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Journal of Neurovirology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512685/modeling-brain-lentiviral-infections-during-antiretroviral-therapy-in-aids
#1
Weston C Roda, Michael Y Li, Michael S Akinwumi, Eugene L Asahchop, Benjamin B Gelman, Kenneth W Witwer, Christopher Power
Understanding HIV-1 replication and latency in different reservoirs is an ongoing challenge in the care of patients with HIV/AIDS. A mathematical model was created to describe and predict the viral dynamics of HIV-1 and SIV infection within the brain during effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The mathematical model was formulated based on the biology of lentiviral infection of brain macrophages and used to describe the dynamics of transmission and progression of lentiviral infection in brain...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474333/the-egf-epidermal-growth-factor-counteracts-tat-modulation-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-of-the-w-family-in-astrocytes
#2
Elena Uleri, Claudia Piu, Maurizio Caocci, Gabriele Ibba, Caterina Serra, Antonina Dolei
Human astrocyte cells were exposed to HIV-Tat and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF), to monitor the expression of the neuropathogenic MSRV and Syncytin-1 elements of the HERV-W family of endogenous retroviruses and of TNFα. The results indicate that EGF counteracts Tat regulation of HERV-W/MSRVenv/Syncytin-1, throughout EGFR activation; this effect occurs by interfering with the induction of TNFα production by Tat. The novel effect of EGF counteraction of Tat-mediated regulation of the neuropathogenic HERV-Ws could be neuro-protective, but its actual role in the brain remains to be elucidated...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462488/an-oral-form-of-methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone-reduces-monocyte-activation-and-traffic-to-the-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-a-primate-model-of-hiv-peripheral-neuropathy
#3
Jessica R Lakritz, Samshita Yalamanchili, Michael J Polydefkis, Andrew D Miller, Michael S McGrath, Kenneth C Williams, Tricia H Burdo
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a major comorbidity of HIV infection that is caused in part by chronic immune activation. HIV-PN is associated with infiltration of monocytes/macrophages to the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) causing neuronal loss and formation of Nageotte nodules. Here, we used an oral form of methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor, to specifically reduce activation of myeloid cells. MGBG is selectively taken up by monocyte/macrophages in vitro and inhibits HIV p24 expression and DNA viral integration in macrophages...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439773/parsonage-turner-syndrome-due-to-autochthonous-acute-genotype-3f-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-a-nonimmunocompromised-55-year-old-patient
#4
A Velay, W Kack-Kack, F Abravanel, S Lhomme, P Leyendecker, L Kremer, P Chamouard, J Izopet, S Fafi-Kremer, H Barth
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging autochthonous disease in industrialized countries. Extra-hepatic manifestations, in particular neurologic manifestations, have been reported in HEV infection. Only a few cases of hepatitis E-associated Parsonage-Turner syndrome have been reported, and HEV genotypes were rarely determined. Here, we report the case of a Parsonage-Turner syndrome associated with an acute autochthonous HEV infection in a 55-year-old immunocompetent patient. HEV genomic RNA was detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF), and molecular phylogenetic analysis of HEV was performed...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429290/association-of-long-term-patterns-of-depressive-symptoms-and-attention-executive-function-among-older-men-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#5
Nicole M Armstrong, Pamela J Surkan, Glenn J Treisman, Ned C Sacktor, Michael R Irwin, Linda A Teplin, Ron Stall, Eileen M Martin, James T Becker, Cynthia Munro, Andrew J Levine, Lisa P Jacobson, Alison G Abraham
Older HIV-infected men are at higher risk for both depression and cognitive impairments, compared to HIV-uninfected men. We evaluated the association between longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms and attention/executive function in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men aged 50+ years to understand whether HIV infection influenced the long-term effect of depression on attention/executive function. Responses to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale and attention/executive function tests (Trail Making Test Part B and Symbol Digit Modalities Test) were collected semiannually from May 1986 to April 2015 in 1611 men...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429289/the-nature-and-consequences-of-cognitive-deficits-among-tobacco-smokers-with-hiv-a-comparison-to-tobacco-smokers-without-hiv
#6
Joseph D Harrison, Jessica A Dochney, Sonja Blazekovic, Frank Leone, David Metzger, Ian Frank, Robert Gross, Anita Hole, Karam Mounzer, Steven Siegel, Robert A Schnoll, Rebecca L Ashare
HIV-infected smokers lose more years of life to tobacco-related disease than HIV. Since neurocognitive deficits are common among those with HIV and are associated with smoking persistence, these deficits may be a unique barrier to smoking cessation among HIV-infected smokers. Documenting unique differences in and correlates of cognition among HIV-infected smokers is a critical step towards developing a population-specific tobacco cessation treatment. We compared neurocognitive function between HIV-infected (n = 103) and HIV-uninfected smokers (n = 70), accounting for demographic and smoking-related variables...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429288/zika-virus-a-novel-mosquito-borne-congenital-virus-infection
