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Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729138/spatial-working-memory-in-the-touchscreen-operant-platform-is-disrupted-in-female-rats-by-ovariectomy-but-not-estrous-cycle
#1
Alyssa M Sbisa, Andrea Gogos, Maarten van den Buuse
Learning and memory deficits have been described in rats and mice after ovariectomy (OVX) and across the estrous cycle. Preclinical researchers therefore often avoid using female animals and, consequently, a large male bias exists in the preclinical cognitive literature. In the present study we examined the role of sex hormones in the touchscreen operant platform using the spatial working memory trial unique nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task. Twenty-nine Long Evans rats were trained to acquire the TUNL task including three incremental spatial separations (S0, S1, S2)...
July 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720405/persistent-cognitive-and-morphological-alterations-induced-by-repeated-exposure-of-adolescent-rats-to-the-abused-inhalant-toluene
#2
K M Braunscheidel, J T Gass, P J Mulholland, S B Floresco, J J Woodward
While thepsychoactive inhalant toluene causes behavioral effects similarto those produced by other drugs of abuse, the persistent behavioral and anatomical abnormalities induced by toluene exposure are not well known. To mimic human "binge-like" inhalant intoxication, adolescent, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene vapor (57000 ppm) twice daily for five consecutive days. These rats remained in their home cages until adulthood (P60), when they were trained in operant boxes to respond to a palatable food reward and then challenged with several different cognitive tasks...
July 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716712/effects-of-chemogenetic-excitation-or-inhibition-of-the-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-on-the-acquisition-and-extinction-of-pavlovian-fear-conditioning
#3
Carolyn Arico, Elena E Bagley, Pascal Carrive, Neda Assareh, Gavan P McNally
The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been implicated in the generation and transmission of a prediction error signal that instructs amygdala-based fear and extinction learning. However, the PAG also plays a key role in the expression of conditioned fear responses. The evidence for a role of the PAG in fear learning and extinction learning has been obtained almost exclusively using PAG-dependent fear responses. It is less clear whether the PAG regulates fear learning when other measures of learned fear are used...
July 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710000/the-perisylvian-language-network-and-language-analytical-abilities
#4
Olga Kepinska, Egbert A J F Lakke, Eleanor M Dutton, Johanneke Caspers, Niels O Schiller
Aiming at exploring the brain's structural organisation underlying successful second language learning, we investigate the anatomy of the perisylvian language network in a group of healthy adults, consisting of participants with high and average language analytical abilities. Utilising deterministic tractography, six tracts per participant (left and right long direct segment, left and right indirect anterior segment and left and right indirect posterior segment) were virtually dissected and measurements pertaining to their microstructural organisation were collected...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709999/tdcs-over-the-right-inferior-frontal-gyrus-disrupts-control-of-interference-in-memory-a-retrieval-induced-forgetting-study
#5
Davide F Stramaccia, Barbara Penolazzi, Gianmarco Altoè, Giovanni Galfano
Retrieving information from episodic memory may result in later inaccessibility of related but task-irrelevant information. This phenomenon, known as retrieval-induced forgetting, is thought to represent a specific instance of broader cognitive control mechanisms, that would come into play during memory retrieval, whenever non-target competing memories interfere with recall of target items. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown an association between these mechanisms and the activity of the right Prefrontal Cortex...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709998/aversive-smell-associations-shape-social-judgment
#6
Philipp Homan, Benjamin A Ely, May Yuan, Tobias Brosch, John Ng, Yaacov Trope, Daniela Schiller
Once associating another person with an unpleasant smell, how do we perceive and judge this person from that moment on? Here, we used aversive olfactory conditioning followed by a social attribution task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this question. After conditioning, where one of two faces was repeatedly paired with an aversive smell, the participants reported negative affect when viewing the smell-conditioned but not the neutral face. When subsequently confronted with the smell-conditioned face (without any smell), the participants tended to judge both positive and negative behaviors as indicative of personality traits rather than related to the situation...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697944/vocabulary-learning-benefits-from-rem-after-slow-wave-sleep
#7
Laura J Batterink, Carmen E Westerberg, Ken A Paller
Memory reactivation during slow-wave sleep (SWS) influences the consolidation of recently acquired knowledge. This reactivation occurs spontaneously during sleep but can also be triggered by presenting learning-related cues, a technique known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). Here we examined whether TMR can improve vocabulary learning. Participants learned the meanings of 60 novel words. Auditory cues for half the words were subsequently presented during SWS in an afternoon nap. Memory performance for cued versus uncued words did not differ at the group level but was systematically influenced by REM sleep duration...
