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Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412304/synergistic-effect-between-d-ap5-and-muscimol-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-on-memory-consolidation-deficit-in-adult-male-wistar-rats-an-isobologram-analysis
#1
Mohammad Nasehi, Elaheh Ostadi, Fatemeh Khakpai, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) glutamatergic and GABAergic systems are involved in memory processes. This study was investigated the involvement of NAc shell GABAergic system on D-AP5 induced memory consolidation deficit. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) test-retest paradigm was employed to assess memory in adult male Wistar rats. The results indicated that post-training intra-NAc shell injection of bicuculline (GABAA receptor antagonist) did not alter emotional memory consolidation. However, post-training intra-NAc shell microinjection of muscimol (GABAA receptor agonist, 0...
April 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411153/antagonism-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-disrupts-the-context-preexposure-facilitation-effect
#2
P A Robinson-Drummer, N A Heroux, M E Stanton
Cholinergic function plays a role in a variant of context fear conditioning known as the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE; Robinson-Drummer, Dokovna, Heroux, & Stanton, 2016). In the CPFE, acquisition of a context representation, the context-shock association, and expression of context fear occur across successive phases, usually 24hr apart. Systemic administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, prior to each phase (context preexposure, immediate-shock training, and testing) disrupts the CPFE in juvenile rats (Robinson-Drummer et al...
April 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400163/stress-before-extinction-learning-enhances-and-generalizes-extinction-memory-in-a-predictive-learning-task
#3
Shira Meir Drexler, Tanja C Hamacher-Dang, Oliver T Wolf
In extinction learning, the individual learns that a previously acquired association (e.g. between a threat and its predictor) is no longer valid. This learning is the principle underlying many cognitive-behavioral psychotherapeutic treatments, e.g. 'exposure therapy'. However, extinction is often highly-context dependent, leading to renewal (relapse of extinguished conditioned response following context change). We have previously shown that post-extinction stress leads to a more context-dependent extinction memory in a predictive learning task...
April 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392406/environmental-enrichment-enhances-systems-level-consolidation-of-a-spatial-memory-after-lesions-of-the-ventral-midline-thalamus
#4
Mohamad Ali, Thibault Cholvin, Marc Antoine Muller, Brigitte Cosquer, Christian Kelche, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Anne Pereira de Vasconcelos
Lesions of the reuniens and rhomboid (ReRh) thalamic nuclei in rats do not alter spatial learning but shorten the period of memory persistence (Loureiro et al. 2012). Such persistence requires a hippocampo-cortical (prefrontal) dialog leading to memory consolidation at the systems level. Evidence for reciprocal connections with the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) makes the ReRh a potential hub for regulating hippocampo-cortical interactions. As environmental enrichment (EE) fosters recovery of declarative-like memory functions after diencephalic lesions (e...
April 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389281/oxytocin-in-the-amygdala-and-not-the-prefrontal-cortex-enhances-fear-and-impairs-extinction-in-the-juvenile-rat
#5
Milly Kritman, Nisrine Lahoud, Mouna Maroun
A growing body of evidence suggests that the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), aside from its central role in the regulation of social behavior, reduces fear and anxiety. The functional and opposing interactions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the amygdala in regulation of fear provide a unique experimental setting to examine the effects of OT on fear and extinction. Recent evidence suggests that in the adult animal OT can play a dual role in the regulation of fear leading to contrasting effects on fear depending on the manipulated brain region and the time of manipulations...
April 4, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384498/interaction-between-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampal-ca1-area-is-essential-for-episodic-like-memory-in-rats
#6
Owen Y Chao, Susanne Nikolaus, Marcus Lira Brandão, Joseph P Huston, Maria A de Souza Silva
The interplay between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus, particularly the hippocampal CA3 area, is critical for episodic memory. To what extent the mPFC also interacts with the hippocampus CA1 subregion still requires elucidation. To investigate this issue, male rats received unilateral N-methyl-D-aspartate lesions of the mPFC together with unilateral lesions of the hippocampal CA1 area, either in the same (control) or in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection). They underwent an episodic-like memory test, combining what-where-when information, and separate tests for novel object preference (what), object place preference (where) and temporal order memory (when)...
April 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366865/glucocorticoid-administration-into-the-dorsolateral-but-not-dorsomedial-striatum-accelerates-the-shift-from-a-spatial-toward-procedural-memory
#7
Cristina Siller-Pérez, Norma Serafín, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá, Benno Roozendaal, Gina L Quirarte
Glucocorticoid stress hormones are known to enhance the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial and contextual memory. Recent findings indicate that glucocorticoids also enhance the consolidation of procedural memory that relies on the dorsal striatum. The dorsal striatum can be functionally subdivided into the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), which is primarily implicated in shaping procedural memories, and the dorsomedial striatum (DMS), which is engaged in spatial memory. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that posttraining glucocorticoid administration into the DLS promotes the formation of a procedural memory that will normally take place only with extensive training...
