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Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

Siri-Maria Kamp, Ricarda Endemann, Gregor Domes, Axel Mecklinger
Acute stress is known to modulate episodic memory, but little is known about the extent to, and the circumstances under, which stress affects encoding of item vs. inter-item associative information for words of different valences. Furthermore, the precise neuro-cognitive mechanisms underlying stress effects on episodic encoding in humans are largely unknown. To address these questions, in the present study we recorded EEG activity while male participants encoded neutral, negative and positive words, each paired with another word that was always neutral...
December 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Bjekić Jovana, Čolić V Marija, Živanović Marko, Milanović D Sladjan, Filipović R Saša
Associative memory plays a key role in everyday functioning, but it declines with normal aging as well as due to various pathological states and conditions, thus impairing quality of life. Associative memory enhancement via neurostimulation over frontal areas resulted in limited success, while posterior stimulation sites seemed to be more promising. We hypothesized that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of parietal areas would lead to higher performance in associative memory due to high connectivity between posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and hippocampus...
December 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Ilona Merikanto, Liisa Kuula, Tommi Makkonen, Risto Halonen, Jari Lahti, Kati Heinonen, Katri Räikkönen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen
ADHD and its subclinical symptoms have been associated with both disturbed sleep and weakened overnight memory consolidation. As sleep spindle activity during NREM sleep plays a key role in both sleep maintenance and memory consolidation, we examined the association between subclinical ADHD symptoms and sleep spindle activity. Furthermore, we hypothesized that sleep spindle activity mediates the effect of ADHD symptoms on overnight learning outcome in a procedural memory task. We studied these questions in a community-based cohort of 170 adolescents (58 % girls, mean age = 16...
December 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Liisa Kuula, Jakke Tamminen, Tommi Makkonen, Ilona Merikanto, Katri Räikkönen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen
BACKGROUND: Sleep facilitates the extraction of semantic regularities amongst newly encoded memories, which may also lead to increased false memories. We investigated sleep stage proportions and sleep spindles in the recollection of adolescents' false memories, and their potential sex-specific differences. METHODS: 196 adolescents (mean age 16.9 y; SD=0.1, 61 % girls) underwent the Deese, Roediger & McDermott (DRM) false memory procedure and overnight polysomnography, with free recall the following morning...
December 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Karam Kim, Akio Suzuki, Hiroto Kojima, Meiko Kawamura, Ken Miya, Manabu Abe, Ikuko Yamada, Tamio Furuse, Shigenaru Wakana, Kenji Sakimura, Yasunori Hayashi
CaMKII is a pivotal kinase that plays essential roles in synaptic plasticity. Apart from its signaling function, the structural function of CaMKII is becoming clear. CaMKII - F-actin interaction stabilizes actin cytoskeleton in a dendritic spine. A transient autophosphorylation at the F-actin binding region during LTP releases CaMKII from F-actin and opens a brief time-window of actin reorganization. However, the physiological relevance of this finding in learning and memory was not presented. Using a knock-in (KI) mouse carrying phosphoblock mutations in the actin-binding domain of CaMKIIβ, we demonstrate that proper regulation of CaMKII - F-actin interaction is important for fear conditioning memory tasks...
December 7, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Lauren Carrica, Lu Li, Jessie Newville, Johnny Kenton, Kymberly Gustus, Jonathan Brigman, Lee Anna Cunningham
HIF-1α is a hypoxia-inducible protein that regulates many cellular processes, including neural stem cell maintenance. Previous work demonstrated constitutive stabilization of HIF-1α in neural stem cells (NSCs) of the adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ). Genetic inactivation of NSC-encoded HIF-1α in the adult SVZ results in gradual loss of NSCs, but whether HIF-1α is required for the maintenance of SGZ hippocampal progenitors and adult hippocampal neurogenesis has not been determined...
