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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845997/ask-versus-tell-potential-confusion-when-child-witnesses-are-questioned-about-conversations
#1
Stacia N Stolzenberg, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D Lyon
Children's potential confusion between "ask" and "tell" can lead to misunderstandings when child witnesses are asked to report prior conversations. The verbs distinguish both between interrogating and informing, and between requesting and commanding. Children's understanding was examined using both field (Study 1) and laboratory methods (Studies 2-4). Study 1 examined 100 5- to 12-year-olds' trial testimony in child sexual abuse cases, and found that potentially ambiguous use of ask and tell was common, typically found in yes-no questions that elicited unelaborated answers, and virtually never clarified by attorneys or child witnesses...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933873/is-testing-a-more-effective-learning-strategy-than-note-taking
#2
Ralf Rummer, Judith Schweppe, Kathleen Gerst, Simon Wagner
The testing effect is both robust and generalizable. However, most of the underlying studies compare testing to a rather ineffective control condition: massed repeated reading. This article therefore compares testing with note-taking, which has been shown to be more effective than repeated reading. Experiment 1 is based on a 3 × 3 between-participants design with the factors learning condition (repeated reading vs. repeated testing vs. repeated note-taking) and final test delay (5 min vs. 1 week vs. 2 weeks)...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805443/the-effect-of-the-proportion-of-mismatching-trials-and-task-orientation-on-the-confidence-accuracy-relationship-in-unfamiliar-face-matching
#3
Rachel G Stephens, Carolyn Semmler, James D Sauer
Unfamiliar, one-to-one face matching has been shown to be error-prone. However, it is unknown whether there is a strong relationship between confidence and accuracy in this task. If there is, then confidence could be used as an indicator of accuracy in real-world face matching settings such as border security, where the objectively correct decision is typically unknown. Two experiments examined the overall confidence-accuracy relationship, as well as the relationship for positive (match) and negative (mismatch) decisions...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639797/the-dark-side-of-fluency-fluent-names-increase-drug-dosing
#4
Simone Dohle, Amanda K Montoya
Prior research has demonstrated that high processing fluency influences a wide range of evaluations and behaviors in a positive way. But can high processing fluency also lead to potentially hazardous medical behavior? In 2 controlled experiments, we demonstrate that increasing the fluency of pharmaceutical drug names increases drug dosage. Experiment 1 shows that drugs with fluent names are perceived as safer than those with disfluent names and this effect increases drug dosage for both synthetically produced and herbal drugs...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604012/optimizing-the-balance-between-task-automation-and-human-manual-control-in-simulated-submarine-track-management
#5
Stephanie I Chen, Troy A W Visser, Samuel Huf, Shayne Loft
Automation can improve operator performance and reduce workload, but can also degrade operator situation awareness (SA) and the ability to regain manual control. In 3 experiments, we examined the extent to which automation could be designed to benefit performance while ensuring that individuals maintained SA and could regain manual control. Participants completed a simulated submarine track management task under varying task load. The automation was designed to facilitate information acquisition and analysis, but did not make task decisions...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557488/lying-upside-down-alibis-reverse-cognitive-burdens-of-dishonesty
#6
Anna Foerster, Robert Wirth, Oliver Herbort, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
The cognitive processes underlying dishonesty, especially the inhibition of automatic honest response tendencies, are reflected in response times and other behavioral measures. Here we suggest that explicit false alibis might have a considerable impact on these cognitive operations. We tested this hypothesis in a controlled experimental setup. Participants first performed several tasks in a preexperimental mission (akin to common mock crime procedures) and received a false alibi afterward. The false alibi stated alternative actions that the participants had to pretend to have performed instead of the actually performed actions...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541077/why-would-i-help-my-coworker-exploring-asymmetric-task-dependence-and-the-self-determination-theory-internalization-process
#7
Christopher Poile
