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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied

Karl Halvor Teigen, Petra Filkuková, Sigrid Møyner Hohle
Climate projections and other predictions are often described as outcomes that can happen, indicating possibilities that are imaginable, but uncertain. Whereas the meanings of other uncertainty terms have been extensively studied, the uses of modal verbs like can and will have rarely been examined. Participants in five experiments were shown graphs and verbal statements showing projections of future global warming, sea level rise, and other climate-related issues. All studies gave support for the extremity hypothesis, which states that people use can-statements to describe the topmost values in a distribution of outcomes, regardless of their actual probabilities...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Katherine A Rawson, Kalif E Vaughn, Matthew Walsh, John Dunlosky
Research on techniques for enhancing long-term retention has focused almost exclusively on single-session learning conditions. However, even the most potent initial learning manipulations typically do not yield retention levels sufficient for successful performance in many real-world contexts. In contrast, successive relearning (i.e., practicing to some level of mastery in multiple learning sessions) is a promising technique for enhancing long-term retention, but surprisingly few studies have been conducted to date...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Hung-Tao Chen, Robert F Lorch
Text-to-speech (TTS) programs often do a poor job of translating writing devices such as headings from visual into audio mode. Previous research studies have attempted to address this problem but these studies have mainly used heading detection tasks. The current study seeks to investigate (a) whether the presence of audio headings improves performance in natural learning tasks and (b) the type of heading rendering that is the most useful in natural learning tasks. Two experiments compared the effects of two types of rendering strategies on note-taking and cued recall...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Nicole Votolato Montgomery, Priyali Rajagopal
Across 5 studies, we examine the effect of prior brand commitment on the creation of false memories about product experience after reading online product reviews. We find that brand commitment and the valence of reviews to which consumers are exposed, interact to affect the incidence of false memories. Thus, highly committed consumers are more susceptible to the creation of false experience memories on exposure to positive versus negative reviews, whereas low commitment consumers exhibit similar levels of false memories in response to both positive and negative reviews...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Clinton S Weeks, Michael S Humphreys, T Bettina Cornwell
Brands engaged in sponsorship of events commonly have objectives that depend on consumer memory for the sponsor-event relationship (e.g., sponsorship awareness). Consumers however, often misattribute sponsorships to nonsponsor competitor brands, indicating erroneous memory for these relationships. The current research uses an item and relational memory framework to reveal sponsor brands may inadvertently foster this misattribution when they communicate relational linkages to events. Effects can be explained via differential roles of communicating item information (information that supports processing item distinctiveness) versus relational information (information that supports processing relationships among items) in contributing to memory outcomes...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Alex Muhl-Richardson, Hayward J Godwin, Matthew Garner, Julie A Hadwin, Simon P Liversedge, Nick Donnelly
Many real-world tasks now involve monitoring visual representations of data that change dynamically over time. Monitoring dynamically changing displays for the onset of targets can be done in two ways: detecting targets directly, post-onset, or predicting their onset from the prior state of distractors. In the present study, participants' eye movements were measured as they monitored arrays of 108 colored squares whose colors changed systematically over time. Across three experiments, the data show that participants detected the onset of targets both directly and predictively...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Carolyn Semmler, John Dunn, Laura Mickes, John T Wixted
Estimator variables are factors that can affect the accuracy of eyewitness identifications but that are outside of the control of the criminal justice system. Examples include (1) the duration of exposure to the perpetrator, (2) the passage of time between the crime and the identification (retention interval), (3) the distance between the witness and the perpetrator at the time of the crime. Suboptimal estimator variables (e.g., long distance) have long been thought to reduce the reliability of eyewitness identifications (IDs), but recent evidence suggests that this is not true of IDs made with high confidence and may or may not be true of IDs made with lower confidence...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Angela Mahr, Dirk Wentura
Findings from three experiments support the conclusion that semantic auditory primes facilitate processing of complex warning icons in the automotive context. In Experiment 1, we used a cross-modal icon identification task with auditory primes and visual icons as targets, presented in a high perceptual load context. Responses were faster for congruent priming in comparison to neutral or incongruent priming. This effect also emerged for different levels of time-compression of auditory primes. In Experiment 2, participants took part in a driving simulation with target icons on a gantry road sign...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Joydeep Srivastava, Shweta S Oza, Nevena T Koukova
Generic advertising campaigns such as "Got Milk?" and "Pork: The Other White Meat" are intended to increase demand for the entire product category rather than demand for a specific brand. This research examines the influence of industry (or product category) sales trend and solicitation messages on voluntary contributions toward such campaigns. Based on the idea that the context in which decisions are made may induce goals, a theoretical framework is developed to suggest that a declining versus an increasing industry sales trend induces different goal orientations...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
David M Zimmerman, Jacqueline Austin Chorn, Lindsey M Rhead, Andrew J Evelo, Margaret Bull Kovera
Administrator/witness pairs (N = 313) were randomly assigned to target-absent lineups in a 2 (Suspect/Perpetrator Similarity: High Suspect Similarity vs. Low Suspect Similarity) × 2 (Retention Interval: 30 min vs. 1 week) × 2 (Lineup Presentation: Simultaneous vs. Sequential) × 2 (Administrator Knowledge: Single-Blind vs. Double-Blind) factorial design to test whether suspect similarity and memory strength constrain interpersonal expectancy effects on eyewitness identification accuracy. Administrators who knew which lineup member was the suspect (single-blind) or who administered simultaneous lineups were more likely to emit verbal and nonverbal behaviors that suggested to the witness who the suspect was...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Andrew C Butler, Allison C Black-Maier, Nathaniel D Raley, Elizabeth J Marsh
