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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394769/anxious-individuals-predict-the-onset-of-aggression-earlier-in-a-cctv-surveillance-task
#1
Benjamin M Aitken, James C Champion, Matthew J Stainer
Attentional biases in anxious individuals can facilitate the detection of threatening stimuli. A particular field of research that may benefit from enhanced threat detection is in closed-circuit television (CCTV) surveillance, in which operators search through multiple camera feeds to attempt to identify threatening situations before they occur. The present study examined whether the enhanced threat detection of anxious individuals extends to the ability to detect threat in a multiple-scene CCTV task. Anxiety was measured in a nonclinical sample using the State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346194/examining-the-effects-of-altered-avatars-on-perception-action-in-virtual-reality
#2
Brian Day, Elham Ebrahimi, Leah S Hartman, Christopher C Pagano, Andrew C Robb, Sabarish V Babu
In virtual reality (VR), avatars are graphical representations of people. Previous research highlights benefits of having a self-avatar when perceiving-acting while embedded in a virtual environment. We studied the effect that an altered avatar had on the perception of one's action capabilities. In Experiment 1, some participants acted with a normal, or faithful, avatar whereas another group of participants used an avatar with an extended arm, all in virtual reality. Experiment 2 utilized the same methodology and procedure as Experiment 1, except that only a calibration phase occurred in VR, whereas other phases were completed in the real world...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346193/relevance-versus-big-numbers-students-criteria-for-selecting-scholarly-references-online
#3
Jean-François Rouet, Ole Skov, Guillaume De Pereyra, Christine Ros, Ludovic Le Bigot, Nicolas Vibert
This study examined the effect of the number of citations attributed to documents on third year psychology students' selection of bibliographical references. Our main assumption was that students would take high numbers of citations as accessible relevance cues and use them heuristically to facilitate decision making, potentially bypassing deeper relevance assessment based on semantic processing. Experiment 1 presented the students with a reference selection task while manipulating the number of citations attributed to references, and found that the number of citations had a strong impact on reference selection...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346192/regulatory-focus-and-self-determination-motives-interact-to-predict-students-nutrition-habit-intentions
#4
Fanny Lalot, Alain Quiamzade, Oulmann Zerhouni
Regulatory focus (Higgins, 1997) and self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 2000) are two motivation theories widely applied in health-intervention research but never conjointly, despite sharing a number of theoretical similarities. In three studies (N = 578), we investigated how university students' self-determination motives to act upon their nutrition interact with induced regulatory focus and regulatory-message framing to predict their behaviors or intentions to improve their eating habits. Results revealed a fit between extrinsic motives and prevention focus: Intention increased with extrinsic motives in a prevention but not a promotion focus...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321023/social-identity-threat-in-interpersonal-relationships-activating-negative-stereotypes-decreases-social-approach-motivation
#5
Sarah E Martiny, Jana Nikitin
Research has shown that social identity threat can have a broad variety of negative consequences. However, not much is known about the consequences of social identity threat on interpersonal relationships. In the present research, we hypothesize that experiencing social identity threat decreases people's social approach motivation toward other people related to the stereotyped domain. Specifically, we manipulated social identity threat by activating negative stereotypes about women in math. As math is an important aspect of the academic self-concept, female university students who are confronted with a negative math stereotype should experience threat toward their identity as university students...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321022/caricaturing-as-a-general-method-to-improve-poor-face-recognition-evidence-from-low-resolution-images-other-race-faces-and-older-adults
#6
Amy Dawel, Tsz Ying Wong, Jodie McMorrow, Callin Ivanovici, Xuming He, Nick Barnes, Jessica Irons, Tamara Gradden, Rachel Robbins, Stephanie Goodhew, Jo Lane, Elinor McKone
There are multiple well-established situations in which humans' face recognition performance is poor, including for low-resolution images, other-race faces, and in older adult observers. Here we show that caricaturing faces-that is, exaggerating their appearance away from an average face-can provide a useful applied method for improving face recognition across all these circumstances. We employ a face-name learning task offering a number of methodological advantages (e.g., valid comparison of the size of the caricature improvement across conditions differing in overall accuracy)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299129/assessing-the-transfer-of-interruption-resumption-skill-to-novel-tasks
#7
Winston E Jones, Jarrod Moss
