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Journal of Neurovirology

Katherine Zukor, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud Van Wettere, Paul M Pilowsky, John D Morrey
Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Robert J Danaher, Derrick E Fouts, Agnes P Chan, Yongwook Choi, Jessica DePew, Jamison M McCorrison, Karen E Nelson, Chunmei Wang, Craig S Miller
Strain-specific factors contribute in significant but undefined ways to the variable incidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) recrudescence. Studies that investigate these strain-specific factors are needed. Here, we used qPCR, in vitro assays, and genomic sequencing to identify important relationships between in vitro and clinical phenotypes of unique HSV-1 clinical isolates. Nine HSV-1 isolates from individuals displaying varying reactivation patterns were studied. Isolates associated with frequent recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) (1) displayed higher rates of viral shedding in the oral cavity than those associated with rare RHL and (2) tended to replicate more efficiently at 33 °C than 39 °C...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Raymond L Ownby, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, Deborah L Jones, Sunil Sharma, Ritu Nehra, Adarsh M Kumar, Sudesh Prabhakar, Amarilis Acevedo, Mahendra Kumar
An evaluation of the effects of HIV infection on neurocognition over time is important for understanding disease progression. Changes in cognitive function can be evaluated longitudinally by using neuropsychological testing at repeated intervals. The assessment of change over time, however, is complicated by the potentially confounding influence of learning on repeated test administrations, often referred to as practice effect. In this study, we present data on testing of persons with or without HIV infection on a battery administered at study baseline and repeated 1 year later...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Fan Jia, Huan Miao, Xutao Zhu, Fuqiang Xu
Semliki Forest virus (SFV), a neurotropic virus, has been used to deliver heterologous genes into cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we constructed a reporter SFV4-FL-EGFP and found that it can deliver EGFP into neurons located at the injection site without disseminating throughout the brain. Lacking of the capsid gene of SFV4-FL-EGFP does not block its life cycle, while forming replication-competent virus-like particles (VLPs). These VLPs hold subviral genome by using the packaging sequence (PS) located within the nsP2 gene, and can transfer their genome into cells...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Denise Campagnolo, Qunming Dong, Lily Lee, Pei-Ran Ho, Diogo Amarante, Harold Koendgen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
C S Hakkers, J E Arends, R E Barth, S Du Plessis, A I M Hoepelman, M Vink
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a frequently occurring comorbidity of HIV infection. Evidence suggests this condition starts subclinical before a progression to a symptomatic stage. Blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) fMRI has shown to be a sensitive tool to detect abnormal brain function in an early stage and might therefore be useful to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on brain function. An extensive literature search was performed in June 2015. Eligibility criteria for included studies were as follows: (1) conducting with HIV-positive patients, (2) using BOLD fMRI, and (3) including a HIV-negative control group...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Ansuya Naidoo, Hoosain Paruk, Bhupendra Bhagwan, Anand Moodley
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a monophasic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system associated with various viral infections including HIV infection. We present the findings of seven HIV-infected patients with mild to moderate immunosuppression presenting with atypical features. Four patients had a multiphasic course; three patients had tumefactive lesions, and two patients had corpus callosum lesions. Two patients with the multiphasic course also had tumefactive lesions. Their clinical and radiological findings are presented...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Randall J Cohrs, Hussain Badani, Nicholas L Baird, Teresa M White, Bridget Sanford, Don Gilden
Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus, becomes latent after primary infection and reactivates to produce zoster. To study VZV latency and reactivation, human trigeminal ganglia removed within 24 h after death were mechanically dissociated, randomly distributed into six-well tissue culture plates and incubated with reagents to inactivate nerve growth factor (NGF) or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) pathways. At 5 days, VZV DNA increased in control and PI3-kinase inhibitor-treated cultures to the same extent, but was significantly more abundant in anti-NGF-treated cultures (p = 0...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Marina Lobato Martins, Jacqueline Cronemberger Guimarães, João Gabriel Ribas, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira Romanelli, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti
HTLV-1 proviral load (pvl) is an important risk marker for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), but its value as prognostic marker is not well defined. Long-term prospective cohort studies are necessary to clarify this question. Here, we analyzed HTLV-1 pvl in the peripheral blood of 82 asymptomatic carriers (AC; 351 samples), 12 HAM/TSP patients (HAM; 46 samples), and six incident cases of HAM/TSP (iHAM), with serial samples collected before (n = 10) and after (n = 20) the disease onset...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Bo Song, Xinjing Liu, Qingzhi Wang, Rui Zhang, Ting Yang, Zhiqiang Han, Yuming Xu
