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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied

Alexander P Boone, Peri Gunalp, Mary Hegarty
Visualizations of uncertainty in data are often presented to the public without explanations of their graphical conventions and are often misunderstood by nonexperts. The "cone of uncertainty" used to visualize hurricane forecasts is a case in point. Here we examined the effects of explaining graphical conventions on understanding of the cone of uncertainty. In two experiments, participants were given instructions with and without an explanation of these graphical conventions. We examined the effect of these instructions on both explicit statements of common misconceptions and users interpretation of hurricane forecasts, specifically their predictions of damage from the hurricane over space and time...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Jing Chen, Huangyi Ge, Scott Moore, Weining Yang, Ninghui Li, Robert W Proctor
Communicating cybersecurity risks to mobile-device users is essential. However, existing means of conveying the risks through detailed permission lists are ineffective. Risk indexes that convey overall risk are effective at influencing app-selection decisions, but many users want more information. We examined how users assess the risks associated with downloading applications on the Android platform by comparing various graphical formats of intermediate-level risk displays containing three risk categories: personal privacy; monetary loss; device stability...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Megan H Papesh, Laura L Heisick, Karyn A Warner
In visual search, relatively infrequent targets are more likely to be "missed," a phenomenon known as the low-prevalence effect (LPE). Across five experiments, we examined the LPE in unfamiliar face matching, focusing on the roles of feedback and criterion shifting. Across experiments, observers made identity match/mismatch decisions to photograph pairs, and we manipulated target (i.e., identity mismatch) prevalence. Experiment 1 established the necessity of feedback for the LPE; observers were only sensitive to prevalence disparities when provided trial-level feedback...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Ly Hart-Smith, Michelle L Moulds
processing and observer vantage perspective have been associated with negative consequences in depression. We investigated the relationship between mode of processing and vantage perspective bidirectionally in high and low dysphoric individuals, using abstract and concrete descriptions of experimenter-provided everyday actions. When vantage perspective was manipulated and processing mode was measured (Study 1a), participants who adopted a field perspective did not differ from those who adopted an observer perspective in their preference for abstract descriptions, irrespective of dysphoria status...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Hannah Hausman, Matthew G Rhodes
Prior research suggests that people can learn more from reading a text when they attempt to answer pretest questions first. Specifically, pretests on factual information explicitly stated in a text increases the likelihood that participants can answer identical questions after reading than if they had not answered pretest questions. Yet, a central goal of education is to develop deep conceptual understanding. The present experiments investigated whether conceptual pretests facilitate learning concepts from reading texts...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
John E Marsh, Robert Ljung, Helena Jahncke, Douglas MacCutcheon, Florian Pausch, Linden J Ball, François Vachon
Telephone conversation is ubiquitous within the office setting. Overhearing a telephone conversation-whereby only one of the two speakers is heard-is subjectively more annoying and objectively more distracting than overhearing a full conversation. The present study sought to determine whether this "halfalogue" effect is attributable to unexpected offsets and onsets within the background speech (acoustic unexpectedness) or to the tendency to predict the unheard part of the conversation (semantic [un]predictability), and whether these effects can be shielded against through top-down cognitive control...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Jesper H Nielsen, Jennifer Edson Escalas, Steve Hoeffler
We propose that when consumers encounter really new products (RNPs), defined as products that allow consumers to do something they have never been able to do before and whose benefits are often ambiguous at first, they spontaneously generate mental simulations in an attempt to assess the value of these products. When these self-generated simulations are in the form of sufficiently engrossing and vivid narratives, they can evoke transportation, a phenomenological experience of being "lost" in a story...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Corinne A Moss-Racusin, Evava S Pietri, Erin P Hennes, John F Dovidio, Victoria L Brescoll, Gina Roussos, Jo Handelsman
Gender biases contribute to the underrepresentation of women in STEM. In response, the scientific community has called for methods to reduce bias, but few validated interventions exist. Thus, an interdisciplinary group of researchers and filmmakers partnered to create VIDS (Video Interventions for Diversity in STEM), which are short videos that expose participants to empirical findings from published gender bias research in 1 of 3 conditions. One condition illustrated findings using narratives (compelling stories), and the second condition presented the same results using expert interviews (straightforward facts)...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Sue Brouwers, Mark Wiggins, Barbara Griffin
The detection of critical cues is a hallmark of expert performance, and in high-risk settings, it can prevent serious incidents. A sensitivity to cues and a proclivity to rapidly acquire patterns during routinized tasks, however, can miscue performance when these patterns change. In the present study, 75 university students undertook an assessment of cue utilization and engaged in a 24-min rail control simulation. The rail control task involved monitoring with periodic interventions to reroute trains, according to a train-track matching rule...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Stacey Wood, Pi-Ju Liu, Yaniv Hanoch, Patricia M Xi, Lukas Klapatch
Mass marketing scams extract an enormous toll, yet the literature on scams is just emerging. In Experiment 1, 211 adults reviewed a solicitation and rated their intention of contacting an "activation number" for a prize. Scarcity and authority were manipulated. Many (48.82%) indicated some willingness to contact to "activate" the winnings. Intention of responding was inversely related to the perception of risk (b = -.441, p < .001) and positively associated with perception of benefits (b = ...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Hung-Tao Chen, Robert F Lorch
Text-to-speech (TTS) programs often do a poor job of translating writing devices such as headings from visual into audio mode. Previous research studies have attempted to address this problem but these studies have mainly used heading detection tasks. The current study seeks to investigate (a) whether the presence of audio headings improves performance in natural learning tasks and (b) the type of heading rendering that is the most useful in natural learning tasks. Two experiments compared the effects of two types of rendering strategies on note-taking and cued recall...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Nicole Votolato Montgomery, Priyali Rajagopal
Across 5 studies, we examine the effect of prior brand commitment on the creation of false memories about product experience after reading online product reviews. We find that brand commitment and the valence of reviews to which consumers are exposed, interact to affect the incidence of false memories. Thus, highly committed consumers are more susceptible to the creation of false experience memories on exposure to positive versus negative reviews, whereas low commitment consumers exhibit similar levels of false memories in response to both positive and negative reviews...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Clinton S Weeks, Michael S Humphreys, T Bettina Cornwell
Brands engaged in sponsorship of events commonly have objectives that depend on consumer memory for the sponsor-event relationship (e.g., sponsorship awareness). Consumers however, often misattribute sponsorships to nonsponsor competitor brands, indicating erroneous memory for these relationships. The current research uses an item and relational memory framework to reveal sponsor brands may inadvertently foster this misattribution when they communicate relational linkages to events. Effects can be explained via differential roles of communicating item information (information that supports processing item distinctiveness) versus relational information (information that supports processing relationships among items) in contributing to memory outcomes...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Mark J Huff, Sharda Umanath
In 2 experiments, we assessed age-related suggestibility to additive and contradictory misinformation (i.e., remembering of false details from an external source). After reading a fictional story, participants answered questions containing misleading details that were either additive (misleading details that supplemented an original event) or contradictory (errors that changed original details). On a final test, suggestibility was greater for additive than contradictory misinformation, and older adults endorsed fewer false contradictory details than younger adults...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Lorena Lobo, David Travieso, David M Jacobs, Matthew Rodger, Cathy M Craig
This study investigates how active exploration helps users of sensory substitution devices (SSDs) to detect action-relevant information. A vibrotactile SSD was developed that generates stimulation that is contingent on the users' movements. Target direction was specified by the location of the vibratory stimulation, and target distance by the size and intensity of the pattern of stimulation. A series of experiments was performed with blindfolded participants. In Experiments 1a to 1c, participants used the SSD to align their central body axis with prespecified targets...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Jeroen G B Loman, Barbara C N Müller, Arnoud Oude Groote Beverborg, Rick B van Baaren, Moniek Buijzen
Self-persuasion (self-generation of arguments) is often a more effective influence technique than direct persuasion (providing arguments). However, the application of this technique in health media communications has received limited attention. In two experiments, it was examined whether self-persuasion can be successfully applied to antialcohol media communications by framing the message as an open-ended question. In Experiment 1 (N = 131) cognitive reactions to antialcohol posters framed either as open-ended questions or statements were examined...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Abraham M Rutchick, Michael L Slepian, Monica O Reyes, Lindsay N Pleskus, Hal E Hershfield
To the extent that people feel more continuity between their present and future selves, they are more likely to make decisions with the future self in mind. The current studies examined future self-continuity in the context of health. In Study 1, people reported the extent to which they felt similar and connected to their future self; people with more present-future continuity reported having better subjective health across a variety of measures. In Study 2, people were randomly assigned to write a letter to themselves either three months or 20 years into the future; people for whom continuity with the distant future self was enhanced exercised more in the days following the writing task...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Shana K Carpenter, Shuhebur Rahman, Kyle Perkins
Studies have shown that prequestions-asking students questions before they learn something-benefit memory retention. Prequestions would seem to be a useful technique for enhancing students' learning in their courses, but classroom investigations of prequestions have been sparse. In the current study, students from an introductory psychology course were randomly assigned to receive prequestions over each upcoming lesson (prequestion group) or to not receive prequestions (control group). At the end of class, students in the prequestion group remembered the material better than students in the control group, but this benefit was specific to the information that was asked about in the prequestions...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Margaret A Grounds, Susan L Joslyn
Research suggests that people make better weather-related decisions when they are given numeric probabilities for critical outcomes (Joslyn & Leclerc, 2012, 2013). However, it is unclear whether all users can take advantage of probabilistic forecasts to the same extent. The research reported here assessed key cognitive and demographic factors to determine their relationship to the use of probabilistic forecasts to improve decision quality. In two studies, participants decided between spending resources to prevent icy conditions on roadways or risk a larger penalty when freezing temperatures occurred...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Daniel G Morrow
Daniel G. Morrow introduces himself as the fifth editor of the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied (JEPA ). The journal is the premier outlet for "use-inspired basic research" (Stokes, 2011) in the psychological sciences. (PsycINFO Database Record
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
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