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Journal of Neurovirology

Rody El Nawar, Perrine Bayle, Andrei Girbovan, Stephanie Juillet Marque, Jerome Servan, Fernando Pico
There was an error in the original article. In the last paragraph of the Case Report section, the sentence "One month later, two plasma exchanges were followed by only slight improvements in upper-limb motor function (Fig. 1)." should have been "One month later, four plasma exchanges were followed.
September 17, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Sergio M de Almeida, Michelli F Oliveira, Antoine Chaillon, Indianara Rotta, Clea E Ribeiro, Ana Paula de Pereira, Davey Smith, Scott Letendre, Ronald J Ellis
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genetic compartmentalization is defined as genetic differences in HIV in different tissue compartments or subcompartments that characterize viral quasispecies. This descriptive, longitudinal study assessed the dynamics of inflammation, humoral immune response, blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, as well as neuronal injury biomarkers in serially obtained CSF and serum samples from an antiretroviral (ARV) therapy-naïve patient with HIV-1 subtype C with CSF HIV genetic compartmentalization that resolved spontaneously without ARV treatment...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Lara Stragapede, Alessandro Dinoto, Marta Cheli, Paolo Manganotti
Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a rare entity, first described in 1894 by Koževnikov, as a variant of simple focal motor status epilepticus. EPC is most frequently characterized by motor symptoms, but as recently described, non-motor manifestations may occur, such as somatosensory symptoms or aura continua. EPC in adults has been attributed to various etiologies: infectious, vascular, neoplastic, and metabolic. According to the recent definition, we reported a case of EPC with behavioral symptoms, following a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) contracted in an endemic area (North Eastern Italy)...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Akira Inagaki, Takanari Toyoda, Masahiro Mutou, Shingo Murakami
Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is an acute peripheral facial nerve paralysis typically accompanied by erythematous vesicular lesions of the auricular skin. The etiology is considered to be geniculate ganglionitis due to reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Encephalitis is a rare but serious complication of VZV reactivation. Clarifying the regional and temporal evolution of the lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would help with understanding the pathology of the lesion, but this information is lacking in encephalitis with RHS...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Aril Løge Håvik, Ove Bruland, Mads Aarhus, Karl-Henning Kalland, Tomasz Stokowy, Morten Lund-Johansen, Per-Morten Knappskog
To investigate if viruses are involved in the pathogenesis of vestibular schwannomas (VS), we have screened biopsies from VS patients using different molecular techniques. Screening for the presence of known viruses using a pan-viral microarray assay (ViroChip) indicated the presence of several viruses including human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) and human herpes virus 2 (HHV2). But with the exception of HERV-K, none of the findings could be verified by other methods. Whole transcriptome sequencing showed only the presence of HERV-K transcripts and whole genome sequencing showed only the presence of Epstein-Barr virus, most likely originating from infiltration of lymphocytes...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Jibreel Jumare, Samer S El-Kamary, Laurence Magder, Laura Hungerford, Nicaise Ndembi, Ahmad Aliyu, Patrick Dakum, Anya Umlauf, Mariana Cherner, Alash'le Abimiku, Man Charurat, William A Blattner, Walter Royal
Plasma HIV RNA level has been shown to correlate with HIV disease progression, morbidity, and mortality. We examined the association between levels of plasma HIV RNA and cognitive function among patients in Nigeria. A total of 179 HIV-1-infected participants with available plasma HIV RNA results and followed longitudinally for up to 2 years were included in this study. Blood samples from participants were used for the measurement of plasma HIV RNA and CD4+ T cell count. Utilizing demographic and practice effect-adjusted T scores obtained from a seven-domain neuropsychological test battery, cognitive status was determined by the global deficit score (GDS) approach, with a GDS ≥ 0...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Albert M Anderson, Kirk A Easley, Nicole Kasher, Donald Franklin, Robert K Heaton, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Magnus Gisslen, Scott L Letendre
