Read by QxMD icon Read

Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

Nicholas A Heroux, Brittany F Osborne, Lauren A Miller, Malak Kawan, Katelyn N Buban, Jeffrey B Rosen, Mark E Stanton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Michael Ryan Hunsaker, Raymond P Kesner
What has been long absent in understanding the neural circuit that sup- ports spatial processing is a thorough description and rigorous study of the distributed neural networks associated with spatial processing-both in the human as well as in rodents. Most of our understanding regarding the elu- cidation of a spatial neural circuit has been based on rodents and therefore the present manuscript will concentrate on that literature. There is a trend emerging in research to expand beyond the hippocampus for evaluating spa- tial memory, but the thrust of the research still focuses on the role of the hippocampus as essential and other neural substrates as performing sub- servient roles to support hippocampus-dependent spatial processing...
December 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Nayeli Jiménez-Morales, Karina Mendoza-Ángeles, Mercedes Porras-Villalobos, Elizabeth Ibarra-Coronado, Gabriel Roldán-Roldán, Jesús Hernández-Falcón
Under laboratory conditions, crayfish establish hierarchical orders through agonistic encounters whose outcome defines the dominant one and one, or more, submissive animals. These agonistic encounters are ritualistic, based on threats, pushes, attacks, grabs, and avoidance behaviors that include retreats and escape responses. Agonistic behavior in a triad of unfamiliar, size-matched animals is intense on the first day of social interaction and the intensity fades on daily repetitions. The dominant animal keeps its status for long periods, and the submissive ones seem to remember 'who the boss is'...
November 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Naveen Chandra, Edi Barkai
Training rats in a particularly difficult olfactory discrimination task initiates a period of accelerated learning of other odors, manifested as a dramatic increase in the rats' capacity to acquire memories for new odors once they have learned the first discrimination task, implying that rule learning has taken place. At the cellular level, pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex, hippocampus and bsolateral amygdala of olfactory-discrimination trained rats show enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability that lasts for several days after rule learning...
November 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Zahra Fatahi, Abbas Haghparast, Abbas Khani, Mojtaba Kermani
There is a growing body of evidence showing that the anterior cingulate (ACC) and the orbitofrontal (OFC) cortex are both essential for reinforcement-guided decision making. Focusing on functional connectivity approach through coherence, we studied whether communication between the ACC and OFC through neural synchronization is a necessary stage for performing value-based decision making. We used a T-maze task with a differential reward (Large vs. small reward) and cost (long vs. short waiting time) and simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFP) from the ACC and OFC...
November 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Ali Ahmadalipour, Shahrbanoo Ghodrati-Jaldbakhan, Seyed Afshin Samaei, Ali Rashidy-Pour
Prenatal morphine exposure causes a variety of neurobehavioral alterations observed in later life. The present study investigated the effects of postnatal exercise and enriched environment (EE) on alterations in water maze learning and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels induced by exposure to morphine during prenatal period in rats. On gestation days 11-18, pregnant rats were injected twice daily with saline or morphine. Offspring were subjected to postnatal exercise and EE for 30 days and afterward, spatial learning and hippocampal LTP and BDNF levels were investigated...
November 23, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Ka H Ng, Michael W Pollock, Phillip J Urbanczyk, Susan Sangha
Accurate discrimination among cues signifying reward, danger or safety initiates the proper emotional response in order to guide behavior. Appropriate conditioned inhibition of fear in the presence of a safety cue would allow an organism to engage in reward seeking behaviors. There is currently little known about the mechanisms of reward, fear and safety cue discrimination and how a safety cue can inhibit fear and release reward seeking from inhibition. Here we assess reward, fear and safety cue learning together using a behavioral paradigm that has identified neurons that discriminate among these cues in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) (Sangha, Chadick, & Janak, 2013)...
November 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Jörn A Quent, Andrew M McCullough, Matt Sazma, Oliver T Wolf, Andrew P Yonelinas
When acute stress is experienced shortly after an event is encoded into memory, this can slow the forgetting of the study event, which is thought to reflect the effect of cortisol on consolidation. In addition, when events are encoded under conditions of high reward they tend to be remembered better than those encoded under non-rewarding conditions, and these effects are thought to reflect the operation of the dopaminergic reward system. Although both modulatory systems are believed to impact the medial temporal lobe regions critical for episodic memory, the manner, and even the extent, to which these two systems interact is currently unknown...
November 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Katharina Zinke, Hannes Noack, Jan Born
Sleep plays an important role in forming procedural motor memories. Whether sleep plays a similar role for cognitive procedures related to working memory function, is not yet clear. Here we investigated if sleep enhances training-induced improvements in working memory in children. Because children show more intense slow wave sleep (e.g., higher slow wave activity, more spindles) we expected sleep-related improvements to be greater than in adults. Twenty-four children (10-12 years) and 24 adults were trained on three sessions of an n-back task comprising three runs of blocks (6 blocks with 20 responses each) presented in ascending levels of difficulty...
November 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Helen M Nasser, Danielle S Lafferty, Ellen N Lesser, Sam Z Bacharach, Donna J Calu
Previously established individual differences in appetitive approach and devaluation sensitivity observed in goal- and sign-trackers may be attributed to differences in the acquisition, modification, or use of associative information in BLA pathways. Here, we sought to determine the extent to which communication of associative information between BLA and anterior portions of insular cortex (IC) supports ongoing Pavlovian conditioned approach behaviors in sign- and goal-tracking rats, in the absence of manipulations to outcome value...