March 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366864/dopamine-dependent-setting-of-a-circadian-oscillator-underlying-the-memory-for-time-of-day
#8
Sean W Cain, Omar A Rawashdeh, Michael Siu, Seung Cheol Kim, Martin R Ralph
Animals learn and remember the time of day that significant conditions occur, and anticipate recurrence at 24-h intervals, even after only one exposure to the condition. On several place-conditioning tasks, animals show context avoidance or preference only near the time of day of the experience. The memory for time of day is registered by a circadian oscillator that is set at the time of the training. We show that manipulations of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission can set a time memory in place preference and avoidance tasks, indicating that time of day is part of the context that is learned...
March 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359853/adult-neurogenesis-reduction-by-a-cytostatic-treatment-improves-spatial-reversal-learning-in-rats
#9
Hana Brozka, Adela Pistikova, Dominika Radostova, Karel Vales, Jan Svoboda, Anna N Grzyb, Ales Stuchlik
Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus adds a substantial number of new functional neurons to the hippocampus network in rodents. To date, however, the function of these new granule cells remains unclear. We conducted an experiment to assess the contribution of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus to acquisition and reversal learning in a task that predominantly requires generalization of a rule. Young adult male Long-Evans rats were repeatedly administered either a cytostatic temozolomide or saline for a period of four weeks (3 injections per week)...
March 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359852/lithium-and-memantine-improve-spatial-memory-impairment-and-neuroinflammation-induced-by-%C3%AE-amyloid-1-42-oligomers-in-rats
#10
J Budni, D P Feijó, H Batista-Silva, M L Garcez, F Mina, T Belletini-Santos, L R Krasilchik, A P Luz, G L Schiavo, J Quevedo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. The main hallmarks of this disease include progressive cognitive dysfunction and an accumulation of soluble oligomers of β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-42 peptide. In this research, we show the effects of lithium and memantine on spatial memory and neuroinflammation in an Aβ1-42 oligomers-induced animal model of dementia in rats. Aβ 1-42 oligomers were administered intrahippocampally to male wistar rats to induce dementia. Oral treatments with memantine (5mg/kg), lithium (5mg/kg), or both drugs in combination were performed over a period of 17days...
March 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347878/memory-guided-drawing-training-increases-granger-causal-influences-from-the-perirhinal-cortex-to-v1-in-the-blind
#11
Laura Cacciamani, Lora T Likova
The perirhinal cortex (PRC) is a medial temporal lobe structure that has been implicated in not only visual memory in the sighted, but also tactile memory in the blind (Cacciamani & Likova, 2016). It has been proposed that, in the blind, the PRC may contribute to modulation of tactile memory responses that emerge in low-level "visual" area V1 as a result of training-induced cortical reorganization (Likova, 2012, 2015). While some studies in the sighted have indicated that the PRC is indeed structurally and functionally connected to the visual cortex (Clavagnier, Falchier, & Kennedy, 2004; Peterson, Cacciamani, Barense, & Scalf, 2012), the PRC's direct modulation of V1 is unknown-particularly in those who lack the visual input that typically stimulates this region...
March 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347877/the-role-of-gabaa-in-the-expression-of-updated-information-through-the-reconsolidation-process-in-humans
#12
Rodrigo S Fernández, Malen D Moyano, Michael Radloff, Jorge Campos, Martin Carbó-Tano, Ricardo F Allegri, María E Pedreira, Cecilia Forcato
Consolidated memory can be again destabilized by the presentation of a memory cue (reminder) of the previously acquired information. During this process of labilization/restabilization memory traces can be either impaired, strengthened or updated in content. Here, we study if a consolidated memory can be updated by linking one original cue to two different outcomes and whether this process was modulated by the GABAergic system. To aim that, we designed two experiments carried out in three consecutive days. All participants learned a list of non-sense syllable pairs on day 1...
March 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347876/parietal-lobe-critically-supports-successful-paired-immediate-and-single-item-delayed-memory-for-targets
#13
Sabine Krumm, Sasa L Kivisaari, Andreas U Monsch, Julia Reinhardt, Stephan Ulmer, Christoph Stippich, Reto W Kressig, Kirsten I Taylor
The parietal lobe is important for successful recognition memory, but its role is not yet fully understood. We investigated the parietal lobes' contribution to immediate paired-associate memory and delayed item-recognition memory separately for hits (targets) and correct rejections (distractors). We compared the behavioral performance of 56 patients with known parietal and medial temporal lobe dysfunction (i.e. early Alzheimer's Disease) to 56 healthy control participants in an immediate paired and delayed single item object memory task...
