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Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232238/dynamic-association-of-epigenetic-h3k4me3-and-dna-5hmc-marks-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-following-reactivation-of-a-fear-memory
#1
William M Webb, Richard G Sanchez, Gabriella Perez, Anderson A Butler, Rebecca M Hauser, Megan C Rich, Aidan L O'Bierne, Timothy J Jarome, Farah D Lubin
Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone methylation are critical regulators of gene transcription changes during memory consolidation. However, it is unknown how these epigenetic modifications coordinate to control gene expression following reactivation of a previously consolidated memory. Here, we found that retrieval of a recent contextual fear conditioned memory increased global levels of H3 lysine 4-trimethylation (H3K4me3) and DNA 5-hydroxymethylation (5hmC) in area CA1 of the dorsal hippocampus...
February 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219752/sleep-does-not-facilitate-insight-in-older-adults
#2
Ursula Debarnot, Marta Rossi, Sophie Schwartz, Ugo Faraguna, Laura Sebastiani
Sleep has been shown to foster the process of insight generation in young adults during problem solving activities. Aging is characterized by substantial changes in sleep architecture altering memory consolidation. Whether sleep might promote the occurrence of insight in older adults as well has not yet been tested experimentally. To address this issue, we tested healthy young and old volunteers on an insight problem solving task, involving both explicit and implicit features, before and after a night of sleep or a comparable wakefulness period...
February 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219751/evidence-for-a-role-of-corticopetal-noradrenergic-systems-in-the-development-of-executive-function
#3
David J Mokler, Christine E Miller, Jill A McGaughy
Adolescence is a period during which many aspects of executive function are maturing. Much of the literature has focused on discrepancies between sub-cortical and cortical development that is hypothesized to lead to over-processing of reinforcement related stimuli unchecked by fully matured response inhibition. Specifically, maturation of sub-cortical dopaminergic systems that terminate in the nucleus accumbens has been suggested to occur prior to the full maturation of corticopetal dopaminergic systems. However, converging evidence supports the hypothesis that many aspects of cognitive control are critically linked to cortical noradrenergic systems, that the effectiveness of drugs used to treat disorders of executive function, e...
February 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216206/applications-and-limitations-of-behaviorally-conditioned-immunopharmacological-responses
#4
Laura Lückemann, Meike Unteroberdörster, Julia Kirchhof, Manfred Schedlowski, Martin Hadamitzky
The importance of placebo responses for the treatment of various medical conditions has increasingly been recognized, whereas knowledge and systematic application in clinical settings are still sparse. One possible application for placebo responses in pharmacotherapy is given by learning paradigms, such as behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression, aiming at drug dose reduction while maintaining therapeutic efficacy of drug treatment. In an established learning paradigm of conditioned taste aversion/avoidance (CTA) in both, rats and humans, respectively, a novel-tasting drinking solution (conditioned stimulus, CS) is paired with an injection of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) as unconditioned stimulus (US)...
February 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213064/juvenile-treatment-with-a-novel-mglur2-agonist-mglur3-antagonist-compound-ly395756-reverses-learning-deficits-and-cognitive-flexibility-impairments-in-adults-in-a-neurodevelopmental-model-of-schizophrenia
#5
Meng-Lin Li, Yelena Gulchina, Sarah A Monaco, Bo Xing, Brielle R Ferguson, Yan-Chun Li, Feng Li, Xi-Quan Hu, Wen-Jun Gao
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder, in which cognitive function becomes disrupted at early stages of the disease. Although the mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments remain unclear, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) hypofunctioning in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated. Moreover, cognitive symptoms in SCZ are usually unresponsive to treatment with current antipsychotics and by onset, disruption of the dopamine system, not NMDAR hypofunctioning, dominates the symptoms...
February 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232148/the-affect-tagging-and-consolidation-atac-model-of-depression-vulnerability
#6
REVIEW
Marcus O Harrington, Kyla Pennington, Simon J Durrant
Since the 1960's polysomnographic sleep research has demonstrated that depressive episodes are associated with REM sleep alterations. Some of these alterations, such as increased REM sleep density, have also been observed in first-degree relatives of patients and remitted patients, suggesting that they may be vulnerability markers of major depressive disorder (MDD), rather than mere epiphenomena of the disorder. Neuroimaging studies have revealed that depression is also associated with heightened amygdala reactivity to negative emotional stimuli, which may also be a vulnerability marker for MDD...
