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Journal of Neurovirology

Felix Kleefeld, Sophie Heller, Patrick Ingiliz, Heiko Jessen, Anders Petersen, Ute Kopp, Antje Kraft, Katrin Hahn
The efficacy and safety of interferon-free therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been reported. Considering the accumulating evidence for a direct central nervous system infection by HCV, we aim to evaluate the effect of direct acting antivirals (DAA) therapy on cognitive function in HCV patients. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the cognitive performance of 22 patients (8 HCV+, 14 HCV+/HIV+) who completed neuropsychological testing at baseline and at week 12 after DAA therapy. In 20 patients, we analyzed specific attention parameters derived from an experimental testing based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Vlatko Sulentic, Zeljka Petelin Gadze, Filip Derke, Marija Santini, Danira Bazadona, Sibila Nankovic
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an acute form of brain inflammation that is potentially lethal but has a high probability for recovery with treatment. Although the clinical picture of anti-NMDAR encephalitis is usually recognizable due to its relatively well-known symptoms, the disorder can sometimes present itself in an unpredictable and atypical way. In this case report, we wish to present the influence of different delay times prior to the establishment of diagnosis. Thus, our first patient was diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis 4 years after the initial symptoms, the second one after 8 years, and the third one after 13 months...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Huijuan Wang, Ruili Li, Yawen Zhou, Yanming Wang, Jin Cui, Benedictor Alexander Nguchu, Bensheng Qiu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hongjun Li
In addition to the role of planning and executing movement, the cerebellum greatly contributes to cognitive process. Numerous studies have reported structural and functional abnormalities in the cerebellum for HIV-infected patients, but little is known about the altered functional connectivity of particular cerebellar subregions and the cerebrum. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of the cerebellum and further analyze the relationship between the rsFC changes and the neuropsychological evaluation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Sogol Koolaji, Narges Sistany Allahabadi, Arash Ahmadi, Sharareh Eskandarieh, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Amir Reza Azimi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
Anti-JC virus (JCV) antibody index is the predictive factor of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treating with natalizumab. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of anti-JCV antibody positivity and index among Iranian patients who are the candidate for natalizumab and its correlation with their demographic data and previous therapies. A cross-sectional design was assessed for receiving anti-JCV antibody test results between January 2014 and December 2016...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
María J Marquine, Ilse Flores, Rujvi Kamat, Neco Johnson, Anya Umlauf, Scott Letendre, Dilip Jeste, Igor Grant, David Moore, Robert K Heaton
The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index is a composite marker of multisystem injury among HIV-infected persons. We aimed to examine its cross-sectional association with functional outcomes, after considering neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and other well-established correlates of everyday functioning among HIV-infected persons. Participants included 670 HIV-infected adults (ages 18-76; 88% male; 63% non-Hispanic White; median current CD4 = 404 cells/mm3 ; 67% on antiretroviral therapy; AIDS = 63%) enrolled in observational studies at the University of California San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Lance O Bauer
Factors other than HIV/AIDS may influence the cognitive function of patients living with this disease. The present study tested the influence of a common comorbid problem-an overweight body mass. It also examined intra-task variabilities in performance and brain activation as potentially more sensitive indicators of dysfunction than their mean levels. One-hundred seventy-eight participants were recruited and categorized by HIV-1 serostatus (-/+) and body mass (BMI < 26/≥ 26 kg/m2 ). They performed a simple time estimation task during which response time accuracy and electroencephalographic readiness potentials were recorded...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Jaclyn Mallard, Kenneth Williams
Due to an oversight, acknowledgement and source of funding was inadvertently omitted from the original article.
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
David P Sheppard, Steven Paul Woods, Rodrigo Hasbun, Lucrecia Salazar, Melissa S Nolan, Kristy O Murray
West Nile Virus (WNV) can be a neuroinvasive pathogen that may produce persistent mild-to-moderate neurocognitive impairments in some infected persons. Intra-individual variability (IIV) is an index of a person's performance across a neuropsychological test or battery, which is an indicator of neurocognitive control and integrity of prefrontal systems. The present study examined possible associations of IIV to neurological health and well-being in WNV infection. Participants included 84 adults with a range of clinical WNV disease (31 West Nile Encephalitis, 16 West Nile Meningitis, 37 West Nile Fever) who completed the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Isabel M Elicer, Desiree Byrd, Uraina S Clark, Susan Morgello, Jessica Robinson-Papp
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent in the combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) era, especially the milder forms. Despite these milder phenotypes, we have shown that motor abnormalities persist and have quantified them with the HIV Dementia Motor Scale (HDMS). Our objectives were to replicate, in an independent sample, our prior findings that the HDMS is associated with cognitive impairment in HIV, while adding consideration of age-associated comorbidities such as cerebrovascular disease, and to examine the longitudinal trajectories of cognitive and motor dysfunction...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Atul K Patel, Ketan K Patel, Swati Gohel, Ambuj Kumar, Scott Letendre
This single-center study attempts to quantify the incidence of symptomatic CSF viral escape (CSFVE) in patients receiving atazanavir/r (ATV/r)-containing regimen. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients receiving ATV/r-containing ART who were diagnosed with symptomatic CSFVE from August 2012 to January 2017. Primary objective was to assess the incidence of symptomatic CSFVE in patients receiving ATV/r-containing ART in clinical practice. Incidence rates were calculated by dividing the number of patients who experienced CSFVE by the number of person-months at risk and summarized as per 10,000 (ten thousand) person-months at risk...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Robin L Brese, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez, Matthew Koch, Olivia O'Connell, Katherine Luzuriaga, Mohan Somasundaran, Paul R Clapham, James Jarad Dollar, David J Nolan, Rebecca Rose, Susanna L Lamers
Despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV+ patients still develop neurological disorders, which may be due to persistent HIV infection and selective evolution in brain tissues. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology offers an improved opportunity to study the relationship among HIV isolates in the brain and lymphoid tissues because it is capable of generating thousands of long sequence reads in a single run. Here, we used SMRT sequencing to generate ~ 50,000 high-quality full-length HIV envelope sequences (> 2200 bp) from seven autopsy tissues from an HIV+/cART+ subject, including three brain and four non-brain sites...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Ana Beatriz DePaula-Silva, F Lynn Sonderegger, Jane E Libbey, Daniel J Doty, Robert S Fujinami
Viral infection of the central nervous system can result in encephalitis. About 20% of individuals who develop viral encephalitis go on to develop epilepsy. We have established an experimental model where virus infection of mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) leads to acute seizures, followed by a latent period (no seizures/epileptogenesis phase) and then spontaneous recurrent seizures-epilepsy. Infiltrating macrophages (CD11b+ CD45hi ) present in the brain at day 3 post-infection are an important source of interleukin-6, which contributes to the development of acute seizures in the TMEV-induced seizure model...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Tamara Tesic, Jasmina Boban, Mladen Bjelan, Aleksandar Todorovic, Dusko Kozic, Snezana Brkic
Conventional magnetic-resonance (MR) imaging is not sensitive enough in depicting subtle neurodegenerative changes that occur during chronic HIV infection with good peripheral viral suppression. The aim of this study was to compare brain volumes in HIV-positive subjects with age- and education-matched healthy controls with regard to influence of aging and immunologic parameters. An overall of 65 subjects (40 HIV-positive and 25 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy subjects) underwent conventional MR imaging with three-dimensional sequence adequate for volumetric measurements...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Ryan P Bell, Laura L Barnes, Sheri L Towe, Nan-Kuei Chen, Allen W Song, Christina S Meade
This study investigated structural brain organization using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 35 HIV-positive and 35 HIV-negative individuals. We used global and nodal graph theory metrics to investigate whether HIV was associated with differences in brain network organization based on fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Participants also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery. For global network metrics, HIV-positive individuals displayed a lower FA clustering coefficient relative to HIV-negative individuals...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Rajeswari Aghoram, Sunil K Narayan
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a central nervous system demyelinating disease caused by infection with John Cunningham virus. It affects predominantly the subcortical white matter, producing progressive neurological deficits and large confluent white matter lesions on imaging. It is usually seen in immunodeficient individuals, such as those suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, those on treatment with monoclonal antibodies, and those following therapeutic bone marrow suppression...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Eileen Martin, M K Keutmann, J S Fogel, P M Maki, R Gonzalez, J Vassileva, L H Rubin, D Hardy
Working memory (WM) is a critical component of many neurocognitive functions. The literature has demonstrated consistently that WM impairment is more frequent and severe among substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) infected with HIV compared with uninfected SDIs; however, the SDIs who participated in these previous studies were primarily male. There are few published data on WM performance among HIV+ women with or without substance use disorders, and essentially no direct comparisons of WM performance between HIV+ men and women, regardless of substance use...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Walter Royal, Adem Can, Todd D Gould, Ming Guo, Jared Huse, Myles Jackson, Harry Davis, Joseph Bryant
Cognitive impairment in HIV-1 infection is associated with the induction of chronic proinflammatory responses in the brains of infected individuals. The risk of HIV-related cognitive impairment is increased by cigarette smoking, which induces brain inflammation in rodent models. To better understand the role of smoking and the associated immune response on behavioral and motor function in HIV infection, wild-type F344 and HIV-1 transgenic (HIV1Tg) rats were exposed to either smoke from nicotine-containing (regular) cigarettes, smoke from nicotine-free cigarettes, or to nicotine alone...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Joseph R Berger, Vineeta Malik, Stuart Lacey, Paul Brunetta, Patricia B Lehane
The article "Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in rituximab-treated rheumatic diseases: a rare event," written by Joseph R. Berger, Vineeta Malik, Stuart Lacey, Paul Brunetta, and Patricia B. Lehane3 , was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink).
April 10, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Alison C Kearns, Jake A Robinson, Masoud Shekarabi, Fengming Liu, Xuebin Qin, Tricia H Burdo
In the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, chronic HIV infection is primarily associated with chronic inflammation driving comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive impairment. Caspase-1 activation in leukocytes has been documented in HIV infection; however, whether caspase-1 activation and the downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) contribute to chronic inflammation in HIV comorbidities remains undetermined. The relationship between the caspase-1 cascade and persistent inflammation in HIV has not been investigated...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Olivier Simon, Blandine Acket, Carole Forfait, Dominique Girault, Ann-Claire Gourinat, Pauline Millon, Maguy Daures, Jessica Vanhomwegen, Segolene Billot, Antoine Biron, Damien Hoinard, Elodie Descloux, David Guyon, Jean Claude Manuguerra, Sylvie Laumond, Nicolas Molko, Myrielle Dupont-Rouzeyrol
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with neurologic disorders including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In New Caledonia during the ZIKV outbreak (2014-2015), case-control and retrospective studies have been performed to assess the link between ZIKV and GBS. Among the 15 cases included, 33% had evidence of a recent ZIKV infection compared to only 3.3% in the 30 controls involved. All patients were Melanesian, had facial diplegia and similar neurophysiological pattern consistent with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and recovered well...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
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