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Journal of Neurovirology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913765/treatment-of-theiler-s-virus-induced-demyelinating-disease-with-teriflunomide
#1
Francesca Gilli, Libin Li, Darlene B Royce, Krista D DiSano, Andrew R Pachner
Teriflunomide is an oral therapy approved for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), showing both anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. Currently, it is uncertain whether one or both of these properties may explain teriflunomide's beneficial effect in MS. Thus, to learn more about its mechanisms of action, we evaluated the effect of teriflunomide in the Theiler's encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) model, which is both a viral infection and an excellent model of the progressive disability of MS...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913617/fingolimod-induces-neuronal-specific-gene-expression-with-potential-neuroprotective-outcomes-in-maturing-neuronal-progenitor-cells-exposed-to-hiv
#2
Rebeca Geffin, Ricardo Martinez, Alicia de Las Pozas, Biju Issac, Micheline McCarthy
Fingolimod (FTY720), a structural analogue of sphingosine, targets sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor signaling and is currently an immunomodulatory therapy for multiple sclerosis. Fingolimod accesses the central nervous system (CNS) where its active metabolite, fingolimod phosphate (FTY720-P), has pleotropic neuroprotective effects in an inflammatory microenvironment. To investigate potential neuronal-specific mechanisms of fingolimod neuroprotection, we cultured the human neuronal progenitor cell line, hNP1, in differentiation medium supplemented with HIV- or Mock-infected supernatants, with or without FTY720-P...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905216/slowly-progressing-varicella-zoster-brainstem-encephalitis-complicating-ramsay-hunt-syndrome-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Vito A G Ricigliano, Lorenzo Saraceno, Michele Cavalli, Mariaemma Rodegher, Giovanni Meola
A 56-year-old immunocompetent male developed brainstem encephalitis complicating Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The disease had a slowly progressing course of months after the triggering infection, much longer than previously reported. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging, physical-chemical, and cell count analyses on cerebrospinal fluid were normal, whereas polymerase chain reaction for varicella zoster virus DNA was positive. The simultaneous negativity of both imaging and basic CSF exams is very rare, although possible event which confirms the irreplaceable role of viral screening on CSF...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900866/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-11%C3%A2-years-after-liver-transplantation-a-case-report
#4
Ana Moreno-Estébanez, Javier Almeida Velasco, Tomás Pérez-Concha, Tirso González-Pinto, Iñigo Gabilondo
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an opportunistic infection of the central nervous system caused by JC virus. Only ten cases of PML have been reported so far in liver transplant recipients. We present a case of liver posttransplantation PML with characteristic clinical and brain MRI findings, but with an atypical late onset, developed 11 years after transplantation and after single-drug, long-term (8 years), and low-dose (750 mg twice a day) immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895099/neurological-and-multiple-organ-involvement-due-to-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-and-hiv-co-infection-diagnosed-at-autopsy
#5
Sergio Monteiro de Almeida, Thiago H Roza, Gabriel L O Salvador, João C B França, Luine Rosele Renaud Vidal, Meri Bordignon Nogueira, Lubomira Veronica Oliva, Luis Fernando Bleggi Torres, Lucia Helena de Noronha
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is the most prevalent systemic mycosis among immunocompetent patients in Latin America; it is rare in immunocompromised patients. The estimated frequency of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the HIV/PCM population was 2.5%. We report a case of HIV/P. brasiliensis co-infection, with neurological (NPCM) and multiple organ involvement, indicating a diagnosis of AIDS. PCM diagnosis was established during the autopsy. This is the first described case of HIV/P...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895090/effort-and-neuropsychological-performance-in-hiv-infected-individuals-on-stable-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Robert Paul, Gina Rhee, Laurie M Baker, Florin Vaida, Sarah A Cooley, Beau M Ances
The expression of cognitive symptoms associated with HIV varies over time and across individuals. This pattern may reflect transient contextual factors, including the degree of effort exerted by individuals undergoing cognitive testing. The present study examined whether effort corresponds to the expression of persistent HIV-related cognitive impairment among individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV+ individuals (n = 111) averaged 48.2 (14.9) years of age and 13.0 (2.7) years of education and HIV- individuals (n = 92) averaged 34...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895088/prevalence-of-a-history-of-prior-varicella-herpes-zoster-infection-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Ali Manouchehrinia, Radu Tanasescu, Huner Kareem, Oltita P Jerca, Fouzia Jabeen, Rachelle Shafei, Judith Breuer, Keith Neal, William Irving, Cris S Constantinescu
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS), but direct causal involvement has been disputed. Nevertheless, knowledge of VZV exposure is important, given the risk of serious complications of first exposure while undergoing immunosuppressive treatment, in particular with fingolimod. We distributed questionnaires to MS clinic patients, requesting information about history of chickenpox, sibling/household/occupational exposure, history of zoster (shingles), and disease-modifying treatment...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895082/clinical-manifestations-and-treatment-outcomes-of-parvovirus-b19-encephalitis-in-immunocompetent-adults
#8
Jin-Sun Jun, Jangsup Moon, Jung-Ick Byun, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Jung-Ah Lim, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Parvovirus B19 (PVB19) has rarely been identified as a cause of encephalitis in immunocompetent adults, in whom clinical information regarding PVB19 encephalitis has remained unclear. Herein, we report the clinical presentations, laboratory and imaging findings, and treatment outcomes of five immunocompetent adults with PVB19 encephalitis. Although none of the patients showed any distinctive features of PVB19 infection, they showed various clinical manifestations, including one instance of brainstem involvement...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895072/role-of-the-inflammasome-related-cytokines-il-1-and-il-18-during-infection-with-murine-coronavirus
