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Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031809/grouping-subjects-based-on-conditioning-criteria-reveals-differences-in-acquisition-rates-and-in-strength-of-conditioning-specific-reflex-modification
#1
Carrie A Smith-Bell, Bernard G Schreurs
Averaging behavioral data such as the nictitating membrane response (NMR) across subjects can conceal important individual and group differences. Analyses were conducted of NMR data from rabbits that were grouped based on the point during NMR conditioning when subjects produced 8 conditioned responses (CR) in a set of 10 trials. This resulted in five groups (Early Day 1, Late Day 1, Early Day 2, Late Day 2, Early Day 3) in which group differences in CR acquisition rates were found. Percent (%) CRs were not found to increase monotonically and between-session differences in% CR were found...
October 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031808/specific-disruption-of-contextual-memory-recall-by-sparse-additional-activity-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#2
Hye-Yeon Cho, Mujun Kim, Jin-Hee Han
The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is essential for contextual and spatial memory processing. While lesion or silencing of the DG impairs contextual memory encoding and recall, overly activated DG also prevents proper memory retrieval. Abnormally elevated activity in the DG is repeatedly reported in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients or aged adults. Although the correlation between memory failure and abnormally active hippocampus is clear, their causal relationship or the underlying nature of such interfering activity is not well understood...
October 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032015/possible-positive-effect-of-the-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B52-allele-on-cognition-in-early-to-mid-adult-life
#3
I Sinclair Lindsey, Christopher W Pleydell-Pearce, N M Ian Day
BACKGROUND: ε4 allele possession is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. Its effects earlier in life are less well understood. Previous studies have reported both detrimental effects and a lack of effect on cognition outside dementia. We used genotype based recall from the ALSPAC study to investigate whether APOE genotype influences cognition in earlier adult life. METHODS: We invited all individuals with the rarer ε22 or ε44 genotypes and equal numbers of those with ε32, ε33 or ε34 APOE genotypes (total n invited =1936, ages 23-67)...
October 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030299/enhancing-early-consolidation-of-human-episodic-memory-by-theta-eeg-neurofeedback
#4
Roman Rozengurt, Limor Shtoots, Aviv Sheriff, Ofir Sadka, Daniel A Levy
Consolidation of newly formed memories is readily disrupted, but can it be enhanced? Given the prominent role of hippocampal theta oscillations in memory formation and retrieval, we hypothesized that upregulating theta power during early stages of consolidation might benefit memory stability and persistence. We used EEG neurofeedback to enable participants to selectively increase theta power in their EEG spectra following episodic memory encoding, while other participants engaged in low beta-focused neurofeedback or passively viewed a neutral nature movie...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030298/linking-muscarinic-receptor-activation-to-ups-mediated-object-memory-destabilization-implications-for-long-term-memory-modification-and-storage
#5
Mikaela L Stiver, Jacob M Cloke, Natalie Nightingale, Julian Rizos, William S Messer, Boyer D Winters
Consolidated memories can become destabilized during reactivation, resulting in a transient state of instability, a process that has been hypothesized to underlie long-term memory updating. Consistent with this notion, relatively remote memories, which are resistant to standard destabilization procedures, are reliably destabilized when novel information (i.e., the opportunity for memory updating) is present during reactivation. We have also shown that cholinergic muscarinic receptor (mAChR) activation can similarly destabilize consolidated object memories...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030297/impaired-extinction-of-cued-fear-memory-and-abnormal-dendritic-morphology-in-the-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortices-in-vpac2-receptor-vipr2-deficient-mice
#6
Yukio Ago, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Takuya Kawanai, Ryosuke Yamauchi, Shuto Takeuchi, Jesse D Cushman, Abha K Rajbhandari, Michael S Fanselow, Hitoshi Hashimoto, James A Waschek
The structurally related neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) have been implicated in stress regulation and learning and memory. Several bodies of research have shown the impact of the PACAP specific receptor PAC1 on fear memory, but the roles of other PACAP receptors in regulating fear stress responses remain to be elucidated. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of VIPR2 encoding the VPAC2 receptor, which binds both VIP and PACAP, on fear-related memory and on dendritic morphology in the brain regions of the fear circuitry...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030296/modulating-influences-of-memory-strength-and-sensitivity-of-the-retrieval-test-on-the-detectability-of-the-sleep-consolidation-effect
#7
Sarah F Schoch, Maren J Cordi, Björn Rasch
Emotionality can increase recall probability of memories as emotional information is highly relevant for future adaptive behavior. It has been proposed that memory processes acting during sleep selectively promote the consolidation of emotional memories, so that neutral memories no longer profit from sleep consolidation after learning. This appears as a selective effect of sleep for emotional memories. However, other factors contribute to the appearance of a consolidation benefit and influence this interpretation...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024752/overtraining-modifies-spatial-memory-susceptibility-to-corticosterone-administration
#8
Alejandro Múnera, Mayerli A Prado-Rivera, D Carolina Cárdenas-Poveda, Marisol R Lamprea
Even though the effects of overtraining and glucocorticoids on different phases of spatial memory are known, the interaction between these factors on the retrieval and extinction of spatial memory has not yet been described. Adult male Wistar rats received eight training trials per day in the Barnes maze for either one or two days. Twenty-four hours after the last training trial they were randomly assigned for receiving an intraperitoneal vehicle or corticosterone injection (0.125 or 0.5 mg/kg) and ten minutes later they were given a memory test, followed by seven extinction trials...