#7
EDITORIAL
J David Beckham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326469/hsv-1-interaction-to-3-o-sulfated-heparan-sulfate-in-mouse-derived-drg-explant-and-profiles-of-inflammatory-markers-during-virus-infection
#8
Harsh Sharthiya, Chanmoly Seng, T H Van Kuppevelt, Vaibhav Tiwari, Michele Fornaro
The molecular mechanism of herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry and the associated inflammatory response in the nervous system remain poorly understood. Using mouse-derived ex vivo dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explant model and single cell neurons (SCNs), in this study, we provided a visual evidence for the expression of heparan sulfate (HS) and 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS) followed by their interactions with HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) and glycoprotein D (gD) during cell entry. Upon heparanase treatment of DRG-derived SCN, a significant inhibition of HSV-1 entry was observed suggesting the involvement of HS role during viral entry...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324319/white-matter-measures-are-near-normal-in-controlled-hiv-infection-except-in-those-with-cognitive-impairment-and-longer-hiv-duration
#9
Lucette A Cysique, James R Soares, Guangqiang Geng, Maia Scarpetta, Kirsten Moffat, Michael Green, Bruce J Brew, Roland G Henry, Caroline Rae
The objective of the current study was to quantify the degree of white matter (WM) abnormalities in chronic and virally suppressed HIV-infected (HIV+) persons while carefully taking into account demographic and disease factors. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted in 40 HIV- and 82 HIV+ men with comparable demographics and life style factors. The HIV+ sample was clinically stable with successful viral control. Diffusion was measured across 32 non-colinear directions with a b-value of 1000 s/mm(2); fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps were quantified with Itrack IDL...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321697/robust-gene-expression-changes-in-the-ganglia-following-subclinical-reactivation-in-rhesus-macaques-infected-with-simian-varicella-virus
#10
Nicole Arnold, Christine Meyer, Flora Engelmann, Ilhem Messaoudi
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella during acute infection and establishes latency in the sensory ganglia. Reactivation of VZV results in herpes zoster, a debilitating and painful disease. It is believed that VZV reactivates due to a decline in cell-mediated immunity; however, the roles that CD4 versus CD8 T cells play in the prevention of herpes zoster remain poorly understood. To address this question, we used a well-characterized model of VZV infection where rhesus macaques are intrabronchially infected with the homologous simian varicella virus (SVV)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321696/accelerated-and-accentuated-neurocognitive-aging-in-hiv-infection
#11
David P Sheppard, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Rujvi Kamat, Lindsay R Clark, Gunes Avci, Mark W Bondi, Steven Paul Woods
There is debate as to whether the neurocognitive changes associated with HIV infection represent an acceleration of the typical aging process or more simply reflect a greater accentuated risk for age-related declines. We aimed to determine whether accelerated neurocognitive aging is observable in a sample of older HIV-infected individuals compared to age-matched seronegatives and older old (i.e., aged ≥65) seronegative adults. Participants in a cross-sectional design included 48 HIV-seronegative (O-) and 40 HIV-positive (O+) participants between the ages of 50-65 (mean ages = 55 and 56, respectively) and 40 HIV-seronegative participants aged ≥65 (OO-; mean age = 74) who were comparable for other demographics...
June 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251596/cocaine-dependence-does-not-contribute-substantially-to-white-matter-abnormalities-in-hiv-infection
#12
Daniella M Cordero, Sheri L Towe, Nan-Kuei Chen, Kevin R Robertson, David J Madden, Scott A Huettel, Christina S Meade
This study investigated the association of HIV infection and cocaine dependence with cerebral white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). One hundred thirty-five participants stratified by HIV and cocaine status (26 HIV+/COC+, 37 HIV+/COC-, 37 HIV-/COC+, and 35 HIV-/COC-) completed a comprehensive substance abuse assessment, neuropsychological testing, and MRI with DTI. Among HIV+ participants, all were receiving HIV care and 46% had an AIDS diagnosis. All COC+ participants were current users and met criteria for cocaine use disorder...
June 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247269/dynamic-of-csf-and-serum-biomarkers-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-encephalitis-with-cns-genetic-compartmentalization-case-study
#13
Sergio M de Almeida, Indianara Rotta, Clea E Ribeiro, Michelli F Oliveira, Antoine Chaillon, Ana Paula de Pereira, Ana Paula Cunha, Marise Zonta, Joao França Bents, Sonia M Raboni, Davey Smith, Scott Letendre, Ronald J Ellis
Despite the effective suppression of viremia with antiretroviral therapy, HIV can still replicate in the central nervous system (CNS). This was a longitudinal study of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum dynamics of several biomarkers related to inflammation, the blood-brain barrier, neuronal injury, and IgG intrathecal synthesis in serial samples of CSF and serum from a patient infected with HIV-1 subtype C with CNS compartmentalization.The phylogenetic analyses of plasma and CSF samples in an acute phase using next-generation sequencing and F-statistics analysis of C2-V3 haplotypes revealed distinct compartmentalized CSF viruses in paired CSF and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples...