#9
Zachary B Zalinger, Ruth Elliott, Susan R Weiss
The inflammasome, a cytosolic protein complex that mediates the processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, is one of the first responders during viral infection. The cytokines secreted following inflammasome activation, which include IL-1 and IL-18, regulate cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system, guiding the subsequent immune responses. In this study, we used murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), infection of the central nervous system and liver to assess of the role of the inflammasome and its related cytokines on pathogenesis and host defense during viral infection...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895064/a-mouse-model-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-a-brain-behavior-approach-to-discover-disease-mechanisms-and-novel-treatments
#10
REVIEW
William R Tyor, Heather Bimonte-Nelson
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain highly prevalent despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Although the most common forms of HAND are mild and identified through neuropsychological testing, there is evidence that with aging these mild forms become more prevalent and may advance to the most severe form of HAND, HIV-associated dementia. Therefore, novel therapies must be developed that can be used adjunctively with cART to prevent deterioration or restore normal cognitive function...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895059/central-nervous-system-penetrating-antiretrovirals-impair-energetic-reserve-in-striatal-nerve-terminals
#11
Kelly L Stauch, Katy Emanuel, Benjamin G Lamberty, Brenda Morsey, Howard S Fox
The use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs with central nervous system (CNS) penetration effectiveness (CPE) may be useful in the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) as well as targeting a CNS reservoir in strategies to achieve a functional cure for HIV. However, increased cognitive deficits are linked to at least one of these drugs (efavirenz). As mitochondrial dysfunction has been found with a number of ARVs, and as such can affect neuronal function, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of ARV with high CPE for toxicological profiles on presynaptic nerve terminal energy metabolism...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895058/a-neuropathic-pain-syndrome-associated-with-hantavirus-infection
#12
Dustin Anderson, Grayson Beecher, Christopher Power, Lindsay Bridgland, Douglas W Zochodne
Hantaviruses are a group of single-stranded RNA viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. "New World" hantaviruses cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in North America. HCPS carries with it significant mortality and those patients who survive the disease are often left with substantial morbidity. Neurologic complications of hantavirus infections are rare, with only sparse cases of central nervous system involvement having been documented in the literature. To our knowledge, there are no reports of hantavirus infection contributing to peripheral nervous system dysfunction...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849352/effects-of-sex-and-hiv-serostatus-on-spatial-navigational-learning-and-memory-among-cocaine-users
#13
J Fogel, L H Rubin, P Maki, M K Keutmann, R Gonzalez, J Vassileva, E M Martin
Spatial learning and memory are critically dependent on the integrity of hippocampal systems. Functional MRI and neuropathological studies show that hippocampal circuitry is prominently affected among HIV-seropositive individuals, but potential spatial learning and memory deficits have not been studied in detail in this population. We investigated the independent and interactive effects of sex and HIV serostatus on performance of a spatial learning and memory task in a sample of 181 individuals with a history of cocaine dependence...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831774/humanized-mice-models-for-evaluating-neurohiv-and-cure-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Jenna B Honeycutt, J Victor Garcia
While the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic was initially characterized by a high prevalence of severe and widespread neurological pathologies, the development of better treatments to suppress viremia over years and even decades has mitigated many of the severe neurological pathologies previously observed. Despite effective treatment, mild neurocognitive impairment and premature cognitive aging are observed in HIV-infected individuals, suggesting a changing but ongoing role of HIV infection in the central nervous system (CNS)...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831768/jcpyv-microrna-in-plasma-inversely-correlates-with-jcpyv-seropositivity-among-long-term-natalizumab-treated-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#15
Pabitra Basnyat, Elina Virtanen, Irina Elovaara, Sanna Hagman, Eeva Auvinen
Sensitive biomarkers are needed to better manage multiple sclerosis (MS) patients for natalizumab (NTZ)-associated risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). A currently used risk stratification algorithm, mainly based on JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) serology, has not led to a reduction of PML incidence. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the presence and prevalence of JCPyV miRNAs in plasma of NTZ-treated MS patients, and to explore their biomarker potential for NTZ-associated PML risk assessment...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831749/pml-iris-in-an-hiv-2-infected-patient-presenting-as-bell-s-palsy
#16
Fabian Sierra Morales, Carlos Illingworth, Kathie Lin, Ivia Rivera Agosto, Chloé Powell, Jacob A Sloane, Igor J Koralnik
We present the case of an HIV-2-infected patient who developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in the setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) presenting as Bell's palsy. The brain MRI showed a single lesion in the facial colliculus considered initially to be ischemic in nature. This case report should alert clinicians that PML can occur in the setting of HIV-2 infection. It also illustrates the difficulty of establishing the diagnosis of PML.
