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International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323208/platinum-replica-electron-microscopy-imaging-the-cytoskeleton-globally-and-locally
#1
Tatyana M Svitkina
Structural studies reveal how smaller components of a system work together as a whole. However, combining high resolution of details with full coverage of the whole is challenging. In cell biology, light microscopy can image many cells in their entirety, but at a lower resolution, whereas electron microscopy affords very high resolution, but usually at the expense of the sample size and coverage. Structural analyses of the cytoskeleton are especially demanding, because cytoskeletal networks are unresolvable by light microscopy due to their density and intricacy, whereas their proper preservation is a challenge for electron microscopy...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323211/metabolic-pathway-of-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide-1%C3%AE-d-ribonucleoside-and-its-effects-on-cellular-energetics
#2
Iwona Pelikant-Malecka, Ewa Kaniewska-Bednarczuk, Sylwia Szrok, Alicja Sielicka, Maciej Śledziński, Czesława Orlewska, Ryszard T Smolenski, Ewa M Słomińska
4-Pirydone-3-carboxamide-1β-D-ribonucleoside (4PYR) is an endogenous nucleoside that could be converted to triphosphates, diphosphates, monophosphates and an analogue of NAD - 4PYRAD. Elevated level of these compounds were observed in chronic renal failure, cancer and active HIV infection. However, little is known about the effect on cell functionality and the metabolic pathways. This study tested effects of 4PYR in different cell types on nucleotide and energy metabolism and clarified enzymes that are involved in conversions of 4PYR...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323210/the-protective-activity-of-mesothelial-cells-against-peritoneal-growth-of-gastrointestinal-tumors-the-role-of-soluble-icam-1
#3
Justyna Mikuła-Pietrasik, Paweł Uruski, Małgorzata Kucińska, Andrzej Tykarski, Krzysztof Książek
In this project we examined how the presence of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) modifies (supports or inhibits) colorectal and pancreatic cancer cell progression in mice peritoneal cavity. Experiments were performed using primary, omentum-derived HPMCs, commercially available colorectal (SW-480) and pancreatic (PSN-1) cancer cells, and immunocompromised SCID mice. Tumor growth within the peritoneal cavity was monitored using bioluminescence. Adhesion of the cancer cells to HPMCs was examined using a fluorescence-based method, while the incidence of apoptosis was quantified using flow cytometry...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323209/sox9-a-genomic-view-of-tissue-specific-expression-and-action
#4
Aleisha Symon, Vincent Harley
The SOX9 transcription factor controls cell differentiation of many cell types among vertebrates. The SOX9 gene locus is large and complex and contains various tissue-specific enhancers. Individual enhancers direct specific expression of SOX9 in chondrocytes, Sertoli cells and cranial neural crest cells. Human SOX9 mutations can lead to either the complete Campomelic Dysplasia syndrome, or isolated clinical features, depending upon whether the mutation occurs in the coding region or in regulatory regions. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation has helped to define SOX9 control of target gene expression at the genome wide level in hair follicle stem cells and in chondrocytes where SOX9 binds at super-enhancers...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323207/l-type-calcium-channel-clarifying-the-oxygen-sensing-hypothesis
#5
Henrietta Cserne Szappanos, Helena Viola, Livia C Hool
The heart is able to respond acutely to changes in oxygen tension. Since ion channels can respond rapidly to stimuli, the "ion channel oxygen sensing hypothesis" has been proposed to explain acute adaptation of cells to changes in oxygen demand. However the exact mechanism for oxygen sensing continues to be debated. Mitochondria consume the lion's share of oxygen in the heart, fuelling the production of ATP that drives excitation and contraction. Mitochondria also produce reactive oxygen species that are capable of altering the redox state of proteins...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323206/ligands-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-promote-glutamate-transporter-1-endocytosis-in-astrocytes
