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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113196/is-there-hindsight-bias-without-real-hindsight-conjectures-are-sufficient-to-elicit-hindsight-bias
#1
Ina von der Beck, Ulrike Cress, Aileen Oeberst
After learning about an event, people often mistakenly believe to have predicted what happened all along (hindsight bias). However, what if what has happened is not known, but subject to conjecture? Could conjectures, in the absence of knowledge about the event, elicit the same bias and make people believe they "conjectured it all along", too? We examined this question in 2 studies. Immediately after the disappearance of flight MH370 in March, 2014, we asked N = 432 individuals about the likelihood of a number of possible events...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113195/underlying-wishes-and-nudged-choices
#2
Yiling Lin, Magda Osman, Adam J L Harris, Daniel Read
Is the inferred preference of a deceased relative to donate his or her organs stronger when the choice was made under a mandated rather than under an automatic default (i.e., nudged choice) legislative system? The answer to this is particularly important, because families can, and do, veto the choices of their deceased relatives. In three studies, we asked American and European participants from countries that have either a default opt-in or a default opt-out system to take on the role of a third party to judge the likelihood that an individual's "true wish" was to actually donate his or her organs, given that the decedent was registered to donate on the organ donation register...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035558/actual-vs-perceived-eyewitness-accuracy-and-confidence-and-the-featural-justification-effect
#3
David G Dobolyi, Chad S Dodson
This article documents a contradiction between objective eyewitness accuracy and perceived eyewitness accuracy. Objectively, eyewitness identification accuracy (and the confidence-accuracy relationship) is comparably strong when a lineup identification is accompanied by a justification that refers to either an observable feature about the suspect ("I remember his eyes"), an unobservable feature ("He looks like a friend of mine") or just a statement of recognition ("I recognize him")...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035557/towards-an-assistance-strategy-that-reduces-unnecessary-collision-alarms-an-examination-of-the-driver-s-perceived-need-for-assistance
#4
Christina Kaß, Gerald J Schmidt, Wilfried Kunde
The activation of present-day collision avoidance systems mainly depends on the time to collision (TTC) criterion. Such a warning strategy that is based on kinematic criteria alone often yields warning signals that drivers perceive to be unnecessary. To increase system effectiveness and user acceptance, the reduction of alert rates by tailoring system activation to drivers' needs is of great interest. The present driving simulator study investigated if drivers' perceived need for assistance in potential collision situations is primarily predicted by the TTC or by drivers' subjective hazard perception that was assumed to be influenced by the current maneuver intention...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035556/on-the-ignorance-of-group-level-effects-the-tragedy-of-personnel-evaluation
#5
Momme von Sydow, Niels Braus, Ulrike Hahn
In social-dilemma situations (e.g., public-good games), people may pursue their local self-interests, thereby lowering the overall payoff of their group and, paradoxically, even their individual payoffs as a result. Likewise, in inner-individual dilemmas, even without conflict of interest between persons, people may pursue local goals at the expense of overall utility. Our experiments investigate such dissociations of individual- and group-level effects in the context of personnel evaluation and selection. Participants were given the role of human resource managers selecting workers to optimize the overall payoff for the company...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024213/godless-by-association-deficits-in-trust-mediate-antiatheist-stigma-by-association
#6
Andrew S Franks, Kyle C Scherr, Bryan Gibson
In the United States, atheists elicit high levels of sociopolitical rejection that is primarily motivated by a lack of trust. Across three studies, we use evaluative conditioning (EC) as a theoretical framework to evaluate whether these deficits extended to candidates who are not atheists themselves but merely perceived to be associated with atheism. Study 1 found that implicit trust, explicit trust, and voting intentions toward target candidates were all negatively impacted by an EC procedure that paired a candidate's face with words related to atheism...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024212/a-bias-for-action-in-cancer-screening
#7
Laura D Scherer, K D Valentine, Niraj Patel, S Glenn Baker, Angela Fagerlin
