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Journal of Neurovirology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730408/evolution-of-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat-utility-in-assessing-the-progression-of-hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#1
Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Understanding the progression of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a critical need as the prevalence of HIV-1 in older individuals (>50 years) is markedly increasing due to the great success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Longitudinal experimental designs, in comparison to cross-sectional studies, provide an opportunity to establish age-related disease progression in HAND. The HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, which has been promoted for investigating the effect of long-term HIV-1 viral protein exposure, was used to examine two interrelated goals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718069/neurological-involvement-in-patients-with-acute-recent-hiv-1-infection-a-case-control-study
#2
Juan Ambrosioni, Francisca Artigues, David Nicolás, Judit Peñafiel, Fernando Agüero, Christian Manzardo, María Mar Mosquera, Sonsoles Sánchez-Palomino, Elisa De Lazzari, María A Marcos, Montserrat Plana, José M Miró
Primary HIV-1 infection is a relevant period for its virological and epidemiological consequences. Most patients present a symptomatic disease that can be potentially serious, but neurological involvement during primary HIV-1 infection has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of primary HIV-1 infection patients presenting neurological symptoms and to compare them with primary HIV-1 infection patients without neurological involvement. Retrospective case-control study (1:3) comparing primary HIV-1 infection patients with and without neurological involvement enrolled in the Acute/Recent Hospital Clinic PHI Cohort between 1997 and 2016...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718068/dengue-encephalopathy-very-unusual-neuroimaging-findings
#3
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Amita Jain, Neeraj Kumar
Neuroimaging, in many patients with dengue encephalopathy, may reveal periventricular signal changes. We report a 25-year-old man, who presented with altered sensorium. Dengue-IgM test in serum was positive. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was normal. MRI brain revealed presence of bilateral parieto-occipital intraparenchymal bleed with mass effect. Neuroimaging was consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. We report posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a normotensive patient with dengue encephalopathy and systemic metabolic alterations...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695489/lack-of-human-cytomegalovirus-expression-in-single-cells-from-glioblastoma-tumors-and-cell-lines
#4
Travis S Johnson, Zachary B Abrams, Xiaokui Mo, Yan Zhang, Kun Huang
The relationship between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and glioblastoma (GBM) is an ongoing debate with extensive evidence supporting or refuting its existence through molecular assays, pre-clinical studies, and clinical trials. We focus primarily on the crux of the debate, detection of HCMV in GBM samples using molecular assays. We propose that these differences in detection could be affected by cellular heterogeneity. To take this into account, we align the single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) reads from five GBM tumors and two cell lines to HCMV and analyze the alignments for evidence of (i) complete viral transcripts and (ii) low-abundance viral reads...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681345/lyssavirus-phosphoproteins-increase-mitochondrial-complex-i-activity-and-levels-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#5
Wafa Kammouni, Heidi Wood, Alan C Jackson
We have previously demonstrated that serine residues at positions 162 and 166 of the rabies virus (RABV) phosphoprotein (P) are critical for oxidative stress induced by CVS in cultured cells. We have now evaluated the P of two street RABV variants and Mokola (MOK) virus. The P of these viruses, like CVS, induces an increase in complex I activities and reactive oxygen species levels in transfected cells. Although the sequence homology of P is only 45% with MOK (higher for street viruses) and CVS, serine residues are conserved at positions 162 and 166, suggesting their potential importance in oxidative stress...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681344/neurocognitive-functioning-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-southern-india
#6
Rujvi Kamat, Allen McCutchan, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Thomas D Marcotte, Anya Umlauf, Poongulali Selvamuthu, Rachel Meyer, Scott Letendre, Robert Heaton, Ajay R Bharti
The validity of a comprehensive international neuropsychological (NP) test battery for detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a Tamil speaking southern Indian cohort (69 HIV+ and 67 HIV-) was explored. The prevalence of HAND was significantly higher in the HIV+ vs. HIV- group (33 vs.13%; p < 0.01). Impairment rates were highest in the motor and speed of information processing domains. An NP battery translated into Tamil appears to be a valid tool for assessing HAND because the prevalence it found of HAND in southern India is similar to that found elsewhere...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681343/detectable-cerebrospinal-fluid-jcv-dna-in-late-presenting-hiv-positive-patients-beyond-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#7