#6
Hui-Ting Huang, Chih-Kai Liao, Wen-Tai Chiu, Shun-Fen Tzeng
Astrocytes, a stellate-shape glial population in the central nervous system (CNS), maintain glutamate homeostasis in adult CNS by undergoing glutamate uptake at the synapse through their glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) can be activated by endogenous saturated fatty acids to regulate astrocytic lipid metabolism and functions. However, it is unclear if PPARα can exert the regulatory action on GLT-1 expression in astrocytes. This study showed that treatment with palmitic acid (PA) and the other two PPARα agonists (GW 7647 and WY 14,643) caused no change in the morphology of astrocytes, whereas membranous GLT-1 protein levels in astrocytes were significantly decreased by PA and PPARα agonists...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288913/germ-cell-neoplasia-in-situ-the-precursor-cell-for-invasive-germ-cell-tumors-of-the-testis
#7
Cassy M Spiller, Josephine Bowles
Germ cell neoplasia in situ is the non-invasive precursor cell of origin for type II testicular germ cell tumors. It has long been postulated that germ cell neoplasia in situ is derived from defective germ cell development during embryonic life, and although it is impossible to trace in vivo the progression from fetal germ cell to germ cell neoplasia in situ to tumor, there is a large volume of evidence supporting this theory. Current studies focus on understanding how germ cell neoplasia in situ forms, how these cells are activated at puberty and how they transform to invasive tumors of various subtypes...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268199/role-of-leishmanial-acidocalcisomal-pyrophosphatase-in-the-camp-homeostasis-in-phagolysosome-conditions-required-for-intra-macrophage-survival
#8
Arunima Biswas, Arijit Bhattacharya, Amit Vij, Pijush K Das
Exposure of Leishmania donovani to macrophage phagolysosome conditions (PC) (37°C and pH 5.5) led to increased intracellular cAMP and cAMP-mediated responses, which help in intra-macrophage survival pre-requisite for infectivity. In the absence of typical orthologs for G-proteins and G-protein coupled receptors, we sought to study the precise mechanisms for positive modulation of cAMP production during exposure to PC. Amongst two promastigote-stage specific membrane bound receptor adenylate cyclases (LdRAC-A and LdRAC-B), LdRAC-A appeared to function as a major cAMP generator following PC exposure...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274689/combined-wharton-s-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-nerve-guidance-conduit-a-potential-promising-therapy-for-peripheral-nerve-injuries
#9
Sally M Shalaby, Amal S El-Shal, Faiza E Ahmed, Sahar F Shaban, Rania A Wahdan, Wael A Kandel, Mohammed S Senger
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injuries represent a clinical problem with insufficient or unsatisfactory treatment options. Functional outcome with nerve guidance conduits was unsatisfactory in nerve defects with increased gap size. So, cell therapy may benefit as a tool for optimizing the regeneration process. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of combination of cell therapy and nerve guidance conduits on the nerve regeneration and on the expression of the factors aiding the regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury...
March 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274688/interleukin-2-and-interleukin-10-function-synergistically-to-promote-cd8-t-cell-cytotoxicity-which-is-suppressed-by-regulatory-t-cells-in-breast-cancer
#10
Xiaogang Li, Ping Lu, Bo Li, Wanfu Zhang, Rong Yang, Yan Chu, Kaiyuan Luo
The precise role of interleukin (IL)-10 in breast cancer is not clear. Previous studies suggested a tumor-promoting role of IL-10 in breast cancer, whereas recent discoveries that IL-10 activated and expanded tumor-resident CD8(+) T cells challenged the traditional view. Here, we investigated the role of IL-10 in HLA-A2-positive breast cancer patients with Grade III, Stage IIA or IIB in-situ and invasive ductal carcinoma, and compared it with that of IL-2, the canonical CD8(+) T cell growth factor. We first observed that breast cancer patients presented higher serum levels of IL-2 and IL-10 than healthy controls...