March 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342972/remodeling-the-th1-polarized-systemic-environment-contributes-to-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-function-via-the-wnt7a-pathway-in-neonatal-mice
#14
YunLong Xu, Fen He, FangFang Qi, Guangqi Yang, FuXiang Zheng, JunHua Yang, Xiao Wang, JunXiu Liu, JunTao Zou
Neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination results in a positive effect on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition. Serum cytokines are considered to be the chief culprit. In this study, serum from BCG-treated mice was identified as Th1 polarized serum. The serum showed an increased ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 and decreased levels of TNF-α and IL-6. After Th1 polarized serum was injected intraperitoneally into postnatal mice, the levels of cytokines and ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 in the serum and hippocampus of postnatal mice showed a similar alteration as those in Th1 polarized serum...
March 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341151/mice-heterozygous-for-an-inactivated-allele-of-the-schizophrenia-associated-brd1-gene-display-selective-cognitive-deficits-with-translational-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#15
Per Qvist, Anto P Rajkumar, John P Redrobe, Mette Nyegaard, Jane H Christensen, Ole Mors, Gregers Wegener, Michael Didriksen, Anders D Børglum
Schizophrenia is a debilitating brain disorder characterized by disturbances of emotion, perception and cognition. Cognitive impairments predict functional outcome in schizophrenia and are detectable even in the prodromal stage of the disorder. However, our understanding of the underlying neurobiology is limited and procognitive treatments remain elusive. We recently demonstrated that mice heterozygous for an inactivated allele of the schizophrenia-associated Brd1 gene (Brd1(+/)(-) mice) display behaviors reminiscent of schizophrenia, including impaired social cognition and long-term memory...
March 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323202/enhanced-structural-connectivity-within-a-brain-sub-network-supporting-working-memory-and-engagement-processes-after-cognitive-training
#16
Francisco J Román, Yasser Iturria-Medina, Kenia Martínez, Sherif Karama, Miguel Burgaleta, Alan C Evans, Susanne M Jaeggi, Roberto Colom
The structural connectome provides relevant information about experience and training-related changes in the brain. Here, we used network-based statistics (NBS) and graph theoretical analyses to study structural changes in the brain as a function of cognitive training. Fifty-six young women were divided in two groups (experimental and control). We assessed their cognitive function before and after completing a working memory intervention using a comprehensive battery that included fluid and crystallized abilities, working memory and attention control, and we also obtained structural MRI images...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323201/the-recency-ratio-is-associated-with-reduced-csf-glutamate-in-late-life-depression
#17
Davide Bruno, Jay Nierenberg, Thomas B Cooper, Charles R Marmar, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Kenji Hashimoto, Nunzio Pomara
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is thought to be involved in the process of memory encoding and storage. Glutamate disturbances have also been reported in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD), and in Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we set out to study the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamate levels and memory performance, which we believe has not been reported previously. In particular, we focused on recall performance broken down by serial position...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323200/brief-exercise-enhances-intrusive-memories-of-traumatic-stimuli
#18
Dharani Keyan, Richard A Bryant
Brief physical exercise enhances memories for neutral events, and recently has been shown to modulate fear learning in animals. To date there is no evidence pertaining to the impact of exercise on emotional memories in humans. Accordingly, this study investigated the role of brief exercise in the development of emotional intrusive memories. Forty-nine university students (18-29year olds) viewed a car accident film depicting accident and injury, and were then randomly assigned to engage in either 10min of intense exercise or easy walking...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302564/tackling-maladaptive-memories-through-reconsolidation-from-neural-to-clinical-science
#19
James W B Elsey, Merel Kindt
Behavioral neuroscience has greatly informed how we understand the formation, persistence, and plasticity of memory. Research has demonstrated that memory reactivation can induce a labile period, during which previously consolidated memories are sensitive to change, and in need of restabilization. This process is known as reconsolidation. Such findings have advanced not only our basic understanding of memory processes, but also hint at the prospect of harnessing these insights for the development of a new generation of treatments for disorders of emotional memory...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288833/the-impact-of-sleep-on-novel-concept-learning
#20
Yvette M Graveline, Erin J Wamsley
Prior research demonstrates that sleep benefits memory consolidation. But beyond its role in memory retention, sleep may also facilitate the reorganization and flexible use of new information. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sleep on conceptual knowledge. Participants classified abstract dot patterns into novel categories, and were later tested on both previously seen dot patterns as well as on new patterns. A Wake group (n=17) trained at 9AM, continued with their daily activities, and then tested at 9PM that evening...
March 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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