June 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243867/peripheral-blood-lymphocyte-hiv-dna-levels-correlate-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-nigeria
#14
Jibreel Jumare, Sara Sunshine, Hayat Ahmed, Samer S El-Kamary, Laurence Magder, Laura Hungerford, Tricia Burdo, Lindsay M Eyzaguirre, Anya Umlauf, Mariana Cherner, Alash'le Abimiku, Man Charurat, Jonathan Z Li, William A Blattner, Walter Royal
Mononuclear cells play key roles in the pathogenic mechanisms leading to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs). We examined the association between HIV DNA within peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and HAND in Nigeria. PBMCs were collected at baseline from 36 antiretroviral naive participants. CD14+ cells and T&B lymphocyte fractions were isolated by, respectively, positive and negative magnetic bead separation. Total HIV DNA within CD14+ and T&B cells were separately quantified using real-time PCR assay targeting HIV LTR-gag and cell input numbers determined by CCR5 copies/sample...
June 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995575/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-and-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-hiv-infected-individuals-in-rakai-uganda
#15
Mahsa Abassi, Bozena M Morawski, Gertrude Nakigozi, Noeline Nakasujja, Xiangrong Kong, David B Meya, Kevin Robertson, Ronald Gray, Maria J Wawer, Ned Sacktor, David R Boulware
In the USA, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokines have been observed in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). We characterized the relationship between HAND and CSF biomarker expression in ART-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals in Rakai, Uganda. We analyzed CSF of 78 HIV-seropositive, ART-naive Ugandan adults for 17 cytokines and 20 neurodegenerative biomarkers via Luminex multiplex assay. These adults underwent neurocognitive assessment to determine their degree of HAND...
June 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981440/visceral-fat-is-associated-with-brain-structure-independent-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-status
#16
Jordan E Lake, Mikhail Popov, Wendy S Post, Frank J Palella, Ned Sacktor, Eric N Miller, Todd T Brown, James T Becker
The combined effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), obesity, and elevated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) on brain structure are unknown. In a cross-sectional analysis of Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) participants, we determined associations between HIV serostatus, adiposity, and brain structure. Men (133 HIV+, 84 HIV-) in the MACS Cardiovascular 2 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sub-studies with CT-quantified VAT and whole brain MRI measured within 1 year were assessed. Voxel-based morphometry analyzed brain volumes...
June 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105557/the-anticancer-drug-sunitinib-promotes-autophagyand-protects-from-neurotoxicity-in-an-hiv-1-tat-model-of-neurodegeneration
#17
Jerel A Fields, Jeff Metcalf, Cassia Overk, Anthony Adame, Brian Spencer, Wolfgang Wrasidlo, Jazmin Florio, Edward Rockenstein, Johnny J He, Eliezer Masliah
Despite the success of antiretroviral therapies to control systemic HIV-1 infection, the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) has not decreased among aging patients with HIV. Autophagy pathway alterations, triggered by HIV-1 proteins including gp120, Tat, and Nef, might contribute to the neurodegenerative process in aging patients with HAND. Although no treatments are currently available to manage HAND, we have previously shown that sunitinib, an anticancer drug that blocks receptor tyrosine-kinase and cyclin kinase pathways, might be of interest...
April 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921220/increased-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-is-a-marker-of-ongoing-inflammation-and-better-neurocognitive-function-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-individuals
#18
Josué Pérez-Santiago, Michelli F De Oliveira, Susanna R Var, Tyler R C Day, Steven P Woods, Sara Gianella, Sanjay R Mehta
Cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a highly immunogenic molecule that is associated with several inflammatory conditions and with neurocognitive impairment during untreated HIV infection. Here, we investigate how cell-free mtDNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with inflammation, neuronal damage, and neurocognitive functioning in the context of long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We quantified the levels of cell-free mtDNA in the CSF from 41 HIV-infected individuals with completely suppressed HIV RNA levels in blood plasma (<50 copies/mL) by droplet digital PCR...
April 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913960/neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-clade-c-hiv-are-independent-of-tat-genetic-diversity
#19
Robert H Paul, Sarah Phillips, Jacqueline Hoare, David H Laidlaw, Ryan Cabeen, Gayla R Olbricht, Yuqing Su, Dan J Stein, Susan Engelbrecht, Soraya Seedat, Lauren E Salminen, Laurie M Baker, Jodi Heaps, John Joska
Controversy remains regarding the neurotoxicity of clade C human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-C). When examined in preclinical studies, a cysteine to serine substitution in the C31 dicysteine motif of the HIV-C Tat protein (C31S) results in less severe brain injury compared to other viral clades. By contrast, patient cohort studies identify significant neuropsychological impairment among HIV-C individuals independent of Tat variability. The present study clarified this discrepancy by examining neuroimaging markers of brain integrity among HIV-C individuals with and without the Tat substitution...
April 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913959/reaction-of-complement-factors-and-proteasomes-in-experimental-encephalitis
#20
Stefan Lange, Tomas Bergström, Ewa Johansson, Merna Oshalim, Ivar Lönnroth
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis causes a deleterious inflammation and elevated intracranial pressure. As a step towards examining the origin of the inflammation, we here report the response of circulating proteasomes and complement factors in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rats infected with HSV-1. Infection was via the nasal route, with 1.1 × 10(4) plaque-forming units of HSV-1 strain 2762 given in one or both nostrils. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to study the level of 26S proteasomes and their complex formation with complement factors 3 and 4...
April 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
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