The UL29 and UL28 proteins encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are critical for its replication and packaging, respectively. Research has demonstrated that synthesized siRNA molecules targeting the UL29 gene are able to suppress HSV-2 replication and the UL28-null HSV-1 gene cannot form infectious viruses in vitro. Silencing the UL28 and UL29 genes by RNAi might lead to the development of novel antiviral agents for the treatment of HSV-1 infections. Two kinds of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the UL29 and UL28 genes were chemically synthesized and then delivered into cells by a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Adv5) vector...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Lisa C Obermeit, Jessica Beltran, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Donald R Franklin, Scott Letendre, Ronald Ellis, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Florin Vaida, Ann C Collier, Christina M Marra, David Clifford, Benjamin Gelman, Ned Sacktor, Susan Morgello, David Simpson, J Allen McCutchan, Igor Grant, Robert K Heaton
The criteria for differentiating symptomatic from asymptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder require evaluation of (1) cognitive impairment, (2) daily functioning declines, and (3) whether the functional declines are attributable to cognitive versus physical problems. Many providers rely only on self-report to evaluate these latter criteria. However, the accuracy of patient-provided information may be limited. This study evaluated the validity of self-assessment for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) diagnoses by comparing objective findings with self-report of criteria 2 and 3 above...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), pediatric HIV-1 (PHIV) has evolved from a fatal disease to a chronic disease as children perinatally infected with HIV-1 survive into adulthood. The HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, which expresses 7 of the 9 HIV-1 genes constitutively throughout development, was used to model the early development of chronic neurological impairment in PHIV. Male and female Fischer HIV-1 Tg and F344 N control rats, sampled from 35 litters, were repeatedly assessed during early development using multiple experimental paradigms, including somatic growth, locomotor activity, cross-modal prepulse inhibition (PPI) and gap-prepulse inhibition (gap-PPI)...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Joseph Ongrádi, Dharam V Ablashi, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Balázs Stercz, Masao Ogata
The roseoloviruses, human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7, can cause severe encephalitis or encephalopathy. In immunocompetent children, primary HHV-6B infection is occasionally accompanied by diverse clinical forms of encephalitis. Roseolovirus coinfections with heterologous viruses and delayed primary HHV-7 infection in immunocompetent adults result in very severe neurological and generalized symptoms. Recovery from neurological sequelae is slow and sometimes incomplete. In immunocompromised patients with underlying hematological malignancies and transplantation, frequent single or simultaneous reactivation of roseoloviruses elicit severe, lethal organ dysfunctions, including damages in the limbic system, brain stem, and hippocampus...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Pratima Rawat, Stephen A Spector
Microglia cells are the major reservoir of HIV-1 (HIV) within the CNS. However, current models using transformed cell lines are not representative of primary microglia and fetal brain samples for isolation of primary human microglia (HMG) are increasingly difficult to obtain. Here, we describe a monocyte-derived microglia (MMG) cell model of HIV infection that recapitulates infection of primary HMG. CD14(+) cells isolated from healthy donors were cultured with M-CSF, beta-nerve growth factor, GM-CSF, and CCL2, and compared to HMG...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Francesca Elia, Sonia Villani, Federico Ambrogi, Lucia Signorini, Simone Dallari, Sandro Binda, Valeria Primache, Laura Pellegrinelli, Pasquale Ferrante, Serena Delbue
JC virus (JCV) is a widespread member of the Polyomaviridae family. Following primary infection, which occurs asymptomatically during childhood, JCV establishes latency in the host. JCV seroprevalence can reach 80 % in healthy adults, but the age of viral exposure has not been yet characterized. This study was conducted to define JCV seroprevalence in Italian infants and to estimate the date of primary infection. A JCV viral protein 1 (VP1)-GST fusion protein was used in conjunction with a homemade indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to JCV in 981 serum samples collected from 644 Italian infants of different ages (1 day to 3 years old) and in 102 breast milk samples...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Huanan Liao, Haruna Sato, Ryosuke Chiba, Tomoko Kawai, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Kenichiro Hata, Hidenori Akutsu, Shigeyoshi Fujiwara, Hiroyuki Nakamura
Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection causes sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and other neurological disorders, although the neuropathogenesis of HCMV infection is not well understood. Here, we show that the expression of SLITRK6, one of causative genes for hereditary SNHL, was robustly downregulated by HCMV infection in cultured neural cells. We also show that HCMV-encoded immediate-early 2 (IE2) proteins mediate this downregulation and their carboxy-terminal region, especially amino acid residue Gln(548), has a critical role...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Julien Hébert, David Armstrong, Nick Daneman, Jennifer Deborah Jain, James Perry
A 63-year-old female with no significant past medical history was presented with a 5-day history of progressive opsoclonus-myoclonus, headaches, and fevers. Her workup was significant only for positive West-Nile Virus serum serologies. She received a 2-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIG). At an 8-week follow up, she had a complete neurological remission. Adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is a rare condition for which paraneoplastic and infectious causes have been attributed. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of opsoclonus-myoclonus secondary to West-Nile Virus treated with intravenous immunoglobulin monotherapy...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Howard L Lipton, Ken Tyler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Rafi Ahmed, Nigel W Fraser, Homayon Ghiasi, Clinton Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
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