October 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017931/acute-nicotine-disrupts-consolidation-of-contextual-fear-extinction-and-alters-long-term-memory-associated-hippocampal-kinase-activity
#9
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Brendan Garrett, Sana Gadiwalla, Jessica M Tumolo, Thomas J Gould
Previous research has shown that acute nicotine, an agonist of nAChRs, impaired fear extinction. However, the effects of acute nicotine on consolidation of contextual fear extinction memories and associated cell signaling cascades are unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of acute nicotine injections before (pre-extinction) and after (post-extinction) contextual fear extinction on behavior and the phosphorylation of dorsal and ventral hippocampal ERK1/2 and JNK1 and protein levels on the 1st and 3rd day of extinction...
October 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986299/reversible-inactivation-of-the-lateral-hypothalamus-reversed-high-reward-choices-in-cost-benefit-decision-making-in-rats
#10
Sara Karimi, Azam Mesdaghinia, Zahra Farzinpour, Gholamali Hamidi, Abbas Haghparast
The Lateral hypothalamus (LH) is an important component of the networks underlying the control of feeding and other motivated behaviors. Cost-benefit decision-making is mediated largely by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) which strongly innervates the LH. Therefore, in the current study, we conducted a series of experiments to elucidate the role of the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus (PeF-LH) in effort and/or delay-based decision-making. We trained different groups of rats in a delay-based and/or an effort-based form of cost-benefit T-maze decision- making task in which they could either choose to pay the cost to obtain a high reward in one arm or could obtain a low reward in the other arm with no cost...
October 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962839/name-conditioning-in-event-related-brain-potentials
#11
Boris Kotchoubey, Yuri G Pavlov
Four experiments are reported in which two harmonic tones (CS+ and CS-) were paired with a participant's own name (SON) and different names (DN), respectively. A third tone was not paired with any other stimulus and served as a standard (frequent stimulus) in a three-stimuli oddball paradigm. The larger posterior positivity (P3) to SON than DN, found in previous studies, was replicated in all experiments. Conditioning of the P3 response was albeit observed in two similar experiments (1 and 3), but the obtained effects were weak and not identical in the two experiments...
September 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962838/juvenile-stress-leads-to-long-term-immunological-metaplasticity-like-effects-on-inflammatory-responses-in-adulthood
#12
Limor Shtoots, Gal Richter-Levin, Ofer Hugeri, Rachel Anunu
Previous studies indicate that individuals exposed to stress in juvenility are more prone to suffer from stress-related psychopathologies in adulthood. Evidence suggests that exposure to enriched environment (EE) conditions alleviates juvenile stress (JVS) effects. Exposure to stress has been found to affect immune responses to challenges, but whether JVS has long-term effects on inflammatory processes remains unclear. Here, we examined the impact of JVS on inflammatory processes in adulthood, and the effects of exposure to EE conditions...
September 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927742/the-effect-of-sex-and-menstrual-phase-on-memory-formation-during-a-nap
#13
Negin Sattari, Elizabeth A McDevitt, Dagmara Panas, Mohammad Niknazar, Maryam Ahmadi, Mohsen Naji, Fiona C Baker, Sara C Mednick
Memory formation can be influenced by sleep and sex hormones in both men and women, and by the menstrual cycle in women. Though many studies have shown that sleep benefits the consolidation of memories, it is not clear whether this effect differs between men and women in general or according to menstrual phase in women. The present study investigated the effect of sex and menstrual cycle on memory consolidation of face-name associations (FNA) following a daytime nap. Recognition memory was tested using a face-name paired associates task with a polysomnographic nap between morning and evening testing...
