journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625494/acute-stress-shifts-the-balance-between-controlled-and-automatic-processes-in-prospective-memory
#1
Marcus Möschl, Moritz Walser, Franziska Plessow, Thomas Goschke, Rico Fischer
In everyday life we frequently rely on our abilities to postpone intentions until later occasions (prospective memory; PM) and to deactivate completed intentions even in stressful situations. Yet, little is known about the effects of acute stress on these abilities. In the present work we investigated the impact of acute stress on PM functioning under high task demands. 1) Different from previous studies, in which intention deactivation required mostly low processing demands, we used salient focal PM cues to induce high processing demands during intention-deactivation phases...
June 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624517/intra-accumbal-blockade-of-endocannabinoid-cb1-receptors-impairs-learning-but-not-retention-of-conditioned-relief
#2
Jorge R Bergado Acosta, Miriam Schneider, Markus Fendt
Humans and animals are able to associate an environmental cue with the feeling of relief from an aversive event, a phenomenon called relief learning. Relief from an aversive event is rewarding and a relief-associated cue later induces an attenuation of the startle magnitude or approach behavior. Previous studies demonstrated that the nucleus accumbens is essential for relief learning. Here, we asked whether accumbal cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are involved in relief learning. In rats, we injected the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A (rimonabant) directly into the nucleus accumbens at different time points during a relief learning experiment...
June 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602659/long-term-multi-species-lactobacillus-and-bifidobacterium-dietary-supplement-enhances-memory-and-changes-regional-brain-metabolites-in-middle-aged-rats
#3
Caroline O'Hagan, Jia V Li, Julian R Marchesi, Sue Plummer, Iveta Garaiova, Mark A Good
Ageing is associated with changes in the gut microbiome that may contribute to age-related changes in cognition. Previous work has shown that dietary supplements with multi-species live microorganisms can influence brain function, including induction of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and production of brain derived neurotrophic factor, in both young and aged rodents. However, the effect of such dietary supplements on memory processes has been less well documented, particularly in the context of aging. The main aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a long-term dietary supplement with a multi-species live Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria mixture (Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60, L...
June 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579367/early-postnatal-handling-reduces-hippocampal-amyloid-plaque-formation-and-enhances-cognitive-performance-in-appswe-ps1de9-mice-at-middle-age
#4
Sylvie L Lesuis, Beryl A C E van Hoek, Paul J Lucassen, Harm J Krugers
In rodents, fragmented and low levels of maternal care have been implicated in age-related cognitive decline and the incidence and progression of Alzheimer's pathology. In contrast, enhancing early postnatal maternal care has been associated with improved cognitive function later in life. Here we examined whether early postnatal handling of mouse pups from postnatal days 2-9 enhanced maternal care and whether this affected cognition and Alzheimer pathology at 5 and 11months of age in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model for Alzheimer's disease...
June 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577998/involvement-of-the-prelimbic-cortex-in-contextual-fear-conditioning-with-temporal-and-spatial-discontinuity
#5
Thays Brenner Santos, Juliana Carlota Kramer-Soares, Vanessa Manchim Favaro, Maria Gabriela Menezes Oliveira
Time plays an important role in conditioning, it is not only possible to associate stimuli with events that overlap, as in delay fear conditioning, but it is also possible to associate stimuli that are discontinuous in time, as shown in trace conditioning for a discrete stimuli. The environment itself can be a powerful conditioned stimulus (CS) and be associated to unconditioned stimulus (US). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the parameters in which contextual fear conditioning occurs by the maintenance of a contextual representation over short and long time intervals...
May 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564588/social-proximal-and-conditioned-threat
#6
Jörgen Rosén, Granit Kastrati, Fredrik Åhs
Responding to threats in the environment is crucial for survival. Certain types of threat produce defensive responses without necessitating previous experience and are considered innate, whereas other threats are learned by experiencing aversive consequences. Two important innate threats are whether an encountered stimulus is a member of the same species (social threat) and whether a stimulus suddenly appears proximal to the body (proximal threat). These threats are manifested early in human development and robustly elicit defensive responses...