February 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213065/requiring-collaboration-hippocampal-prefrontal-networks-needed-in-spatial-working-memory-and-ageing-a-multivariate-analysis-approach
#7
C Zancada-Menendez, P Alvarez-Suarez, P Sampedro-Piquero, M Cuesta, A Begega
Ageing is characterized by a decline in the processes of retention and storage of spatial information. We have examined the behavioural performance of adult rats (3months old) and aged rats (18months old) in a spatial complex task (delayed match to sample). The spatial task was performed in the Morris water maze and consisted of three sessions per day over a period of three consecutive days. Each session consisted of two trials (one sample and retention) and inter-session intervals of 5min. Behavioural results showed that the spatial task was difficult for middle aged group...
February 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213063/impaired-spatial-performance-in-cerebellar-deficient-lurcher-mice-is-not-associated-with-their-abnormal-stress-response
#8
Jan Tuma, Yaroslav Kolinko, Dana Jelinkova, Pascal Hilber, Jan Cendelin
Both humans and laboratory animals suffering from cerebellar lesions exhibit cognitive as well as many emotional and behavioral abnormalities. These latter have been already observed in the cerebellar mutant mice currently used to highlight some aspect of autism spectrum disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of cerebellar-related stress response abnormalities on spatial learning and memory. Cerebellar-deficient Lurcher mutant mice were exposed to water environment without active escape possibility and then tested for spatial learning in the Morris water maze...
February 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215510/short-term-treatment-with-flumazenil-restores-long-term-object-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#9
Damien Colas, Bayarsaikhan Chuluun, Craig C Garner, H Craig Heller
Down syndrome (DS) is a common genetic cause of intellectual disability yet no pro-cognitive drug therapies are approved for human use. Mechanistic studies in a mouse model of DS (Ts65Dn mice) demonstrate that impaired cognitive function is due to excessive neuronal inhibitory tone. These deficits are normalized by chronic, short-term low doses of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) antagonists in adult animals, but none of the compounds investigated are approved for human use. We explored the therapeutic potential of flumazenil (FLUM), a GABAAR antagonist working at the benzodiazepine binding site that has FDA approval...
February 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189551/background-matters-minor-vibratory-stimulation-during-motor-skill-acquisition-selectively-reduces-off-line-memory-consolidation
#10
Maria Korman, Zohar Herling, Ishay Levy, Nebal Egbarieh, Batya Engel-Yeger, Avi Karni
Although a ubiquitous situation, it is not clear how effective is a learning experience when task-irrelevant, sensory noise occurs in the background. Here, young adults were trained on the finger opposition sequence task, in a well-established training and testing protocol affording measures for online as well as off-line learning. During the training session, one group experienced a minor background vibratory stimulation to the trunk by the means of vibrating cushion, while the second group experienced recorded sound vibrations...
February 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189550/orai1-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-in-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#11
Rami Yair Tshuva, Eduard Korkotian, Menahem Segal
It is well established that neurons are plastic and can change the strength of their connections with other neurons depending on their recent history. While many molecular entities involved in plastic processes were already described, the role of a store-operated calcium channel ORAI1 in neuronal plasticity is not known as yet. Using dominant negative form of ORAI1, we were able to show that ORAI1 is needed for formation of new dendritic spines following chemical induction of long term potentiation (cLTP), and that this is due to the release of Ca(+2) from ryanodine receptor-associated endoplasmic reticulum stores...
February 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185871/differential-arc-protein-expression-in-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-after-moderate-and-intense-inhibitory-avoidance-training
#12
Diego A González-Franco, Víctor Ramírez-Amaya, Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá, Gina L Quirarte
Intense training refers to training mediated by emotionally arousing experiences, such as aversive conditioning motivated by relatively high intensities of foot-shock, which produces a strong memory that is highly resistant to extinction. Intense training protects memory consolidation against the amnestic effects of a wide variety of treatments, administered systemically or directly into brain structures. The mechanisms of this protective effect are unknown. To determine a potential neurobiological correlate of the protective effect of intense training, rats were trained in a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task using different intensities of foot-shock (0...
February 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137660/effects-of-moderate-treadmill-exercise-and-fluoxetine-on-behavioural-and-cognitive-deficits-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-dysfunction-and-alternations-in-hippocampal-bdnf-and-mrna-expression-of-apoptosis-related-proteins-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic
#13
Sakineh Shafia, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Seyed Afshin Samaei, Ahmad Reza Bandegi, Alireza Rafiei, Reza Valadan, Zahra Hosseini-Khah, Raziyeh Mohammadkhani, Ali Rashidy-Pour
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition that develops after an individual has experienced a major trauma. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like fluoxetine are the first-line choice in PTSD drug treatment but their moderate response rates and side effects indicate an urgent need for the development of new treatment. Physical activity is known to improve symptoms of certain neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study investigated the effects of moderate treadmill exercise, the antidepressant fluoxetine and the combined treatment on behavioural deficits, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction...
