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Journal of Neurovirology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921220/increased-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-is-a-marker-of-ongoing-inflammation-and-better-neurocognitive-function-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-individuals
#1
Josué Pérez-Santiago, Michelli F De Oliveira, Susanna R Var, Tyler R C Day, Steven P Woods, Sara Gianella, Sanjay R Mehta
Cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a highly immunogenic molecule that is associated with several inflammatory conditions and with neurocognitive impairment during untreated HIV infection. Here, we investigate how cell-free mtDNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with inflammation, neuronal damage, and neurocognitive functioning in the context of long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We quantified the levels of cell-free mtDNA in the CSF from 41 HIV-infected individuals with completely suppressed HIV RNA levels in blood plasma (<50 copies/mL) by droplet digital PCR...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913960/neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-clade-c-hiv-are-independent-of-tat-genetic-diversity
#2
Robert H Paul, Sarah Phillips, Jacqueline Hoare, David H Laidlaw, Ryan Cabeen, Gayla R Olbricht, Yuqing Su, Dan J Stein, Susan Engelbrecht, Soraya Seedat, Lauren E Salminen, Laurie M Baker, Jodi Heaps, John Joska
Controversy remains regarding the neurotoxicity of clade C human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-C). When examined in preclinical studies, a cysteine to serine substitution in the C31 dicysteine motif of the HIV-C Tat protein (C31S) results in less severe brain injury compared to other viral clades. By contrast, patient cohort studies identify significant neuropsychological impairment among HIV-C individuals independent of Tat variability. The present study clarified this discrepancy by examining neuroimaging markers of brain integrity among HIV-C individuals with and without the Tat substitution...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913959/reaction-of-complement-factors-and-proteasomes-in-experimental-encephalitis
#3
Stefan Lange, Tomas Bergström, Ewa Johansson, Merna Oshalim, Ivar Lönnroth
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis causes a deleterious inflammation and elevated intracranial pressure. As a step towards examining the origin of the inflammation, we here report the response of circulating proteasomes and complement factors in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rats infected with HSV-1. Infection was via the nasal route, with 1.1 × 10(4) plaque-forming units of HSV-1 strain 2762 given in one or both nostrils. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to study the level of 26S proteasomes and their complex formation with complement factors 3 and 4...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896574/cognitive-function-in-early-hiv-infection
#4
Aanchal Prakash, Jue Hou, Lei Liu, Yi Gao, Casey Kettering, Ann B Ragin
This study aimed to examine cognitive function in acute/early HIV infection over the subsequent 2 years. Fifty-six HIV+ subjects and 21 seronegative participants of the Chicago Early HIV Infection Study were evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment at study enrollment and at 2-year follow-up. Cognitive performance measures were compared in the groups using t tests and mixed-effect models. Patterns of relationship with clinical measures were determined between cognitive function and clinical status markers using Spearman's correlations...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896573/greater-decline-in-memory-and-global-neurocognitive-function-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-co-infected-than-in-hepatitis-c-mono-infected-patients-treated-with-pegylated-interferon-and-ribavirin
#5
Theodore R Miller, Jeffrey J Weiss, Norbert Bräu, Douglas T Dieterich, Alicia Stivala, Monica Rivera-Mindt
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the treatment of HCV with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (IFN/RBV) have been associated with neurocognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. The goal of this research was to prospectively evaluate neurocognitive functioning among a group of HCV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected patients during the first 24 weeks of IFN/RBV treatment while accounting for practice effects, normal variations in change over time, and variations in IFN/RBV treatment exposure...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889886/association-of-midlife-smoking-status-with-change-in-processing-speed-and-mental-flexibility-among-hiv-seropositive-and-hiv-seronegative-older-men-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#6
Wajiha Z Akhtar-Khaleel, Robert L Cook, Steve Shoptaw, Eric N Miller, Ned Sacktor, Pamela J Surkan, Jim Becker, Linda A Teplin, Rebecca J Beyth, Catherine Price, Michael Plankey
Smoking is a potential risk factor for age-related cognitive decline. To date, no study has examined the association between smoking and cognitive decline in men living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this present study is to examine whether smoking status and severity in midlife is associated with a rate of decline in cognitive processing speed among older HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men. Data from 591 older HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were examined...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882497/soluble-tlr2-and-4-concentrations-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-hiv-siv-related-neuropathological-conditions
#7
Khutso M Mothapo, J Ten Oever, P Koopmans, F F Stelma, S Burm, J Bajramovic, M M Verbeek, M G Olde Rikkert, M G Netea, G Koopman, A J van der Ven
