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Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

Fatemeh Ostadan, Carla Centeno, Jean-Felix Daloze, Mira Jesper Frenn Lundbye-Jensen, Marc Roig
A single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a motor task improves the long-term retention of the skill through an optimization of memory consolidation. However, the specific brain mechanisms underlying the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on procedural memory are poorly understood. We sought to determine if a single bout of exercise modifies corticospinal excitability (CSE) during the early stages of memory consolidation. In addition, we investigated if changes in CSE are associated with exercise-induced off-line gains in procedural memory...
October 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Eliza Pelrine, Sara Diana Pasik, Leyla Bayat, Debora Goldschmiedt, Elizabeth P Bauer
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed to treat anxiety and depression, yet they paradoxically increase anxiety during initial treatment. Acute administration of these drugs prior to learning can also enhance Pavlovian cued fear conditioning. This potentiation has been previously reported to depend upon the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Here, using temporary inactivation, we confirmed that the BNST is not necessary for the acquisition of cued or contextual fear memory...
October 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Teemu Aitta-Aho, Elpiniki Pappa, Denis Burdakov, John Apergis-Schoute
The hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (HO) system holds a central role in the regulation of several physiological functions critical for food-seeking behavior including mnemonic processes for effective foraging behavior. It is unclear however whether physiological increases in HO neuronal activity can support such processes. Using a designer rM3Ds receptor activation approach increasing HO neuronal activity resulted in improved short-term memory for novel locations. When tested on a non-spatial novelty object recognition task no significant difference was detected between groups indicating that hypothalamic HO neuronal activation can selectively facilitate short-term spatial memory for potentially supporting memory for locations during active exploration...
October 13, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Akihiro Eguchi, Simon M Stringer
As Rubin's famous vase demonstrates, our visual perception tends to assign luminance contrast borders to one or other of the adjacent image regions. Experimental evidence for the neuronal coding of such border-ownership in the primate visual system has been reported in neurophysiology. We have investigated exactly how such neural circuits may develop through visually-guided learning. More specifically, we have investigated through computer simulation how top-down connections may play a fundamental role in the development of border ownership representations in the early cortical visual layers V1/V2...
October 13, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Dominique Piber, Katharina Schultebraucks, Sven C Mueller, Christian Deuter, Katja Wingenfeld, Christian Otte
OBJECTIVES: Stress hormones such as cortisol are known to influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including hippocampal based spatial memory. In the brain, cortisol acts via two different receptors: the glucocorticoid (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). As the MR has a high density in the hippocampus, we examined the effects of pharmacological MR stimulation on spatial memory. METHODS: Eighty healthy participants (40 women, 40 men, mean age=23.9years±SD=3...
October 7, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Jens G Klinzing, Björn Rasch, Jan Born, Susanne Diekelmann
Sleep is known to support the consolidation of newly encoded and initially labile memories. Once consolidated, remote memories can return to a labile state upon reactivation and need to become reconsolidated in order to persist. Here we asked whether sleep also benefits the reconsolidation of remote memories after their reactivation and how reconsolidation during sleep compares to sleep-dependent consolidation processes. In three groups, participants were trained on a visuo-spatial learning task in the presence of a contextual odor...
October 6, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Kathryn D Baker, Amy C Reichelt
Anxiety disorders and obesity are both common in youth and young adults. Despite increasing evidence that over-consumption of palatable high-fat/high-sugar "junk" foods leads to adverse neurocognitive outcomes, little is known about the effects of palatable diets on emotional memories and fear regulation. In the present experiments we examined the effects of daily 2h consumption of a high-fat/high-sugar (HFHS) food across adolescence on fear inhibition and anxiety-like behaviour in young adult rats. Rats exposed to the HFHS diet exhibited impaired retention of fear extinction and increased anxiety-like behaviour in an emergence test compared to rats fed a standard diet...
October 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Catarina Luís, Nazzareno Cannella, Rainer Spanagel, Georg Köhr
High rates of relapse after prolonged abstinence are often triggered by exposure to drug-associated cues that induce drug craving. Incubation of drug craving is a phenomenon that consists of time-dependent increases in cue-induced drug craving during withdrawal. Plasticity mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) underlie drug-seeking responses and involve changes in excitatory synaptic transmission's efficacy. In particular, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) glutamatergic input to the NAc core has been well characterized regarding cocaine-evoked plasticity following non-contingent versus contingent exposure to cocaine or alternatively after protracted abstinence...
October 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Agnès Gruart, Rocío Leal-Campanario, Juan Carlos López-Ramos, José M Delgado-García
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Holly R Yeatman, Anthony L Albiston, Peta Burns, Siew Yeen Chai
Central infusion of Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase (IRAP) inhibitors improves memory in both normal rodents and in models of memory deficit. However, in contrast, the global IRAP knockout mice (KO) demonstrate age-accelerated spatial memory deficits and no improvements in performance in any memory tasks. Potentially, the observed memory deficit could be due to the absence of IRAP in the developing brain. We therefore generated apostnatal forebrain neuron-specific IRAP knockout mouse line (CamKIIalphaCre; IRAPlox/lox)...
