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Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082169/nonmuscle-myosin-ii-inhibition-disrupts-methamphetamine-associated-memory-in-females-and-adolescents
#1
Erica J Young, Sherri B Briggs, Gavin Rumbaugh, Courtney A Miller
Memories associated with drug use can trigger strong motivation for the drug, which increases relapse vulnerability in substance use disorder (SUD). Currently there are no treatments for relapse to abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH). We previously reported that storage of memories associated with METH, but not those for fear or food reward, and the concomitant spine density increase are disrupted in a retrieval-independent manner by depolymerizing actin in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLC) of adult male rats and mice...
January 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065715/a-framework-for-understanding-and-advancing-intertemporal-choice-research-using-rodent-models
#2
REVIEW
Wambura C Fobbs, Sheri J Y Mizumori
Intertemporal choices are common and consequential to private and public life. Thus, there is considerable interest in understanding the neural basis of intertemporal decision making. In this minireview, we briefly describe conceptual and psychological perspectives on intertemporal choice and then provide a comprehensive evaluation of the neural structures and signals that comprise the underlying cortico-limbic-striatal circuit. Even though great advances have been made, our understanding of the neurobiology of intertemporal choice is still in its infancy because of the complex and dynamic nature of this form of decision making...
January 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065714/transient-inactivation-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-rats-disrupts-avoidance-of-a-dynamic-object
#3
Jan Svoboda, Veronika Lobellová, Anna Popelíková, Nikhil Ahuja, Eduard Kelemen, Aleš Stuchlík
Although animals often learn and monitor the spatial properties of relevant moving objects such as conspecifics and predators to properly organize their own spatial behavior, the underlying brain substrate has received little attention and hence remains elusive. Because the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) participates in conflict monitoring and effort-based decision making, and ACC neurons respond to objects in the environment, it may also play a role in the monitoring of moving cues and exerting the appropriate spatial response...
January 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065713/goldfish-hippocampal-pallium-is-essential-to-associate-temporally-discontiguous-events
#4
B Rodríguez-Expósito, A Gómez, I Martín-Monzón, M Reiriz, F Rodríguez, C Salas
There is general agreement that the hippocampus of vertebrates, from fish to mammals, is involved in map-like spatial memory. However, in mammals the role of the hippocampus goes beyond the spatial domain as it is also involved in binding the temporally separate events that compose episodic memories. In this regard, the hippocampus of mammals is essential for trace classical conditioning, in which a stimulus-free time gap separates the end of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US), but not in delay conditioning, in which both stimuli coincide in time...
January 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057502/variations-of-the-morris-water-maze-task-to-comparatively-assess-human-and-rodent-place-navigation
#5
Robby Schoenfeld, Thomas Schiffelholz, Christian Beyer, Bernd Leplow, Nigel Foreman
Performance in the Morris water maze has been widely used in routine behavioural studies of rodents. Since the advent of computer-based virtual environments, adaptations of the water maze have become available for human research. Despite decades of comparative neuroscience, formal comparisons of human and animal place navigation performance are rarely. We studied 36 subjects, 18 young male mice in a Morris water maze and 18 male students in a virtual version. Quantitative measures (escape latencies, distances and platform crossings) indicated no discernable differences between human and rodent performance, reinforcing the task's general validity and its implied cross-species comparability...
January 2, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049023/aspartame-and-the-hippocampus-revealing-a-bi-directional-dose-time-dependent-behavioural-and-morphological-shift-in-mice
#6
Adejoke Y Onaolapo, Olakunle J Onaolapo, Polycarp U Nwoha
Changes, in behaviour, oxidative markers of stress and hippocampal morphology were evaluated following aspartame administration. Mice, (20-22g each) were given vehicle (10ml/kg) or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg) daily for 28days. They were tested in the Y-maze, radial-arm maze and elevated plus-maze (EPM) after the first and last dose of vehicle or aspartame; and then sacrificed. Hippocampal slices were analysed for aspartic acid, nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD); and processed for general histology and neuritic plaques...