May 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559170/integration-of-contextual-cues-into-memory-depends-on-prefrontal-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors
#7
Sarah Starosta, Isabelle Bartetzko, Maik C Stüttgen, Onur Güntürkün
Every learning event is embedded in a context, but not always does the context become an integral part of the memory; however, for extinction learning it usually does, resulting in context-specific conditioned responding. The neuronal mechanisms underlying contextual control have been mainly investigated for Pavlovian fear extinction with a focus on hippocampal structures. However, the initial acquisition of novel responses can be subject to contextual control as well, although the neuronal mechanisms are mostly unknown...
May 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559169/spontaneous-alternation-a-potential-gateway-to-spatial-working-memory-in-drosophila
#8
Sara A Lewis, David C Negelspach, Sevag Kaladchibachi, Stephen L Cowen, Fabian Fernandez
Despite their ubiquity in biomedical research, Drosophila have yet to be widely employed as model organisms in psychology. Many complex human-like behaviors are observed in Drosophila, which exhibit elaborate displays of inter-male aggression and female courtship, self-medication with alcohol in response to stress, and even cultural transmission of social information. Here, we asked whether Drosophila can demonstrate behavioral indices of spatial working memory in a Y-maze, a classic test of memory function and novelty-seeking in rodents...
May 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545908/influence-of-postnatal-glucocorticoids-on-hippocampal-dependent-learning-varies-with-elevation-patterns-and-administration-methods
#9
Dragana I Claflin, Kevin D Schmidt, Zachary D Vallandingham, Michal Kraszpulski, Michael B Hennessy
Recent interest in the lasting effects of early-life stress has expanded to include effects on cognitive performance. An increase in circulating glucocorticoids is induced by stress exposure and glucocorticoid effects on the hippocampus likely underlie many of the cognitive consequences. Here we review studies showing that corticosterone administered to young rats at the conclusion of the stress-hyporesponsiveness period affects later performance in hippocampally-mediated trace eyeblink conditioning. The nature and even direction of these effects varies with the elevation patterns (level, duration, temporal fluctuation) achieved by different administration methods...
May 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532653/hippocampal-ca1-local-field-potential-oscillations-induced-by-olfactory-cue-of-liked-food
#10
Nifareeda Samerphob, Dania Cheaha, Surapong Chatpun, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
Eating motivation is induced not only by negative energy balance but also food related cues. However, neural processing for acquisition of learned food preference remains to be established. This study aimed to identify hippocampal neural signaling in response to olfactory cue (chocolate scent) after completion of repetitive chocolate sessions. Male Swiss albino mice implanted with intracranial electrode into the hippocampus were used for local field potential (LFP) recording. Animals were given chocolate sessions (a piece of 2g chocolate per each mouse to eat on day 1, 3, 5 and 7)...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512011/modulation-of-alpha-oscillations-is-required-for-the-suppression-of-semantic-interference
#11
Natalia Melnik, Igor Mapelli, Tolga Esat Özkurt
Recent findings on alpha band oscillations suggest their important role in memory consolidation and suppression of external distractors such as environmental noise. However, less attention was given to the phenomenon of internal distracting information being solely inherent to the stimuli content. Human memory may be prone to internal distractions caused by semantic relatedness between the meaning of words (e.g., atom, neutron, nucleus, etc.) to be encoded, i.e., semantic interference. Our study investigates the brain oscillatory dynamics behind the semantic interference phenomenon, whose possible outcome is known as false memories...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512010/cerebellar-learning-modulates-surface-expression-of-a-voltage-gated-ion-channel-in-cerebellar-cortex
#12
Jason R Fuchs, Shelby W Darlington, John T Green, Anthony D Morielli
Numerous experiments using ex vivo electrophysiology suggest that mammalian learning and memory involves regulation of voltage-gated ion channels in terms of changes in function. Yet, little is known about learning-related regulation of voltage-gated ion channels in terms of changes in expression. In two experiments, we examined changes in cell surface expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel alpha-subunit Kv1.2 in a discrete region of cerebellar cortex after eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a well-studied form of cerebellar-dependent learning...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512009/combining-d-cycloserine-with-appetitive-extinction-learning-modulates-amygdala-activity-during-recall
#13
Claudia Ebrahimi, Stefan P Koch, Eva Friedel, Ilsoray Crespo, Thomas Fydrich, Andreas Ströhle, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
Appetitive Pavlovian conditioning plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of drug addiction and conditioned reward cues can trigger craving and relapse even after long phases of abstinence. Promising preclinical work showed that the NMDA-receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) facilitates Pavlovian extinction learning of fear and drug cues. Furthermore, DCS-augmented exposure therapy seems to be beneficial in various anxiety disorders, while the supposed working mechanism of DCS during human appetitive or aversive extinction learning is still not confirmed...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499738/cognitive-effects-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagal-deafferentation-in-rats
#14
Melanie Klarer, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Urs Meyer
Vagal afferents are a crucial neuronal component of the gut-brain axis and mediate the information flow from the viscera to the central nervous system. Based on the findings provided by experiments involving vagus nerve stimulation, it has been suggested that vagal afferent signaling may influence various cognitive functions such as recognition memory and cognitive flexibility. Here, we examined this hypothesis using a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective abdominal vagal deafferentation method existing to date...