December 3, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Shelby L Blaes, Caitlin A Orsini, Hannah M Holik, Toneisha D Stubbs, Shandera N Ferguson, Sara C Heshmati, Matthew M Bruner, Shannon C Wall, Marcelo Febo, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel, Jennifer L Bizon, Barry Setlow
Numerous preclinical studies show that acute cannabinoid administration impairs cognitive performance. Almost all of this research has employed cannabinoid injections, however, whereas smoking is the preferred route of cannabis administration in humans. The goal of these experiments was to systematically determine how acute exposure to cannabis smoke affects working memory performance in a rat model. Adult male (n = 15) and female (n = 16) Long-Evans rats were trained in a food-motivated delayed response working memory task...
December 3, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Vanesa Hidalgo, Matias M Pulopulos, Alicia Salvador
In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in investigating the effects of chronic and acute stress on cognitive processes, especially memory performance. However, research focusing on acute stress effects has reported contradictory findings, probably due to the many factors that can moderate this relationship. In addition to factors related to the individual, such as sex and age, other factors, such as the type of memory assessed, can play a critical role in the direction of these effects. This review summarizes the main findings of our research group and others about the effects of acute psychosocial stress on memory performance in young and older people of both sexes, taking into account the type and phase of memory assessed...
November 29, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Elizabeth S Smith, Dani R Smith, Charlotte Eyring, Maria Braileanu, Karen S Smith-Connor, Yew Ei Tan, Amanda Y Fowler, Gloria E Hoffman, Michael V Johnston, Sujatha Kannan, Mary E Blue
Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a genetic disorder that is caused by mutations in the x-linked gene coding for methyl-CpG-biding-protein 2 (MECP2) and that mainly affects females. Male and female transgenic mouse models of RTT have been studied extensively, and we have learned a great deal regarding RTT neuropathology and how MeCP2 deficiency may be influencing brain function and maturation. In this manuscript we review what is known concerning structural and coinciding functional and behavioral deficits in RTT and in mouse models of MeCP2 deficiency...
November 28, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
C M Duffy, J J Hofmeister, J P Nixon, T A Butterick
Midlife obesity is a risk factor for cognitive decline and is associated with the earlier onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Diets high in saturated fat potentiate the onset of obesity, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation. Signaling deficiencies in the hypothalamic peptide orexin and/or orexin fiber loss are linked to neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment, and neuroinflammation. Prior studies show that orexin is neuroprotective, suppresses neuroinflammation, and that treatment with orexin improves cognitive processes in orexin/ataxin-3 (O/A3) mice, a transgenic mouse model of orexin neurodegeneration...
November 22, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Sabrina A Orsi, Rishi K Devulapalli, Jacob L Nelsen, Taylor McFadden, Rithika Surineni, Timothy J Jarome
Numerous studies have supported a critical role for the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the memory consolidation and reconsolidation processes. The protein targets and functional role of ubiquitin-proteasome activity can vary widely across cellular compartments, however, it is unknown how UPS activity changes within the nuclear, cytoplasmic, and synaptic regions in response to learning or memory retrieval. Additionally, while previous studies have focused on degradation-specific protein polyubiquitination, it is unknown how learning alters other polyubiquitin tags that are not targeted by the proteasome...
November 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Marina Liliana González-Torres, Denisse Calderón-Vallejo, J Luis Quintanar
The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic administration of GnRH improves performance of learning tasks and expression of spinophilin in the hippocampus of gonadectomized old rats. Eighteen-month-old male Wistar rats were used and divided into three groups: control (intact rats); gonadectomized; and gonadectomized + GnRH. The latter group was injected intramuscularly with GnRH (100 nM) twice a day for five weeks. The learning tasks we used were the novel object recognition task (NOR), elevated T-maze (ETM) and active avoidance test (AAT)...
November 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Saeedeh Bahramzadeh Zoeram, Mahmoud Elahdadi Salmani, Taghi Lashkarbolouki, Iran Goudarzi
Stress as a homeostatic challenge leads to the malfunction of learning and memory processes, namely social learning and memory. The orexin system is involved in stress responses through connections to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA). In addition, the hippocampus, a structure vulnerable to stress-induced changes, expresses orexin receptors 1 and 2 (OXr1 and OXr2) in various sub-regions. The present study is aimed at assessing the effects of hippocampal orexin receptor blockade on social learning and memory impairments and anxiety development following stress...