Interruption interference refers to significant performance decreases that follow task interruption. Evidence has suggested that practicing interruption resumption reduces interruption interference as measured by the time required to resume the interrupted task. However, evidence has also indicated that interruption practice only improves resumption for the practiced pair of primary and interrupting tasks. If this is true, then there is little applied benefit in interruption training, because the training would be unlikely to transfer beyond the training environment...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299128/focusing-on-what-matters-restructuring-the-presentation-of-bayesian-reasoning-problems
#8
Alaina N Talboy, Sandra L Schneider
We propose that a mismatch in problem presentation and question structures may promote errors on Bayesian reasoning problems. In this task, people determine the likelihood that a positive test actually indicates the presence of a condition. Research has shown that people routinely fail to correctly identify this positive predictive value (PPV). We point out that the typical problem structure is likely to confuse reasoners by focusing on the incorrect reference class for answering this diagnostic question; instead, providing the anchor needed to address the diagnostic question about sensitivity (SEN)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284852/the-effects-of-social-power-and-apology-on-victims-posttransgression-responses
#9
C Ward Struthers, Careen H Khoury, Curtis E Phills, Elizabeth van Monsjou, Joshua R Guilfoyle, Kyle Nash, Vitali Golenitski, Carol Summers
The purpose of this research was to test how, why, and when social power influences victims' revenge seeking, grudge holding, and forgiveness. Based on Keltner, Gruenfeld, and Anderson's (2003) power approach theory and McCullough, Kurzban, and Tabak's (2013) theorizing about revenge and forgiveness systems, we tested (a) the associations between victims' social power and revenge, grudge, and forgiveness; (b) the mediational role of approach/inhibition motivation in explaining why the associations exist; and (c) the moderating role of whether the transgressor apologizes or not in explaining the associations...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272457/pointing-the-way-forward-gesture-and-adults-recall-of-route-direction-information
#10
Elizabeth E Austin, Naomi Sweller, Penny Van Bergen
Spatial communication tasks, such as following route directions through unfamiliar environments, place considerable demands on multiple cognitive processes, including language comprehension and memory. Gestures accompanying spoken route directions may aide task performance by enhancing cognitive processes such as language and memory processing. It is not yet clear whether different kinds of gesture might influence the processing of route information in different ways. In 2 experiments, we examined how different gestures would enhance or reduce listeners' recall of spatial information when given route directions through an unfamiliar building...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265051/learning-movements-from-a-virtual-instructor-effects-of-spatial-orientation-immersion-and-expertise
#11
Jasper LaFortune, Kristen L Macuga
Motor learning is an essential task, but little is known about how it might be facilitated via instructional presentation, particularly with respect to recent technological advancements. We examined the effects of spatial orientation (0° vs. 180°) and immersion (immersive virtual reality vs. nonimmersive video) on the ability to reproduce complex, dynamic movement sequences. We also evaluated whether these effects were modulated by experience. Experienced dancers and novices practiced dances by imitating a virtual instructor and then, following a delay, had to perform them from memory...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265050/implicit-mind-perception-alters-vigilance-performance-because-of-cognitive-conflict-processing
#12
Eva Wiese, Arielle Mandell, Tyler Shaw, Melissa Smith
Knowing the internal states of others is essential to predicting behavior in social interactions and requires that the general characteristic of "having a mind" is granted to our interaction partners. Mind perception is a highly automatic process and can potentially cause a cognitive conflict when interacting with agents whose mind status is ambiguous, such as artificial agents. We investigate whether mind perception negatively impacts performance on tasks involving artificial agents because of cognitive conflict processing caused by a potentially increased difficulty to categorize them as human versus nonhuman...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247047/learning-a-skill-with-the-expectation-of-teaching-it-impairs-the-skill-s-execution-under-psychological-pressure
#13
Marcos Daou, Zach Hutchison, Mariane Bacelar, Jence A Rhoads, Keith R Lohse, Matthew W Miller
When practicing a motor skill, learners who are expecting to teach it to another person exhibit superior gains in skill execution and declarative knowledge. Since skills acquired with large gains in declarative knowledge are highly susceptible to decrement under psychological pressure, it is possible the advantage of expecting to teach is lost when performing the learned skill under pressure. To test this hypothesis, we had 40 participants practice golf putting with the expectation of teaching (teach group) and 42 participants practice with the expectation of being tested (test group)...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247046/-1-in-x-bias-1-in-x-format-causes-overestimation-of-health-related-risks
#14
Miroslav Sirota, Marie Juanchich, Jean-Francois Bonnefon