May 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495605/inactivation-of-basolateral-amygdala-prevents-chronic-immobilization-stress-induced-memory-impairment-and-associated-changes-in-corticosterone-levels
#15
Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, Suwarna Chakraborty, B N Srikumar, T R Raju, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
Chronic stress causes detrimental effects on various forms of learning and memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) not only plays a crucial role in mediating certain forms of memory, but also in the modulation of the effects of stress. Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) results in hypertrophy of the BLA, which is believed to be one of the underlying causes for stress' effects on learning. Thus, it is plausible that preventing the effects of CIS on amygdala would preclude its deleterious cognitive effects. Accordingly, in the first part, we evaluated the effect of excitotoxic lesion of the BLA on chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial learning using a partially baited radial arm maze task...
May 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495604/conditioning-with-spatio-temporal-patterns-constraining-the-contribution-of-the-hippocampus-to-configural-learning
#16
Natasha M Dumigan, Tzu-Ching E Lin, Mark A Good, Robert C Honey
The conditions under which the hippocampus contributes to learning about spatio-temporal configural patterns are not fully established. The aim of Experiments 1-4 was to investigate the impact of hippocampal lesions on learning about where or when a reinforcer would be delivered. In each experiment, the rats received exposure to an identical set of patterns (i.e., spotted+morning, checked+morning, spotted+afternoon and checked+afternoon); and the contexts (Experiment 1), times of day (Experiment 2), or their configuration (Experiments 3 and 4) signalled whether or not a reinforcer would be delivered...
May 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487191/human-lrrk2-g2019s-mutation-represses-post-synaptic-protein-psd95-and-causes-cognitive-impairment-in-transgenic-mice
#17
Samuel O Adeosun, Xu Hou, Baoying Zheng, Heather L Melrose, Thomas Mosley, Jun Ming Wang
BACKGROUND: LRRK2 G2019S mutation is associated with increased kinase activity and is the most common mutation associated with late-onset PD. However, the transgenic mouse model has not recapitulated cardinal PD-related motor phenotypes. Non-motor symptoms of PD including cognitive impairments are very common and may appear earlier than the motor symptoms. The objective of this study was to determine whether human LRRK2 with G2019S mutation causes hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits in mice...
May 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478079/memory-reconsolidation-and-memory-updating-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#18
EDITORIAL
Federico Bermúdez-Rattoni, James L McGaugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478078/feedback-based-probabilistic-category-learning-is-selectively-impaired-in-attention-hyperactivity-deficit-disorder
#19
Yafit Gabay, Liat Goldfarb
Although Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is closely linked to executive function deficits, it has recently been attributed to procedural learning impairments that are quite distinct from the former. These observations challenge the ability of the executive function framework solely to account for the diverse range of symptoms observed in ADHD. A recent neurocomputational model emphasizes the role of striatal dopamine (DA) in explaining ADHD's broad range of deficits, but the link between this model and procedural learning impairments remains unclear...
May 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476650/molecular-mechanisms-controlling-protein-synthesis-in-memory-reconsolidation
#20
REVIEW
Rafael Roesler
It is currently well established that the synthesis of new proteins (mRNA translation) is required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Translation in the brain is regulated primarily at the initiation stage by general as well as by gene-specific mechanisms. Stored memories can become sensitive to interference upon reactivation, through a process termed reconsolidation, which depends on protein synthesis. Here, I examine the role of translation control mechanisms, focusing particularly on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), in reconsolidation...
May 2, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
journal
journal
32279
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"