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Journal of Neurovirology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791662/combination-antiretroviral-therapy-improves-cognitive-performance-and-functional-connectivity-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-individuals
#1
Yuchuan Zhuang, Xing Qiu, Lu Wang, Qing Ma, Mark Mapstone, Amneris Luque, Miriam Weber, Madalina Tivarus, Eric Miller, Roberto C Arduino, Jianhui Zhong, Giovanni Schifitto
Our study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cognitive performance and functional and structural connectivity and their relationship to plasma levels of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Seventeen ARV treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals (baseline mean CD4 cell count, 479 ± 48 cells/mm(3)) were age matched with 17 HIV-uninfected individuals. All subjects underwent a detailed neurocognitive and functional assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. HIV-infected subjects were scanned before starting cART and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791626/fatal-ruxolitinib-related-jc-virus-meningitis
#2
Begoña Ballesta, Héctor González, Vicente Martín, Juan J Ballesta
We report a possible association between ruxolitinib and JC virus meningitis. A 72-year-old man with myelofibrosis started treatment with ruxolitinib. Fourteen days later, the patient presented to the emergency department with fever and nausea. HIV test was negative. Ruxolitinib was suspended. Symptoms progressed with neck stiffness, cognitive impairment, and motor aphasia. CSF was positive for JC virus. MRI showed nonspecific abnormal findings. Five days after the clinical debut, the patient died. The clinical picture, MRI imaging, and positive JC virus PCR in CSF strongly suggest ruxolitinib-related JC virus meningitis...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791614/age-as-a-risk-factor-for-early-onset-of-natalizumab-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#3
Luca Prosperini, Cristina Scarpazza, Luisa Imberti, Cinzia Cordioli, Nicola De Rossi, Ruggero Capra
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare but potentially fatal opportunistic infection that arises almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients or in those treated with monoclonal antibodies, especially natalizumab. Here, we aimed at exploring if age at treatment start affects the time to onset of natalizumab-related PML. PubMed was searched for the terms "natalizumab and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy" in articles published from January 2005 to March 2017. We collected information on each identified PML case, including demographic and clinical variables at natalizumab start and at PML onset...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786028/2017-colorado-alphaherpesvirus-latency-society-symposium
#4
LETTER
Nicholas L Baird, Randall J Cohrs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762184/nef-is-secreted-in-exosomes-from-nef-gfp-expressing-and-hiv-1-infected-human-astrocytes
#5
Pia Pužar Dominkuš, Jana Ferdin, Ana Plemenitaš, Boris Matija Peterlin, Metka Lenassi
HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system causes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, even in aviremic patients. Although astrocyte malfunction was associated to these disorders, their implication is overshadowed by contributions of microglia and macrophages. Astrocytes are infected with HIV-1 in vivo and express a relevant amount of viral protein Nef. Nef was shown to stimulate its own release in exosomes from diverse cell types, which in turn have damaging effects on neighboring cells. Using immunoblotting and electron microscopy, we showed that human astrocytes expressing Nef...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762183/novel-nanoformulation-to-mitigate-co-effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-hiv-1-infection-towards-the-treatment-of-neuroaids
#6
Rahul Dev Jayant, Venkata S R Atluri, Sneham Tiwari, Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Ajeet Kaushik, Adriana Yndart, Madhavan Nair
Drug abuse (e.g., methamphetamine-Meth or cocaine-Coc) is one of the major risk factors for becoming infected with HIV-1, and studies show that in combination, drug abuse and HIV-1 lead to significantly greater damage to CNS. To overcome these issues, we have developed a novel nanoformulation (NF) for drug-abusing population infected with HIV-1. In this work, a novel approach was developed for the co-encapsulation of Nelfinavir (Nel) and Rimcazole (Rico) using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled magnetic nanoformulation for the cure of neuroAIDS...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755142/erratum-to-white-matter-measures-are-near-normal-in-controlled-hiv-infection-except-in-those-with-cognitive-impairment-and-longer-hiv-duration
#7
Lucette A Cysique, James R Soares, Guangqiang Geng, Maia Scarpetta, Kirsten Moffat, Michael Green, Bruce J Brew, Roland G Henry, Caroline Rae
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752495/changing-clinical-phenotypes-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#8
Ned Sacktor