November 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Brigitta Tóth, Karolina Janacsek, Ádám Takács, Andrea Kóbor, Zsófia Zavecz, Dezso Nemeth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Ryan G Parsons
Memory is often thought about in terms of its ability to recollect and store information about the past, but its function likely rests with the fact that it permits adaptation to ongoing and future experience. Thus, the brain circuitry that encodes memory must act as if stored information is likely to be modified by subsequent experience. Considerable progress has been made in identifying the behavioral and neural mechanisms supporting the acquisition and consolidation of memories, but this knowledge comes largely from studies in laboratory animals in which the training experience is presented in isolation from prior experimentally-controlled events...
November 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Vincent Laurent, Bernard W Balleine, R Frederick Westbrook
Contemporary theories of learning emphasize the role of a prediction error signal in driving learning, but the nature of this signal remains hotly debated. Here, we used Pavlovian conditioning in rats to investigate whether primary motivational and emotional states interact to control prediction error. We initially generated cues that positively or negatively predicted an appetitive food outcome. We then assessed how these cues modulated aversive conditioning when a novel cue was paired with a foot shock. We found that a positive predictor of food enhances, whereas a negative predictor of that same food impairs, aversive conditioning...
November 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Justin Stafford, Milene L Brownlow, Anthony Qualley, Ryan Jankord
Over the last decade, the interest in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has continued to increase, along with consideration of how it affects neuroplasticity mechanisms in the brain. Both human and animal studies have demonstrated numerous benefits and, although its application has increased, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying tDCS' beneficial effects remain largely unknown. Recent studies have shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) increases following tDCS. In this work, we utilized a rodent model of tDCS to directly assess changes in the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor, a critical protein for enhancing synaptic transmission...
November 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Marley D Kass, John P McGann
Generalization of fear from previously threatening stimuli to novel but related stimuli can be beneficial, but if fear overgeneralizes to inappropriate situations it can produce maladaptive behaviors and contribute to pathological anxiety. Appropriate fear learning can selectively facilitate early sensory processing of threat-predictive stimuli, but it is unknown if fear generalization has similarly generalized neurosensory consequences. We performed in vivo optical neurophysiology to visualize odor-evoked neural activity in populations of periglomerular interneurons in the olfactory bulb 1 day before, 1 day after, and 1 month after each mouse underwent an olfactory fear conditioning paradigm designed to promote generalized fear of odors...
November 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Keisuke Shinohara, Toshimichi Hata
While it has been shown that the blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) impairs memory acquisition, recent studies have reported that the post-acquisition administration of NMDAR antagonists suppresses spatial memory decay. These findings suggest that NMDARs are important not only for the acquisition of new memories but also for the decay of previously acquired memories. The present study investigated the contributions of specific NMDAR subunits to spatial memory decay using NVP-AAM077 (NVP), an NMDAR antagonist that preferentially binds to GluN2A subunits, and the selective GluN2B blocker Ro 25-6981 (Ro)...
November 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Zuleyma Samaria Hernández-Briones, Paulina García-Bañuelos, María Elena Hernández, María-Leonor López, Armando Martínez Chacón, Porfirio Carrillo, Genaro Coria-Avila, Jorge Manzo, Luis Isauro García
The cerebellum is a complex structure mainly recognized for its participation in motor activity and balance, and less understood for its role in olfactory processing. Herein, we assessed Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in the cerebellar vermis following exposure to different odors during sexual training in male rats. Males were allowed to copulate for either one, three or five sessions. One day after the corresponding session they were exposed during 60 min to woodshaving that was either: clean (Control), sprayed with almond scent (Alm) or from cages of sexually receptive females (RF)...
November 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
María Pilar García-Pardo, Jose Enrique De la Rubia Ortí, Maria Asunción Aguilar Calpe
INTRODUCTION: Drug addiction continues being a major public problem faced by modern societies with different social, health and legal consequences for the consumers. Consumption of psychostimulants, like cocaine or MDMA (known as ecstasy) are highly prevalent and cognitive and memory impairments have been related with the abuse of these drugs. AIM: The aim of this work was to review the most important data of the literature in the last 10 years about the effects of cocaine and MDMA on inhibitory avoidance and object recognition tests in rodents...
October 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Matthew A De Niear, Pranjal B Gupta, Sarah H Baum, Mark T Wallace
The temporal relationship between auditory and visual cues is a fundamental feature in the determination of whether these signals will be integrated. The window of perceived simultaneity (TBW) is a construct that describes the epoch of time during which asynchronous auditory and visual stimuli are likely to be perceptually bound. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the capacity for perceptual training to enhance temporal acuity for audiovisual stimuli (i.e., narrow the TBW). These studies, however, have only examined multisensory perceptual learning that develops in response to feedback that is provided when making judgments on simple, low-level audiovisual stimuli (i...
October 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Vijayakumar Mavanji, Tammy A Butterick, Cayla M Duffy, Joshua P Nixon, Charles J Billington, Catherine M Kotz
Orexin A is produced in neurons of the lateral, perifornical and dorsomedial regions of the lateral hypothalamic area, which then project widely throughout the central nervous system to regulate arousal state, sleep-wake architecture, energy homeostasis and cognitive processes. Disruption of orexin signaling leads to sleep disturbances and increased body mass index, but recent studies also indicate that orexin neuron activation improves learning and memory. We hypothesized that hippocampal orexin receptor activation improves memory...
October 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"