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Journal of Neurovirology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147886/peromyscus-leucopus-mouse-brain-transcriptome-response-to-powassan-virus-infection
#1
Luwanika Mlera, Kimberly Meade-White, Eric Dahlstrom, Rachel Baur, Kishore Kanakabandi, Kimmo Virtaneva, Stephen F Porcella, Marshall E Bloom
Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne Flavivirus responsible for life-threatening encephalitis in North America and some regions of Russia. The ticks that have been reported to transmit the virus belong to the Ixodes species, and they feed on small-to-medium-sized mammals, such as Peromyscus leucopus mice, skunks, and woodchucks. We previously developed a P. leucopus mouse model of POWV infection, and the model is characterized by a lack of clinical signs of disease following intraperitoneal or intracranial inoculation...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147885/proceedings-of-the-2017-isev-symposium-on-hiv-neurohiv-drug-abuse-evs
#2
Guoku Hu, Sowmya Yelamanchili, Fatah Kashanchi, Norman Haughey, Vincent C Bond, Kenneth W Witwer, Lynn Pulliam, Shilpa Buch
Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), there is increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in HIV-1-infected individuals on cART, which poses a major health care challenge. Adding further complexity to this long-term antiretroviral use is the comorbidity with drugs of abuse such as morphine, cocaine, and methamphetamine, which can in turn, exacerbate neurologic and cognitive deficits associated with HAND. Furthermore, HIV proteins, such as the transactivator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope protein (gp120), as well as antiretrovirals themselves can also contribute to the progression of neurodegeneration underlying HAND...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147884/ocular-flutter-following-zika-virus-infection
#3
Emely Karam, Jose Giraldo, Flor Rodriguez, Carlos E Hernandez-Pereira, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Gabriela M Blohm, Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus which has been linked to a number of neurologic manifestations such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis, and meningo-encephalitis. Ophthalmologic manifestations are increasingly being reported; however, ocular dyskinesias have not been described in this context to date. Herein, we report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with ocular flutter and associated Guillain-Barré syndrome following acute ZIKV infection. We speculate that although such symptoms may have originated from a direct viral insult, a post-infectious autoimmune mechanism may not be excluded...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143286/doxycycline-inducible-and-astrocyte-specific-hiv-1-tat-transgenic-mice-itat-as-an-hiv-neuroaids-model
#4
Dianne Langford, Byung Oh Kim, Wei Zou, Yan Fan, Pejman Rahimain, Ying Liu, Johnny J He
HIV-1 Tat is known to be neurotoxic and important for HIV/neuroAIDS pathogenesis. However, the overwhelming majority of the studies involved use of recombinant Tat protein. To understand the contributions of Tat protein to HIV/neuroAIDS and the underlying molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 Tat neurotoxicity in the context of a whole organism and independently of HIV-1 infection, a doxycycline-inducible astrocyte-specific HIV-1 Tat transgenic mouse (iTat) was created. Tat expression in the brains of iTat mice was determined to be in the range of 1-5 ng/ml and led to astrocytosis, loss of neuronal dendrites, and neuroinflammation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139004/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-the-absence-of-immunosuppression
#5
Benjamin E Zucker, Sybil R L Stacpoole
A 69-year-old woman presented with a cortical hand syndrome progressing over several weeks. MRI brain showed characteristic appearances of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), confirmed by detection of the JC virus in CSF, despite the absence of any evidence of immunosuppression. Treatment with mirtazapine, mefloquine and cidofovir did not affect the progression of the disease, which was fatal within 7 months of presentation. This report adds to the small case literature that suggests that PML can occur in immunocompetent people, albeit extremely rarely...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090376/aging-alters-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-prefrontal-cortex-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-hiv-brain
#6
Christina E Khodr, Lihua Chen, Lena Al-Harthi, Xiu-Ti Hu
We assessed firing and voltage-gated Ca(2+) influx in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons from older (12 months old) HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. We found that neurons from older Tg rats showed increased firing compared to non-Tg rats, but Ca(2+) spikes were unchanged. However, stronger excitatory stimulation was needed to evoke Ca(2+) spikes, which was associated with reduced mPFC Cav1.2 L-type Ca(2+) channel (L-channel) protein. In contrast, L-channel protein was unaltered in younger (6-7 weeks old) Tg rats, which we previously found had enhanced neuronal Ca(2+) influx...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075998/transgenic-mice-expressing-hiv-1-envelope-protein-gp120-in-the-brain-as-an-animal-model-in-neuroaids-research
#7
Victoria E Thaney, Ana B Sanchez, Jerel A Fields, Arpi Minassian, Jared W Young, Ricky Maung, Marcus Kaul
HIV-1 infection causes injury to the central nervous system (CNS) and is often associated with neurocognitive disorders. One model for brain damage seen in AIDS patients is the transgenic (tg) mouse expressing a soluble envelope protein gp120 of HIV-1 LAV in the brain in astrocytes under the control of the promoter of glial fibrillary acidic protein. These GFAP-gp120tg mice manifest several key neuropathological features observed in AIDS brains, such as decreased synaptic and dendritic density, increased numbers of activated microglia, and pronounced astrocytosis...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067635/interferon-regulated-gene-irg-expression-signature-in-a-mouse-model-of-chikungunya-virus-neurovirulence
