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Journal of Neurovirology

G Classen, C Classen, C Bernasconi, C Brandt, R Gold, A Chan, R Hoepner
Long-term treatment of multiple sclerosis with natalizumab (NTZ) carries the risk of a devastating complication in the form of an encephalopathy caused by a reactivation of a latent John Cunningham virus infection (progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, PML). Early diagnosis is associated with considerably better prognosis. Quantitative EEG as an objective, rater-independent technique provides high sensitivity (88%) and specificity (82%) for the diagnosis of NTZ-PML. Combination of diagnostic modalities addressing static morphological (brain MRI) as well as functional (EEG) pathologic changes may improve risk management programmes...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Michael A Owens, Romy Parker, Rachael L Rainey, Cesar E Gonzalez, Dyan M White, Anooshah E Ata, Jennifer I Okunbor, Sonya L Heath, Jessica S Merlin, Burel R Goodin
Chronic pain in persons living with HIV (PLWH) may be related to alterations in endogenous pain modulatory processes (e.g., high facilitation and low inhibition of nociception) that promote exaggerated pain responses, known as hyperalgesia, and central nervous system (CNS) sensitization. This observational study examined differences in endogenous pain modulatory processes between 59 PLWH with chronic pain, 51 PLWH without chronic pain, and 50 controls without HIV or chronic pain. Quantitative sensory testing for temporal summation (TS) of mechanical and heat pain as well as conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were used to assess endogenous pain facilitatory and inhibitory processes, respectively...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Nicholas L Baird, Daniel P Depledge, Randall J Cohrs
Meeting Report on the 8th Annual Symposium of the Colorado Alphaherpesvirus Latency Society (CALS), held on May 16-19, 2018, in Vail, Colorado.
November 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Dorota Piekna-Przybylska, Kavyasri Nagumotu, Danielle M Reid, Sanjay B Maggirwar
Reduced pericytes' coverage of endothelium in the brain is one of the structural changes leading to breach of the blood-brain barrier during HIV infection. We previously showed in central memory T (TCM ) cells that HIV latency increases cellular susceptibility to DNA damage. In this study, we investigated susceptibility of primary brain pericytes infected with HIV-1 to DNA damage in response to glutamate and TNF-α, both known to induce neuronal death during chronic inflammatory conditions. To infect pericytes, we used a single-cycle HIV-1 pseudotyped with VSV-G envelope glycoprotein and maintained the cultures until latency was established...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Junqing Guo, Qingmei Li, Clinton Jones
Following acute infection of mucosal surfaces by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), sensory neurons are a primary site for lifelong latency. Stress, as mimicked by the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone, consistently induces reactivation from latency. Two viral regulatory proteins (VP16 and bICP0) are expressed within 1 h after calves latently infected with BoHV-1 are treated with dexamethasone. Since the immediate early transcription unit 1 (IEtu1) promoter regulates both BoHV-1 infected cell protein 0 (bICP0) and bICP4 expressions, we hypothesized that the bICP4 protein is also expressed during early stages of reactivation from latency...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Tsung-Yen Ho, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Yu-Ping Shen, Liang-Cheng Chen, Wu-Chien Chien, Yung-Tsan Wu
Although neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) has occasionally been reported to be associated with reactivated herpes zoster, their associated risk remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of developing NA following preceding herpes zoster. The authors used the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to select 41,548 patients with newly diagnosed herpes zoster during the period 2000 to 2010 and randomly extracted 166,192 matched control subjects. All participants in the study and control groups were followed for 3 months after the diagnosis to identify those who developed NA...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Marie-Pierre Loit, Homa Adle-Biassette, Schahrazed Bouazza, Marie-Christine Mazeron, Philippe Manivet, Jacqueline Lehmann-Che, Natacha Teissier, Emmanuel Mandonnet, Jean-Michel Molina
The role of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in gliomagenesis is largely debated. Contradictory data exist regarding the sensitivity and specificity of HCMV detection techniques, including immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH), and RNA and DNA sequencing. The aim of this study is to detect HCMV in glioblastoma (GBM) tumor samples using IHC, ISH, and real-time PCR (qPCR), as well as to correlate the findings with serological status and HCMV DNA load in blood. Forty-seven patients with histopathological diagnosis of GBM and HCMV serological status were retrospectively reviewed...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Lena Al-Harti, Jeymohan Joseph, Avindra Nath
