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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639797/the-dark-side-of-fluency-fluent-names-increase-drug-dosing
#1
Simone Dohle, Amanda K Montoya
Prior research has demonstrated that high processing fluency influences a wide range of evaluations and behaviors in a positive way. But can high processing fluency also lead to potentially hazardous medical behavior? In 2 controlled experiments, we demonstrate that increasing the fluency of pharmaceutical drug names increases drug dosage. Experiment 1 shows that drugs with fluent names are perceived as safer than those with disfluent names and this effect increases drug dosage for both synthetically produced and herbal drugs...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604013/improving-self-regulated-learning-with-a-retrieval-practice-intervention
#2
Robert Ariel, Jeffrey D Karpicke
Repeated retrieval practice is a powerful learning tool for promoting long-term retention, but students use this tool ineffectively when regulating their learning. The current experiments evaluated the efficacy of a minimal intervention aimed at improving students' self-regulated use of repeated retrieval practice. Across 2 experiments, students made decisions about when to study, engage in retrieval practice, or stop learning a set of foreign language word pairs. Some students received direct instruction about how to use repeated retrieval practice...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604012/optimizing-the-balance-between-task-automation-and-human-manual-control-in-simulated-submarine-track-management
#3
Stephanie I Chen, Troy A W Visser, Samuel Huf, Shayne Loft
Automation can improve operator performance and reduce workload, but can also degrade operator situation awareness (SA) and the ability to regain manual control. In 3 experiments, we examined the extent to which automation could be designed to benefit performance while ensuring that individuals maintained SA and could regain manual control. Participants completed a simulated submarine track management task under varying task load. The automation was designed to facilitate information acquisition and analysis, but did not make task decisions...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557488/lying-upside-down-alibis-reverse-cognitive-burdens-of-dishonesty
#4
Anna Foerster, Robert Wirth, Oliver Herbort, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
The cognitive processes underlying dishonesty, especially the inhibition of automatic honest response tendencies, are reflected in response times and other behavioral measures. Here we suggest that explicit false alibis might have a considerable impact on these cognitive operations. We tested this hypothesis in a controlled experimental setup. Participants first performed several tasks in a preexperimental mission (akin to common mock crime procedures) and received a false alibi afterward. The false alibi stated alternative actions that the participants had to pretend to have performed instead of the actually performed actions...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541077/why-would-i-help-my-coworker-exploring-asymmetric-task-dependence-and-the-self-determination-theory-internalization-process
#5
Christopher Poile
Research on power suggests asymmetric task dependence (sending work resources to a coworker and receiving little in return) should create a power imbalance and promote selfishness. In contrast, work design theory suggests asymmetry can lead to felt responsibility, but this link has not been tested and its theory remains underdeveloped. Drawing on self-determination theory (SDT), this article argues that work design characteristics can encourage the SDT internalization process-the transformation of external reasons for behavior into internal reasons...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541076/brand-name-confusion-subjective-and-objective-measures-of-orthographic-similarity
#6
Jennifer S Burt, Kimberley A McFarlane, Sarah J Kelly, Michael S Humphreys, Kimberlee Weatherall, Robert G Burrell
Determining brand name similarity is vital in areas of trademark registration and brand confusion. Students rated the orthographic (spelling) similarity of word pairs (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and brand name pairs (Experiment 5). Similarity ratings were consistently higher when words shared beginnings rather than endings, whereas shared pronunciation of the stressed vowel had small and less consistent effects on ratings. In Experiment 3 a behavioral task confirmed the similarity of shared beginnings in lexical processing...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541075/low-prevalence-search-for-cancers-in-mammograms-evidence-using-laboratory-experiments-and-computer-aided-detection
#7
Melina A Kunar, Derrick G Watson, Sian Taylor-Phillips, Julia Wolska
People miss a large proportion of targets when they only appear rarely. This Low Prevalence (LP) Effect could lead to serious consequences if it occurred in the real-world task of searching for cancers in mammograms. Using a novel mammogram search task, we asked participants to search for a prespecified cancer (Experiments 1-2) or a range of masses (Experiments 3-5) under high or low prevalence conditions. Experiment 1 showed that an LP Effect occurred using these stimuli. Experiment 2 tested an overreliance hypothesis and showed that the use of Computer Aided Detection (CAD) led to fewer missed cancers with a valid CAD prompt yet, a large proportion of cancers were missed when CAD was incorrect...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447809/understanding-the-cognitive-processes-involved-in-writing-to-learn
