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Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Bret Lashner, Fabio Cominelli, Ashley Petrylak, Caren Heller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Stéphane Nizet, Eduardo Muñoz, Bernd L Fiebich, Peter M Abuja, Karl Kashofer, Kurt Zatloukal, Simone Tangermann, Lukas Kenner, Cornelius Tschegg, Dietmar Nagl, Laurenz Scheichl, Claudia Meisslitzer-Ruppitsch, Michael Freissmuth, Thomas Berger
Background: Clinoptilolite is an aluminium silicate of natural origin; the microporous structure and the net negative charge of its crystal lattice allows for adsorption of ions, toxins, inflammatory mediators, and some microorganisms. We generated 2 preparations of purified clinoptilolite, which differed by about 10-fold in particle size, ie, a standard powder (GHC1) and a microparticulate fraction (GHC2) with a size of 3.6 µm and 0.39 µm (d50) respectively. These were examined for their ability to accelerate the recovery of mice from DSS (dextran sulphate sodium)-induced intestinal inflammation...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Michael Laffin, Troy Perry, Heekuk Park, Naomi Hotte, Richard N Fedorak, Aducio Thiesen, Bryan Dicken, Karen L Madsen
Background: Individuals with Crohn's disease frequently require ileocecal resection (ICR), and inflammation often recurs in the neoterminal ileum following surgery. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) is a fermentable prebiotic that stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria and may promote anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to determine if supplementation of a postICR diet with FOS in a mouse model would be effective in stimulating the growth of bifidobacteria and reducing systemic and local inflammation...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Marcus M Mücke, Dominik Bettenworth, Christiane Geyer, Katrin Schwegmann, Christopher Poremba, Michael Schäfers, Dirk Domagk, Carsten Höltke, Philipp Lenz
Background: To facilitate onsite decision-making during endoscopy, both accurate detection and in vivo characterization of preneoplasia are prerequisites. However, no endoscopy technique is available that meets both demands satisfactorily. We evaluated endothelin-receptor A (ETAR)-guided fluorescence endoscopy (FE) in vivo and fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) ex vivo for detection and characterization of early dysplastic colitis-associated colonic lesions. Methods: Colorectal cancerogenesis was investigated in the inflammatory driven AOM-DSS model and spontaneous adenoma development in ApcMin mice...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Michele Biagioli, Andrea Mencarelli, Adriana Carino, Sabrina Cipriani, Silvia Marchianò, Chiara Fiorucci, Annibale Donini, Luigina Graziosi, Franco Baldelli, Eleonora Distrutti, Gabriele Costantino, Stefano Fiorucci
Background: The DNAX adaptor protein 12 (DAP12) is a transmembrane adaptor molecule that signals through the activation of Syk (Spleen Tyrosine Kinase) in myeloid cells. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of DAP12 and Syk pathways in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Methods: DAP12 deficient and DAP12 transgenic, overexpressing an increased amount of DAP12, mice and Syk deficient mice in the C57/BL6 background were used for these studies. Colitis was induced by administering mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), in drinking water, or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), by intrarectal enema...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Firas Rinawi, Noam Zevit, Rami Eliakim, Yaron Niv, Raanan Shamir, Amit Assa
Background: There is limited evidence on the long-term outcome of intestinal resection in pediatric-onset Crohn's disease (POCD) with no established predictors of adverse outcomes. We aimed to investigate clinical outcomes and predictors for adverse outcome following intestinal resection in POCD. Methods: The medical records of patients with POCD who underwent at least 1 intestinal resection between 1990 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Main outcome measures included time to first flare, hospitalization, second intestinal resection, and response to nonprophylactic biologic therapy...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Diana E Yung, Ofir Har-Noy, Yuen Sau Tham, Shomron Ben-Horin, Rami Eliakim, Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Uri Kopylov
Background: Anastomotic recurrence is frequent in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) following ileocecal resection. The degree of endoscopic recurrence, quantified by the Rutgeerts score (RS), is correlated with the risk of clinical and surgical recurrence. Noninvasive modalities such as capsule endoscopy (CE), magnetic resonance enterography (MRE), and intestinal ultrasound (US) may yield similar information without the need for ileocolonoscopy (IC). The aim of our meta-analysis was to evaluate the accuracy of those modalities for detection of endoscopic recurrence in postoperative CD patients...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Daniel Mark Baker, Matthew James Lee, Georgina Louise Jones, Steven Ross Brown, Alan Joseph Lobo