This a summary of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) sponsored symposium that was focused on the role of astrocytes as a reservoir of the human immunodeficiency virus in the brain. The talks were grouped into four themes. The first theme reviewed the evidence for HIV infection of astrocytes and discussed the challenges in the use of traditional methods of immunostaining and in situ hybridization for detection of infected astrocytes. The second theme focused on mechanisms of HIV entry into astrocytes and discussed CD4 independent mechanisms, such as receptor-mediated endocytosis and transmission of HIV by cell-to-cell contact with infected lymphocytes...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Yatang Chen, Qiujin Yan, Ping Zhou, Shan Li, Fan Zhu
The activation and involvement of human endogenous retroviruses W family envelope gene (HERV-W env, also called ERVWE1) have been reported in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, as well as in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dysregulation of intracellular calcium content is also involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Our previous studies showed that HERV-W env overexpression results in activation of small conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channel protein 3 (SK3), a potential risk factor for schizophrenia...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Rongni He, Wenxia Zheng, Jun Long, Yaowei Huang, Cuiping Liu, Qing Wang, Zhenxing Yan, Huayong Liu, Li Xing, Yafang Hu, Huifang Xie
Vibrio vulnificus usually causes wound infection, gastroenteritis, and septicemia. However, it is a rare conditional pathogen causing meningoencephalitis. We report a case of a young, immunocompromised man presenting with severe sepsis after exposure to sea water and consumption of seafood. The patient subsequently developed meningoencephalitis, and Vibrio vulnificus was isolated from his blood culture. The sequence was confirmed by Next-generation sequencing of a sample of cerebrospinal fluid, as well as from a bacteria culture...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Ana Fernández-Blázquez, María Castañón-Apilánez, Marta Elena Álvarez-Argüelles, Christian Sabater-Cabrera, Susana Rojo-Alba, José Antonio Boga, Germán Morís de la Tassa, Brígida Quindós Fernández, Santiago Melón
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a severe neurologic complication caused by influenza virus that has been infrequently reported in adult population. The diagnosis is made on epidemiological, clinical, and neuroimaging suspicion, but is rarely confirmed by microbiological findings in samples from the central nervous system (CNS), thus making it difficult to define the mechanism of pathogenesis of influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathies (IAE). We report a microbiologically documented case of ANE caused by influenza A/H3N2, in a previously healthy adult patient infected during a flu epidemic in Asturias (Spain)...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Natalia Gawron, M Choiński, B Szymańska-Kotwica, A Pluta, M Sobańska, A R Egbert, A Desowska, T Wolak, A Horban, E Firląg-Burkacka, P Bieńkowski, H Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, A Scińska-Bieńkowska, B Biswal, S M Rao, R Bornstein, E Łojek
It is yet unclear if people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+) on stable, combined antiretroviral therapies (cARTs) decline with age at the same or greater rate than healthy people. In this study, we examined independent and interactive effects of HIV, age, and HIV-related clinical parameters on neuropsychological functioning and brain regional volume in a sizable group of Polish HIV+ men receiving cART. We also estimated the impact of nadir CD4 cell count, CD4 cell count during participation in the study, duration of HIV infection, or duration of cART along with age...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Kevin Robertson, Paul Maruff, Lisa L Ross, David Wohl, Catherine B Small, Howard Edelstein, Mark S Shaefer
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders can persist in many patients despite achieving viral suppression while on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Neurocognitive function over 48 weeks was evaluated using a Cogstate test battery assessing psychomotor function, attention, learning, and working memory in 293 HIV-1-infected, ART-experienced, and virologically suppressed adults. The ASSURE study randomized participants 1:2 to remain on tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) or simplify to abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir (ABC/3TC + ATV)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Holly McCready, Milky Kohno, Michael Kolessar, Laura Dennis, Daniel Kriz, Hannah Luber, Renee Anderson, Michael Chang, Anna Sasaki, Kenneth Flora, Arthur Vandenbark, Suzanne H Mitchell, Jennifer M Loftis, William F Hoffman, Marilyn Huckans