#8
Kathleen M Arnold, Sharda Umanath, Kara Thio, Walter B Reilly, Mark A McDaniel, Elizabeth J Marsh
Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414484/can-we-apply-the-findings-of-forster-and-lavie-2008-on-the-generalizability-of-attentional-capture-effects-under-varying-levels-of-perceptual-load
#9
Alejandro Lleras, Hengqing Chu, Simona Buetti
Perceptual Load theory states that the degree of perceptual load on a display determines the amount of leftover attentional resources that the system can use to process distracting information. An important corollary of this theory is that the amount of perceptual load determines the vulnerability of the attention system to being captured by completely irrelevant stimuli, predicting larger amounts of capture with low perceptual load than with high perceptual load. This prediction was first confirmed by Forster and Lavie (2008)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368189/commercial-motor-vehicle-driving-performance-an-examination-of-attentional-resources-and-control-using-a-driving-simulator
#10
Benjamin McManus, Karen Heaton, Despina Stavrinos
Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers often multitask when driving to increase travel efficiency and to increase alertness. Secondary tasks have been shown to impact CMV driving differentially, and attentional resources have been posited as a key factor. However, underlying mechanisms of secondary task engagement on attention and task performance have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is unknown if attentional control moderates these differential effects of secondary tasks and task performance. The current study aimed to examine decrements in driving performance from a resource-control theory by determining the specific relation between attentional resources and attentional control...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368188/an-easy-game-for-frauds-effects-of-professional-experience-and-time-pressure-on-passport-matching-performance
#11
Benedikt Emanuel Wirth, Claus-Christian Carbon
Despite extensive research on unfamiliar face matching, little is known about factors that might affect matching performance in real-life scenarios. We conducted 2 experiments to investigate the effects of several such factors on unfamiliar face-matching performance in a passport-check scenario. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effect of professional experience on passport-matching performance. The matching performance of 96 German Federal Police officers working at Munich Airport was compared with that of 48 novices without specific face-matching experience...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358548/does-retrieval-practice-enhance-learning-and-transfer-relative-to-restudy-for-term-definition-facts
#12
Steven C Pan, Timothy C Rickard
In many pedagogical contexts, term-definition facts that link a concept term (e.g., "vision") with its corresponding definition (e.g., "the ability to see") are learned. Does retrieval practice involving retrieval of the term (given the definition) or the definition (given the term) enhance subsequent recall, relative to restudy of the entire fact? Moreover, does any benefit of retrieval practice for the term transfer to later recall of the definition, or vice versa? We addressed those questions in 4 experiments...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333482/the-forward-testing-effect-on-self-regulated-study-time-allocation-and-metamemory-monitoring
#13
Chunliang Yang, Rosalind Potts, David R Shanks
The forward testing effect describes the finding that testing of previously studied information potentiates learning and retention of new information. Here we asked whether interim testing boosts self-regulated study time allocation when learning new information and explored its effect on metamemory monitoring. Participants had unlimited time to study five lists of Euskara-English word pairs (Experiment 1) or four lists of face-name pairs (Experiment 2). In a no interim test group, which was only tested on the final list, study time decreased across successive lists...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277691/timing-of-quizzes-during-learning-effects-on-motivation-and-retention
#14
Alice F Healy, Matt Jones, Lakshmi A Lalchandani, Lindsay Anderson Tack
This article investigates how the timing of quizzes given during learning impacts retention of studied material. We investigated the hypothesis that interspersing quizzes among study blocks increases student engagement, thus improving learning. Participants learned 8 artificial facts about each of 8 plant categories, with the categories blocked during learning. Quizzes about 4 of the 8 facts from each category occurred either immediately after studying the facts for that category (standard) or after studying the facts from all 8 categories (postponed)...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263647/forgetting-induced-speeding-can-prospective-memory-failure-account-for-drivers-exceeding-the-speed-limit