March 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259749/metabolic-rewiring-in-cancer-cells-overexpressing-the-glucocorticoid-induced-leucine-zipper-protein-gilz-activation-of-mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-sensitization-to-oxidative-cell-death-induced-by-mitochondrial-targeted-drugs
#11
Fanny André, Anne Trinh, Stéphane Balayssac, Patrice Maboudou, Salim Dekiouk, Myriam Malet-Martino, Bruno Quesnel, Thierry Idziorek, Jérome Kluza, Philippe Marchetti
Cancer cell metabolism is largely controlled by oncogenic signals and nutrient availability. Here, we highlighted that the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), an intracellular protein influencing many signaling pathways, reprograms cancer cell metabolism to promote proliferation. We provided evidence that GILZ overexpression induced a significant increase of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation as evidenced by the augmentation in basal respiration, ATP-linked respiration as well as respiratory capacity...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242360/transcriptome-analysis-of-clostridium-beijerinckii-adaptation-mechanisms-in-response-to-ferulic-acid
#12
Jun Liu, Ting Guo, Tao Yang, Jiahui Xu, Chenglun Tang, Dong Liu, Hanjie Ying
Clostridium beijerinckii 4693:int with high ferulic acid (FA) tolerance was engineered and characterized in our lab. In this study, the minimum inhibition concentrations of FA against C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 (wild-type) and 4693:int were 1.0 and 1.5g/l, respectively; cell viability was 18.5% and 106.7%, respectively, in the presence of 0.5g/l FA. A comparative transcriptome analysis was carried out at two different growth stages to evaluate sensitivity to FA. Genes that were differentially expressed included those related to redox and associated cofactors, riboflavin metabolism, two-component system, glycolysis and butanoate metabolism, and DNA replication as well as those encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238937/sp1-is-a-competitive-endogenous-rna-of-klf4-during-odontoblast-differentiation
#13
Jie Zhang, Huan Liu, Heng Lin, Shuchen Li, Huangheng Tao, Lu Zhang, Guohua Yuan, Zhi Chen
Our previous studies have demonstrated that KLF4 is a critical transcription factor that promotes the odontoblastic differentiation of dental papilla cells. Klf4 mRNA was found to be regulated by multiple microRNAs (miRNAs). Competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) are a group of transcripts post-transcriptionally regulating each other by competing for their common miRNAs. However, the regulation of Klf4 by ceRNAs in odontoblastic differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we predicted a group of potential Klf4 ceRNAs with bioinformatics approach, and examined the expression of Klf4 and five interested potential ceRNAs including Sp1 using real-time PCR during odontoblastic differentiation of mDPC6T...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254430/anti-tumor-activity-of-pi3k-%C3%AE-inhibitor-in-hematologic-malignant-cells-shedding-new-light-on-resistance-to-idelalisib
#14
Davood Bashash, Ava Safaroghli-Azar, Maryam Dadashi, Majid Safa, Majid Momeny, Seyed H Ghaffari
Genetic and laboratory experiments have brought remarkable advances in management of human malignancies, which not only revolutionized the understanding of the disease, but also led to development of novel and effective targeted therapies against specific deregulated pathways. This study aimed to investigate anti-cancer effects of Idelalisib, a potent PI3K-δ inhibitor, in a panel of hematological cell lines. The resulting data showed that Idelalisib decreased cell survival in all the tested cell lines; however, as compared to NB4, viability of other cell lines, irrespective of their molecular characteristics or even the compensatory activation of MEK/ERK pathway, was inhibited at higher concentrations...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232107/effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-induced-skeletal-muscle-chemodenervation-atrophy-in-adult-male-albino-rats
#15
Azza S Shehata, Nabila M Al-Ghonemy, Samah M Ahmed, Samar R Mohamed
The present research was conducted to evaluate the effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) as a potential therapeutic tool for improvement of skeletal muscle recovery after induced chemodenervation atrophy by repeated local injection of botulinum toxin-A in the right tibialis anterior muscle of adult male albino rats. Forty five adult Wistar male albino rats were classified into control and experimental groups. Experimental group was further subdivided into 3 equal subgroups; induced atrophy, BM-MSCs treated and recovery groups...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213053/nerol-triggers-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-disruption-via-elevation-of-ca-2-and-ros-in-candida-albicans
