-Lojero
Ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) transfers reducing equivalents between ferredoxin and NADP(H) in the photosynthetic electron transport chains of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. In most cyanobacteria, FNR is coded by a single petH gene. The structure of FNR in photosynthetic organisms can be constituted by FAD-binding and NADPH-binding domains (FNR-2D), or by these and an additional N-terminal domain (FNR-3D). In this article, biochemical evidence is provided supporting the induction of FNR-2D by iron or combined nitrogen deficiency in the cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC 6803 and Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Vai Hong Fong, Shaun Wong, Amandio Vieira
The cytotoxicity of amyloidogenic proteins such as transthyretin (TTR) has implications for neurodegeneration and other pathologies, but is not well understood. In the current study, potential effects of misfolded, aggregated TTRs (agTTR) upon a major cell membrane function-endocytosis-were assessed. Internalization of transferrin (Tf), a ligand whose receptor-mediated endocytosis is well characterized, was analyzed in different cell types after treatment with agTTR. The results indicate disruption of Tf endocytosis: 20-25% inhibition by agTTR relative to the same concentrations of normal soluble TTR, or relative to another control protein, albumin (p<0...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Stefan J Siira, Anne-Marie J Shearwood, Cameron P Bracken, Oliver Rackham, Aleksandra Filipovska
The expression of mitochondrially-encoded genes requires the efficient processing of long precursor RNAs at the 5' and 3' ends of tRNAs, a process which, when disrupted, results in disease. Two such mutations reside within mt-tRNA(Leu(UUR)); a m.3243A > G transition, which is the most common cause of MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes), and m.3302A > G which often causes mitochondrial myopathy (MM). We used parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE) that captures the 5' terminal end of 5'-monophosphorylated mitochondrial RNAs to compare the effects of the m...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Huichun Tong, Xiuping Zhang, Xingjun Meng, Pingyi Xu, Xiaoming Zou, Shaogang Qu
Glutamate is an essential excitatory neurotransmitter that regulates brain functions, and its activity is tightly regulated by glutamate transporters. Excess glutamate in the synaptic cleft and dysfunction of excitatory amino acid transporters have been shown to be involved in development of Alzheimer's disease, but the precise regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. Using a D-[(3)H]-aspartic acid uptake assay, we found that Aβ1-42 oligomers impaired glutamate uptake in astrocytes and neurons. In astrocytes, this process was accompanied by reduced expression of GLT-1 and GLAST as detected by Western blot and immunocytofluorescence...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Stefan Allmann, Frédéric Bringaud
Peroxisomes are single-membrane cellular organelles, present in most eukaryotic cells and organisms from human to yeast, fulfilling essential metabolic functions in lipid metabolism, free radical detoxification, differentiation, development, morphogenesis, etc. Interestingly, the protozoan parasite species Trypanosoma contains peroxisome-like organelles named glycosomes, which lack hallmark peroxisomal pathways and enzymes, such as catalase. Glycosomes are the only peroxisome-like organelles containing most enzymatic steps of the glycolytic pathway as well as enzymes of pyrimidine biosynthesis, purine salvage and biosynthesis of nucleotide sugars...
February 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Jon K Chen, Dong Yang, Ben Shen, Vincent Murray
Bleomycin (BLM) is a cancer chemotherapeutic agent that is used in the treatment of several types of tumours. The cytotoxicity of three BLM analogues, BLM Z, 6'-deoxy-BLM Z and zorbamycin (ZBM), was determined in human HeLa cells in comparison with BLM. It was found that the IC50 values were 2.9μM for 6'-deoxy-BLM Z, 3.2μM for BLM Z, 4.4μM for BLM and 7.9μM for ZBM in HeLa cells. Using next-generation Illumina DNA sequencing techniques, the genome-wide cleavage of DNA by the BLM analogues was determined in human HeLa cells and compared with BLM...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Yijie Dong, Dan Zhang, Qilin Yu, Qiang Zhao, Chenpeng Xiao, Kai Zhang, Chang Jia, Sijia Chen, Bing Zhang, Biao Zhang, Mingchun Li
Iron-sulfur clusters perform essential functions in enzymatic catalysis and homeostatic regulation. Here we for the first time identified Ssq1 as an essential component for iron-sulfur cluster assembly in Candida albicans. Ssq1 played an important role in cell growth. Shutting off SSQ1 led to accumulation of intracellular iron, especially in mitochondria, and disorder of intracellular iron regulation. In tetO-SSQ1, iron overloading triggered the oxidative damage of mitochondrial function. Surprisingly, disruption of SSQ1 activated autophagic pathway...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Monica Tyagi, Divya Reddy, Sanjay Gupta
Differential expression of homomorphous variants of H2A family of histone H2A.1 and H2A.2 have been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma and maintenance of undifferentiated state of hepatocyte. However, not much is known about the transcriptional regulation of these H2A variants. The current study revealed the presence of 43bp 5'-regulatory region upstream of translation start site and a 26bp 3' stem loop conserved region for both the H2A.1 and H2A.2 variants. However, alignment of both H2A.1 and H2A.2 5'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences revealed no significant degree of homology between them despite the coding exon being very similar amongst the variants...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Jyoti Kureel, Aijaz A John, Manisha Dixit, Divya Singh
MicroRNAs are important post transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play critical role in osteoblast differentiation. In this study we report miR-467g, an uncharacterized novel miRNA, in regulation of osteoblast functions. Over-expression of miR-467g inhibited osteoblast differentiation. Target prediction analysis tools and experimental validation by luciferase 3' UTR reporter assay identified Runx-2 as a direct target of miR-467g. Over expression of miR-467g in osteoblasts down regulated Runx-2 and Ihh signaling components...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Xin Wu, Yuanyuan Ruan, Hua Jiang, Congjian Xu
Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is overexpressed in many cancers and acts as a tumor stem cell marker. Here, we investigated the role of DCLK1 and microRNA-424 (miR-424) in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC), a histopathologically distinct subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with poor prognosis and chemotherapy resistance. Analysis of samples from 30 OCCC patients showed that DCLK1 was upregulated and miR-424 was downregulated in tumors compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. DCLK1 overexpression promoted OCCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, whereas DCLK1 knockdown reduced cell viability and invasion and induced growth arrest in vitro and in vivo...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Juliane Lokau, Marieke Wandel, Christoph Garbers
Proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound Interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) by the metalloprotease ADAM17 releases an agonistic soluble form of the IL-6R (sIL-6R), which is responsible for the pro-inflammatory trans-signaling branch of the cytokine's activities. This proteolytic step, which is also called ectodomain shedding, is critically regulated by the cleavage site within the IL-6R stalk, because mutations or small deletions within this region are known to render the IL-6R irresponsive towards proteolysis...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Romina E Maltaneri, María E Chamorro, Agustina Schiappacasse, Alcira B Nesse, Daniela C Vittori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Shirin Pournourmohammadi, Mariagrazia Grimaldi, Malin H Stridh, Vanessa Lavallard, Helle S Waagepetersen, Claes B Wollheim, Pierre Maechler
Glucose homeostasis is determined by insulin secretion from the ß-cells in pancreatic islets and by glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and other insulin target tissues. While glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) senses mitochondrial energy supply and regulates insulin secretion, its role in the muscle has not been elucidated. Here we investigated the possible interplay between GDH and the cytosolic energy sensing enzyme 5'-AMP kinase (AMPK), in both isolated islets and myotubes from mice and humans. The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was used to inhibit GDH...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Deepti Dabral, Jens R Coorssen
Membrane fusion is a fundamental molecular mechanism by which two apposed membrane bilayers coalesce in rapid, transient steps that enable the successive merging of the outer and inner leaflets allowing lipid intermixing and subsequent mixing of the two previously separate compartments. The actual membrane merger mechanism - fusion, by definition - is conceptualized to be protein- or lipid-centric. According to the widely vetted stalk-pore hypothesis, membrane fusion proceeds via high curvature lipid intermediates...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Louise Torp Dalgaard, Lena Eliasson
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are cellular, short, non-coding ribonucleotides acting as endogenous posttranscriptional repressors following incorporation in the RNA-induced silencing complex. Despite being chemically and mechanistically very similar, miRNAs exert a multitude of different cellular effects by acting on mRNA species, whose gene-products partake in a wide array of processes. Here, the aim was to review the knowledge of miRNA expression and action in the islet of Langerhans. We have focused on: 1) physiological consequences of islet or beta cell specific inhibition of miRNA processing, 2) mechanisms regulating processing of miRNAs in islet cells, 3) presence and function of miRNAs in alpha versus beta cells - the two main cell types of islets, and 4) miRNA mediators of beta cell decompensation...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Hongxia Li, Yanjie Xu, Wenqi Shi, Fuyan Li, Qingshi Zeng, Cui Yi
Glioma is one of the most common types of brain tumors. DNA damage is closely associated with glioma cell apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation. Alterations of metabolites in glioma can be detected noninvasively by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. To noninvasively explore the micro mechanism in X-ray irradiation-induced apoptosis, the relationship between metabolites and DNA damage in glioma cells was investigated. Three glioma cell lines (C6, U87 and U251) were randomly designated as control (0Gy) and treatment groups (1, 5, 10, 15Gy)...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Nicolas Damond, Fabrizio Thorel, Seung K Kim, Pedro L Herrera
In addition to β-cells, pancreatic islets contain α- and δ-cells, which respectively produce glucagon and somatostatin. The reprogramming of these two endocrine cell types into insulin producers, as observed after a massive β-cell ablation in mice, may help restoring a functional β-cell mass in type 1 diabetes. Yet, the spontaneous α-to-β and δ-to-β conversion processes are relatively inefficient in adult animals and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms remain unclear. Several studies indicate that the conserved chromatin modifiers DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) and Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2) are important for pancreas development and restrict islet cell plasticity...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Richard Kasprowicz, Rakesh Suman, Peter O'Toole
Label-free imaging uses inherent contrast mechanisms within cells to create image contrast without introducing dyes/labels, which may confound results. Quantitative phase imaging is label-free and offers higher content and contrast compared to traditional techniques. High-contrast images facilitate generation of individual cell metrics via more robust segmentation and tracking, enabling formation of a label-free dynamic phenotype describing cell-to-cell heterogeneity and temporal changes. Compared to population-level averages, individual cell-level dynamic phenotypes have greater power to differentiate between cellular responses to treatments, which has clinical relevance e...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
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