#15
Vanessa K Bowden, Troy A W Visser, Shayne Loft
It is generally assumed that drivers speed intentionally because of factors such as frustration with the speed limit or general impatience. The current study examined whether speeding following an interruption could be better explained by unintentional prospective memory (PM) failure. In these situations, interrupting drivers may create a PM task, with speeding the result of drivers forgetting their newly encoded intention to travel at a lower speed after interruption. Across 3 simulated driving experiments, corrected or uncorrected speeding in recently reduced speed zones (from 70 km/h to 40 km/h) increased on average from 8% when uninterrupted to 33% when interrupted...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287796/-multisensory-brand-search-how-the-meaning-of-sounds-guides-consumers-visual-attention-correction-to-knoeferle-et-al-2016
#16
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Multisensory brand search: How the meaning of sounds guides consumers' visual attention" by Klemens M. Knoeferle, Pia Knoeferle, Carlos Velasco and Charles Spence (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2016[Jun], Vol 22[2], 196-210). In the article, under Experiment 2, Design and Stimuli, the set number of target products and visual distractors reported in the second paragraph should be 20 and 13, respectively: "On each trial, the 16 products shown in the display were randomly selected from a set of 20 products belonging to different categories...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287795/undermining-position-effects-in-choices-from-arrays-with-implications-for-police-lineups
#17
Matthew A Palmer, James D Sauer, Glenys A Holt
Choices from arrays are often characterized by position effects, such as edge-aversion. We investigated position effects when participants attempted to pick a suspect from an array similar to a police photo lineup. A reanalysis of data from 2 large-scale field studies showed that choices made under realistic conditions-closely matching eyewitness identification decisions in police investigations-displayed edge-aversion and bias to choose from the top row (Study 1). In a series of experiments (Studies 2a-2c and 3), participants guessing the location of a suspect exhibited edge-aversion regardless of whether the lineup was constructed to maximize the chances of the suspect being picked, to ensure the suspect did not stand out, or randomly...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165276/climate-change-helplessness-and-the-de-moralization-of-individual-energy-behavior
#18
Erika Salomon, Jesse L Preston, Melanie B Tannenbaum
Although most people understand the threat of climate change, they do little to modify their own energy conservation behavior. One reason for this gap between belief and behavior may be that individual actions seem unimpactful and therefore are not morally relevant. This research investigates how climate change helplessness-belief that one's actions cannot affect climate change-can undermine the moralization of climate change and personal energy conservation. In Study 1, climate change efficacy predicted both moralization of energy use and energy conservation intentions beyond individual belief in climate change...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150962/passive-restraint-reduces-visually-induced-motion-sickness-in-older-adults
#19
Behrang Keshavarz, Alison C Novak, Lawrence J Hettinger, Thomas A Stoffregen, Jennifer L Campos
Virtual environments such as those used in video games and driving/flight simulators are used for entertainment and training, but are often associated with visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). In this study, we asked whether passive restraint of the head and torso could reduce VIMS in younger and older adults. Twenty-one younger (18-35 years) and 16 older (65 + years) healthy adults engaged in a simulated driving task using a console video game while seated. On different days, participants completed 2 conditions: (a) in the unrestrained condition, participants were seated in a chair without a backrest and were free to move and (b) in the restrained condition, participants' head and torso were passively restrained to the backrest and headrest of the seat using tense elastic strips...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080097/-you-must-be-lying-because-i-don-t-understand-you-language-proficiency-and-lie-detection-correction-to-elliott-and-leach-2016
#20
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "You must be lying because I don't understand you: Language proficiency and lie detection" by Elizabeth Elliott and Amy-May Leach (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2016[Dec], Vol 22[4], 488-499). In the Results section, under "Signal detection theory," the first sentence of the second paragraph contains errors. The correct sentence is provided in this erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-59419-006.) We examined the impact of interviewees' language proficiencies on observers' lie detection performance...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
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