#8
Sreeja R Nair, Rachy Abraham, Sankar Sundaram, Easwaran Sreekumar
Interferon regulated genes (IRGs) are critical in controlling virus infections. Here, we analyzed the expression profile of IRGs in the brain tissue in a mouse model of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) neurovirulence. Neurovirulence is one of the newer complications identified in disease caused by re-emerging strains of CHIKV, an alphavirus with positive-strand RNA in the Togaviridae family. In microarray analysis, we identified significant upregulation of 269 genes, out of which a predominant percentage (76%) was IRGs...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063516/paroxetine-and-fluconazole-therapy-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-impairment-results-from-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Ned Sacktor, Richard L Skolasky, Richard Moxley, Sheng Wang, Michelle M Mielke, Cynthia Munro, Joseph Steiner, Avindra Nath, Norman Haughey, Justin McArthur
Paroxetine and fluconazole have neuroprotective effects in an in vitro model of HIV protein-mediated neuronal injury. This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of both paroxetine and fluconazole for the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). A 24-week randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial design study was used. HIV+ individuals with cognitive impairment were enrolled in the 24-week trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) paroxetine 20 mg/day, (2) fluconazole 100 mg every 12 h, (3) paroxetine and fluconazole, or (4) placebo...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063515/zika-virus-induces-astrocyte-differentiation-in-neural-stem-cells
#10
Olivia V Lossia, Michael J Conway, Maya O Tree, Robert J Williams, Stacy C Goldthorpe, Bhairavi Srinageshwar, Gary L Dunbar, Julien Rossignol
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a rapidly emerging flavivirus that has been associated with a number of congenital neurological manifestations. Here, we show that ZIKV replicated efficiently in mouse neural stem cells (mNSCs). ZIKV infection caused a cytopathic effect without affecting cell viability, yet led to a significant decrease in the number of proteins secreted into mNSC supernatants. A gene expression array of neural stem cell progenitor and differentiation markers suggested that infection reduced the number of neuronal and oligodendrocyte progenitors while increasing the number of astrocyte progenitors...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063514/biomarkers-of-neuronal-injury-and-amyloid-metabolism-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-infected-with-hiv-1-subtypes-b-and-c
#11
Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Clea E Ribeiro, Indianara Rotta, Mauro Piovesan, Bin Tang, Florin Vaida, Sonia Mara Raboni, Scott Letendre, Michael Potter, Meire S Batistela Fernandes, Ronald J Ellis
Based on prior reports that the HIV-1 Tat protein modulates amyloid-beta (Aβ) metabolism, this study aimed to compare CSF neural injury biomarkers between 27 patients with HIV subtype B, 26 patients with HIV subtype C, 18 healthy HIV-negative controls, and 24 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunoassays were used to measure soluble amyloid precursor protein α and β (sAPPα, sAPPβ), Aβ oligomers 38, 40, 42, and Aβ-total; phosphorylated tau (P-tau181), and total tau (T-tau). Comparisons between HIV(+) and HIV(-) (including AD) were adjusted by linear regression for gender and age; HIV subtype comparisons were adjusted for nadir CD4 and plasma viral load suppression...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063513/variability-in-c-reactive-protein-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-in-women-living-with-and-without-hiv-a-longitudinal-study
#12
Leah H Rubin, Lorie Benning, Sheila M Keating, Philip J Norris, Jane Burke-Miller, Antonia Savarese, Krithika N Kumanan, Saria Awadalla, Gayle Springer, Kathyrn Anastos, Mary Young, Joel Milam, Victor G Valcour, Kathleen M Weber, Pauline M Maki
Despite the availability of effective antiretroviral therapies, cognitive impairment (CI) remains prevalent in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals. Evidence from primarily cross-sectional studies, in predominantly male samples, implicates monocyte- and macrophage-driven inflammatory processes linked to HIV-associated CI. Thus, peripheral systemic inflammatory markers may be clinically useful biomarkers in tracking HIV-associated CI. Given sex differences in immune function, we focused here on whether mean and intra-individual variability in inflammatory marker-predicted CI in HIV+ and HIV- women...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063512/brain-specific-hiv-nef-identified-in-multiple-patients-with-neurological-disease
#13
Susanna L Lamers, Gary B Fogel, Enoch S Liu, Andrew E Barbier, Christopher W Rodriguez, Elyse J Singer, David J Nolan, Rebecca Rose, Michael S McGrath
HIV-1 Nef is a flexible, multifunctional protein with several cellular targets that is required for pathogenicity of the virus. This protein maintains a high degree of genetic variation among intra- and inter-host isolates. HIV Nef is relevant to HIV-associated neurological diseases (HAND) in patients treated with combined antiretroviral therapy because of the protein's role in promoting survival and migration of infected brain macrophages. In this study, we analyzed 2020 HIV Nef sequences derived from 22 different tissues and 31 subjects using a novel computational approach...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975505/an-siv-macaque-model-targeted-to-study-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Sarah E Beck, Suzanne E Queen, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Lisa M Mangus, Celina M Abreu, Lucio Gama, Kenneth W Witwer, Robert J Adams, M Christine Zink, Janice E Clements, Joseph L Mankowski
