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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied

Corinne A Moss-Racusin, Evava S Pietri, Erin P Hennes, John F Dovidio, Victoria L Brescoll, Gina Roussos, Jo Handelsman
Gender biases contribute to the underrepresentation of women in STEM. In response, the scientific community has called for methods to reduce bias, but few validated interventions exist. Thus, an interdisciplinary group of researchers and filmmakers partnered to create VIDS (Video Interventions for Diversity in STEM), which are short videos that expose participants to empirical findings from published gender bias research in 1 of 3 conditions. One condition illustrated findings using narratives (compelling stories), and the second condition presented the same results using expert interviews (straightforward facts)...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Megan H Papesh, Laura L Heisick, Karyn A Warner
In visual search, relatively infrequent targets are more likely to be "missed," a phenomenon known as the low-prevalence effect (LPE). Across five experiments, we examined the LPE in unfamiliar face matching, focusing on the roles of feedback and criterion shifting. Across experiments, observers made identity match/mismatch decisions to photograph pairs, and we manipulated target (i.e., identity mismatch) prevalence. Experiment 1 established the necessity of feedback for the LPE; observers were only sensitive to prevalence disparities when provided trial-level feedback...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Ly Hart-Smith, Michelle L Moulds
processing and observer vantage perspective have been associated with negative consequences in depression. We investigated the relationship between mode of processing and vantage perspective bidirectionally in high and low dysphoric individuals, using abstract and concrete descriptions of experimenter-provided everyday actions. When vantage perspective was manipulated and processing mode was measured (Study 1a), participants who adopted a field perspective did not differ from those who adopted an observer perspective in their preference for abstract descriptions, irrespective of dysphoria status...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Hannah Hausman, Matthew G Rhodes
Prior research suggests that people can learn more from reading a text when they attempt to answer pretest questions first. Specifically, pretests on factual information explicitly stated in a text increases the likelihood that participants can answer identical questions after reading than if they had not answered pretest questions. Yet, a central goal of education is to develop deep conceptual understanding. The present experiments investigated whether conceptual pretests facilitate learning concepts from reading texts...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Sue Brouwers, Mark Wiggins, Barbara Griffin
The detection of critical cues is a hallmark of expert performance, and in high-risk settings, it can prevent serious incidents. A sensitivity to cues and a proclivity to rapidly acquire patterns during routinized tasks, however, can miscue performance when these patterns change. In the present study, 75 university students undertook an assessment of cue utilization and engaged in a 24-min rail control simulation. The rail control task involved monitoring with periodic interventions to reroute trains, according to a train-track matching rule...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Stacey Wood, Pi-Ju Liu, Yaniv Hanoch, Patricia M Xi, Lukas Klapatch
Mass marketing scams extract an enormous toll, yet the literature on scams is just emerging. In Experiment 1, 211 adults reviewed a solicitation and rated their intention of contacting an "activation number" for a prize. Scarcity and authority were manipulated. Many (48.82%) indicated some willingness to contact to "activate" the winnings. Intention of responding was inversely related to the perception of risk (b = -.441, p < .001) and positively associated with perception of benefits (b = ...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Lorena Lobo, David Travieso, David M Jacobs, Matthew Rodger, Cathy M Craig
This study investigates how active exploration helps users of sensory substitution devices (SSDs) to detect action-relevant information. A vibrotactile SSD was developed that generates stimulation that is contingent on the users' movements. Target direction was specified by the location of the vibratory stimulation, and target distance by the size and intensity of the pattern of stimulation. A series of experiments was performed with blindfolded participants. In Experiments 1a to 1c, participants used the SSD to align their central body axis with prespecified targets...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Jeroen G B Loman, Barbara C N Müller, Arnoud Oude Groote Beverborg, Rick B van Baaren, Moniek Buijzen
Self-persuasion (self-generation of arguments) is often a more effective influence technique than direct persuasion (providing arguments). However, the application of this technique in health media communications has received limited attention. In two experiments, it was examined whether self-persuasion can be successfully applied to antialcohol media communications by framing the message as an open-ended question. In Experiment 1 (N = 131) cognitive reactions to antialcohol posters framed either as open-ended questions or statements were examined...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Abraham M Rutchick, Michael L Slepian, Monica O Reyes, Lindsay N Pleskus, Hal E Hershfield
To the extent that people feel more continuity between their present and future selves, they are more likely to make decisions with the future self in mind. The current studies examined future self-continuity in the context of health. In Study 1, people reported the extent to which they felt similar and connected to their future self; people with more present-future continuity reported having better subjective health across a variety of measures. In Study 2, people were randomly assigned to write a letter to themselves either three months or 20 years into the future; people for whom continuity with the distant future self was enhanced exercised more in the days following the writing task...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Shana K Carpenter, Shuhebur Rahman, Kyle Perkins
Studies have shown that prequestions-asking students questions before they learn something-benefit memory retention. Prequestions would seem to be a useful technique for enhancing students' learning in their courses, but classroom investigations of prequestions have been sparse. In the current study, students from an introductory psychology course were randomly assigned to receive prequestions over each upcoming lesson (prequestion group) or to not receive prequestions (control group). At the end of class, students in the prequestion group remembered the material better than students in the control group, but this benefit was specific to the information that was asked about in the prequestions...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Margaret A Grounds, Susan L Joslyn