Research on power suggests asymmetric task dependence (sending work resources to a coworker and receiving little in return) should create a power imbalance and promote selfishness. In contrast, work design theory suggests asymmetry can lead to felt responsibility, but this link has not been tested and its theory remains underdeveloped. Drawing on self-determination theory (SDT), this article argues that work design characteristics can encourage the SDT internalization process-the transformation of external reasons for behavior into internal reasons...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541076/brand-name-confusion-subjective-and-objective-measures-of-orthographic-similarity
#8
Jennifer S Burt, Kimberley A McFarlane, Sarah J Kelly, Michael S Humphreys, Kimberlee Weatherall, Robert G Burrell
Determining brand name similarity is vital in areas of trademark registration and brand confusion. Students rated the orthographic (spelling) similarity of word pairs (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and brand name pairs (Experiment 5). Similarity ratings were consistently higher when words shared beginnings rather than endings, whereas shared pronunciation of the stressed vowel had small and less consistent effects on ratings. In Experiment 3 a behavioral task confirmed the similarity of shared beginnings in lexical processing...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358548/does-retrieval-practice-enhance-learning-and-transfer-relative-to-restudy-for-term-definition-facts
#9
Steven C Pan, Timothy C Rickard
In many pedagogical contexts, term-definition facts that link a concept term (e.g., "vision") with its corresponding definition (e.g., "the ability to see") are learned. Does retrieval practice involving retrieval of the term (given the definition) or the definition (given the term) enhance subsequent recall, relative to restudy of the entire fact? Moreover, does any benefit of retrieval practice for the term transfer to later recall of the definition, or vice versa? We addressed those questions in 4 experiments...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333482/the-forward-testing-effect-on-self-regulated-study-time-allocation-and-metamemory-monitoring
#10
Chunliang Yang, Rosalind Potts, David R Shanks
The forward testing effect describes the finding that testing of previously studied information potentiates learning and retention of new information. Here we asked whether interim testing boosts self-regulated study time allocation when learning new information and explored its effect on metamemory monitoring. Participants had unlimited time to study five lists of Euskara-English word pairs (Experiment 1) or four lists of face-name pairs (Experiment 2). In a no interim test group, which was only tested on the final list, study time decreased across successive lists...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816472/how-should-exemplars-be-sequenced-in-inductive-learning-empirical-evidence-versus-learners-opinions
#11
Veronica X Yan, Nicholas C Soderstrom, Gayan S Seneviratna, Elizabeth Ligon Bjork, Robert A Bjork
The sequencing of exemplars during study can have a large effect on category or concept induction. Counter to learners' intuitions, interleaving exemplars from different categories is often more effective for learning the different underlying categories than is blocking all the exemplars by category (e.g., Kornell & Bjork, 2008). Prior research suggests that blocking and interleaving each support different aspects of induction: Interleaving appears to enhance between-category discrimination, whereas blocking appears to promote the learning of within-category commonalities...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816471/how-much-will-the-sea-level-rise-outcome-selection-and-subjective-probability-in-climate-change-predictions
#12
Marie Juanchich, Miroslav Sirota
We tested whether people focus on extreme outcomes to predict climate change and assessed the gap between the frequency of the predicted outcome and its perceived probability while controlling for climate change beliefs. We also tested 2 cost-effective interventions to reduce the preference for extreme outcomes and the frequency-probability gap by manipulating the probabilistic format: numerical or dual-verbal-numerical. In 4 experiments, participants read a scenario featuring a distribution of sea level rises, selected a sea rise to complete a prediction (e...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816470/effects-of-postwarning-specificity-on-memory-performance-and-confidence-in-the-eyewitness-misinformation-paradigm
#13
Philip A Higham, Hartmut Blank, Karlos Luna
The influence of postevent misinformation on memory is typically constrained by postwarnings, but little is known about the effectiveness of particular features of postwarnings, such as their specificity. Experiment 1 compared 2 levels of postwarning specificity: A general postwarning just stated the presence of misinformation, whereas a specific postwarning identified the test items for which misinformation had been presented earlier. The specific postwarning, but not the general postwarning, eliminated both the misinformation effect and its deleterious impact on memory monitoring (using a classic 2-alternative forced-choice recognition procedure)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816469/evaluating-suggestibility-to-additive-and-contradictory-misinformation-following-explicit-error-detection-in-younger-and-older-adults