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831740/expression-of-mir-155-associated-with-toll-like-receptors-3-7-and-9-transcription-in-the-olfactory-bulbs-of-cattle-naturally-infected-with-bhv5
#17
Bruna R S M Oliveira, Flavia V Vieira, Dielson de S Vieira, Sergio E L da Silva, Roberto Gameiro, Eduardo F Flores, Tereza C Cardoso
Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV5) infection of young cattle is frequently associated with fatal neurological disease and, as such, represents an attractive model for studying the pathogenesis of viral-induced meningoencephalitis. Following replication in the nasal mucosa, BHV5 invades the central nervous system (CNS) mainly through the olfactory pathway. The innate immune response triggered by the host face to virus replication through the olfactory route is poorly understood. Recently, an upregulation of conserved pathogen-associated molecular pattern, as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), has been demonstrated in the CNS of BHV5 experimentally infected cows...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831691/parvovirus-b19-infection-associated-with-hemolytic-anemia-and-cranial-polyneuropathy
#18
João Sequeira, Ana Calado, Margarida Dias, Manuel Manita
Parvovirus B19 (PB19) is a common, widespread, small, single-stranded DNA virus which has been linked with a broad spectrum of clinical illnesses, including a variety of neurological complications such as encephalitis, meningitis, myelitis, stroke, cerebellar ataxia, and neuropathy. The authors describe a case of PB19 infection associated with hemolytic anemia and cranial polyneuropathy involving the second and third cranial nerves in a 23-year-old immunocompetent woman. The diagnosis of acute PB19 infection was established with detection of positive DNA and anti-PB19 IgM antibodies in blood samples...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822107/successful-treatment-and-fdg-pet-ct-monitoring-of-hhv-6-encephalitis-in-a-non-neutropenic-patient-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Elda Righi, Alessia Carnelutti, Daniele Muser, Francesco Zaja, Elisa Lucchini, Federico Pea, Fernando Di Gregorio, Abass Alavi, Matteo Bassetti
Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 reactivation is associated with severe forms of encephalitis among patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cases in non-neutropenic patients are uncommon. The efficacy of ganciclovir and other compounds that are used for the treatment of HHV-6 encephalitis remains suboptimal and linked to toxicity. Valganciclovir, the oral prodrug of ganciclovir, could be practical to treat outpatients, but it is not commonly used for severe cases. We report a case of HHV-6 encephalitis in a non-neutropenic patient successfully treated with valganciclovir and undergoing therapeutic drug monitoring in plasma and in the cerebrospinal fluid...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791662/combination-antiretroviral-therapy-improves-cognitive-performance-and-functional-connectivity-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-individuals
#20
Yuchuan Zhuang, Xing Qiu, Lu Wang, Qing Ma, Mark Mapstone, Amneris Luque, Miriam Weber, Madalina Tivarus, Eric Miller, Roberto C Arduino, Jianhui Zhong, Giovanni Schifitto
Our study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cognitive performance and functional and structural connectivity and their relationship to plasma levels of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Seventeen ARV treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals (baseline mean CD4 cell count, 479 ± 48 cells/mm(3)) were age matched with 17 HIV-uninfected individuals. All subjects underwent a detailed neurocognitive and functional assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. HIV-infected subjects were scanned before starting cART and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
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