Research suggests that people make better weather-related decisions when they are given numeric probabilities for critical outcomes (Joslyn & Leclerc, 2012, 2013). However, it is unclear whether all users can take advantage of probabilistic forecasts to the same extent. The research reported here assessed key cognitive and demographic factors to determine their relationship to the use of probabilistic forecasts to improve decision quality. In two studies, participants decided between spending resources to prevent icy conditions on roadways or risk a larger penalty when freezing temperatures occurred...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Daniel G Morrow
Daniel G. Morrow introduces himself as the fifth editor of the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied (JEPA ). The journal is the premier outlet for "use-inspired basic research" (Stokes, 2011) in the psychological sciences. (PsycINFO Database Record
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Karl Halvor Teigen, Petra Filkuková, Sigrid Møyner Hohle
Climate projections and other predictions are often described as outcomes that can happen, indicating possibilities that are imaginable, but uncertain. Whereas the meanings of other uncertainty terms have been extensively studied, the uses of modal verbs like can and will have rarely been examined. Participants in five experiments were shown graphs and verbal statements showing projections of future global warming, sea level rise, and other climate-related issues. All studies gave support for the extremity hypothesis, which states that people use can-statements to describe the topmost values in a distribution of outcomes, regardless of their actual probabilities...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Katherine A Rawson, Kalif E Vaughn, Matthew Walsh, John Dunlosky
Research on techniques for enhancing long-term retention has focused almost exclusively on single-session learning conditions. However, even the most potent initial learning manipulations typically do not yield retention levels sufficient for successful performance in many real-world contexts. In contrast, successive relearning (i.e., practicing to some level of mastery in multiple learning sessions) is a promising technique for enhancing long-term retention, but surprisingly few studies have been conducted to date...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Angela Mahr, Dirk Wentura
Findings from three experiments support the conclusion that semantic auditory primes facilitate processing of complex warning icons in the automotive context. In Experiment 1, we used a cross-modal icon identification task with auditory primes and visual icons as targets, presented in a high perceptual load context. Responses were faster for congruent priming in comparison to neutral or incongruent priming. This effect also emerged for different levels of time-compression of auditory primes. In Experiment 2, participants took part in a driving simulation with target icons on a gantry road sign...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Hung-Tao Chen, Robert F Lorch
Text-to-speech (TTS) programs often do a poor job of translating writing devices such as headings from visual into audio mode. Previous research studies have attempted to address this problem but these studies have mainly used heading detection tasks. The current study seeks to investigate (a) whether the presence of audio headings improves performance in natural learning tasks and (b) the type of heading rendering that is the most useful in natural learning tasks. Two experiments compared the effects of two types of rendering strategies on note-taking and cued recall...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Nicole Votolato Montgomery, Priyali Rajagopal
Across 5 studies, we examine the effect of prior brand commitment on the creation of false memories about product experience after reading online product reviews. We find that brand commitment and the valence of reviews to which consumers are exposed, interact to affect the incidence of false memories. Thus, highly committed consumers are more susceptible to the creation of false experience memories on exposure to positive versus negative reviews, whereas low commitment consumers exhibit similar levels of false memories in response to both positive and negative reviews...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Clinton S Weeks, Michael S Humphreys, T Bettina Cornwell
Brands engaged in sponsorship of events commonly have objectives that depend on consumer memory for the sponsor-event relationship (e.g., sponsorship awareness). Consumers however, often misattribute sponsorships to nonsponsor competitor brands, indicating erroneous memory for these relationships. The current research uses an item and relational memory framework to reveal sponsor brands may inadvertently foster this misattribution when they communicate relational linkages to events. Effects can be explained via differential roles of communicating item information (information that supports processing item distinctiveness) versus relational information (information that supports processing relationships among items) in contributing to memory outcomes...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Alex Muhl-Richardson, Hayward J Godwin, Matthew Garner, Julie A Hadwin, Simon P Liversedge, Nick Donnelly
Many real-world tasks now involve monitoring visual representations of data that change dynamically over time. Monitoring dynamically changing displays for the onset of targets can be done in two ways: detecting targets directly, post-onset, or predicting their onset from the prior state of distractors. In the present study, participants' eye movements were measured as they monitored arrays of 108 colored squares whose colors changed systematically over time. Across three experiments, the data show that participants detected the onset of targets both directly and predictively...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Carolyn Semmler, John Dunn, Laura Mickes, John T Wixted
Estimator variables are factors that can affect the accuracy of eyewitness identifications but that are outside of the control of the criminal justice system. Examples include (1) the duration of exposure to the perpetrator, (2) the passage of time between the crime and the identification (retention interval), (3) the distance between the witness and the perpetrator at the time of the crime. Suboptimal estimator variables (e.g., long distance) have long been thought to reduce the reliability of eyewitness identifications (IDs), but recent evidence suggests that this is not true of IDs made with high confidence and may or may not be true of IDs made with lower confidence...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
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