December 31, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039089/the-asymmetry-defect-of-hippocampal-circuitry-impairs-working-memory-in-%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-deficient-mice
#7
Kazuhiro Goto, Isao Ito
Left-right (L-R) asymmetry is a fundamental feature of brain function, but the mechanisms underlying functional asymmetry remain largely unknown. We previously identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus that result from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B) subunits. By examining the synaptic distribution of ε2 subunits, we found that β2-microglobulin (β2m)-deficient mice that are defective in the stable cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) lack this circuit asymmetry...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039088/microrna-335-5p-modulates-spatial-memory-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#8
F Capitano, J Camon, V Licursi, V Ferretti, L Maggi, M Scianni, G Del Vecchio, A Rinaldi, C Mannironi, C Limatola, C Presutti, A Mele
MicroRNAs are endogenous, noncoding RNAs crucial for the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-335-5p in spatial learning and synaptic plasticity. To this end we first showed spatial learning induced down-regulation of miR-335-5p. Next we found impairment in long-term memory and reduction in hippocampal long-term potentiation by exogenous administration of the miRNA. These findings demonstrate that miR-335-5p is a key coordinator of the intracellular pathways that mediate experience-dependent changes in the brain...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039087/inhibition-of-transcription-and-translation-in-the-striatum-after-memory-reactivation-lack-of-evidence-of-reconsolidation
#9
Roberto A Prado-Alcalá, Andrea Cristina Medina, Paola C Bello-Medina, Gina L Quirarte
It has been found that interference with neural activity after a consolidated memory is retrieved produces an amnestic state; this has been taken has indicative of destabilization of the memory trace that would have been produced by a process of reconsolidation (allowing for maintenance of the original trace). However, a growing body of evidence shows that this is not a reliable effect, and that it is dependent upon some experimental conditions, such as the age of the memory, memory reactivation procedures, the predictability of the reactivation stimulus, and strength of training...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039086/camkii-requirement-for-the-persistence-of-in-vivo-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synaptic-plasticity-and-structural-reorganization
#10
Yectivani Juárez-Muñoz, Alejandro Rivera-Olvera, Laura E Ramos-Languren, Martha L Escobar
CaMKII has been proposed as a molecular substrate for long-term memory storage due to its capacity to maintain an active autophosporylated state even after the decay of the external stimuli. The hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 pathway (MF-CA3) is considered as a relevant area for acquisition and storage of different learning tasks. MF-CA3 pathway exhibits a form of LTP characterized by a slow initial increase in the EPSP slope that is independent of NMDA receptors activation. Our previous studies show that application of high frequency stimulation sufficient to elicit MF-CA3 LTP produces structural reorganization, in a manner independent of LTP induction, at the stratum oriens of hippocampal CA3 area 7days after stimulation...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039085/transcranial-infrared-laser-stimulation-improves-rule-based-but-not-information-integration-category-learning-in-humans
#11
Nathaniel J Blanco, Celeste L Saucedo, F Gonzalez-Lima
This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation on category learning tasks. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation is a new non-invasive form of brain stimulation that shows promise for wide-ranging experimental and neuropsychological applications. It involves using infrared laser to enhance cerebral oxygenation and energy metabolism through upregulation of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase, the primary infrared photon acceptor in cells...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034786/bidirectional-modulation-of-taste-aversion-extinction-by-insular-cortex-ltp-and-ltd
#12
Luis F Rodríguez-Durán, Araceli Martínez-Moreno, Martha L Escobar
The history of activity of a given neuron has been proposed to bidirectionally influence its future response to synaptic inputs. In particular, induction of synaptic plasticity expressions such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) modifies the performance of several behavioral tasks. Our previous studies in the insular cortex (IC), a neocortical region that has been related to acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla)-IC pathway before CTA training enhances the retention of this task...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034785/modulation-of-the-consolidation-and-reconsolidation-of-fear-memory-by-three-different-serotonin-receptors-in-hippocampus
#13
S D Schmidt, C R G Furini, C G Zinn, L E Cavalcante, F F Ferreira, J A K Behling, J C Myskiw, I Izquierdo
The process of memory formation is complex and highly dynamic. During learning, the newly acquired information is found in a fragile and labile state. Through a process known as consolidation, which requires specific mechanisms such as protein synthesis, the memory trace is stored and stabilized. It is known that when a consolidated memory is recalled, it again becomes labile and sensitive to disruption. To be maintained, this memory must undergo an additional process of restabilization called reconsolidation, which requires another phase of protein synthesis...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034784/altered-ampa-receptor-expression-plays-an-important-role-in-inducing-bidirectional-synaptic-plasticity-during-contextual-fear-memory-reconsolidation
#14
Subhrajit Bhattacharya, Whitney Kimble, Manal Buabeid, Dwipayan Bhattacharya, Jenna Bloemer, Ahmad Alhowail, Miranda Reed, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran, Martha Escobar, Vishnu Suppiramaniam
Retrieval of a memory appears to render it unstable until the memory is once again re-stabilized or reconsolidated. Although the occurrence and consequences of reconsolidation have received much attention in recent years, the specific mechanisms that underlie the process of reconsolidation have not been fully described. Here, we present the first electrophysiological model of the synaptic plasticity changes underlying the different stages of reconsolidation of a conditioned fear memory. In this model, retrieval of a fear memory results in immediate but transient alterations in synaptic plasticity, mediated by modified expression of the glutamate receptor subunits GluA1 and GluA2 in the hippocampus of rodents...
