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Journal of Neurovirology

Laura Pellegrinelli, S Gambara, R Micheli, S Binda, E Fazzi, E Pariani
A previously healthy 6-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with hypotonia and hyposthenia of lower limbs. Electromyography and slow motor nerve conduction velocity test identified a lower limb acute motor axonal neuropathy. Brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multifocal cortical gray matter lesions in both cerebral hemispheres consistent with gray matter acute disseminated encephalitis otherwise with viral/Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis, and signs of involvement of anterior nerve roots of the cauda equina consistent with Guillain-Barré syndrome...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
E Merlini, F Iannuzzi, A Calcagno, F Bai, M Trunfio, A d'Arminio Monforte, S Bonora, Giulia Marchetti
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/plasma HIV-RNA ratio has been associated with residual neurocognitive impairment on cART, leading us to hypothesize a specific peripheral and/or CSF immune feature in patients with high CSF/plasma ratio (≥ 1). In patients with diverse pre-cART CSF/plasma ratio (61/70 with CSF/plasma ratio < 1, L-CSF, 9/70 with CSF/plasma ratio ≥ 1, H-CSF), we investigated the effects of 12 months of effective cART on peripheral and CSF inflammatory markers, on T cell activation/maturation and HIV/CMV-specific intracellular cytokine pattern...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Samantha A Garcia, Aurore Lebrun, Rhonda B Kean, D Craig Hooper
Rabies virus is a neurotropic lyssavirus which is 100% fatal in its pathogenic form when reaching unprotected CNS tissues. Death can be prevented by mechanisms delivering appropriate immune effectors across the blood-brain barrier which normally remains intact during pathogenic rabies virus infection. One therapeutic approach is to superinfect CNS tissues with attenuated rabies virus which induces blood-brain barrier permeability and immune cell entry. Current thinking is that peripheral rabies immunization is sufficient to protect against a challenge with pathogenic rabies virus...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Asaff Harel, Sam Horng, Tarah Gustafson, Anil Ramineni, Rebecca Straus Farber, Michelle Fabian
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rapidly progressive, often fatal viral infection of the brain without a known treatment. Recently, case reports have demonstrated survival from PML with therapies that improve cell-mediated immunity, including interleukin-7 (IL-7) or the chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) antagonist, maraviroc (MVC). We present the first known case of a patient with PML successfully treated with both IL-7 and MVC. A 63-year-old woman presented to our center with a 6-month history of progressive left hemiparesis...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Rebeca Geffin, Micheline McCarthy
With the implementation of increasingly effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the past three decades, individuals infected with HIV live a much longer life. HIV infection is no longer a terminal but rather a chronic disease. However, the lifespan of infected individuals remains shorter than that of their uninfected peers. Even with ART, HIV infection may potentiate "premature" aging. Organ-associated disease and systemic syndromes that occur in treated HIV-infection are like that of older, uninfected individuals...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Y P Ng, T F Yip, J S Malik Peiris, Nancy Y Ip, Suki M Y Lee
Seasonal, pandemic, and avian influenza virus infections may be associated with central nervous system pathology, albeit with varying frequency and different mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that differentiated human astrocytic (T98G) and neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells can be infected by avian H7N9 and pandemic H1N1 viruses. However, infectious progeny viruses can only be detected in H7N9 virus infected human neuronal cells. Neither of these viral strains can generate infectious progeny virus in human astrocytes despite replication of viral genome was observed...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Xiang Guan, Jie Liu, Hui Jiang, Chang-Xian Wu, Huan-Chun Chen, Zheng-Fei Liu
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in regulating eukaryotic genome replication and gene expression in diverse biological systems. Here, we identified lncRNAs transcribed from pseudorabies virus (PRV)-infected PK-15 cells. Based on high-throughput sequencing data, we obtained 87,263,926 and 93,947,628 clean reads from mock-infected and PRV-infected PK-15 cells, respectively. Through a normalized analytic protocol, we identified three novel viral lncRNAs. According to an analysis of differential expression between the mock-infected and PRV-infected cells, 4151 host lncRNAs were significantly upregulated and 2327 host lncRNAs were significantly downregulated in the latter group...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Rody El Nawar, Perrine Bayle, Andrei Girbovan, Stephanie Juillet Marque, Jerome Servan, Fernando Pico