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) persists in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era and is associated with diminished quality of life. The disorder remains challenging to diagnose given the requirement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Blood biomarkers are needed to facilitate the diagnosis of HAND and to gauge neurological response to antiretroviral therapy. We performed a study of plasma neurofilament light chain (NFL) that included 37 HIV-infected and 54 HIV-negative adults...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi, José Giraldo, Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales, Oriana Pacheco, Germán Y Lombó-Lucero, Juan D Plaza, Fabio J Adami-Teppa, Alejandra Carrillo, Carlos E Hernandez-Pereira, Gabriela M Blohm
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus endemic in Africa and Southern Asian countries, which has recently emerged in unprecedented epidemic proportions around the world. Although ZIKV infection is often asymptomatic or distinguished by non-specific influenza-like symptoms, an increase in its pathogenicity and biological behavior has been the hallmark of the current pandemic. Increasing evidence suggests that neurotropic strains of ZIKV have evolved from less pathogenic strains of the virus. Neurological manifestations of ZIKV infection include a spectrum of congenital and non-congenital clinical entities, however visual somatosensory perceptual disorders have not been recorded to date...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Charlotte Pronier, Dominique Guyader, Caroline Jézequel, Pierre Tattevin, Vincent Thibault
Extrahepatic manifestations linked to hepatitis B Virus (HBV) are usually indirect consequences of immune-mediated mechanisms triggered by the virus replication. Strong evidence of brain HBV replication is missing and direct involvement of HBV in nervous system symptoms has been rarely reported. We report two cases of neurological manifestations contemporary to HBV infection. In both cases, HBV-DNA and HBsAg could be quantified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at relatively high levels. Differential quantification of HBsAg and HBV viral load both in CSF and in blood as well as phylogenic studies on HBV genomic sequences obtained from blood and CSF provided strong arguments for central nervous system viral replication in both cases...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Coraline Canivet, Chantal Rhéaume, Manon Lebel, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
The impact of a deficiency in interferon regulatory factor (IRF)3 and IRF7 was evaluated in an herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) model. Compared to wild type (WT), the mortality rates of infected IRF3-/- and IRF7-/- mice were higher and associated with increased brain viral titers. At a critical time post-infection, IRF7-/- mice exhibited a deficit in IFN-β production. At a later time point, levels of type I IFNs and cytokines were increased in brains of both deficient mice compared to WT. Our results suggest that IRF3, and especially IRF7, are important for an effective control of inflammatory responses during HSE...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Susan Morgello, Michelle Jacobs, Jacinta Murray, Desiree Byrd, Eric Neibart, Letty Mintz, Gregory Meloni, Christina Chon, John Crary
With aging of HIV populations, there is concern that Alzheimer's disease (AD) may become prevalent and difficult to distinguish from HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. To date, there are no reports documenting histologically verified Alzheimer's neuropathology in individuals with HIV and dementia. Herein, we report two antiretroviral-treated, virally suppressed, HIV-infected individuals autopsied by the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank. Subject A presented to study at 52 years, already dependent in instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs), with severe cognitive impairment inclusive of learning and memory dysfunction...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Ewa Johansson, Stefan Lange, Tomas Bergström, Merna Oshalim, Ivar Lönnroth, Marie Studahl
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a common cause of viral encephalitis (HSV-1) characterised by pronounced inflammation and elevated intracranial pressure. We have shown in a rat model that HSV-1 infection causes an interaction between complement factors and proteasomes, leading to formation of proteasome/complement complexes (compleasomes). Exposure of the proteasome regulatory subunit antisecretory factor 1 (AF1) leads to a decrease in intracranial pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute and prolonged formation of compleasomes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with HSE...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Roger C McIntosh, Robert Paul, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Melissa Hidalgo, Judith D Lobo, Maegen Walker, Cecilia M Shikuma, Kalpana J Kallianpur
Depression and chronic inflammation are common in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+). Although depression and response to inflammatory challenge are shown to reflect activity in common neural networks, little is known regarding sub-clinical presentation in persons chronically infected with HIV. The relationship of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and bilateral amygdala to Beck Depression Inventory-1 (BDI) scores were compared within a group of 23 HIV+ and 23 HIV-negative comparison adults...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Laura Pellegrinelli, S Gambara, R Micheli, S Binda, E Fazzi, E Pariani
A previously healthy 6-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with hypotonia and hyposthenia of lower limbs. Electromyography and slow motor nerve conduction velocity test identified a lower limb acute motor axonal neuropathy. Brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multifocal cortical gray matter lesions in both cerebral hemispheres consistent with gray matter acute disseminated encephalitis otherwise with viral/Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis, and signs of involvement of anterior nerve roots of the cauda equina consistent with Guillain-Barré syndrome...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
E Merlini, F Iannuzzi, A Calcagno, F Bai, M Trunfio, A d'Arminio Monforte, S Bonora, Giulia Marchetti
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/plasma HIV-RNA ratio has been associated with residual neurocognitive impairment on cART, leading us to hypothesize a specific peripheral and/or CSF immune feature in patients with high CSF/plasma ratio (≥ 1). In patients with diverse pre-cART CSF/plasma ratio (61/70 with CSF/plasma ratio < 1, L-CSF, 9/70 with CSF/plasma ratio ≥ 1, H-CSF), we investigated the effects of 12 months of effective cART on peripheral and CSF inflammatory markers, on T cell activation/maturation and HIV/CMV-specific intracellular cytokine pattern...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Samantha A Garcia, Aurore Lebrun, Rhonda B Kean, D Craig Hooper
Rabies virus is a neurotropic lyssavirus which is 100% fatal in its pathogenic form when reaching unprotected CNS tissues. Death can be prevented by mechanisms delivering appropriate immune effectors across the blood-brain barrier which normally remains intact during pathogenic rabies virus infection. One therapeutic approach is to superinfect CNS tissues with attenuated rabies virus which induces blood-brain barrier permeability and immune cell entry. Current thinking is that peripheral rabies immunization is sufficient to protect against a challenge with pathogenic rabies virus...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Asaff Harel, Sam Horng, Tarah Gustafson, Anil Ramineni, Rebecca Straus Farber, Michelle Fabian
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rapidly progressive, often fatal viral infection of the brain without a known treatment. Recently, case reports have demonstrated survival from PML with therapies that improve cell-mediated immunity, including interleukin-7 (IL-7) or the chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) antagonist, maraviroc (MVC). We present the first known case of a patient with PML successfully treated with both IL-7 and MVC. A 63-year-old woman presented to our center with a 6-month history of progressive left hemiparesis...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Rebeca Geffin, Micheline McCarthy
With the implementation of increasingly effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the past three decades, individuals infected with HIV live a much longer life. HIV infection is no longer a terminal but rather a chronic disease. However, the lifespan of infected individuals remains shorter than that of their uninfected peers. Even with ART, HIV infection may potentiate "premature" aging. Organ-associated disease and systemic syndromes that occur in treated HIV-infection are like that of older, uninfected individuals...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Y P Ng, T F Yip, J S Malik Peiris, Nancy Y Ip, Suki M Y Lee
Seasonal, pandemic, and avian influenza virus infections may be associated with central nervous system pathology, albeit with varying frequency and different mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that differentiated human astrocytic (T98G) and neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells can be infected by avian H7N9 and pandemic H1N1 viruses. However, infectious progeny viruses can only be detected in H7N9 virus infected human neuronal cells. Neither of these viral strains can generate infectious progeny virus in human astrocytes despite replication of viral genome was observed...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Xiang Guan, Jie Liu, Hui Jiang, Chang-Xian Wu, Huan-Chun Chen, Zheng-Fei Liu
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in regulating eukaryotic genome replication and gene expression in diverse biological systems. Here, we identified lncRNAs transcribed from pseudorabies virus (PRV)-infected PK-15 cells. Based on high-throughput sequencing data, we obtained 87,263,926 and 93,947,628 clean reads from mock-infected and PRV-infected PK-15 cells, respectively. Through a normalized analytic protocol, we identified three novel viral lncRNAs. According to an analysis of differential expression between the mock-infected and PRV-infected cells, 4151 host lncRNAs were significantly upregulated and 2327 host lncRNAs were significantly downregulated in the latter group...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
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