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains a common cause of cognitive impairment and persists in 15-55% of HIV+ individuals in the combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) era. CART is now the primary treatment for HAND, but it is effective in only a subset of patients. In the pre-CART era, HIV-associated dementia was the most common form of HAND. However, in CART-treated patients, the prevalence of HIV-associated dementia has declined substantially, and milder stages of HAND, i.e., ANI and MND predominate...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748449/first-report-of-persistent-dengue-1-associated-autoimmune-neurological-disturbance-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#9
Marzia Puccioni-Sohler, Alice M M Ornelas, Andrea S de Souza, Mauro Jorge Cabral-Castro, Jessyca T M A Ramos, Carolina Rosadas, Maria Cecilia F Salgado, Alexandre A Castiglione, Fernando Ferry, Jose Mauro Peralta, Carolina Moreira Voloch, Amilcar Tanuri, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Renato Santana Aguiar
Dengue virus (DENV) causes immune-mediated diseases. Neurological involvement represents a severe condition that is rarely observed in DENV-1 infection. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)/NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are idiopathic immune-mediated demyelinating syndromes of the central nervous system. We report a 17-year-old female with oligosymptomatic DENV-1 viremia, diagnosed as NMOSD. Magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal cord and brainstem lesions. Antibody for aquaporin 4 was negative. DENV-1 RNA infection was detected by serial RT-PCR and confirmed by phylogenetic analysis in serum...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748448/adding-a-brief-self-report-cognitive-tool-to-the-ihds-improves-effectiveness-of-identifying-patients-with-hiv-associated-dementia-in-south-africa
#10
Hetta Gouse, Martine Casson-Crook, Eric H Decloedt, John A Joska, Kevin G F Thomas
We compared the diagnostic accuracy of two brief screening tools (the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), and the IHDS combined with a novel self-report instrument, the HIV Cognitive Symptom Questionnaire (HCSQ)) with that of three brief neuropsychological screening batteries (a 2-, a 3-, and a 4-test battery, each consisting of standardized cognitive tests) in discriminating individuals with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) from those with milder forms of cognitive impairment. We analyzed data from 94 isiXhosa-speaking South African HIV-infected participants who were screened as part of a clinical trial evaluating adjunctive treatment in patients with moderate to severe HIV-associated cognitive impairment...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741149/the-role-of-peripheral-interleukin-6-in-the-development-of-acute-seizures-following-virus-encephalitis
#11
Matthew F Cusick, Jane E Libbey, Daniel J Doty, Ana Beatriz DePaula-Silva, Robert S Fujinami
Seizure disorders are often associated with infectious etiologies. Infection, via the intracerebral (i.c.) route, of C57BL/6J mice with the Daniels (DA) strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) results in approximately 50% of the mice developing acute behavioral seizures. TMEV-DA is the wild-type strain of the virus that replicates within the parenchyma of the brain. A variant of TMEV-DA, TMEV-H101, does not replicate within the parenchyma of the brain. However, infection with TMEV-H101 via the i...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730408/evolution-of-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat-utility-in-assessing-the-progression-of-hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#12
Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Understanding the progression of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a critical need as the prevalence of HIV-1 in older individuals (>50 years) is markedly increasing due to the great success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Longitudinal experimental designs, in comparison to cross-sectional studies, provide an opportunity to establish age-related disease progression in HAND. The HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, which has been promoted for investigating the effect of long-term HIV-1 viral protein exposure, was used to examine two interrelated goals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718069/neurological-involvement-in-patients-with-acute-recent-hiv-1-infection-a-case-control-study
#13
Juan Ambrosioni, Francisca Artigues, David Nicolás, Judit Peñafiel, Fernando Agüero, Christian Manzardo, María Mar Mosquera, Sonsoles Sánchez-Palomino, Elisa De Lazzari, María A Marcos, Montserrat Plana, José M Miró
Primary HIV-1 infection is a relevant period for its virological and epidemiological consequences. Most patients present a symptomatic disease that can be potentially serious, but neurological involvement during primary HIV-1 infection has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of primary HIV-1 infection patients presenting neurological symptoms and to compare them with primary HIV-1 infection patients without neurological involvement. Retrospective case-control study (1:3) comparing primary HIV-1 infection patients with and without neurological involvement enrolled in the Acute/Recent Hospital Clinic PHI Cohort between 1997 and 2016...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718068/dengue-encephalopathy-very-unusual-neuroimaging-findings