Background: Patients considering surgery for ulcerative colitis (UC) face a difficult decision as surgery may or may not improve quality of life. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines for UC emphasize the importance of providing quality preoperative information to patients but note no quality studies for the desired content of this information. Our aim was to explore patient information preferences prior to undergoing surgery for ulcerative colitis. Methods: Semistructured interviews with patients who underwent an operation and patients who considered but declined an operation were conducted...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Sara van Gennep, Nanne K de Boer, Geert R D'Haens, Mark Löwenberg
Background: Due to toxicity problems and controversial evidence, thiopurine use in ulcerative colitis (UC) has faced a lot of criticism. We present a critical review of the literature on efficacy of thiopurines in UC. Methods: Studies evaluating therapeutic efficacy of thiopurine remission induction and/or maintenance treatment in UC were identified using the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. Results: Out of 5 randomized trials on thiopurine induction treatment, 3 demonstrated a significant effect of thiopurine treatment vs mesalamine or placebo in steroid-dependent UC patients: (1) lower endoscopic activity scores, (2) higher clinical remission rates, and (3) more patients who discontinued steroids...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Alice Rigoni, Richard Poulsom, Rosemary Jeffery, Shameer Mehta, Amy Lewis, Christopher Yau, Eleni Giannoulatou, Roger Feakins, James O Lindsay, Mario P Colombo, Andrew Silver
Background: DUOX2 and DUOXA2 form the predominant H2O2-producing system in human colorectal mucosa. Inflammation, hypoxia, and 5-aminosalicylic acid increase H2O2 production, supporting innate defense and mucosal healing. Thiocyanate reacts with H2O2 in the presence of lactoperoxidase (LPO) to form hypothiocyanate (OSCN-), which acts as a biocide and H2O2 scavenging system to reduce damage during inflammation. We aimed to discover the organization of Duox2, Duoxa2, and Lpo expression in colonic crypts of Lieberkühn (intestinal glands) of mice and how distributions respond to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and subsequent mucosal regeneration...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Laurie B Grossberg, Konstantinos Papamichael, Joseph D Feuerstein, Corey A Siegel, Thomas A Ullman, Adam S Cheifetz
Background: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may improve the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of anti-TNF therapy. A standardized approach of utilizing TDM has not been established. The objective of this study was to determine gastroenterologists' attitudes and barriers toward TDM of anti-TNF therapy in clinical practice. Methods: An 18-question survey was distributed to members of the American College of Gastroenterology and Crohn's and Colitis Foundation via email...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Phillip Minar, Kimberly Jackson, Yi-Ting Tsai, Heidi Sucharew, Michael J Rosen, Lee A Denson
Background: In a pilot study, neutrophil CD64 surface expression was significantly elevated in newly diagnosed, pediatric-onset Crohn's disease. We aimed to test the CD64 biomarkers (neutrophil CD64 surface expression and soluble CD64) as determinates for mucosal inflammation in a larger pediatric Crohn's cohort with the hypotheses that the CD64 biomarkers would reliably detect intestinal inflammation and correlate with endoscopic severity scores. Methods: We enrolled patients referred for colonoscopy for either suspected inflammatory bowel disease or with established Crohn's...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Madeline Bertha, Arthi Vasantharoopan, Archana Kumar, Beau B Bruce, Jarod Prince, Tatyana Hofmekler, David Okou, Pankaj Chopra, Gabriel Wang, Cary Sauer, Carol J Landers, Sunny Z Hussain, Raymond K Cross, Robert N Baldassano, Michael D Kappelman, Jeffrey Katz, Jonathan S Alexander, Barbara S Kirschner, Dedrick E Moulton, Bankole O Osuntokun, Ashish Patel, Shehzad Saeed, Jan-Michael A Klapproth, Tanvi A Dhere, Marla C Dubinsky, Dermot McGovern, Subra Kugathasan
Backgrounds: Recent studies have identified the role of serologic markers in characterizing disease phenotype, location, complications, and severity among Northern Europeans (NE) with Crohn's disease (CD). However, very little is known about the role of serology in CD among African Americans (AA). Our study explored the relationship between serology and disease phenotype in AA with CD, while controlling for genetic ancestry. Methods: AAs with CD were enrolled as participants through multicenter collaborative efforts...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Michael Kelso, Rick A Weideman, Daisha J Cipher, Linda A Feagins