S Mornese Pinna, E Scarvaglieri, M G Milia, D Imperiale, V Ghisetti, S Audagnotto, A Prochet, F Lipani, S Bonora, G Di Perri, A Calcagno
In the absence of effective prophylaxis and treatment, therapeutic options in HIV-positive patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) are limited to antiretroviral therapy: nevertheless, outcome is poor. We conducted a retrospective study (2009-2015) describing the outcome of 25 HIV-positive patients with detectable cerebrospinal fluid JC virus DNA: 14 had a probable PML while the others had evidence of other inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) affecting disorders. In the former group, 6-month mortality was 45...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681342/response-to-the-letter-to-the-editor-by-andreas-sauerbrei-on-acyclovir-resistance-in-herpes-simplex-type-i-encephalitis-a-case-report
#8
LETTER
Erich Schmutzhard, Melanie Bergmann, Ronny Beer, Mario Kofler, Raimund Helbok, Bettina Pfausler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664352/erratum-to-acyclovir-resistance-in-herpes-simplex-virus-type-i-encephalitis-a-case-report
#9
M Bergmann, R Beer, M Kofler, R Helbok, B Pfausler, E Schmutzhard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643229/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-lymphoma-and-presumptive-hyper-ige-syndrome
#10
Rahsan Gocmen, Nazire Pinar Acar, Deniz Cagdas, Asli Kurne
We, herein, report a 23-year-old male with a rare inherited immunodeficiency disease, hyperimmunoglobulin IgE syndrome (HIES), who developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and lymphoma simultaneously. Primary immunodeficiency of the patient has remained undiagnosed until adulthood. PML is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by John Cunningham virus. HIES is a rare, inherited immunodeficiency characterized by high serum levels of IgE, recurrent staphylococcal infection, eczema, and hypereosinophilia...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639215/regulation-of-t-type-ca-2-channel-expression-by-herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection-in-sensory-like-nd7-cells
#11
Qiaojuan Zhang, Shao-Chung Hsia, Miguel Martin-Caraballo
Infection of sensory neurons by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 disrupts electrical excitability, altering pain sensory transmission. Because of their low threshold for activation, functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels regulates various cell functions, including neuronal excitability and neuronal communication. In this study, we have tested the effect of HSV-1 infection on the functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels in differentiated ND7-23 sensory-like neurons. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents were measured using whole cell patch clamp recordings in differentiated ND7-23 neurons under various culture conditions...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639214/acyclovir-resistance-in-herpes-simplex-virus-type-i-encephalitis-a-case-report
#12
LETTER
Andreas Sauerbrei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577289/immunoglobulin-responsive-chikungunya-encephalitis-two-case-reports
#13
Stephanie Suzanne de O Scott, Pedro Braga-Neto, Lícia Pacheco Pereira, Paulo Ribeiro Nóbrega, Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim, Manoel Alves Sobreira-Neto, Claudia Carvalho Mendes Schiavon
Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus transmitted by the mosquito Aedes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, that can cause acute illness, mostly self-limited, characterized by fever, maculopapular rash, and disabling polyarthritis/arthralgia, with an incubation period of 1 to 12 days. Chikungunya was largely regarded as a non-fatal and self-limited disease, but recently, serious cases have been reported including some with severe involvement of the nervous system, such as meningoencephalitis, myelitis, polyradiculitis, and polyradiculoneuropathy...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560632/improvements-in-brain-and-behavior-following-eradication-of-hepatitis-c
#14
Taylor Kuhn, Philip Sayegh, Jacob D Jones, Jason Smith, Manoj K Sarma, A Ragin, Elyse J Singer, M Albert Thomas, April D Thames, Steven A Castellon, Charles H Hinkin
Despite recent advances in treatment, hepatitis C remains a significant public health problem. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to infiltrate the brain, yet findings from studies on associated neurocognitive and neuropathological changes are mixed. Furthermore, it remains unclear if HCV eradication improves HCV-associated neurological compromise. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between neurocognitive and neurophysiologic markers among healthy HCV- controls and HCV+ adults following successful HCV eradication...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560631/genetics-of-hiv-associated-sensory-neuropathy-and-related-pain-in-africans
#15
REVIEW
Huguette Gaelle Ngassa Mbenda, Antonia Wadley, Zane Lombard, Catherine Cherry, Patricia Price, Peter Kamerman