November 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Edward G Meloni, Karen T Kaye, Archana Venkataraman, William A Carlezon
The stress-related neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is implicated in neuromodulation of learning and memory. PACAP can alter synaptic plasticity and has direct actions on neurons in the amygdala and hippocampus that could contribute to its acute and persistent effects on the consolidation and expression of conditioned fear. We recently demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of PACAP prior to fear conditioning (FC) results in initial amnestic-like effects followed by hyper-expression of conditioned freezing with repeated testing, and analyses of immediate-early gene c-Fos expression suggested that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), but not the lateral/basolateral amygdala (LA/BLA) or hippocampus, are involved in these PACAP effects...
November 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Hua Yang, Kequan Li, Song Han, Ailing Zhou, Zhaolan Joe Zhou
Mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene cause Rett syndrome (RTT), a progressive X-linked neurological disorder characterized by loss of developmental milestones, intellectual disability and breathing abnormality. Despite being a monogenic disorder, the pathogenic mechanisms by which mutations in MeCP2 impair neuronal function and underlie the RTT symptoms have been challenging to elucidate. The seemingly simple genetic root and the availability of genetic data from RTT patients have led to the generation and characterization of a series of mouse models recapitulating RTT-associated genetic mutations...
November 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
J Ferbinteanu
The multiple memory systems theory (MMS) postulates that the brain stores information based on the independent and parallel activity of a number of modules, each with distinct properties, dynamics, and neural basis. Much of the evidence for this theory comes from dissociation studies indicating that damage to restricted brain areas cause selective types of memory deficits. MMS has been the prevalent paradigm in memory research for more than thirty years, even as it has been adjusted several times to accommodate new data...
November 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
A M Ryan, R F Berman, M D Bauman
The prevalence and societal impact of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) continue to increase despite years of research in both patient populations and animal models. There remains an urgent need for translational efforts between clinical and preclinical research to (i) identify and evaluate putative causes of NDD, (ii) determine their underlying neurobiological mechanisms, (iii) develop and test novel therapeutic approaches, and (iv) translate basic research into safe and effective clinical practices. Given the complexity behind potential causes and behaviors affected by NDDs, modeling these uniquely human brain disorders in animals will require that we capitalize on unique advantages of a diverse array of species...
October 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
César Rennó-Costa, Ana Cláudia Costa da Silva, Wilfredo Blanco, Sidarta Ribeiro
The brain stores memories by persistently changing the connectivity between neurons. Sleep is known to be critical for these changes to endure. Research on the neurobiology of sleep and the mechanisms of long-term synaptic plasticity has provided data in support of various theories of how brain activity during sleep affects long-term synaptic plasticity. The experimental findings - and therefore the theories - are apparently quite contradictory, with some evidence pointing to a role of sleep in the forgetting of irrelevant memories, whereas other results indicate that sleep supports the reinforcement of the most valuable recollections...
October 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Yue Li, Minjie Shen, Michael E Stockton, Xinyu Zhao
Neurodevelopmental disorders result from impaired development or maturation of the central nervous system. Both genetic and environmental factors can contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders; however, the exact causes are frequently complex and unclear. Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders may have deficits with diverse manifestations, including challenges with sensory function, motor function, learning, memory, executive function, emotion, anxiety, and social ability. Although these functions are mediated by multiple brain regions, many of them are dependent on the hippocampus...
October 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
T Lee Gilman, Sohini Dutta, Jordan M Adkins, Cassandra A Cecil, Aaron M Jasnow
Disrupted fear inhibition is a characteristic of many anxiety disorders. Investigations into the neural mechanisms responsible for inhibiting fear will improve understanding of the essential circuits involved, and facilitate development of treatments that promote their activity. Within the basolateral amygdala (BLA), Thy1-expressing neuron activity has been characterized by us and others as promoting fear inhibition to discrete fear cues by influencing consolidation of cued fear learning or cued fear extinction...
October 1, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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