Research that has explored public enthusiasm for cancer screening has suggested that the public may be overly enthusiastic about being screened with certain tests, and this has been attributed, in part, to lack of knowledge about the risks and benefits. In this article the authors considered the possibility that some people may be enthusiastic about screening even when they are informed and also accept that the test unquestionably does not save lives. Two studies were conducted, one that involved a nationally representative U...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024211/experts-integrate-explicit-contextual-priors-and-environmental-information-to-improve-anticipation-efficiency
#8
N Viktor Gredin, Daniel T Bishop, David P Broadbent, Allan Tucker, A Mark Williams
The understanding of how experts integrate prior situation-specific information (i.e., contextual priors ) with emergent visual information when performing dynamic and temporally constrained tasks is limited. We used a soccer-based anticipation task to examine the ability of expert and novice players to integrate prior information about an opponent's action tendencies with unfolding environmental information such as opponent kinematics. We recorded gaze behaviors and ongoing expectations during task performance...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024210/making-the-leader-identity-salient-can-be-demotivating
#9
Krishna Savani, Xi Zou
Extensive research has shown that when a social identity is made salient, people tend to embrace positive identities (e.g., being a voter) and shy away from negative identities (e.g., being a cheater). The present research proposes that this effect of identity salience could be reversed for identities that cannot be attained or rejected by engaging in simple behaviors (e.g., being a leader). People perceived leadership education programs that highlighted the leader identity as more difficult (Studies 1 and 3), and were less interested in signing up for such programs (Study 2)...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024209/disadvantaged-but-not-dissatisfied-how-agency-ameliorates-negative-reactions-to-unequal-pay
#10
Shoham Choshen-Hillel, Alex Shaw, Eugene M Caruso
Workers tend to be dissatisfied when their peers receive more than them for doing the same work. The fear of creating such dissatisfaction may cause leaders in organizations to waste resources that cannot be allocated equally between their workers. Here we explore the effectiveness of a procedure designed to reduce such waste by empowering workers with the agency to decide whether or not to pay other workers more. We predict that workers' sense of agency reduces their dissatisfaction with others' better outcomes...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024208/retrieval-effort-cues-predict-eyewitness-accuracy
#11
Torun Lindholm, Fredrik U Jönsson, Marco Tullio Liuzza
Previous research has documented that correct eyewitness memories are more rapidly recalled and recognized than are incorrect ones, suggesting that retrieval ease is diagnostic of memory accuracy. Building on these findings, the current research explores whether verbal and paraverbal cues to retrieval effort could be used to determine the accuracy of honestly reported eyewitness statements about a crime event. Moreover, we examine the relative role of such effort cues and witnesses' subjective confidence in predicting memory accuracy...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137998/the-adding-and-averaging-effect-in-bundles-of-information-preference-reversals-across-joint-and-separate-evaluation
#12
Kimberlee Weaver, Stephen M Garcia
When does adding mildly favorable information (e.g., job experience at the Railway Credit Union) alongside highly favorable (e.g., job experience at Goldman Sachs) increase versus decrease evaluations of a bundle of information like a resume or product bundle? We posit that whether that package of information is evaluated by itself-in separate evaluation (SE)-or side by side with another package-in joint evaluation (JE)-matters. Across a variety of contexts, four studies show that people "average" in SE and "add" in JE...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047753/understanding-the-causes-of-adapting-and-failing-to-adapt-to-time-pressure-in-a-complex-multistimulus-environment
#13
Hector Palada, Andrew Neal, Rachel Tay, Andrew Heathcote
We examined how people respond to time pressure factors in a complex, multistimulus environment. In Study 1, we manipulated time pressure by varying information load via stimulus complexity and the number of stimuli. In Study 2, we replaced the complexity manipulation with deadline-that is, the time available to classify stimuli presented within a trial. We identified several ways that people can adapt to time pressure: increasing the rate of information processing via effort or arousal, changing strategy by lowering response caution, and adjusting response bias...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047752/remembering-to-execute-deferred-tasks-in-simulated-air-traffic-control-the-impact-of-interruptions
#14
Michael David Wilson, Simon Farrell, Troy A W Visser, Shayne Loft