Despite the use of safer antiretroviral medications, the rate of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN), the most common neurological complication of HIV, remains high. This condition is often painful and has a negative effect on quality of life. Up to 90% of those with HIV-SN experience pain for which there is no effective analgesic treatment. Genetic factors are implicated, but there is a lack of a comprehensive body of research for African populations. This knowledge gap is even more pertinent as Africans are most affected by HIV...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560630/diplopia-as-isolated-presentation-of-varicella-zoster-central-nervous-system-reactivation
#16
Cosmo Del Borgo, Valeria Belvisi, Maria Beatrice Valli, Antonio Currà, Irene Pozzetto, Massimiliano Sepe, Claudio Maria Mastroianni
Here, we report a patient who developed diplopia secondary to a right cranial nerve III and IV palsy, as well as fever and headache. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF) showed high varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-DNA viral load (>300,000,000 copies/ml). VZV antibodies in CSF was ≥1:16. Diagnosis of neurological reactivation of VZV infection was made without the presence of characteristic vesicular rash. Quantitative real-time PCR for VZV and intrathecal dosage of VZV IgM and IgG should be performed in cases suspected for viral encephalitis and also in all patients with not otherwise attributable cranial nerve lesions...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512685/modeling-brain-lentiviral-infections-during-antiretroviral-therapy-in-aids
#17
Weston C Roda, Michael Y Li, Michael S Akinwumi, Eugene L Asahchop, Benjamin B Gelman, Kenneth W Witwer, Christopher Power
Understanding HIV-1 replication and latency in different reservoirs is an ongoing challenge in the care of patients with HIV/AIDS. A mathematical model was created to describe and predict the viral dynamics of HIV-1 and SIV infection within the brain during effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The mathematical model was formulated based on the biology of lentiviral infection of brain macrophages and used to describe the dynamics of transmission and progression of lentiviral infection in brain...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474333/the-egf-epidermal-growth-factor-counteracts-tat-modulation-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-of-the-w-family-in-astrocytes
#18
Elena Uleri, Claudia Piu, Maurizio Caocci, Gabriele Ibba, Caterina Serra, Antonina Dolei
Human astrocyte cells were exposed to HIV-Tat and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF), to monitor the expression of the neuropathogenic MSRV and Syncytin-1 elements of the HERV-W family of endogenous retroviruses and of TNFα. The results indicate that EGF counteracts Tat regulation of HERV-W/MSRVenv/Syncytin-1, throughout EGFR activation; this effect occurs by interfering with the induction of TNFα production by Tat. The novel effect of EGF counteraction of Tat-mediated regulation of the neuropathogenic HERV-Ws could be neuro-protective, but its actual role in the brain remains to be elucidated...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462488/an-oral-form-of-methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone-reduces-monocyte-activation-and-traffic-to-the-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-a-primate-model-of-hiv-peripheral-neuropathy
#19
Jessica R Lakritz, Samshita Yalamanchili, Michael J Polydefkis, Andrew D Miller, Michael S McGrath, Kenneth C Williams, Tricia H Burdo
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a major comorbidity of HIV infection that is caused in part by chronic immune activation. HIV-PN is associated with infiltration of monocytes/macrophages to the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) causing neuronal loss and formation of Nageotte nodules. Here, we used an oral form of methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor, to specifically reduce activation of myeloid cells. MGBG is selectively taken up by monocyte/macrophages in vitro and inhibits HIV p24 expression and DNA viral integration in macrophages...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326469/hsv-1-interaction-to-3-o-sulfated-heparan-sulfate-in-mouse-derived-drg-explant-and-profiles-of-inflammatory-markers-during-virus-infection
#20
Harsh Sharthiya, Chanmoly Seng, T H Van Kuppevelt, Vaibhav Tiwari, Michele Fornaro
The molecular mechanism of herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry and the associated inflammatory response in the nervous system remain poorly understood. Using mouse-derived ex vivo dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explant model and single cell neurons (SCNs), in this study, we provided a visual evidence for the expression of heparan sulfate (HS) and 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS) followed by their interactions with HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) and glycoprotein D (gD) during cell entry. Upon heparanase treatment of DRG-derived SCN, a significant inhibition of HSV-1 entry was observed suggesting the involvement of HS role during viral entry...
June 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
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