October 3, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Nathaniel G Harnett, Joshua R Shumen, Pooja A Wagle, Kimberly H Wood, Muriah D Wheelock, James H Baños, David C Knight
Learning the temporal relationship between a warning cue (conditioned stimulus; CS) and aversive threat (unconditioned stimulus; UCS) is an important aspect of Pavlovian conditioning. Although prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research has identified brain regions that support Pavlovian conditioning, it remains unclear whether these regions support time-related processes important for this type of associative learning. Elucidating the neural substrates of temporal conditioning is important for a complete understanding of the Pavlovian conditioning process...
September 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
B Hertler, M M Buitrago, A R Luft, J A Hosp
Motor learning is associated with plastic reorganization of neural networks in primary motor cortex (M1) that depends on changes in gene expression. Here, we investigate the temporal profile of these changes during motor memory formation in response to a skilled reaching task in rats. mRNA-levels were measured 1h, 7h and 24h after the end of a training session using microarray technique. To assure learning specificity, trained animals were compared to a control group. In response to motor learning, genes are sequentially regulated with high time-point specificity and a shift from initial suppression to later activation...
September 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Manon Wicking, Frauke Steiger, Frauke Nees, Slawomira J Diener, Oliver Grimm, Michaela Ruttorf, Lothar R Schad, Tobias Winkelmann, Gustav Wirtz, Herta Flor
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might be maintained by deficient extinction memory. We used a cued fear conditioning design with extinction and a post-extinction phase to provoke the return of fear and examined the role of the interplay of amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal regions. METHODS: We compared 18 PTSD patients with two healthy control groups: 18 trauma-exposed subjects without PTSD (nonPTSD) and 18 healthy controls (HC) without trauma experience...
September 26, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Emily Hughes, Tamila Shymansky, Hiroshi Sunada, Ken Lukowiak
Mixed results with the synthetic β-adrenergic receptor blocker, propranolol, have been reported in human populations with regards to its therapeutic efficacy for PTSD treatments targeting the memory reconsolidation process. Stress alters the ability to form and maintain memory, but whether the causal neuronal mechanisms underling memory formation in PTSD are similar to normal memory is not clear. Here, we use Lymnaea to study the effects of combinations of stressors on the quality of the formed memory state...
September 23, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Bettina Maria Foidl, Patricia Do-Dinh, Bianca Hutter-Schmid, Harald R Bliem, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that is mainly characterized by beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque deposition, Tau pathology and dysfunction of the cholinergic system causing memory impairment. The aim of the present study was to examine (1) anxiety and cognition, (2) Aβ plaque deposition and (3) degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) and cortical cholinergic innervation in an Alzheimer mouse model (APP_SweDI; overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Swedish K670N/M671L, Dutch E693Q, and Iowa D694N mutations)...
September 23, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Xu Zhang, Xiangwei Yang, David Chun-Hei Poon, Beth Jelfs, Rosa H M Chan, Justin Che-Yuen Wu, Ying Li
There is considerable evidence to suggest early life experiences, such as maternal separation (MS), play a role in the prevalence of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairment. At the same time, optimal decision making requires functional integrity between the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and any dysfunction of this system is believed to induce decision-making deficits. However, the impact of MS on decision-making behavior and the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have not been thoroughly studied...
September 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Jarid Goodman, Reed L Ressler, Mark G Packard
Previous research has indicated a role for the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) in acquisition and retrieval of habit memory. However, the neurobiological mechanisms guiding extinction of habit memory have not been extensively investigated. The present study examined whether the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is involved in extinction of habit memory in a food-rewarded response learning version of the plus-maze in adult male Long-Evans rats (experiment 1). In addition, to determine whether the role of this brain region in extinction is selective to habit memory, we also examined whether the DLS is required for extinction of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory in a place learning version of the plus-maze (experiment 2)...
September 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
María M Hurtado, Raquel García, Amadeo Puerto
The parabrachial complex is known to participate in various rewarding and aversive processes, including those related to the learning of taste or place discrimination and the motivational effects of drugs of abuse, such as morphine. This study shows that electrical stimulation of the external lateral parabrachial (LPBe) subnucleus induces consistent place avoidance or place preference in three-compartment rectangular mazes. Administration of naloxone, an opiate antagonist, blocks both motivational effects induced by the intracranial electrical stimulation...
September 19, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Ryan G Parsons, David L Walker, Michael Davis
We previously showed that a single weak fear conditioning trial, that does not produce a long-term fear memory (LTM), appeared to prime memory formation such that when a second trial followed within a circumscribed time window a robust and long-lasting fear memory was formed. We also showed that this priming effect could be blocked if we interfered with protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in the amygdala during the first conditioning trial. The goals of the current study were to determine if LTM formation after the second trial depends on PKA signaling in the amygdala and to characterize the underlying memory processes engaged during the second trial that allows for LTM formation...
September 19, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Elise Kleeman, Sakura Nakauchi, Hailing Su, Richard Dang, Marcelo A Wood, Katumi Sumikawa
Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy are at significantly greater risk for cognitive impairments including memory deficits, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain to be understood. In rodent models of smoking during pregnancy, early postnatal nicotine exposure results in impaired long-term hippocampus-dependent memory, functional loss of α2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α2(∗) nAChRs) in oriens-lacunosum moleculare (OLM) cells, increased CA1 network excitation, and unexpected facilitation of long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses...
September 19, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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