Hepatitis C virus-infected (HCV+) adults evidence increased rates of psychiatric and cognitive difficulties. This is the first study to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activation in untreated HCV+ adults. To determine whether, relative to non-infected controls (CTLs), HCV+ adults exhibit differences in brain activation during a delay discounting task (DDT), a measure of one's tendency to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards-one aspect of impulsivity...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Aljoharah Alakkas, Ronald J Ellis, Caitlin Wei-Ming Watson, Anya Umlauf, Robert K Heaton, Scott Letendre, Ann Collier, Christina Marra, David B Clifford, Benjamin Gelman, Ned Sacktor, Susan Morgello, David Simpson, J Allen McCutchan, Asha Kallianpur, Sara Gianella, Thomas Marcotte, Igor Grant, Christine Fennema-Notestine
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) persist even with virologic suppression on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not well understood. We performed structural magnetic resonance imaging and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in HIV+ individuals without major neurocognitive comorbidities. Study participants were classified as neurocognitively unimpaired (NU), asymptomatic (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), or HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Using structural MRI, we measured volumes of cortical and subcortical gray matter and total and abnormal white matter (aWM)...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Roberta Vilela Lopes Koyama, Gilberto Toshimitsu Yoshikawa, Satomi Fujihara, George Alberto da Silva Dias, Rodrigo Rodrigues Virgolino, Anderson Raiol Rodrigues, Rita Medeiros, Juarez Antônio Simões Quaresma, Hellen Thaís Fuzii
This was a cross-sectional prospective study. We performed a multivariate statistical analysis of the neurological signs and symptoms of patients infected with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in an attempt to separate them into distinct groups and identify clinical-neurological manifestations that could differentiate the various profiles. The study was performed in the city of Belém (state of Pará), located in the Amazon region of Brazil, from 2014 to 2016. We determined muscle strength and tone, reflexes, sensations, sphincter function, gait, and the Expanded Disability Status Scale score among individuals with HTLV-I...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Ameer Abutaleb, Sarah Kattakuzhy, Shyam Kottilil, Erin O'Connor, Eleanor Wilson
HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have both been associated with cognitive impairment. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has dramatically changed the nature of cognitive impairment in HIV-infected persons, while the role of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in neurocognition of HCV-infected individuals remains unclear. Also, whether HIV and HCV interact to promote neurocognitive decline or whether they each contribute an individual effect continues to be an open question. In this work, we review the virally mediated mechanisms of HIV- and HCV-mediated neuropathogenesis, with an emphasis on the role of dual infection, and discuss observed changes with HIV viral suppression and HCV functional cure on neurocognitive impairments...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
K Pabbaraju, K Fonseca, S Wong, M W Koch, J T Joseph, G A Tipples, R Tellier
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive and eventually fatal neurological disease arising from a persistent infection with measles virus (MV) acquired at a young age. SSPE measles virus strains are defective and unable to produce progeny virions, due to multiple and extensive mutations in a number of key genes. We sequenced the full MV genome from our recently reported SSPE case, which typed as genotype D6, and compared it with other genotype D6 wild type and SSPE sequences. The Alberta D6 strain was significantly different from other reported SSPE D6 sequences...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Masoom Desai, Melissa Motta
Enteroviruses and Coxsackie viruses are common causes of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in children. These infections usually have a benign, self-limited course. However, they can have a florid presentation in immunocompromised patients, such as neonates, patients exposed to immunosuppressive drugs, such as transplant recipients and patients with agammaglobulinemia. We present a rare case of rapidly progressive acute encephalopathy caused by Coxsackie meningoencephalitis and complicated by refractory status epilepticus in an immunocompetent adult male...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Sergio M de Almeida, Michelli F Oliveira, Antoine Chaillon, Indianara Rotta, Clea E Ribeiro, Ana Paula de Pereira, Davey Smith, Scott Letendre, Ronald J Ellis
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genetic compartmentalization is defined as genetic differences in HIV in different tissue compartments or subcompartments that characterize viral quasispecies. This descriptive, longitudinal study assessed the dynamics of inflammation, humoral immune response, blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, as well as neuronal injury biomarkers in serially obtained CSF and serum samples from an antiretroviral (ARV) therapy-naïve patient with HIV-1 subtype C with CSF HIV genetic compartmentalization that resolved spontaneously without ARV treatment...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
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