July 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689930/long-term-verbal-memory-recall-deficits-in-fragile-x-premutation-females
#8
Annie L Shelton, Kim Cornish, Joanne Fielding
Carriers of a FMR1 premutation allele (between 55 and 199 CGG repeats) are at risk of developing a wide range of medical, psychiatric and cognitive disorders, including executive dysfunction. These cognitive deficits are often less severe for female premutation carriers compared to male premutation carriers, albeit similar in nature. However, it remains unclear whether female premutation carriers who exhibit executive dysfunction also record verbal learning and memory deficits like those of their male counterparts...
July 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669783/gabaergic-signaling-within-the-basolateral-amygdala-complex-modulates-resistance-to-the-labilization-reconsolidation-process
#9
Pablo Javier Espejo, Pharm D Vanesa Ortiz, Irene Delia Martijena, Victor Alejandro Molina
It is well known that stress can affect mnemonic processes. In particular, stress before contextual fear conditioning induces a memory which exhibits resistance to being interfered with by Midazolam (MDZ) when applied after memory retrieval. Moreover, stress exposure strongly affects GABAergic transmission within the Basolateral Amygdala Complex (BLA), a brain structure critically involved in fear memory processing. The present study evaluated the involvement of GABAergic signaling within the BLA on the induction of resistance to memory reconsolidation interference...
June 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669782/the-drosophila-melanogaster-tribbles-pseudokinase-is-necessary-for-proper-memory-formation
#10
Holly LaFerriere, Troy Zars
The tribbles (trbl) pseudokinases play important roles in signaling and physiology in multiple contexts, ranging from innate immunity to cancer, suggesting fundamental cellular functions for the trbls' gene products. Despite expression of the trbl pseudokinases in the nervous systems of invertebrate and vertebrate animals, and evidence that they have a function within mouse and human dopamine neurons, there is no clear case for a function of a Trbl protein that influences behavior. Indeed, the first and only evidence for this type of function comes from Drosophila melanogaster, where a mutation of the single trbl gene was identified in a genetic screen for short-term memory mutant flies...
June 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668279/the-influence-of-high-intensity-exercise-and-the-val66met-polymorphism-on-circulating-bdnf-and-locomotor-learning
#11
Erin E Helm, Kathleen S Matt, Kenneth F Kirschner, Ryan T Pohlig, Dave Kohl, Darcy S Reisman
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been directly related to exercise-enhanced motor performance in the neurologically injured animal model; however literature concerning the role of BDNF in the enhancement of motor learning in the human population is limited. Previous studies in healthy subjects have examined the relationship between intensity of an acute bout of exercise, increases in peripheral BDNF and motor learning of a simple isometric upper extremity task. The current study examined the role of high intensity exercise on upregulation of peripheral BDNF levels as well as the role of high intensity exercise in mediation of motor learning and retention of a novel locomotor task in neurologically intact adults...
June 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625494/acute-stress-shifts-the-balance-between-controlled-and-automatic-processes-in-prospective-memory
#12
Marcus Möschl, Moritz Walser, Franziska Plessow, Thomas Goschke, Rico Fischer
In everyday life we frequently rely on our abilities to postpone intentions until later occasions (prospective memory; PM) and to deactivate completed intentions even in stressful situations. Yet, little is known about the effects of acute stress on these abilities. In the present work we investigated the impact of acute stress on PM functioning under high task demands. (1) Different from previous studies, in which intention deactivation required mostly low processing demands, we used salient focal PM cues to induce high processing demands during intention-deactivation phases...
June 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624517/intra-accumbal-blockade-of-endocannabinoid-cb1-receptors-impairs-learning-but-not-retention-of-conditioned-relief
#13
Jorge R Bergado Acosta, Miriam Schneider, Markus Fendt
Humans and animals are able to associate an environmental cue with the feeling of relief from an aversive event, a phenomenon called relief learning. Relief from an aversive event is rewarding and a relief-associated cue later induces an attenuation of the startle magnitude or approach behavior. Previous studies demonstrated that the nucleus accumbens is essential for relief learning. Here, we asked whether accumbal cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are involved in relief learning. In rats, we injected the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A (rimonabant) directly into the nucleus accumbens at different time points during a relief learning experiment...
