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Journal of Neurovirology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330826/antibody-response-to-polyomavirus-primary-infection-high-seroprevalence-of-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-and-lymphoid-tissue-involvement
#1
Carolina Cason, Lorenzo Monasta, Nunzia Zanotta, Giuseppina Campisciano, Iva Maestri, Massimo Tommasino, Michael Pawlita, Sonia Villani, Manola Comar, Serena Delbue
Human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) asymptomatically infect the human population establishing latency in the host, and their seroprevalence can reach 90% in healthy adults. Few studies have focused on the pediatric population, and there are no reports regarding the seroprevalence of all the newly isolated HPyVs among Italian children. Therefore, we investigated the frequency of serum antibodies against 12 PyVs in 182 immunocompetent children from Northeast Italy, by means of a multiplex antibody detection system. Additionally, secondary lymphoid tissues were collected to analyze the presence of HPyV DNA sequences using a specific real-time PCRs or PCRs...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322435/vaccine-associated-paralytic-poliomyelitis-in-a-patient-with-acute-lymphocytic-leukemia
#2
Reza Taherkhani, Fatemeh Farshadpour, Mohammad Reza Ravanbod
We report a case of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in an immunocompromised patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia who was initially diagnosed with aseptic meningitis. Isolation of Sabin-like type 1 poliovirus from the patient's cerebrospinal fluid made this a case of vaccine-related poliovirus (VRPV) infection. The patient developed paralysis and respiratory distress and deceased a few months after onset of paralysis with respiratory failure. This tragic case report highlights the emergence of VAPP and indicates the importance of timely diagnosis of VRPV infections to improve clinical management of VRPV-infected patients and to prevent the devastating consequences of silent introduction of VRPVs in treatment wards and eventually in the society...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318453/sensory-neuronopathy-heralding-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-i-myelopathy
#3
Alberto R M Martinez, Raphael F Casseb, Carlos R Martins, Anamarli Nucci, Marcondes C França
Neurological phenotypes of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) are numerous and rarely may not manifest the classic HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). We report a case of HTLV-1-related sensory neuronopathy heralding the classic HAM/TSP.
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318452/correction-to-csf-inflammatory-markers-and-neurocognitive-function-after-addition-of-maraviroc-to-monotherapy-darunavir-ritonavir-in-stable-hiv-patients-the-cinammon-study
#4
T J Barber, A Imaz, M Boffito, J Niubó, A Pozniak, R Fortuny, J Alonso, N Davies, S Mandalia, D Podzamczer, B Gazzard
Due to a production error the bottom portion of Figure 1 was omitted. The corrected figure is given below.
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280108/csf-inflammatory-markers-and-neurocognitive-function-after-addition-of-maraviroc-to-monotherapy-darunavir-ritonavir-in-stable-hiv-patients-the-cinammon-study
#5
T J Barber, A Imaz, M Boffito, J Niubó, A Pozniak, R Fortuny, J Alonso, N Davies, S Mandalia, D Podzamczer, B Gazzard
CINAMMON is a phase IV, open-label, single-arm, pilot study assessing maraviroc (MVC) in the central nervous system (CNS) when added to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy (DRV/r) in virologically suppressed HIV-infected subjects. CCR5 tropic participants on DRV/r were recruited. Participants remained on DRV/r for 12 week (w) (control phase). MVC 150 mg qd was added w12-w36 (intervention phase). Lumbar puncture (LP) and neurocognitive function (Cogstate) examinations scheduled at baseline, w12 and w36; MRI before w12, again at w36...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280107/neural-response-to-working-memory-demand-predicts-neurocognitive-deficits-in-hiv
#6
Ronald A Cohen, S Siegel, J M Gullett, E Porges, A J Woods, H Huang, Y Zhu, K Tashima, M-Z Ding
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to have adverse effects on cognition and the brain in many infected people, despite a reduced incidence of HIV-associated dementia with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Working memory is often affected, along with attention, executive control, and cognitive processing speed. Verbal working memory (VWM) requires the interaction of each of the cognitive component processes along with a phonological loop for verbal repetition and rehearsal. HIV-related functional brain response abnormalities during VWM are evident in functional MRI (fMRI), though the neural substrate underlying these neurocognitive deficits is not well understood...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260441/effects-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-locomotor-activity-in-ethanol-treated-hiv-1-transgenic-rats
#7
Jianlin He, Wenfei Huang, Shizhong Zheng, Michael Vigorito, Sulie L Chang
Binge drinking affects the onset and progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurological disorders. The HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat was created with a gag- and pol-deleted HIV-1 viral genome to mimic HIV-infected patients receiving combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a marine compound that modulates inflammatory responses. Using HIV-1Tg rats subjected to binge exposure to ethanol (EtOH), this study examined whether DHA could reduce the detrimental neurological effects of EtOH and HIV proteins...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256041/hiv-1-infection-of-microglial-cells-in-a-reconstituted-humanized-mouse-model-and-identification-of-compounds-that-selectively-reverse-hiv-latency