September 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893670/acute-psychophysiological-stress-impairs-human-associative-learning
#14
M R Ehlers, R M Todd
Addiction is increasingly discussed asa disorder of associative learning processes, with both operant and classical conditioning contributing to the development of maladaptive habits. Stress has long been known to promote drug taking and relapse and has further been shown to shift behavior from goal-directed actions towards more habitual ones. However, it remains to be investigated how acute stress may influence simple associative learning processes that occur before a habit can be established. In the present study, healthy young adults were exposed to either acute stress or a control condition half an hour before performing simple classical and operant conditioning tasks...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893669/mismatch-novelty-exploration-training-enhances-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-a-tool-for-cognitive-stimulation
#15
M F Aidil-Carvalho, A J S Carmo, J A Ribeiro, D Cunha-Reis
Memory formation relies on experience-dependent changes in synaptic strength such as long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic activity, that in turn depend on previous learning experiences through metaplasticity. Novelty detection is a particularly important cognitive stimulus in this respect, and mismatch novelty has been associated with the activation of the hippocampal CA1 area in human studies. A single exposure a new location of known objects in a familiar environment, a behavioural mismatch novelty paradigm, is known to favour the expression of LTD in hippocampal CA3 to CA1 synaptic transmission in vivo, through short-term metaplasticity...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893668/learning-mechanisms-underlying-threat-absence-and-threat-relief-influences-of-trait-anxiety
#16
Marta Andreatta, Paul Pauli
Impaired safety learning has been proposed asa risk factor for anxiety disorders, but safety can be indicated by either threat absence or threat termination (i.e., relief). Here, we investigated the role of trait anxiety for both kinds of safety learning. Ninety-one participants underwent an acquisition phase during which one shape (threatCS) predicted a painful electric shock (unconditioned stimulus, US), one shape (reliefCS) followed the US, and one shape (absenceCS) became never associated with the US. In a following extinction phase, the three cues were presented again plus a control shape (controlCS)...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893667/amnestic-drugs-in-the-odor-span-task-effects-of-flunitrazepam-zolpidem-and-scopolamine
#17
Mark Galizio, Michael Mathews, Madeleine Mason, Danielle Panoz-Brown, Ashley Prichard, Paul Soto
The odor span task is an incrementing non-matching-to-sample procedure designed to provide an analysis of working memory capacity in rodents. The procedure takes place in an arena apparatus and rats are exposed to a series of odor stimuli in the form of scented lids with the selection of new stimuli reinforced. This procedure makes it possible to study drug effects as a function of the number of stimuli to remember. In the present study, the non-selective positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulator flunitrazepam impaired odor span performance at doses that did not affect a control odor discrimination...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890149/distinct-roles-for-the-deacetylase-domain-of-hdac3-in-the-hippocampus-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-the-formation-and-extinction-of-memory
#18
Yasaman Alaghband, Janine L Kwapis, Alberto J López, André O White, Osasumwen V Aimiuwu, Amni Al-Kachak, Kasuni K Bodinayake, Nicole C Oparaugo, Richard Dang, Mariam Astarabadi, Dina P Matheos, Marcelo A Wood
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are chromatin modifying enzymes that have been implicated as powerful negative regulators of memory processes. HDAC3has been shown to play a pivotal role in long-term memory for object location as well as the extinction of cocaine-associated memory, but it is unclear whether this function depends on the deacetylase domain of HDAC3. Here, we tested whether the deacetylase domain of HDAC3has a role in object location memory formation as well as the formation and extinction of cocaine-associated memories...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890150/antagonizing-the-gabaa-receptor-during-behavioral-training-improves-spatial-memory-at-different-doses-in-control-and-chronically-stressed-rats
#19
Kenji J Nishimura, J Bryce Ortiz, Cheryl D Conrad
Chronic stress leads to a dysregulated inhibitory tone that could impact hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory. The present study examined whether spatial memory deficits resulting from chronic stress could be overcome by antagonizing the GABAA receptor, a prominent inhibitory receptor of GABA in the hippocampus. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically stressed (STR, wire mesh restraint, 6h/d/21d) or placed in a no-stress control group (CON). When chronic restraint ended, rats were tested on a 2-trial object placement (OP) task at a delay (3h) that would result in chance performance without intervention and then on novel object recognition (NOR) and the elevated plus maze (EPM) to assess non-spatial memory and anxiety profile...
September 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866469/l-type-vdccs-participate-in-behavioral-ltp-and-memory-retention
#20
Yuan-Yuan Han, Xiao-Dong Wang, Li Liu, Hong-Mei Guo, Wei Cong, Wen-Wen Yan, Jun-Ni Huang, Peng Xiao, Chu-Hua Li
Although L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) have been reported to display different even contrary actions on cognitive functions and long-term potentiation (LTP) formation, there is little information regarding the role of L-type VDCCs in behavioral LTP, a learning-induced LTP model, in the intact brain of freely behaving animals. Here we investigated the effects of verapamil, a non-selective blocker of L-type VDCCs, on behavioral LTP and cognitive functions. Population spikes (PS) were recorded by using electrophysiological methods to examine the role of verapamil in behavioral LTP in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region...
September 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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