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Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099202/choline-ameliorates-adult-learning-deficits-and-reverses-epigenetic-modification-of-chromatin-remodeling-factors-related-to-adolescent-nicotine-exposure
#1
Miri Gitik, Erica D Holliday, Ming Leung, Qiaoping Yuan, Sheree F Logue, Roope Tikkanen, David Goldman, Thomas J Gould
Earlier initiation of smoking correlates with higher risk of nicotine dependence, mental health problems, and cognitive impairments. Additionally, exposure to nicotine and/or tobacco smoke during critical developmental periods is associated with lasting epigenetic modifications and altered gene expression. This study examined whether adolescent nicotine exposure alters adult hippocampus-dependent learning, involving persistent changes in hippocampal DNA methylation and if choline, a dietary methyl donor, would reverse and mitigate these alterations...
August 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092312/developmental-prefrontal-mrna-expression-of-d2-dopamine-receptor-splice-variants-and-working-memory-impairments-in-rats-after-early-life-interleukin-1%C3%AE-elevation
#2
Alexander P Schwarz, Alexander Yu Rotov, Olga I Chuprina, Darya U Krytskaya, Alexander N Trofimov, Vera V Kosheverova, Alexander M Ischenko, Olga E Zubareva
Long (D2L) and Short (D2S) isoforms of D2 dopamine receptor differ in their biochemical and physiological properties, which could affect functioning of prefrontal cortex. Contribution of distinct D2 dopamine receptor isoforms to cognitive dysfunctions and its developmental regulation are currently not fully elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated developmental mRNA expression of D2S/D2L dopamine receptor isoforms within the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the model of neurodevelopmental cognitive dysfunction...
August 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092311/competitive-learning-modulates-memory-consolidation-during-sleep
#3
James W Antony, Larry Y Cheng, Paula Pacheco, Ken A Paller, Kenneth A Norman
Competition between memories can cause weakening of those memories. Here we investigated memory competition during sleep in male and female human participants by presenting auditory cues that had been linked to two distinct picture-location pairs during wake. We manipulated competition during learning by requiring participants to rehearse picture-location pairs associated with the same sound either competitively (choosing to rehearse one over the other, leading to greater competition) or separately; we hypothesized that greater competition during learning would lead to greater competition when memories were cued during sleep...
August 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086397/novel-object-recognition-and-object-location-tasks-in-zebrafish-influence-of-habituation-and-nmda-receptor-antagonism
#4
Karina Vidarte Gaspary, Gustavo Kellermann Reolon, Darlan Gusso, Carla Denise Bonan
This study aims to establish a protocol for evaluating the object recognition memory and object location tasks in zebrafish. We evaluated novel object recognition memory and analyzed the exploration time of the objects during training and testing. Zebrafish explored more the new object in comparison to the familiar object (61% of exploration time during test session). We also tested the object location task and measured the exploration time of each object in the familiar and novel object location. There was a preference to explore the object in the novel location (63% of exploration time during test session)...
August 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086396/wakefulness-rather-than-sleep-benefits-extinction-of-an-inhibitory-operant-conditioning-memory-in-aplysia
#5
Albrecht P A Vorster, Jan Born
Sleep enhances memory consolidation which has been shown in mammals as well as in invertebrates, like bees and Drosophila. The current study is part of a series of experiments examining whether this memory function of sleep is preserved in Aplysia with an even simpler nervous system. Previous work showed that Aplysia sleep and that sleep after training supports memory on an inhibitory conditioning task ('learning that food is inedible', LFI). Here, we tested whether sleep in Aplysia would also support memory for an extinction learning on the LFI task...
August 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086395/association-among-anterior-cingulate-cortex-volume-psychophysiological-response-and-ptsd-diagnosis-in-a-veteran-sample
#6
Dmitri A Young, Linda Chao, Thomas C Neylan, Aoife O'Donovan, Thomas J Metzler, Sabra S Inslicht
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with fear response system dysregulation. Research has shown that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) may modulate the fear response and that individuals with PTSD have abnormalities in ACC structure and functioning. Our objective was to assess whether ACC volume moderates the relationship between PTSD and fear-potentiated psychophysiological response in a sample of Gulf War Veterans. 142 Veteran participants who were associated with a larger study associated with Gulf War Illness were exposed to no threat, ambiguous threat, and high threat conditions in a fear conditioned startle response paradigm and also provided MRI imaging data...