Air traffic controllers can sometimes forget to complete deferred tasks, with safety implications. In two experiments, we examined how the presence and type of interruptions influenced the probability and speed at which individuals remembered to perform deferred tasks in simulated air traffic control (ATC). Participants were required to accept/handoff aircraft, detect aircraft conflicts, and perform two deferred tasks: a deferred conflict task that required remembering to resolve a conflict in the future and a deferred handoff task that required substituting an alternative aircraft handoff action in place of routine handoff action...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963882/explicit-versus-actionable-knowledge-the-influence-of-explaining-graphical-conventions-on-interpretation-of-hurricane-forecast-visualizations
#15
Alexander P Boone, Peri Gunalp, Mary Hegarty
Visualizations of uncertainty in data are often presented to the public without explanations of their graphical conventions and are often misunderstood by nonexperts. The "cone of uncertainty" used to visualize hurricane forecasts is a case in point. Here we examined the effects of explaining graphical conventions on understanding of the cone of uncertainty. In two experiments, participants were given instructions with and without an explanation of these graphical conventions. We examined the effect of these instructions on both explicit statements of common misconceptions and users interpretation of hurricane forecasts, specifically their predictions of damage from the hurricane over space and time...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927274/display-of-major-risk-categories-for-android-apps
#16
Jing Chen, Huangyi Ge, Scott Moore, Weining Yang, Ninghui Li, Robert W Proctor
Communicating cybersecurity risks to mobile-device users is essential. However, existing means of conveying the risks through detailed permission lists are ineffective. Risk indexes that convey overall risk are effective at influencing app-selection decisions, but many users want more information. We examined how users assess the risks associated with downloading applications on the Android platform by comparing various graphical formats of intermediate-level risk displays containing three risk categories: personal privacy; monetary loss; device stability...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733619/the-persistent-low-prevalence-effect-in-unfamiliar-face-matching-the-roles-of-feedback-and-criterion-shifting
#17
Megan H Papesh, Laura L Heisick, Karyn A Warner
In visual search, relatively infrequent targets are more likely to be "missed," a phenomenon known as the low-prevalence effect (LPE). Across five experiments, we examined the LPE in unfamiliar face matching, focusing on the roles of feedback and criterion shifting. Across experiments, observers made identity match/mismatch decisions to photograph pairs, and we manipulated target (i.e., identity mismatch) prevalence. Experiment 1 established the necessity of feedback for the LPE; observers were only sensitive to prevalence disparities when provided trial-level feedback...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723010/when-pretesting-fails-to-enhance-learning-concepts-from-reading-texts
#18
Hannah Hausman, Matthew G Rhodes
Prior research suggests that people can learn more from reading a text when they attempt to answer pretest questions first. Specifically, pretests on factual information explicitly stated in a text increases the likelihood that participants can answer identical questions after reading than if they had not answered pretest questions. Yet, a central goal of education is to develop deep conceptual understanding. The present experiments investigated whether conceptual pretests facilitate learning concepts from reading texts...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389161/the-role-of-estimator-variables-in-eyewitness-identification
#19
Carolyn Semmler, John Dunn, Laura Mickes, John T Wixted
Estimator variables are factors that can affect the accuracy of eyewitness identifications but that are outside of the control of the criminal justice system. Examples include (1) the duration of exposure to the perpetrator, (2) the passage of time between the crime and the identification (retention interval), (3) the distance between the witness and the perpetrator at the time of the crime. Suboptimal estimator variables (e.g., long distance) have long been thought to reduce the reliability of eyewitness identifications (IDs), but recent evidence suggests that this is not true of IDs made with high confidence and may or may not be true of IDs made with lower confidence...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172560/the-testing-effect-in-a-social-setting-does-retrieval-practice-benefit-a-listener
#20
Magdalena Abel, Henry L Roediger
Retrieval practice boosts retention relative to other study strategies like restudying, a finding known as the testing effect. In 3 experiments, the authors investigated testing in social contexts. Subjects participated in pairs and engaged in restudy and retrieval practice of vocabulary pairs. During retrieval practice, 1 subject acted as speaker (overt practice); the other subject listened and monitored the speaker's responses (covert practice). All experiments showed testing effects, with overt practice by speakers enhancing recall relative to restudy after a 2-day delay...
September 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
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