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Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR

Cathleen O Erwin, Amy Yarbrough Landry, Avery C Livingston, Ashley Dias
This study reviews and synthesizes empirical research literature focusing on the relationship between boards of directors and organizational effectiveness of U.S. hospitals. The study examines literature published in scholarly journals during the period of 1991-2017. Fifty-one empirical articles were identified that met the study's inclusion criteria. A framework from the corporate governance and nonprofit governance literature is used to classify the articles according to level of analysis (individual actors, governing bodies, organizations, and networks, alliances and multiorganizational initiatives) and focus of research (formal structure and behavioral dynamics-including informal structures and processes)...
January 1, 2018: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Paula H Song, Shoou-Yih Daniel Lee, Matthew Toth, Simone R Singh, Gary J Young
Gender pay equity is a desirable social value and an important strategy to fill every organizational stratum with gender-diverse talent to fulfill an organization's goals and mission. This study used national, large-sample data to examine gender difference in CEO compensation among not-for-profit hospitals. Results showed the average unadjusted annual compensation for female CEOs in 2009 was $425,085 compared with $581,121 for male CEOs. With few exceptions, the difference existed across all types of not-for-profit hospitals...
January 1, 2018: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Michal HornĂ½, Alan B Cohen, Richard Duszak, Cindy L Christiansen, Michael Shwartz, James F Burgess
Dense breast tissue is a common finding that decreases the sensitivity of mammography in detecting cancer. Many states have recently enacted dense breast notification (DBN) laws to provide patients with information to help them make better-informed decisions about their health. To test whether DBN legislation affected the probability of screening mammography follow-up by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we examined the proportion of times screening mammography was followed by ultrasound or MRI for a series of months pre- and post-legislation...
January 1, 2018: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Marina Soley-Bori, Theodore Stefos, James F Burgess, Justin K Benzer
Quality of care worries and rising costs have resulted in a widespread interest in enhancing the efficiency of health care delivery. One area of increasing interest is in promoting teamwork as a way of coordinating efforts to reduce costs and improve quality, and identifying the characteristics of the work environment that support teamwork. Relational climate is a measure of the work environment that captures shared employee perceptions of teamwork, conflict resolution, and diversity acceptance. Previous research has found a positive association between relational climate and quality of care, yet its relationship with costs remains unexplored...
January 1, 2018: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Jean M Mitchell, Jack Hadley
Back pain treatments are costly and frequently involve use of procedures that may have minimal benefit on improving patients' functional status. Two recent studies evaluated adverse outcomes (mortality and major medical complications) following receipt of spinal surgery but neither examined whether such treatments affected functional ability. Using a sample composed of Medicare patients with persistent back pain, we examined whether functional ability improved after treatment, comparing patients treated with back surgery or spinal injections to nonrecipients...
January 1, 2018: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Courtney Harold Van Houtven, Katherine E M Miller, Emily C O'Brien, Jennifer L Wolff, Jennifer Lindquist, Margaret Kabat, Margaret Campbell-Kotler, Jennifer Henius, Corrine I Voils
Despite the important role that family caregivers play managing the care of persons with complex health needs, little is known about how caregivers perceive themselves to be recognized and valued by health care professionals. Our objective was to develop and validate a novel measure, the CAregiver Perceptions About Commun Ication with Clinical Team members (CAPACITY) instrument. Questions focus on perceived quality of communication with the health care team and the extent to which caregivers believe that the health care team considers their capacity and preferences in decision making...
December 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Kevin E Hansen, Kathryn Hyer, Amanda A Holup, Kelly M Smith, Brent J Small
Quality of care in nursing homes has been evaluated from varying perspectives, but few studies analyze complaints made to surveyors. This study analyzed complaints, investigations, and citations for nursing homes nationwide. Using the complaint and survey data sets, analyses match nursing home complaints with findings of investigations conducted. Results showed the average complaint rate was 13.3 complaints per 100 residents and that 43.2% of complaint allegations were substantiated, with complaints about care and services provided being the most prevalent...
December 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Brystana G Kaufman, B Steven Spivack, Sally C Stearns, Paula H Song, Emily C O'Brien
Since 2010, more than 900 accountable care organizations (ACOs) have formed payment contracts with public and private insurers in the United States; however, there has not been a systematic evaluation of the evidence studying impacts of ACOs on care and outcomes across payer types. This review evaluates the quality of evidence regarding the association of public and private ACOs with health service use, processes, and outcomes of care. The 42 articles identified studied ACO contracts with Medicare ( N = 24 articles), Medicaid ( N = 5), commercial ( N = 11), and all payers ( N = 2)...
December 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Sarah Derrett, Kathryn E Gunter, Ari Samaranayaka, