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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied

Rachel C Adams, Petroc Sumner, Solveiga Vivian-Griffiths, Andrew Williams, Jacky Boivin, Christopher D Chambers, Lewis Bott
Science-related news stories can have a profound impact on how the public make decisions. The current study presents 4 experiments that examine how participants understand scientific expressions used in news headlines. The expressions concerned causal and correlational relationships between variables (e.g., "being breast fed makes children behave better"). Participants rated or ranked headlines according to the extent that one variable caused the other. Our results suggest that participants differentiate between 3 distinct categories of relationship: direct cause statements (e...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Mary Hegarty, Alinda Friedman, Alexander P Boone, Trevor J Barrett
Two experiments revealed how nonexperts interpret visualizations of positional uncertainty on GPS-like displays and how the visual representation of uncertainty affects their judgments. Participants were shown maps with representations of their current location; locational uncertainty was visualized as either a circle (confidence interval) or a faded glyph (indicating the probability density function directly). When shown a single circle or faded glyph, participants assumed they were located at the center of the uncertain region...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Hyewook Genevieve Jeong, Kate Christensen, Aimee Drolet
This research investigated the influence of trait indecisiveness on variety-seeking behavior. Study 1 revealed that chronic indecisiveness was associated with increased variety-seeking behavior. Study 2A showed that the incidence of not choosing to make a choice was much lower among chronically indecisive people when a variety-pack option was available, and Study 2B showed that chronically indecisive people chose the variety pack even if it included their least preferred option. Study 3 demonstrated that chronically indecisive people contended with the negative emotion they experienced during choice making by choosing a mix of options...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Heather L Price, Ryan J Fitzgerald
In 2 experiments, we introduce a new "face-off" procedure for child eyewitness identifications. The new procedure, which is premised on reducing the stimulus set size, was compared with the showup and simultaneous procedures in Experiment 1 and with modified versions of the simultaneous and elimination procedures in Experiment 2. Several benefits of the face-off procedure were observed: it was significantly more diagnostic than the showup procedure; it led to significantly more correct rejections of target-absent lineups than the simultaneous procedures in both experiments, and it led to greater information gain than the modified elimination and simultaneous procedures...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Elif Isikman, Deborah J MacInnis, Gülden Ülkümen, Lisa A Cavanaugh
Whereas prior literature has studied the positive effects of curiosity-evoking events that are integral to focal activities, we explore whether and how a curiosity-evoking event that is incidental to a focal activity induces negative outcomes for enjoyment. Four experiments and 1 field study demonstrate that curiosity about an event that is incidental to an activity in which individuals are engaged, significantly affects enjoyment of a concurrent activity. The reason why is that curiosity diverts attention away from the concurrent activity and focuses attention on the curiosity-evoking event...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Shayne Loft, Melissa Chapman, Rebekah E Smith
In air traffic control (ATC), forgetting to perform deferred actions-prospective memory (PM) errors-can have severe consequences. PM demands can also interfere with ongoing tasks (costs). We examined the extent to which PM errors and costs were reduced in simulated ATC by providing extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. Participants accepted/handed-off aircraft and detected conflicts...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Assaf Botzer, Joachim Meyer, Yisrael Parmet
Binary cues help operators perform binary categorization tasks, such as monitoring for system failures. They may also allow them to attend to other tasks they concurrently perform. If the time saved by using cues is allocated to other concurrent tasks, users' overall effort may remain unchanged. In 2 experiments, participants performed a simulated quality control task, together with a tracking task. In half the experimental blocks cues were available, and participants could use them in their decisions about the quality of products (intact or faulty)...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Ewart J de Visser, Samuel S Monfort, Ryan McKendrick, Melissa A B Smith, Patrick E McKnight, Frank Krueger, Raja Parasuraman
We interact daily with computers that appear and behave like humans. Some researchers propose that people apply the same social norms to computers as they do to humans, suggesting that social psychological knowledge can be applied to our interactions with computers. In contrast, theories of human-automation interaction postulate that humans respond to machines in unique and specific ways. We believe that anthropomorphism-the degree to which an agent exhibits human characteristics-is the critical variable that may resolve this apparent contradiction across the formation, violation, and repair stages of trust...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Robert W Smith, Norbert Schwarz
Three studies show that people draw metacognitive inferences about events from how well others remember the event. Given that memory fades over time, detailed accounts of distant events suggest that the event must have been particularly memorable, for example, because it was extreme. Accordingly, participants inferred that a physical assault (Study 1) or a poor restaurant experience (Studies 2-3) were more extreme when they were well remembered one year rather than one week later. These inferences influence behavioral intentions...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Helen G Jing, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
Although learning through a computer interface has become increasingly common, little is known about how to best structure video-recorded lectures to optimize learning. In 2 experiments, we examine changes in focused attention and the ability for students to integrate knowledge learned during a 40-min video-recorded lecture. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate that interpolating a lecture with memory tests (tested group), compared to studying the lecture material for the same amount of time (restudy group), improves overall learning and boosts integration of related information learned both within individual lecture segments and across the entire lecture...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Wändi Bruine de Bruin, Carmen E Lefevre, Andrea L Taylor, Suraje Dessai, Baruch Fischhoff, Sari Kovats
Heat waves can cause death, illness, and discomfort, and are expected to become more frequent as a result of climate change. Yet, United Kingdom residents have positive feelings about hot summers that may undermine their willingness to protect themselves against heat. We randomly assigned United Kingdom participants to 1 of 3 intervention strategies intended to promote heat protection, or to a control group. The first strategy aimed to build on the availability heuristic by asking participants to remember high summer temperatures, but it elicited thoughts of pleasantly hot summer weather...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Natsuki Atagi, Melissa DeWolf, James W Stigler, Scott P Johnson
Developing understanding of fractions involves connections between nonsymbolic visual representations and symbolic representations. Initially, teachers introduce fraction concepts with visual representations before moving to symbolic representations. Once the focus is shifted to symbolic representations, the connections between visual representations and symbolic notation are considered to be less useful, and students are rarely asked to connect symbolic notation back to visual representations. In 2 experiments, we ask whether visual representations affect understanding of symbolic notation for adults who understand symbolic notation...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Dafina Petrova, Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Andrés Catena, Joop van der Pligt
Contrary to people's intuitions, many screenings can have both benefits (e.g., lives saved) and harms (e.g., unnecessary treatments). Statistical information is often provided to ensure informed decision making. However, few theoretical models have addressed the role of comprehension of such information in screening decisions. In an experiment, we studied how cognitive skills, emotions, and a priori beliefs about screening affect comprehension of the evidence of benefits and harms from screening and intentions to get screened...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Vanessa K Bowden, Shayne Loft
In 2 experiments we examined the impact of memory for prior events on conflict detection in simulated air traffic control under conditions where individuals proactively controlled aircraft and completed concurrent tasks. Individuals were faster to detect conflicts that had repeatedly been presented during training (positive transfer). Bayesian statistics indicated strong evidence for the null hypothesis that conflict detection was not impaired for events that resembled an aircraft pair that had repeatedly come close to conflicting during training...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Klemens M Knoeferle, Pia Knoeferle, Carlos Velasco, Charles Spence
Building on models of crossmodal attention, the present research proposes that brand search is inherently multisensory, in that the consumers' visual search for a specific brand can be facilitated by semantically related stimuli that are presented in another sensory modality. A series of 5 experiments demonstrates that the presentation of spatially nonpredictive auditory stimuli associated with products (e.g., usage sounds or product-related jingles) can crossmodally facilitate consumers' visual search for, and selection of, products...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Elif G Ikizer, Hart Blanton
Recent articulation of the "wise" approach to psychological intervention has drawn attention to the way small, seemingly trivial social psychological interventions can exert powerful, long-term effects. These interventions have been used to address such wide-ranging social issues as the racial achievement gap, environmental conservation, and the promotion of safer sex. Although there certainly are good reasons to seek easier as opposed to harder solutions to social problems, we examine a potentially undesirable effect that can result from common media portrayals of wise interventions...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Michael C Trumbo, Kari A Leiting, Mark A McDaniel, Gordon K Hodge
A robust finding within laboratory research is that structuring information as a test confers benefit on long-term retention-referred to as the testing effect. Although well characterized in laboratory environments, the testing effect has been explored infrequently within ecologically valid contexts. We conducted a series of 3 experiments within a very large introductory college-level course. Experiment 1 examined the impact of required versus optional frequent low-stakes testing (quizzes) on student grades, revealing students were much more likely to take advantage of quizzing if it was a required course component...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Aaron M Scherer, Kathryn Bruchmann, Paul D Windschitl, Jason P Rose, Andrew R Smith, Bryan Koestner, Linda Snetselaar, Jerry Suls
Understanding how healthfully people think they eat compared to others has implications for their motivation to engage in dietary change and the adoption of health recommendations. Our goal was to investigate the scope, sources, and measurements of bias in comparative food consumption beliefs. Across 4 experiments, participants made direct comparisons of how their consumption compared to their peers' consumption and/or estimated their personal consumption of various foods/nutrients and the consumption by peers, allowing the measurement of indirect comparisons...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Juliana Schroeder, Eugene M Caruso, Nicholas Epley
Logically, group members cannot be responsible for more than 100% of the group's output, yet claims of responsibility routinely sum to more than 100%. This "over-claiming" occurs partly because of egocentrism: People focus on their own contributions, as focal members of the group, more than on others' contributions. Therefore, we predicted that over-claiming would increase with group size because larger groups leave more contributions from others to overlook. In 2 field studies, participants claimed more responsibility as the number of academic authors per article and the number of MBA students per study group increased...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Joanne R Beames, Melissa J Black, Lenny R Vartanian
Three studies examined the role of causal beliefs in weight stigma in order to better understand people's evaluations of individuals with obesity. Participants viewed weight-related information about a target individual and evaluated that target on various dimensions. Study 1 showed that offset effort information (i.e., information about effort to lose weight) had a greater impact on participants' evaluations of individuals with obesity than did other causal information, such as onset control and offset ability...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
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