HIV in the central nervous system (CNS) mainly infects microglial cells which are known to express toll-like receptors (TLRs). This paper aimed to study the role of soluble TLR2 (sTLR2), sTLR4, and other inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in HIV/Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-related neurological sequelae. We determined sTLR2 and sTLR4 levels in CSF and serum/plasma of SIV-infected rhesus macaques with and without neurological sequelae, as well as in HIV-infected patients with and without cognitive impairments and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and matched controls...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878471/cerebrospinal-fluid-anti-epstein-barr-virus-specific-oligoclonal-igm-and-igg-bands-in-patients-with-clinically-isolated-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#8
Diana Ferraro, Veronica Galli, Anna Maria Simone, Roberta Bedin, Francesca Vitetta, Elisa Merelli, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Patrizia Sola
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. We aimed to assess the frequency of EBV-specific IgG and IgM oligoclonal bands (OCB) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 50 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and in 27 controls with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Furthermore, we assessed correlations between the presence of OCB and CIS patients' CSF, MRI, and clinical variables. There was no difference in the proportion of CIS and GB patients with positivity for anti-EBV-specific IgG/IgM OCB...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873219/immortalization-of-primary-microglia-a-new-platform-to-study-hiv-regulation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#9
Yoelvis Garcia-Mesa, Taylor R Jay, Mary Ann Checkley, Benjamin Luttge, Curtis Dobrowolski, Saba Valadkhan, Gary E Landreth, Jonathan Karn, David Alvarez-Carbonell
The major reservoirs for HIV in the CNS are in the microglia, perivascular macrophages, and to a lesser extent, astrocytes. To study the molecular events controlling HIV expression in the microglia, we developed a reliable and robust method to immortalize microglial cells from primary glia from fresh CNS tissues and commercially available frozen glial cells. Primary human cells, including cells obtained from adult brain tissue, were transformed with lentiviral vectors expressing SV40 T antigen or a combination of SVR40 T antigen and hTERT...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815816/a-decreasing-cd4-cd8-ratio-over-time-and-lower-csf-penetrating-antiretroviral-regimens-are-associated-with-a-higher-risk-of-neurocognitive-deterioration-independently-of-viral-replication
#10
Matteo Vassallo, R Fabre, J Durant, C Lebrun-Frenay, H Joly, M Ticchioni, F DeSalvador, A Harvey-Langton, B Dunais, M Laffon, J Cottalorda, P Dellamonica, C Pradier
Persistent immune activation is one of the suspected causes of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in cART era. The CD4/CD8 ratio has been recently showed as a marker of immune activation and HAND. Our aim was to analyze if a decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio over time could have an impact on neurocognitive deterioration. Randomly selected HIV-infected patients were followed for neuropsychological (NP) testing during a period of almost 2 years. Tests were adjusted for age, gender, and education. Patients were divided into 5 groups: normal tests (NT), neuropsychological deficit (ND, one impaired cognitive domain), asymptomatic neurocognitive disorders (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorders (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812788/jc-polyomavirus-expression-and-bell-shaped-regulation-of-its-sf2-asf-suppressor-during-the-follow-up-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-treated-with-natalizumab
#11
Elena Uleri, Gabriele Ibba, Claudia Piu, Maurizio Caocci, Stefania Leoni, Giannina Arru, Caterina Serra, GianPietro Sechi, Antonina Dolei
Natalizumab is effective against multiple sclerosis (MS), but is associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), fatal disease caused by the JCV polyomavirus. The SF2/ASF (splicing factor2/alternative splicing factor) inhibits JCV in glial cells. We wondered about SF2/ASF modulation in the blood of natalizumab-treated patients and if this could influence JCV reactivation. Therefore, we performed a longitudinal study of MS patients under natalizumab, in comparison to patients under fingolimod and to healthy blood donors...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787806/acyclovir-resistance-in-herpes-simplex-virus-type-i-encephalitis-a-case-report
#12
M Bergmann, R Beer, M Kofler, R Helbok, B Pfausler, E Schmutzhard
Acyclovir resistance is rarely seen in herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I encephalitis. Prevalence rates vary between 0.5 % in immunocompetent patients (Christophers et al. 1998; Fife et al. 1994) and 3.5-10 % in immunocompromised patients (Stranska et al. 2005). We report a 45-year-old, immunocompetent (negative HIV antigen/antibody testing), female patient, without previous illness who developed-after a febrile prodromal stage-aphasia and psychomotor slowing. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) showed right temporal and insular T2-hyperintense lesions with spreading to the contralateral temporal lobe...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761801/phrenic-nerve-deficits-and-neurological-immunopathology-associated-with-acute-west-nile-virus-infection-in-mice-and-hamsters
#13
Katherine Zukor, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud Van Wettere, Paul M Pilowsky, John D Morrey
Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739035/hsv-1-clinical-isolates-with-unique-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-phenotypes-and-insight-into-genomic-differences
#14
Robert J Danaher, Derrick E Fouts, Agnes P Chan, Yongwook Choi, Jessica DePew, Jamison M McCorrison, Karen E Nelson, Chunmei Wang, Craig S Miller