#8
George N Llewellyn, David Alvarez-Carbonell, Morgan Chateau, Jonathan Karn, Paula M Cannon
Most studies of HIV latency focus on the peripheral population of resting memory T cells, but the brain also contains a distinct reservoir of HIV-infected cells in microglia, perivascular macrophages, and astrocytes. Studying HIV in the brain has been challenging, since live cells are difficult to recover from autopsy samples and primate models of SIV infection utilize viruses that are more myeloid-tropic than HIV due to the expression of Vpx. Development of a realistic small animal model would greatly advance studies of this important reservoir and permit definitive studies of HIV latency...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256040/relationship-between-brain-large-artery-characteristics-and-their-downstream-arterioles
#9
Jose Gutierrez, Jacinta Murray, Christina Chon, Susan Morgello
We aimed to test the hypothesis that brain large artery diameters relate to distal downstream arteriolar diameters. In a sample of 110 autopsied individuals (69% men, 76% HIV+, mean age 51), we used multilevel models to relate large artery lumen and lumen-to-wall ratio to left frontal lobe arteriolar lumen and lumen-to-wall ratio adjusting for demographics and vascular risk factors. Comparing the large artery characteristics of the whole brain did not disclose significant associations with frontal lobe arteriolar characteristics...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256039/when-do-models-of-neuroaids-faithfully-imitate-the-real-thing
#10
Benjamin B Gelman, Janice Endsley, Dennis Kolson
HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral medicines (ART) still face neurological challenges. HIV-associated neurocognitive disturbances (HAND) can occur, and latent viral DNA persisting in the central nervous system (CNS) prevents eradication of HIV. This communication focuses on how to develop experimental models of HAND and CNS HIV latency that best imitate the CNS pathophysiology in diseased humans, which we take to be "the real thing." Models of HIV encephalitis (HIVE) with active CNS viral replication were developed in the early years of the AIDS pandemic...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247305/neurologic-disease-in-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-disease-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-interventions-for-neuroaids
#11
Christopher Power
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes immunosuppression through virus-mediated CD4+ T cell depletion in feline species. FIV infection is complicated by virus-induced disease in the nervous system. FIV enters the brain soon after primary infection and is detected as FIV-encoded RNA, DNA, and proteins in microglia, macrophages, and astrocytes. FIV infection activates neuroinflammatory pathways including cytokines, chemokines, proteases, and ROS with accompanying neuronal injury and loss...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243133/symptomatic-cerebrospinal-fluid-hiv-1-escape-with-no-resistance-associated-mutations-following-low-level-plasma-viremia
#12
Mattia Trunfio, Sarah Beth Joseph, Valeria Ghisetti, Alessandra Romito, Caterina Martini, Jessica Cusato, Sabrina Audagnotto, Laura Pesci Kincer, Micol Ferrara, Arianna Sala, Daniele Imperiale, Giovanni Di Perri, Andrea Calcagno
The majority of neurologically symptomatic cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 escape cases are connected with resistance-associated mutations and potentially explained by low cerebrospinal fluid antiretroviral concentrations. However, there are still significant knowledge gaps regarding the physiopathology and long-term management of neurosymptomatic viral escape. We report a case of Parkinson-like syndrome following cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 escape in a 40-year-old female patient with an history of persistent low-level plasma viremia under treatment...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243132/hiv-associated-opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia-syndrome-early-infection-immune-reconstitution-syndrome-or-secondary-to-other-diseases-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Bruno F Guedes, Márcio A A Vieira Filho, Clarice Listik, Rafael B Carra, Cristiane B Pereira, Emanuelle R da Silva, Hélio R Gomes, José E Vidal
Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia (OMA) syndrome is a debilitating autoimmune neurological disorder. Post-infectious opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome has been described with varying bacterial, spirochetal, and viral infections including several patients with HIV. However, specific immunopathological mechanisms that may lead to opsoclonus-myoclonus in HIV-positive patients are unknown.We report a case of HIV-associated opsoclonus-myoclonus and early HIV infection. A review of published literature shows opsoclonus-myoclonus can occur during early infection, in immune reconstitution syndrome or in association with other infections, especially tuberculosis...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243131/analysis-of-variability-of-urinary-excreted-jc-virus-strains-in-patients-infected-with-hiv-and-healthy-donors
#14
Danijela Karalic, Ivana Lazarevic, Ana Banko, Maja Cupic, Djordje Jevtovic, Tanja Jovanovic