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of pigtailed macaques is a highly representative and well-characterized animal model for HIV neuropathogenesis studies that provides an excellent opportunity to study and develop prognostic markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) for HIV-infected individuals. SIV studies can be performed in a controlled setting that enhances reproducibility and offers high-translational value. Similar to observations in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), ongoing neurodegeneration and inflammation are present in SIV-infected pigtailed macaques treated with suppressive ART...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971376/association-of-age-and-time-of-disease-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-a-japanese-nationwide-multicenter-study
#15
Ei Kinai, Kensuke Komatsu, Maiko Sakamoto, Toshibumi Taniguchi, Aya Nakao, Hidetoshi Igari, Kiyonori Takada, Aki Watanabe, Ai Takahashi-Nakazato, Misao Takano, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Shinichi Oka
There is no detailed information on the association between age, time of disease, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). In this prospective study involving 17 medical facilities across Japan, we recruited HIV-infected patients to complete a 14-test neuropsychological battery that assess eight neurocognitive domains. HAND were diagnosed by the Frascati criteria. Of 1399 recruited patients, 728 were enrolled. The prevalence of HAND was 25.3% [13.5% asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 10.6% mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and 1...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971331/resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-clade-c-hiv-within-group-association-with-neurocognitive-function
#16
Lindie du Plessis, Robert H Paul, Jackie Hoare, Dan J Stein, Paul A Taylor, Ernesta M Meintjes, John A Joska
Neuroimaging abnormalities are common in chronically infected HIV-positive individuals. The majority of studies have focused on structural or functional brain outcomes in samples infected with clade B HIV. While preliminary work reveals a similar structural imaging phenotype in patients infected with clade C HIV, no study has examined functional connectivity (FC) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in clade C HIV. In particular, we were interested to explore HIV-only effects on neurocognitive function using associations with rs-fMRI...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963639/erratum-to-2017-colorado-alphaherpesvirus-latency-society-symposium
#17
Nicholas L Baird, Randall J Cohrs
On page 650, the institutional affiliation of Dr. Werner J.D. Ouwendijk was incorrectly listed as Freie Universitaet Berlin. It should instead be Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
September 28, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913765/treatment-of-theiler-s-virus-induced-demyelinating-disease-with-teriflunomide
#18
Francesca Gilli, Libin Li, Darlene B Royce, Krista D DiSano, Andrew R Pachner
Teriflunomide is an oral therapy approved for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), showing both anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. Currently, it is uncertain whether one or both of these properties may explain teriflunomide's beneficial effect in MS. Thus, to learn more about its mechanisms of action, we evaluated the effect of teriflunomide in the Theiler's encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) model, which is both a viral infection and an excellent model of the progressive disability of MS...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913617/fingolimod-induces-neuronal-specific-gene-expression-with-potential-neuroprotective-outcomes-in-maturing-neuronal-progenitor-cells-exposed-to-hiv
#19
Rebeca Geffin, Ricardo Martinez, Alicia de Las Pozas, Biju Issac, Micheline McCarthy
Fingolimod (FTY720), a structural analogue of sphingosine, targets sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor signaling and is currently an immunomodulatory therapy for multiple sclerosis. Fingolimod accesses the central nervous system (CNS) where its active metabolite, fingolimod phosphate (FTY720-P), has pleotropic neuroprotective effects in an inflammatory microenvironment. To investigate potential neuronal-specific mechanisms of fingolimod neuroprotection, we cultured the human neuronal progenitor cell line, hNP1, in differentiation medium supplemented with HIV- or Mock-infected supernatants, with or without FTY720-P...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905216/slowly-progressing-varicella-zoster-brainstem-encephalitis-complicating-ramsay-hunt-syndrome-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Vito A G Ricigliano, Lorenzo Saraceno, Michele Cavalli, Mariaemma Rodegher, Giovanni Meola
A 56-year-old immunocompetent male developed brainstem encephalitis complicating Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The disease had a slowly progressing course of months after the triggering infection, much longer than previously reported. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging, physical-chemical, and cell count analyses on cerebrospinal fluid were normal, whereas polymerase chain reaction for varicella zoster virus DNA was positive. The simultaneous negativity of both imaging and basic CSF exams is very rare, although possible event which confirms the irreplaceable role of viral screening on CSF...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
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