The yellow fever 17D vaccine contains live-attenuated virus. Initial efficacy and safety reports were favorable. Recently, however, neurologic and viscerotropic adverse events (AE) were described. We managed a 61-year-old man who experienced meningomyeloradiculitis 18 days after receiving the yellow fever 17D vaccine. The manifestations were atypical. The cerebrospinal fluid contained high titers of anti-yellow fever immunoglobulins M and G and of anti-flavivirus immunoglobulins G. After methylprednisolone (1 g/day for 3 days), intravenous human immunoglobulins (140 g over 5 days), and two plasma exchanges, the symptoms improved only slightly...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Mai Kikumoto, Michiaki Nagai, Tomohiko Ohshita, Megumi Toko, Masaya Kato, Keigo Dote, Hiroshi Yamashita
The cardiovascular system is regulated by a central autonomic network (CAN) consisting of the insular cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and amygdala. Because the insular cortex often tends to be damaged in patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis, the autonomic instability observed in these patients was suggested to be moderated by an insular cortex lesion. Here, we report the case of a 51-year-old Japanese male who was hospitalized following a collapse 5 days earlier; he was diagnosed as herpes encephalitis...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Felix Kleefeld, Sophie Heller, Patrick Ingiliz, Heiko Jessen, Anders Petersen, Ute Kopp, Antje Kraft, Katrin Hahn
The efficacy and safety of interferon-free therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been reported. Considering the accumulating evidence for a direct central nervous system infection by HCV, we aim to evaluate the effect of direct acting antivirals (DAA) therapy on cognitive function in HCV patients. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the cognitive performance of 22 patients (8 HCV+, 14 HCV+/HIV+) who completed neuropsychological testing at baseline and at week 12 after DAA therapy. In 20 patients, we analyzed specific attention parameters derived from an experimental testing based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Vlatko Sulentic, Zeljka Petelin Gadze, Filip Derke, Marija Santini, Danira Bazadona, Sibila Nankovic
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an acute form of brain inflammation that is potentially lethal but has a high probability for recovery with treatment. Although the clinical picture of anti-NMDAR encephalitis is usually recognizable due to its relatively well-known symptoms, the disorder can sometimes present itself in an unpredictable and atypical way. In this case report, we wish to present the influence of different delay times prior to the establishment of diagnosis. Thus, our first patient was diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis 4 years after the initial symptoms, the second one after 8 years, and the third one after 13 months...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Huijuan Wang, Ruili Li, Yawen Zhou, Yanming Wang, Jin Cui, Benedictor Alexander Nguchu, Bensheng Qiu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hongjun Li
In addition to the role of planning and executing movement, the cerebellum greatly contributes to cognitive process. Numerous studies have reported structural and functional abnormalities in the cerebellum for HIV-infected patients, but little is known about the altered functional connectivity of particular cerebellar subregions and the cerebrum. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of the cerebellum and further analyze the relationship between the rsFC changes and the neuropsychological evaluation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Sogol Koolaji, Narges Sistany Allahabadi, Arash Ahmadi, Sharareh Eskandarieh, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Amir Reza Azimi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
Anti-JC virus (JCV) antibody index is the predictive factor of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treating with natalizumab. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of anti-JCV antibody positivity and index among Iranian patients who are the candidate for natalizumab and its correlation with their demographic data and previous therapies. A cross-sectional design was assessed for receiving anti-JCV antibody test results between January 2014 and December 2016...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
María J Marquine, Ilse Flores, Rujvi Kamat, Neco Johnson, Anya Umlauf, Scott Letendre, Dilip Jeste, Igor Grant, David Moore, Robert K Heaton