December 26, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025069/does-reactivation-trigger-episodic-memory-change-a-meta-analysis
#15
Iiona D Scully, Lucy E Napper, Almut Hupbach
According to the reconsolidation hypothesis, long-term memories return to a plastic state upon their reactivation, leaving them vulnerable to interference effects and requiring re-storage processes or else these memories might be permanently lost. The present study used a meta-analytic approach to critically evaluate the evidence for reactivation-induced changes in human episodic memory. Results indicated that reactivation makes episodic memories susceptible to physiological and behavioral interference. When applied shortly after reactivation, interference manipulations altered the amount of information that could be retrieved from the original learning event...
December 23, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017817/towards-a-better-understanding-on-the-role-of-prediction-error-on-memory-processes-from-bench-to-clinic
#16
María C Krawczyk, Rodrigo S Fernández, María E Pedreira, Mariano M Boccia
psychology defines Prediction Error (PE) as a mismatch between expected and current events. It represents a unifier concept within the memory field, as it is the driving force of memory acquisition and updating. Prediction error induces updating of consolidated memories in strength or content by memory reconsolidation. This process has two different neurobiological phases, which involves the destabilization (labilization) of a consolidated memory followed by its restabilization. The aim of this work is to emphasize the functional role of PE on the neurobiology of learning and memory, integrating and discussing different research areas: behavioural, neurobiological, computational and clinical psychiatry...
December 22, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011191/determinants-to-trigger-memory-reconsolidation-the-role-of-retrieval-and-updating-information
#17
Carlos J Rodriguez-Ortiz, Federico Bermúdez-Rattoni
Long-term memories can undergo destabilization/restabilization processes, collectively called reconsolidation. However, the parameters that trigger memory reconsolidation are poorly understood and are a matter of intense investigation. Particularly, memory retrieval is widely held as requisite to initiate reconsolidation. This assumption makes sense since only relevant cues will induce reconsolidation of a specific memory. However, recent studies show that pharmacological inhibition of retrieval does not avoid memory from undergoing reconsolidation, indicating that memory reconsolidation occurs through a process that can be dissociated from retrieval...
December 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003127/consolidation-and-reconsolidation-are-impaired-by-oral-propranolol-administered-before-but-not-after-memory-re-activation-in-humans
#18
Émilie Thomas, Daniel Saumier, Roger K Pitman, Jacques Tremblay, Alain Brunet
Propranolol administered immediately after learning or after recall has been found to impair memory consolidation or reconsolidation (respectively) in animals, but less reliably so in humans. Since reconsolidation impairment has been proposed as a treatment for mental disorders that have at their core an emotional memory, it is desirable to understand how to reliably reduce the strength of pathogenic memories in humans. We postulated that since humans (unlike experimental animals) typically receive propranolol orally, this introduces a delay before this drug can exert its memory impairment effects, which may render it less effective...
December 18, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993649/preliminary-evidence-for-a-role-of-the-personality-trait-in-visual-perceptual-learning
#19
Mingxia Zhang, Jiangbo Tu, Bo Dong, Chuansheng Chen, Min Bao
Recent research has shown that reinforcement can facilitate visual perceptual learning (VPL), but no study has examined the relations between individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity and VPL. This study tested the hypothesis that when monetary incentive was involved, the personality traits of harm avoidance and reward dependence (HA and RD, two measures of reinforcement sensitivity) would be linked to VPL performance. We trained two groups of subjects with a visual motion direction discrimination task for six days...
December 18, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993648/contribution-of-the-basolateral-amygdala-nmda-and-muscarinic-receptors-in-rat-s-memory-retrieval
#20
Efat Nazarinia, Ameneh Rezayof, Maryam Sardari, Nima Yazdanbakhsh
The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of the muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in memory retrieval. Also, the possible relationship between the BLA muscarinic cholinergic and the NMDA receptor systems was evaluated in the inhibitory avoidance learning. Male Wistar rats were bilaterally cannulated into the BLAs and memory retrieval was measured in a step-through type inhibitory avoidance apparatus. Intra-BLA microinjection of different doses of a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine (0...
December 16, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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