June 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602659/long-term-multi-species-lactobacillus-and-bifidobacterium-dietary-supplement-enhances-memory-and-changes-regional-brain-metabolites-in-middle-aged-rats
#14
Caroline O'Hagan, Jia V Li, Julian R Marchesi, Sue Plummer, Iveta Garaiova, Mark A Good
Ageing is associated with changes in the gut microbiome that may contribute to age-related changes in cognition. Previous work has shown that dietary supplements with multi-species live microorganisms can influence brain function, including induction of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and production of brain derived neurotrophic factor, in both young and aged rodents. However, the effect of such dietary supplements on memory processes has been less well documented, particularly in the context of aging. The main aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a long-term dietary supplement with a multi-species live Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria mixture (Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60, L...
June 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579367/early-postnatal-handling-reduces-hippocampal-amyloid-plaque-formation-and-enhances-cognitive-performance-in-appswe-ps1de9-mice-at-middle-age
#15
Sylvie L Lesuis, Beryl A C E van Hoek, Paul J Lucassen, Harm J Krugers
In rodents, fragmented and low levels of maternal care have been implicated in age-related cognitive decline and the incidence and progression of Alzheimer's pathology. In contrast, enhancing early postnatal maternal care has been associated with improved cognitive function later in life. Here we examined whether early postnatal handling of mouse pups from postnatal days 2-9 enhanced maternal care and whether this affected cognition and Alzheimer pathology at 5 and 11months of age in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model for Alzheimer's disease...
June 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577998/involvement-of-the-prelimbic-cortex-in-contextual-fear-conditioning-with-temporal-and-spatial-discontinuity
#16
Thays Brenner Santos, Juliana Carlota Kramer-Soares, Vanessa Manchim Favaro, Maria Gabriela Menezes Oliveira
Time plays an important role in conditioning, it is not only possible to associate stimuli with events that overlap, as in delay fear conditioning, but it is also possible to associate stimuli that are discontinuous in time, as shown in trace conditioning for a discrete stimuli. The environment itself can be a powerful conditioned stimulus (CS) and be associated to unconditioned stimulus (US). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the parameters in which contextual fear conditioning occurs by the maintenance of a contextual representation over short and long time intervals...
May 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564588/social-proximal-and-conditioned-threat
#17
Jörgen Rosén, Granit Kastrati, Fredrik Åhs
Responding to threats in the environment is crucial for survival. Certain types of threat produce defensive responses without necessitating previous experience and are considered innate, whereas other threats are learned by experiencing aversive consequences. Two important innate threats are whether an encountered stimulus is a member of the same species (social threat) and whether a stimulus suddenly appears proximal to the body (proximal threat). These threats are manifested early in human development and robustly elicit defensive responses...
May 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559170/integration-of-contextual-cues-into-memory-depends-on-prefrontal-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors
#18
Sarah Starosta, Isabelle Bartetzko, Maik C Stüttgen, Onur Güntürkün
Every learning event is embedded in a context, but not always does the context become an integral part of the memory; however, for extinction learning it usually does, resulting in context-specific conditioned responding. The neuronal mechanisms underlying contextual control have been mainly investigated for Pavlovian fear extinction with a focus on hippocampal structures. However, the initial acquisition of novel responses can be subject to contextual control as well, although the neuronal mechanisms are mostly unknown...
May 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559169/spontaneous-alternation-a-potential-gateway-to-spatial-working-memory-in-drosophila
#19
Sara A Lewis, David C Negelspach, Sevag Kaladchibachi, Stephen L Cowen, Fabian Fernandez
Despite their ubiquity in biomedical research, Drosophila have yet to be widely employed as model organisms in psychology. Many complex human-like behaviors are observed in Drosophila, which exhibit elaborate displays of inter-male aggression and female courtship, self-medication with alcohol in response to stress, and even cultural transmission of social information. Here, we asked whether Drosophila can demonstrate behavioral indices of spatial working memory in a Y-maze, a classic test of memory function and novelty-seeking in rodents...
May 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545908/influence-of-postnatal-glucocorticoids-on-hippocampal-dependent-learning-varies-with-elevation-patterns-and-administration-methods
#20
Dragana I Claflin, Kevin D Schmidt, Zachary D Vallandingham, Michal Kraszpulski, Michael B Hennessy
Recent interest in the lasting effects of early-life stress has expanded to include effects on cognitive performance. An increase in circulating glucocorticoids is induced by stress exposure and glucocorticoid effects on the hippocampus likely underlie many of the cognitive consequences. Here we review studies showing that corticosterone administered to young rats at the conclusion of the stress-hyporesponsiveness period affects later performance in hippocampally-mediated trace eyeblink conditioning. The nature and even direction of these effects varies with the elevation patterns (level, duration, temporal fluctuation) achieved by different administration methods...
May 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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