#14
Mark J Huff, Sharda Umanath
In 2 experiments, we assessed age-related suggestibility to additive and contradictory misinformation (i.e., remembering of false details from an external source). After reading a fictional story, participants answered questions containing misleading details that were either additive (misleading details that supplemented an original event) or contradictory (errors that changed original details). On a final test, suggestibility was greater for additive than contradictory misinformation, and older adults endorsed fewer false contradictory details than younger adults...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805444/contrast-effect-in-spatial-context-robustness-and-practical-significance
#15
Christophe Blaison, Marie-Pierre Fayant, Ursula Hess
Contrary to lay conceptions, unattractive locations can under certain circumstances increase the perceived value of neighboring areas. This phenomenon is akin to a contrast effect. However, extant research on this type of contrast suffers from two limitations. First, the use of repeated measures may inflate the likelihood of observing a contrast effect. Second, there is a lack of meaningful comparisons for gauging the size of the effect. We designed three experiments to address these issues. In each, we assessed how much participants valued places located increasingly far from an unsafe housing block...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604013/improving-self-regulated-learning-with-a-retrieval-practice-intervention
#16
Robert Ariel, Jeffrey D Karpicke
Repeated retrieval practice is a powerful learning tool for promoting long-term retention, but students use this tool ineffectively when regulating their learning. The current experiments evaluated the efficacy of a minimal intervention aimed at improving students' self-regulated use of repeated retrieval practice. Across 2 experiments, students made decisions about when to study, engage in retrieval practice, or stop learning a set of foreign language word pairs. Some students received direct instruction about how to use repeated retrieval practice...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541075/low-prevalence-search-for-cancers-in-mammograms-evidence-using-laboratory-experiments-and-computer-aided-detection
#17
Melina A Kunar, Derrick G Watson, Sian Taylor-Phillips, Julia Wolska
People miss a large proportion of targets when they only appear rarely. This Low Prevalence (LP) Effect could lead to serious consequences if it occurred in the real-world task of searching for cancers in mammograms. Using a novel mammogram search task, we asked participants to search for a prespecified cancer (Experiments 1-2) or a range of masses (Experiments 3-5) under high or low prevalence conditions. Experiment 1 showed that an LP Effect occurred using these stimuli. Experiment 2 tested an overreliance hypothesis and showed that the use of Computer Aided Detection (CAD) led to fewer missed cancers with a valid CAD prompt yet, a large proportion of cancers were missed when CAD was incorrect...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447809/understanding-the-cognitive-processes-involved-in-writing-to-learn
#18
Kathleen M Arnold, Sharda Umanath, Kara Thio, Walter B Reilly, Mark A McDaniel, Elizabeth J Marsh
Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414484/can-we-apply-the-findings-of-forster-and-lavie-2008-on-the-generalizability-of-attentional-capture-effects-under-varying-levels-of-perceptual-load
#19
Alejandro Lleras, Hengqing Chu, Simona Buetti
Perceptual Load theory states that the degree of perceptual load on a display determines the amount of leftover attentional resources that the system can use to process distracting information. An important corollary of this theory is that the amount of perceptual load determines the vulnerability of the attention system to being captured by completely irrelevant stimuli, predicting larger amounts of capture with low perceptual load than with high perceptual load. This prediction was first confirmed by Forster and Lavie (2008)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368189/commercial-motor-vehicle-driving-performance-an-examination-of-attentional-resources-and-control-using-a-driving-simulator
#20
Benjamin McManus, Karen Heaton, Despina Stavrinos
Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers often multitask when driving to increase travel efficiency and to increase alertness. Secondary tasks have been shown to impact CMV driving differentially, and attentional resources have been posited as a key factor. However, underlying mechanisms of secondary task engagement on attention and task performance have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is unknown if attentional control moderates these differential effects of secondary tasks and task performance. The current study aimed to examine decrements in driving performance from a resource-control theory by determining the specific relation between attentional resources and attentional control...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
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