According to the "1-in-X" effect, "1-in-X" ratios (e.g., 1 in 12) trigger a higher subjective probability than do numerically equivalent "N-in-X*N" ratios (e.g., 3 in 36). Here we tested the following: (a) the effect on objective measures, (b) its consequences for decision-making, (c) whether this effect is a form of bias by measuring probability accuracy, and (d) its amplification in people with lower health literacy and numeracy. In parallel-designed experiments, 975 participants from the general adult population participated in 1 of 5 experiments following a 2(format: "1-in-X" or "N-in-X*N") × 4(scenarios) mixed design...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137998/the-adding-and-averaging-effect-in-bundles-of-information-preference-reversals-across-joint-and-separate-evaluation
#15
Kimberlee Weaver, Stephen M Garcia
When does adding mildly favorable information (e.g., job experience at the Railway Credit Union) alongside highly favorable (e.g., job experience at Goldman Sachs) increase versus decrease evaluations of a bundle of information like a resume or product bundle? We posit that whether that package of information is evaluated by itself-in separate evaluation (SE)-or side by side with another package-in joint evaluation (JE)-matters. Across a variety of contexts, four studies show that people "average" in SE and "add" in JE...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047753/understanding-the-causes-of-adapting-and-failing-to-adapt-to-time-pressure-in-a-complex-multistimulus-environment
#16
Hector Palada, Andrew Neal, Rachel Tay, Andrew Heathcote
We examined how people respond to time pressure factors in a complex, multistimulus environment. In Study 1, we manipulated time pressure by varying information load via stimulus complexity and the number of stimuli. In Study 2, we replaced the complexity manipulation with deadline-that is, the time available to classify stimuli presented within a trial. We identified several ways that people can adapt to time pressure: increasing the rate of information processing via effort or arousal, changing strategy by lowering response caution, and adjusting response bias...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047752/remembering-to-execute-deferred-tasks-in-simulated-air-traffic-control-the-impact-of-interruptions
#17
Michael David Wilson, Simon Farrell, Troy A W Visser, Shayne Loft
Air traffic controllers can sometimes forget to complete deferred tasks, with safety implications. In two experiments, we examined how the presence and type of interruptions influenced the probability and speed at which individuals remembered to perform deferred tasks in simulated air traffic control (ATC). Participants were required to accept/handoff aircraft, detect aircraft conflicts, and perform two deferred tasks: a deferred conflict task that required remembering to resolve a conflict in the future and a deferred handoff task that required substituting an alternative aircraft handoff action in place of routine handoff action...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963882/explicit-versus-actionable-knowledge-the-influence-of-explaining-graphical-conventions-on-interpretation-of-hurricane-forecast-visualizations
#18
Alexander P Boone, Peri Gunalp, Mary Hegarty
Visualizations of uncertainty in data are often presented to the public without explanations of their graphical conventions and are often misunderstood by nonexperts. The "cone of uncertainty" used to visualize hurricane forecasts is a case in point. Here we examined the effects of explaining graphical conventions on understanding of the cone of uncertainty. In two experiments, participants were given instructions with and without an explanation of these graphical conventions. We examined the effect of these instructions on both explicit statements of common misconceptions and users interpretation of hurricane forecasts, specifically their predictions of damage from the hurricane over space and time...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927274/display-of-major-risk-categories-for-android-apps
#19
Jing Chen, Huangyi Ge, Scott Moore, Weining Yang, Ninghui Li, Robert W Proctor
Communicating cybersecurity risks to mobile-device users is essential. However, existing means of conveying the risks through detailed permission lists are ineffective. Risk indexes that convey overall risk are effective at influencing app-selection decisions, but many users want more information. We examined how users assess the risks associated with downloading applications on the Android platform by comparing various graphical formats of intermediate-level risk displays containing three risk categories: personal privacy; monetary loss; device stability...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733619/the-persistent-low-prevalence-effect-in-unfamiliar-face-matching-the-roles-of-feedback-and-criterion-shifting
#20
Megan H Papesh, Laura L Heisick, Karyn A Warner
In visual search, relatively infrequent targets are more likely to be "missed," a phenomenon known as the low-prevalence effect (LPE). Across five experiments, we examined the LPE in unfamiliar face matching, focusing on the roles of feedback and criterion shifting. Across experiments, observers made identity match/mismatch decisions to photograph pairs, and we manipulated target (i.e., identity mismatch) prevalence. Experiment 1 established the necessity of feedback for the LPE; observers were only sensitive to prevalence disparities when provided trial-level feedback...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
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