The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index is a composite marker of multisystem injury among HIV-infected persons. We aimed to examine its cross-sectional association with functional outcomes, after considering neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and other well-established correlates of everyday functioning among HIV-infected persons. Participants included 670 HIV-infected adults (ages 18-76; 88% male; 63% non-Hispanic White; median current CD4 = 404 cells/mm3 ; 67% on antiretroviral therapy; AIDS = 63%) enrolled in observational studies at the University of California San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Lance O Bauer
Factors other than HIV/AIDS may influence the cognitive function of patients living with this disease. The present study tested the influence of a common comorbid problem-an overweight body mass. It also examined intra-task variabilities in performance and brain activation as potentially more sensitive indicators of dysfunction than their mean levels. One-hundred seventy-eight participants were recruited and categorized by HIV-1 serostatus (-/+) and body mass (BMI < 26/≥ 26 kg/m2 ). They performed a simple time estimation task during which response time accuracy and electroencephalographic readiness potentials were recorded...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Jaclyn Mallard, Kenneth Williams
Due to an oversight, acknowledgement and source of funding was inadvertently omitted from the original article.
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
David P Sheppard, Steven Paul Woods, Rodrigo Hasbun, Lucrecia Salazar, Melissa S Nolan, Kristy O Murray
West Nile Virus (WNV) can be a neuroinvasive pathogen that may produce persistent mild-to-moderate neurocognitive impairments in some infected persons. Intra-individual variability (IIV) is an index of a person's performance across a neuropsychological test or battery, which is an indicator of neurocognitive control and integrity of prefrontal systems. The present study examined possible associations of IIV to neurological health and well-being in WNV infection. Participants included 84 adults with a range of clinical WNV disease (31 West Nile Encephalitis, 16 West Nile Meningitis, 37 West Nile Fever) who completed the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Isabel M Elicer, Desiree Byrd, Uraina S Clark, Susan Morgello, Jessica Robinson-Papp
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent in the combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) era, especially the milder forms. Despite these milder phenotypes, we have shown that motor abnormalities persist and have quantified them with the HIV Dementia Motor Scale (HDMS). Our objectives were to replicate, in an independent sample, our prior findings that the HDMS is associated with cognitive impairment in HIV, while adding consideration of age-associated comorbidities such as cerebrovascular disease, and to examine the longitudinal trajectories of cognitive and motor dysfunction...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Atul K Patel, Ketan K Patel, Swati Gohel, Ambuj Kumar, Scott Letendre
This single-center study attempts to quantify the incidence of symptomatic CSF viral escape (CSFVE) in patients receiving atazanavir/r (ATV/r)-containing regimen. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients receiving ATV/r-containing ART who were diagnosed with symptomatic CSFVE from August 2012 to January 2017. Primary objective was to assess the incidence of symptomatic CSFVE in patients receiving ATV/r-containing ART in clinical practice. Incidence rates were calculated by dividing the number of patients who experienced CSFVE by the number of person-months at risk and summarized as per 10,000 (ten thousand) person-months at risk...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Robin L Brese, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez, Matthew Koch, Olivia O'Connell, Katherine Luzuriaga, Mohan Somasundaran, Paul R Clapham, James Jarad Dollar, David J Nolan, Rebecca Rose, Susanna L Lamers
Despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV+ patients still develop neurological disorders, which may be due to persistent HIV infection and selective evolution in brain tissues. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology offers an improved opportunity to study the relationship among HIV isolates in the brain and lymphoid tissues because it is capable of generating thousands of long sequence reads in a single run. Here, we used SMRT sequencing to generate ~ 50,000 high-quality full-length HIV envelope sequences (> 2200 bp) from seven autopsy tissues from an HIV+/cART+ subject, including three brain and four non-brain sites...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
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