Introducing variability during learning often facilitates transfer to new contexts (i.e., generalization). The goal of the present study was to explore the concept of variability in an area of research where its effects have received little attention: learning through retrieval practice. In four experiments, we investigated whether retrieval practice with different examples of a concept promotes greater transfer than repeated retrieval practice with the same example. Participants watched video clips from a lecture about geological science and answered application questions about concepts: either the same question three times or three different questions...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Marie Juanchich, Miroslav Sirota
We tested whether people focus on extreme outcomes to predict climate change and assessed the gap between the frequency of the predicted outcome and its perceived probability while controlling for climate change beliefs. We also tested 2 cost-effective interventions to reduce the preference for extreme outcomes and the frequency-probability gap by manipulating the probabilistic format: numerical or dual-verbal-numerical. In 4 experiments, participants read a scenario featuring a distribution of sea level rises, selected a sea rise to complete a prediction (e...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Magdalena Abel, Henry L Roediger
Retrieval practice boosts retention relative to other study strategies like restudying, a finding known as the testing effect. In 3 experiments, the authors investigated testing in social contexts. Subjects participated in pairs and engaged in restudy and retrieval practice of vocabulary pairs. During retrieval practice, 1 subject acted as speaker (overt practice); the other subject listened and monitored the speaker's responses (covert practice). All experiments showed testing effects, with overt practice by speakers enhancing recall relative to restudy after a 2-day delay...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Ralf Rummer, Judith Schweppe, Kathleen Gerst, Simon Wagner
The testing effect is both robust and generalizable. However, most of the underlying studies compare testing to a rather ineffective control condition: massed repeated reading. This article therefore compares testing with note-taking, which has been shown to be more effective than repeated reading. Experiment 1 is based on a 3 × 3 between-participants design with the factors learning condition (repeated reading vs. repeated testing vs. repeated note-taking) and final test delay (5 min vs. 1 week vs. 2 weeks)...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Rachel G Stephens, Carolyn Semmler, James D Sauer
Unfamiliar, one-to-one face matching has been shown to be error-prone. However, it is unknown whether there is a strong relationship between confidence and accuracy in this task. If there is, then confidence could be used as an indicator of accuracy in real-world face matching settings such as border security, where the objectively correct decision is typically unknown. Two experiments examined the overall confidence-accuracy relationship, as well as the relationship for positive (match) and negative (mismatch) decisions...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Simone Dohle, Amanda K Montoya
Prior research has demonstrated that high processing fluency influences a wide range of evaluations and behaviors in a positive way. But can high processing fluency also lead to potentially hazardous medical behavior? In 2 controlled experiments, we demonstrate that increasing the fluency of pharmaceutical drug names increases drug dosage. Experiment 1 shows that drugs with fluent names are perceived as safer than those with disfluent names and this effect increases drug dosage for both synthetically produced and herbal drugs...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Stephanie I Chen, Troy A W Visser, Samuel Huf, Shayne Loft
Automation can improve operator performance and reduce workload, but can also degrade operator situation awareness (SA) and the ability to regain manual control. In 3 experiments, we examined the extent to which automation could be designed to benefit performance while ensuring that individuals maintained SA and could regain manual control. Participants completed a simulated submarine track management task under varying task load. The automation was designed to facilitate information acquisition and analysis, but did not make task decisions...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Anna Foerster, Robert Wirth, Oliver Herbort, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
The cognitive processes underlying dishonesty, especially the inhibition of automatic honest response tendencies, are reflected in response times and other behavioral measures. Here we suggest that explicit false alibis might have a considerable impact on these cognitive operations. We tested this hypothesis in a controlled experimental setup. Participants first performed several tasks in a preexperimental mission (akin to common mock crime procedures) and received a false alibi afterward. The false alibi stated alternative actions that the participants had to pretend to have performed instead of the actually performed actions...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Christopher Poile
Research on power suggests asymmetric task dependence (sending work resources to a coworker and receiving little in return) should create a power imbalance and promote selfishness. In contrast, work design theory suggests asymmetry can lead to felt responsibility, but this link has not been tested and its theory remains underdeveloped. Drawing on self-determination theory (SDT), this article argues that work design characteristics can encourage the SDT internalization process-the transformation of external reasons for behavior into internal reasons...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Jennifer S Burt, Kimberley A McFarlane, Sarah J Kelly, Michael S Humphreys, Kimberlee Weatherall, Robert G Burrell
Determining brand name similarity is vital in areas of trademark registration and brand confusion. Students rated the orthographic (spelling) similarity of word pairs (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and brand name pairs (Experiment 5). Similarity ratings were consistently higher when words shared beginnings rather than endings, whereas shared pronunciation of the stressed vowel had small and less consistent effects on ratings. In Experiment 3 a behavioral task confirmed the similarity of shared beginnings in lexical processing...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
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