August 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086394/basolateral-amygdala-calpain-is-required-for-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memory
#7
Zhujin Song, Hui Chen, Wen Xu, Shengbing Wu, Guoqi Zhu
Extinction of fear-memory is essential for emotional and mental changes. However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of fear-memory are largely unknown. Calpain is a type of calcium-dependent protease that plays a critical role in memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Whether calpain functions in extinction of fear-memory is unknown, as are the molecular mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the pivotal role of calpain in extinction of fear-memory in mice, and assessed its mechanism. Conditioned stimulation/unconditioned stimulation-conditioned stimulation paradigms combined with pharmacological methods were employed to evaluate the action of calpain in memory extinction...
August 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081154/positive-emotional-induction-interferes-with-the-reconsolidation-of-negative-autobiographical-memories-in-women-only
#8
M Piñeyro, R I Ferrer Monti, H Díaz, A M Bueno, S G Bustos, V A Molina
After reactivation, a previously consolidated memory can enter into a labile state followed by a re-stabilization process defined as reconsolidation. The aim of this study was to explore whether an existing negative autobiographical memory can be modified by using a non-invasive interference (audiovisual positive preparation) after reactivation and to determine if this effect could be dependent on the reconsolidation process. We found that the presentation of a positive inductor after a negative autobiographical memory reactivation may lead to a change in the emotional information of the original trace and that such effect can be mediated by the reconsolidation process...
August 3, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081153/the-role-of-sleep-in-emotional-memory-processing-in-middle-age
#9
Bethany J Jones, Alix Mackay, Janna Mantua, Kurt S Schultz, Rebecca M C Spencer
Sleep benefits memory in young adults, and this effect may be particularly strong for representations associated with negative emotion. Many aspects of sleep important for memory consolidation change with aging, particularly by middle age, suggesting that sleep-related consolidation may be reduced. However, the influence of sleep on memory has rarely been investigated in a middle-aged population. In the current study, young and middle-aged adults viewed negative and neutral pictures and underwent a recognition test after sleep or wake...
August 3, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075194/recent-and-remote-retrograde-memory-deficit-in-rats-with-medial-entorhinal-cortex-lesions
#10
Jena B Hales, Jonathan L Vincze, Nicole T Reitz, Amber C Ocampo, Stefan Leutgeb, Robert E Clark
The hippocampus is critically involved in the acquisition and retrieval of spatial memories. Even though some memories become independent of the hippocampus over time, expression of spatial memories have consistently been found to permanently depend on the hippocampus. Recent studies have focused on the adjacent medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), as it provides major projections to the hippocampus. These studies have shown that lesions of the MEC disrupt spatial processing in the hippocampus and impair spatial memory acquisition on the watermaze task...
July 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075193/cafeteria-diet-effects-on-cognitive-functions-anxiety-fear-response-and-neurogenesis-in-the-juvenile-rat
#11
André Ferreira, João P Castro, José P Andrade, M Dulce Madeira, Armando Cardoso
Early life, covering childhood and adolescence in humans, is an important period of brain development and maturation. Experimental works in rodents have shown that high-caloric diets are particularly detrimental to young rats, affecting cognition. We studied the effects of two different high-caloric diets, prevalent in human adolescents, on male Wistar rats aged 4 weeks at the beginning of the experiment. Rats were randomly allocated to control (C, n=10), high-sugar diet (HS, n=10) and cafeteria diet (CAF, n=10) groups and fed accordingly for 8 weeks...
July 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053577/inactivation-of-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortex-respectively-affects-minimally-trained-and-extensively-trained-goal-directed-actions
#12
Megan L Shipman, Sydney Trask, Mark E Bouton, John T Green
Several studies have examined a role for the prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) in free operant behavior. The general conclusion has been that PL controls goal-directed actions (instrumental behaviors that are sensitive to reinforcer devaluation) whereas IL controls habits (instrumental behaviors that are not sensitive to reinforcer devaluation). To further examine the involvement of these regions in the expression of instrumental behavior, we first implanted male rats with bilateral guide cannulae into their PL, then trained two responses to produce a sucrose pellet reinforcer, R1 and R2, each in a distinct context...
July 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053576/inactivation-of-the-interpositus-nucleus-blocks-the-acquisition-of-conditioned-responses-and-timing-changes-in-conditioning-specific-reflex-modification-of-the-rabbit-eyeblink-response
#13
Lauren B Burhans, Bernard G Schreurs
Conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) of the rabbit eyeblink response is an associative phenomenon characterized by increases in the frequency, size, and peak latency of the reflexive unconditioned eyeblink response (UR) when the periorbital shock unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented alone following conditioning, particularly to lower intensity USs that produced minimal responding prior to conditioning. Previous work has shown that CRM shares many commonalities with the conditioned eyeblink response (CR) including a similar response topography, suggesting the two may share similar neural substrates...
July 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053575/neocortical-shank1-regulation-of-forebrain-dependent-associative-learning
#14
Sean M Collins, Roberto Galvez
Learning-induced neocortical synaptic plasticity is a well-established mechanism mediating memory consolidation. Classic learning paradigms elicit synaptic changes in various brain regions including the neocortex. Work from our laboratory has further suggested synaptic remodeling in primary somatosensory cortex (S1) during forebrain-dependent associative learning. While this process of synaptic remodeling is largely believed to contribute to memory consolidation, the underlying processes mediating this plasticity are poorly understood...
July 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016703/cerebellar-injury-and-impaired-function-in-a-rabbit-model-of-maternal-inflammation-induced-neonatal-brain-injury
#15
Zhi Zhang, Shilpa Narayan, Lilly Su, Hanaa Al-Alawyat, Jinhuan Liu, Sujatha Kannan
Cerebellum is involved in higher cognitive functions and plays important roles in neurological disorders. Cerebellar injury has been detected frequently in patients with preterm birth resulting in cognitive dysfunction later in life. Maternal infection and inflammation is associated with preterm birth and in neonatal brain injury. We have previously shown that intrauterine lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure induces white matter injury and microglial activation in the cerebral white matter tracts of neonatal rabbits, resulting in motor deficits consistent with the clinical findings of cerebral palsy (CP)...
July 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031119/plasticity-and-redundancy-in-the-integration-of-adult-born-neurons-in-the-hippocampus
#16
REVIEW
Thiago F A França
Hippocampal neurogenesis (HN) is an extreme form of plasticity that inevitably rewires the hippocampal circuit and this rewiring was put forward as a possible mechanism for neurogenesis' behavioral effects. Here, I critically evaluate multiple lines of evidence to argue that structural plasticity induced by HN is, to a large extent, functionally redundant and thus has limited impact on behavior. The associative plasticity rules along with properties of immature neurons should only allow the survival of new neurons whose pre and postsynaptic partners have correlated activity, leading to functional redundancy...
July 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030131/mouse-models-as-a-tool-for-discovering-new-neurological-diseases
#17
Qiumin Tan, Huda Y Zoghbi
Animal models have been the mainstay of biological and medical research. Although there are drawbacks to any research tool, we argue that mice have been under-utilized as a tool for predicting human diseases. Here we review four examples from our research group where studying the consequences of altered gene dosage in a mouse led to the discovery of previously unrecognized human syndromes: MECP2 duplication syndrome, SHANK3 duplication syndrome, CIC haploinsufficiency syndrome, and PUM1-related disorders. We also describe the clinical phenotypes of two individuals with CIC haploinsufficiency syndrome who have not been reported previously...
July 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017897/trax-a-versatile-signaling-protein-plays-key-roles-in-synaptic-plasticity-and-dna-repair
#18
REVIEW
Yijuang Chern, Ting Chien, Xiuping Fu, Aparna P Shah, Ted Abel, Jay M Baraban
Translin-associated protein X (TSNAX), also called trax, was first identified as a protein that interacts with translin. Subsequent studies demonstrated that these proteins form a heteromeric RNase complex that mediates degradation of microRNAs, a pivotal finding that has stimulated interest in understanding the role of translin and trax in cell signaling. Recent studies addressing this question have revealed that trax plays key roles in both synaptic plasticity and DNA repair signaling pathways. In the context of synaptic plasticity, trax works together with its partner protein, translin, to degrade a subset of microRNAs...
July 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981424/theta-oscillations-underlie-retrieval-success-effects-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-anterior-thalamus-evidence-from-human-intracranial-recordings
#19
Eva M Bauch, Nico Bunzeck, Hermann Hinrichs, Friedhelm C Schmitt, Jürgen Voges, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle
Previous imaging studies independently highlighted the role of the anterior thalamus (ANT) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in successful memory retrieval. While these findings accord with theoretical models, the precise temporal, oscillatory and network dynamics as well as the interplay between the NAcc and ANT in successfully retrieving information from long-term memory are largely unknown. We addressed this issue by recording intracranial electroencephalography in human epilepsy patients from the NAcc (n = 5) and ANT (n = 4) during an old/new recognition test...
July 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981423/a-translational-perspective-on-neural-circuits-of-fear-extinction-current-promises-and-challenges
#20
REVIEW
Dieuwke Sevenster, Renée M Visser, Rudi D'Hooge
Fear extinction is the well-known process of fear reduction through repeated re-exposure to a feared stimulus without the aversive outcome. The last two decades have witnessed a surge of interest in extinction learning. First, extinction learning is observed across species, and especially research on rodents has made great strides in characterising the physical substrate underlying extinction learning. Second, extinction learning is considered of great clinical significance since it constitutes a crucial component of exposure treatment...
July 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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