In immunocompromised individuals, especially in patients with T cell immunodeficiency, reactivation of JCPyV can cause serious life-threatening diseases. Nowadays, HIV infection is one of the most important factor for reactivation of JCPyV and the development of of the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Mutations in the outer loops of the VP1 region can lead to the selection of the viral variants with changed tropism and increased pathological potential. The aims of this study were to determine sequence variation and amino acid changes within VP1 loops and the structure of non-coding control region (NCCR) of urinary excreted JCPyV isolates among HIV-infected patients and healthy donors...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243130/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-as-a-presenting-feature-of-subacute-sclerosing-panencephalitis
#15
Divyani Garg, Varun Reddy, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Deepa Dash, Rohit Bhatia, Manjari Tripathi
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slowly progressive degenerative disorder caused by measles virus. It is characterised by typical clinical and electrophysiological features in the form of slow myoclonic jerks, with progressive cognitive impairment, visual symptoms, and periodic complexes on EEG, with raised titres of anti-measles antibodies in CSF and serum. Atypical presentations of SSPE have been reported including brainstem involvement, ADEM-like presentation, acute encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181724/persistence-of-siv-in-the-brain-of-siv-infected-chinese-rhesus-macaques-with-or-without-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
Stefanie Perez, Ann-Marie Johnson, Shi-Hua Xiang, Jian Li, Brian T Foley, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Antonito Panganiban, Amitinder Kaur, Ronald S Veazey, Yuntao Wu, Binhua Ling
Persistence of HIV-1 reservoirs in the central nervous system (CNS) is an obstacle to cure strategies. However, little is known about residual viral distribution, viral replication levels, and genetic diversity in different brain regions of HIV-infected individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Because myeloid cells particularly microglia are likely major reservoirs in the brain, and more microglia exist in white matter than gray matter in a human brain, we hypothesized the major viral reservoirs in the brain are the white matter reflected by higher levels of viral DNA...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147886/peromyscus-leucopus-mouse-brain-transcriptome-response-to-powassan-virus-infection
#17
Luwanika Mlera, Kimberly Meade-White, Eric Dahlstrom, Rachel Baur, Kishore Kanakabandi, Kimmo Virtaneva, Stephen F Porcella, Marshall E Bloom
Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne Flavivirus responsible for life-threatening encephalitis in North America and some regions of Russia. The ticks that have been reported to transmit the virus belong to the Ixodes species, and they feed on small-to-medium-sized mammals, such as Peromyscus leucopus mice, skunks, and woodchucks. We previously developed a P. leucopus mouse model of POWV infection, and the model is characterized by a lack of clinical signs of disease following intraperitoneal or intracranial inoculation...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147885/proceedings-of-the-2017-isev-symposium-on-hiv-neurohiv-drug-abuse-evs
#18
Guoku Hu, Sowmya Yelamanchili, Fatah Kashanchi, Norman Haughey, Vincent C Bond, Kenneth W Witwer, Lynn Pulliam, Shilpa Buch
Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), there is increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in HIV-1-infected individuals on cART, which poses a major health care challenge. Adding further complexity to this long-term antiretroviral use is the comorbidity with drugs of abuse such as morphine, cocaine, and methamphetamine, which can in turn, exacerbate neurologic and cognitive deficits associated with HAND. Furthermore, HIV proteins, such as the transactivator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope protein (gp120), as well as antiretrovirals themselves can also contribute to the progression of neurodegeneration underlying HAND...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147884/ocular-flutter-following-zika-virus-infection
#19
Emely Karam, Jose Giraldo, Flor Rodriguez, Carlos E Hernandez-Pereira, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Gabriela M Blohm, Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus which has been linked to a number of neurologic manifestations such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis, and meningo-encephalitis. Ophthalmologic manifestations are increasingly being reported; however, ocular dyskinesias have not been described in this context to date. Herein, we report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with ocular flutter and associated Guillain-Barré syndrome following acute ZIKV infection. We speculate that although such symptoms may have originated from a direct viral insult, a post-infectious autoimmune mechanism may not be excluded...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143286/doxycycline-inducible-and-astrocyte-specific-hiv-1-tat-transgenic-mice-itat-as-an-hiv-neuroaids-model
#20
Dianne Langford, Byung Oh Kim, Wei Zou, Yan Fan, Pejman Rahimain, Ying Liu, Johnny J He
HIV-1 Tat is known to be neurotoxic and important for HIV/neuroAIDS pathogenesis. However, the overwhelming majority of the studies involved use of recombinant Tat protein. To understand the contributions of Tat protein to HIV/neuroAIDS and the underlying molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 Tat neurotoxicity in the context of a whole organism and independently of HIV-1 infection, a doxycycline-inducible astrocyte-specific HIV-1 Tat transgenic mouse (iTat) was created. Tat expression in the brains of iTat mice was determined to be in the range of 1-5 ng/ml and led to astrocytosis, loss of neuronal dendrites, and neuroinflammation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
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