Strain-specific factors contribute in significant but undefined ways to the variable incidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) recrudescence. Studies that investigate these strain-specific factors are needed. Here, we used qPCR, in vitro assays, and genomic sequencing to identify important relationships between in vitro and clinical phenotypes of unique HSV-1 clinical isolates. Nine HSV-1 isolates from individuals displaying varying reactivation patterns were studied. Isolates associated with frequent recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) (1) displayed higher rates of viral shedding in the oral cavity than those associated with rare RHL and (2) tended to replicate more efficiently at 33 °C than 39 °C...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739034/evaluation-of-practice-effect-on-neuropsychological-measures-among-persons-with-and-without-hiv-infection-in-northern-india
#15
Raymond L Ownby, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, Deborah L Jones, Sunil Sharma, Ritu Nehra, Adarsh M Kumar, Sudesh Prabhakar, Amarilis Acevedo, Mahendra Kumar
An evaluation of the effects of HIV infection on neurocognition over time is important for understanding disease progression. Changes in cognitive function can be evaluated longitudinally by using neuropsychological testing at repeated intervals. The assessment of change over time, however, is complicated by the potentially confounding influence of learning on repeated test administrations, often referred to as practice effect. In this study, we present data on testing of persons with or without HIV infection on a battery administered at study baseline and repeated 1 year later...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739033/pseudo-typed-semliki-forest-virus-delivers-egfp-into-neurons
#16
Fan Jia, Huan Miao, Xutao Zhu, Fuqiang Xu
Semliki Forest virus (SFV), a neurotropic virus, has been used to deliver heterologous genes into cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we constructed a reporter SFV4-FL-EGFP and found that it can deliver EGFP into neurons located at the injection site without disseminating throughout the brain. Lacking of the capsid gene of SFV4-FL-EGFP does not block its life cycle, while forming replication-competent virus-like particles (VLPs). These VLPs hold subviral genome by using the packaging sequence (PS) located within the nsP2 gene, and can transfer their genome into cells...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718211/review-of-functional-mri-in-hiv-effects-of-aging-and-medication
#17
C S Hakkers, J E Arends, R E Barth, S Du Plessis, A I M Hoepelman, M Vink
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a frequently occurring comorbidity of HIV infection. Evidence suggests this condition starts subclinical before a progression to a symptomatic stage. Blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) fMRI has shown to be a sensitive tool to detect abnormal brain function in an early stage and might therefore be useful to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on brain function. An extensive literature search was performed in June 2015. Eligibility criteria for included studies were as follows: (1) conducting with HIV-positive patients, (2) using BOLD fMRI, and (3) including a HIV-negative control group...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687126/atypical-presentations-of-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-adem-in-hiv-infection
#18
Ansuya Naidoo, Hoosain Paruk, Bhupendra Bhagwan, Anand Moodley
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a monophasic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system associated with various viral infections including HIV infection. We present the findings of seven HIV-infected patients with mild to moderate immunosuppression presenting with atypical features. Four patients had a multiphasic course; three patients had tumefactive lesions, and two patients had corpus callosum lesions. Two patients with the multiphasic course also had tumefactive lesions. Their clinical and radiological findings are presented...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683235/induction-of-varicella-zoster-virus-dna-replication-in-dissociated-human-trigeminal-ganglia
#19
Randall J Cohrs, Hussain Badani, Nicholas L Baird, Teresa M White, Bridget Sanford, Don Gilden
Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus, becomes latent after primary infection and reactivates to produce zoster. To study VZV latency and reactivation, human trigeminal ganglia removed within 24 h after death were mechanically dissociated, randomly distributed into six-well tissue culture plates and incubated with reagents to inactivate nerve growth factor (NGF) or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) pathways. At 5 days, VZV DNA increased in control and PI3-kinase inhibitor-treated cultures to the same extent, but was significantly more abundant in anti-NGF-treated cultures (p = 0...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678093/long-term-follow-up-of-htlv-1-proviral-load-in-asymptomatic-carriers-and-in-incident-cases-of-ham-tsp-what-is-its-relevance-as-a-prognostic-marker-for-neurologic-disease
#20
Marina Lobato Martins, Jacqueline Cronemberger Guimarães, João Gabriel Ribas, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira Romanelli, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti
HTLV-1 proviral load (pvl) is an important risk marker for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), but its value as prognostic marker is not well defined. Long-term prospective cohort studies are necessary to clarify this question. Here, we analyzed HTLV-1 pvl in the peripheral blood of 82 asymptomatic carriers (AC; 351 samples), 12 HAM/TSP patients (HAM; 46 samples), and six incident cases of HAM/TSP (iHAM), with serial samples collected before (n = 10) and after (n = 20) the disease onset...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
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