#14
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Amita Jain, Neeraj Kumar
Neuroimaging, in many patients with dengue encephalopathy, may reveal periventricular signal changes. We report a 25-year-old man, who presented with altered sensorium. Dengue-IgM test in serum was positive. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was normal. MRI brain revealed presence of bilateral parieto-occipital intraparenchymal bleed with mass effect. Neuroimaging was consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. We report posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a normotensive patient with dengue encephalopathy and systemic metabolic alterations...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695489/lack-of-human-cytomegalovirus-expression-in-single-cells-from-glioblastoma-tumors-and-cell-lines
#15
Travis S Johnson, Zachary B Abrams, Xiaokui Mo, Yan Zhang, Kun Huang
The relationship between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and glioblastoma (GBM) is an ongoing debate with extensive evidence supporting or refuting its existence through molecular assays, pre-clinical studies, and clinical trials. We focus primarily on the crux of the debate, detection of HCMV in GBM samples using molecular assays. We propose that these differences in detection could be affected by cellular heterogeneity. To take this into account, we align the single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) reads from five GBM tumors and two cell lines to HCMV and analyze the alignments for evidence of (i) complete viral transcripts and (ii) low-abundance viral reads...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681345/lyssavirus-phosphoproteins-increase-mitochondrial-complex-i-activity-and-levels-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#16
Wafa Kammouni, Heidi Wood, Alan C Jackson
We have previously demonstrated that serine residues at positions 162 and 166 of the rabies virus (RABV) phosphoprotein (P) are critical for oxidative stress induced by CVS in cultured cells. We have now evaluated the P of two street RABV variants and Mokola (MOK) virus. The P of these viruses, like CVS, induces an increase in complex I activities and reactive oxygen species levels in transfected cells. Although the sequence homology of P is only 45% with MOK (higher for street viruses) and CVS, serine residues are conserved at positions 162 and 166, suggesting their potential importance in oxidative stress...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681344/neurocognitive-functioning-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-southern-india
#17
Rujvi Kamat, Allen McCutchan, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Thomas D Marcotte, Anya Umlauf, Poongulali Selvamuthu, Rachel Meyer, Scott Letendre, Robert Heaton, Ajay R Bharti
The validity of a comprehensive international neuropsychological (NP) test battery for detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a Tamil speaking southern Indian cohort (69 HIV+ and 67 HIV-) was explored. The prevalence of HAND was significantly higher in the HIV+ vs. HIV- group (33 vs.13%; p < 0.01). Impairment rates were highest in the motor and speed of information processing domains. An NP battery translated into Tamil appears to be a valid tool for assessing HAND because the prevalence it found of HAND in southern India is similar to that found elsewhere...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681343/detectable-cerebrospinal-fluid-jcv-dna-in-late-presenting-hiv-positive-patients-beyond-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#18
S Mornese Pinna, E Scarvaglieri, M G Milia, D Imperiale, V Ghisetti, S Audagnotto, A Prochet, F Lipani, S Bonora, G Di Perri, A Calcagno
In the absence of effective prophylaxis and treatment, therapeutic options in HIV-positive patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) are limited to antiretroviral therapy: nevertheless, outcome is poor. We conducted a retrospective study (2009-2015) describing the outcome of 25 HIV-positive patients with detectable cerebrospinal fluid JC virus DNA: 14 had a probable PML while the others had evidence of other inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) affecting disorders. In the former group, 6-month mortality was 45...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681342/response-to-the-letter-to-the-editor-by-andreas-sauerbrei-on-acyclovir-resistance-in-herpes-simplex-type-i-encephalitis-a-case-report
#19
LETTER
Erich Schmutzhard, Melanie Bergmann, Ronny Beer, Mario Kofler, Raimund Helbok, Bettina Pfausler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664352/erratum-to-acyclovir-resistance-in-herpes-simplex-virus-type-i-encephalitis-a-case-report
#20
M Bergmann, R Beer, M Kofler, R Helbok, B Pfausler, E Schmutzhard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
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