Background: Reducing hospital costs and risk of complications by shortening length of stay has become paramount. The aim of our study was to identify predictors and potentially modifiable factors that influence length of stay among veterans with inflammatory bowel disease admitted for an acute flare. Methods: Retrospective review of patients admitted to the Dallas VA with an acute flare of their inflammatory bowel disease between 2000 and 2015. Patients with a length of stay of ≤4 days were compared with those whose length of stay >4 days...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Ravy K Vajravelu, Mark T Osterman, Faten N Aberra, Jason A Roy, Gary R Lichtenstein, Ronac Mamtani, David S Goldberg, James D Lewis, Frank I Scott
Background: QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFTG) is a blood test used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) prior to TNF-α inhibitor (anti-TNF) initiation. We sought to determine factors associated with indeterminate QFTG results in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and whether indeterminate results are associated with IBD-related morbidity. Methods: This nested case-control study included IBD patients who underwent QFTG testing. Cases were patients with indeterminate QFTG and controls were those with negative QFTG...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Anita Afzali, Matthew A Ciorba, David A Schwartz, Mai Sharaf, Chris Fourment, Timothy Ritter, Douglas C Wolf, Ira Shafran, Charles W Randall, Sunanda V Kane
Electronic medical records (EMRs) have gained widespread use in clinical practice and by default serve as a large patient database with potential for use in clinical research. Although there remains significant interest in leveraging EMRs for research purposes, extraction of data has proven to be complex and with insufficient accuracy. We describe the limitations of an EMR in our attempt to conduct a seemingly simple study aimed at validating variables identified in the PRECiSE 3, a 7-year open label safety and efficacy study of certolizumab pegol in Crohn's disease that identified clinical factors that predicted both short- and long-term efficacy...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Gheorghe Hundorfean, Mircea T Chiriac, Sidonia Mihai, Arndt Hartmann, Jonas Mudter, Markus F Neurath
Background: Endoscopic monitoring is fundamental for evaluating the therapeutic response in IBD, but a validated endomicroscopic mucosal healing (MH) score is not available to date. However, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) might define MH more precisely than conventional endoscopy. The major aim was to establish and validate an MH score for ulcerative colitis (UC), based on CLE. Methods: In an initial pilot study (n = 10), various CLE changes were analyzed for identification of reproducible criteria for establishing a CLE score...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Mirko Di Ruscio, Filippo Vernia, Antonio Ciccone, Giuseppe Frieri, Giovanni Latella
Background: Current noninvasive methods for assessing intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remain unsatisfactory. Along with C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fecal calprotectin (FC) is the standard test for assessing IBD activity, even though its specificity and accuracy are not optimal and it lacks a validated cutoff. Over the past few decades, several fecal markers released from intestinal inflammatory cells have been investigated in IBD; they are the subject of this systematic review...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Uri Netz, Jane Carter, M Robert Eichenberger, Kayla Feagins, Norman J Galbraith, Gerald W Dryden, Jianmin Pan, Shesh N Rai, Susan Galandiuk
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is commonly divided into 2 entities: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Differentiating between these entities when dealing with IBD confined to the colon is important, especially when planning surgical treatment. Due to ambiguous histological or endoscopic findings, accurate diagnosis is not possible in up to 15% of cases. The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma microRNAs (miRNAs) can help differentiate Crohn's colitis (CC) from ulcerative colitis...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Thea Myklebust-Hansen, Geir Aamodt, Margaretha Haugen, Anne Lise Brantsæter, Morten H Vatn, May-Bente Bengtson
Background: The aim of the study was to examine dietary patterns and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among mothers with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Method: MoBa enrolled participants from all over Norway between 1999 and 2008, and the study comprised 83,988 mothers, of whom there were 183 mothers with Crohn's disease (CD) and 240 with ulcerative colitis (UC). An additional questionnaire was submitted to mothers with IBD in 2013...
December 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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