January 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131759/acoustic-startle-response-in-rats-predicts-inter-individual-variation-in-fear-extinction
#14
Amanda S Russo, Ryan G Parsons
Although a large portion of the population is exposed to a traumatic event at some point, only a small percentage of the population develops post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suggesting the presence of predisposing factors. Abnormal acoustic startle response (ASR) has been shown to be associated with PTSD, implicating it as a potential predictor of the development of PTSD-like behavior. Since poor extinction and retention of extinction learning are characteristic of PTSD patients, it is of interest to determine if abnormal ASR is predictive of development of such deficits...
January 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119018/reconsolidation-and-extinction-using-epigenetic-signatures-to-challenge-conventional-wisdom
#15
Thekla J Hemstedt, K Matthew Lattal, Marcelo A Wood
Epigenetic mechanisms have the potential to give rise to lasting changes in cell function that ultimately can affect behavior persistently. This concept is especially interesting with respect to fear reconsolidation and fear memory extinction. These two behavioral approaches are used in the laboratory to investigate how fear memory can be attenuated, which becomes important when searching for therapeutic intervention to treat anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Here we review the role of several key epigenetic mechanisms in reconsolidation and extinction of learned fear and their potential to persistently alter behavioral responses to conditioned cues...
January 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111339/touch-screen-visual-reversal-learning-is-mediated-by-value-encoding-and-signal-propagation-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#16
Kristin Marquardt, Rahul Sigdel, Jonathan L Brigman
Behavioral inflexibility is a common symptom of neuropsychiatric disorders which can have a major detrimental impact on quality of life. While the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been strongly implicated in behavioral flexibility in rodents across paradigms, our understanding of how the OFC mediates these behaviors is rapidly adapting. Here we examined neuronal activity during reversal learning by coupling in vivo electrophysiological recording with a mouse touch-screen learning paradigm to further elucidate the role of the OFC in updating reward value...
January 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109822/extinction-of-relapsed-fear-does-not-require-the-basolateral-amygdala
#17
Nura W Lingawi, R Frederick Westbrook, Vincent Laurent
It is well established that extinguished fears are restored with the passage of time or a change in physical context. These fear restoration phenomena are believed to mimic the conditions under which relapse occurs in patients that have been treated for anxiety disorders by means of cue-exposure therapy. Here, we used a rodent model to extinguish relapsed fear and assess whether this new extinction prevents further relapse. We found that activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is required to initially extinguish conditioned fear, but this activity was not necessary to subsequently extinguish relapsed fear...
January 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104530/long-lasting-alterations-of-hippocampal-gabaergic-neurotransmission-in-adult-rats-following-perinatal-%C3%AE-9-thc-exposure
#18
Sarah Beggiato, Andrea Celeste Borelli, Maria Cristina Tomasini, Lucia Morgano, Tiziana Antonelli, Sergio Tanganelli, Vincenzo Cuomo, Luca Ferraro
The long-lasting effects of gestational cannabinoids exposure on the adult brain of the offspring are still controversial. It has already been shown that pre- or perinatal cannabinoids exposure induces learning and memory disruption in rat adult offspring, associated with permanent alterations of cortical glutamatergic neurotransmission and cognitive deficits. In the present study, the risk of long-term consequences induced by perinatal exposure to cannabinoids on rat hippocampal GABAergic system of the offspring, has been explored...
January 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082169/nonmuscle-myosin-ii-inhibition-disrupts-methamphetamine-associated-memory-in-females-and-adolescents
#19
Erica J Young, Sherri B Briggs, Gavin Rumbaugh, Courtney A Miller
Memories associated with drug use can trigger strong motivation for the drug, which increases relapse vulnerability in substance use disorder (SUD). Currently there are no treatments for relapse to abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH). We previously reported that storage of memories associated with METH, but not those for fear or food reward, and the concomitant spine density increase are disrupted in a retrieval-independent manner by depolymerizing actin in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLC) of adult male rats and mice...
January 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065714/transient-inactivation-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-rats-disrupts-avoidance-of-a-dynamic-object
#20
Jan Svoboda, Veronika Lobellová, Anna Popelíková, Nikhil Ahuja, Eduard Kelemen, Aleš Stuchlík
Although animals often learn and monitor the spatial properties of relevant moving objects such as conspecifics and predators to properly organize their own spatial behavior, the underlying brain substrate has received little attention and hence remains elusive. Because the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) participates in conflict monitoring and effort-based decision making, and ACC neurons respond to objects in the environment, it may also play a role in the monitoring of moving cues and exerting the appropriate spatial response...
January 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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