#16
Jun Tian, Zhaoqun Lu, Yanzhen Wang, Man Zhang, Xueyan Wang, Xudong Tang, Xue Peng, Hong Zeng
The antifungal activity of Nerol (NEL) against Candida albicans, a pathogenic fungus, has a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4.4mM that causes noteworthy candidacidal activity through an apoptosis-like mechanism. Calcium (Ca(2+)) levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which are the major causes of apoptosis, were determined in C. albicans cells treated with NEL and were found to increase, which related to mitochondrial dysfunction and disruption. A series of characteristic changes of apoptosis caused by NEL, including mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c (cyt c) release, and metacaspase activation were examined using a flow cytometer and Western blot...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215905/apobec2-negatively-regulates-myoblast-differentiation-in-muscle-regeneration
#17
Hideaki Ohtsubo, Yusuke Sato, Takahiro Suzuki, Wataru Mizunoya, Mako Nakamura, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Yoshihide Ikeuchi
Recently we found that the deficiency of APOBEC2, a member of apoB mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like family, leads to a diminished muscle mass and increased myofiber with centrally-located nuclei known as dystrophic phenotypes. APOBEC2 expression is predominant in skeletal and cardiac muscles and elevated exclusively at the early-differentiation phase of wild-type (WT) myoblast cultures; however the physiological significance is still un-known. Here we show that APOBEC2 is a key negative regulator of myoblast differentiation in muscle regeneration...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189844/disruption-of-endocytic-transport-by-transthyretin-aggregates
#18
Vai Hong Fong, Shaun Wong, Amandio Vieira
The cytotoxicity of amyloidogenic proteins such as transthyretin (TTR) has implications for neurodegeneration and other pathologies, but is not well understood. In the current study, potential effects of misfolded, aggregated TTRs (agTTR) upon a major cell membrane function-endocytosis-were assessed. Internalization of transferrin (Tf), a ligand whose receptor-mediated endocytosis is well characterized, was analyzed in different cell types after treatment with agTTR. The results indicate disruption of Tf endocytosis: 20-25% inhibition by agTTR relative to the same concentrations of normal soluble TTR, or relative to another control protein, albumin (p<0...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189843/defects-in-rna-metabolism-in-mitochondrial-disease
#19
Stefan J Siira, Anne-Marie J Shearwood, Cameron P Bracken, Oliver Rackham, Aleksandra Filipovska
The expression of mitochondrially-encoded genes requires the efficient processing of long precursor RNAs at the 5' and 3' ends of tRNAs, a process which, when disrupted, results in disease. Two such mutations reside within mt-tRNA(Leu(UUR)); a m.3243A>G transition, which is the most common cause of MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes), and m.3302A>G which often causes mitochondrial myopathy (MM). We used parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE) that captures the 5' terminal end of 5'-monophosphorylated mitochondrial RNAs to compare the effects of the m...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189842/distribution-of-isoforms-of-ferredoxin-nadp-reductase-fnr-in-cyanobacteria-in-two-growth-conditions
#20
Felipe Alcántara-Sánchez, Lourdes Elizabeth Leyva-Castillo, Alicia Chagolla-López, Luis González de la Vara, Carlos Gómez-Lojero
Ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) transfers reducing equivalents between ferredoxin and NADP(H) in the photosynthetic electron transport chains of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. In most cyanobacteria, FNR is coded by a single petH gene. The structure of FNR in photosynthetic organisms can be constituted by FAD-binding and NADPH-binding domains (FNR-2D), or by these and an additional N-terminal domain (FNR-3D). In this article, biochemical evidence is provided supporting the induction of FNR-2D by iron or combined nitrogen deficiency in the cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC 6803 and Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
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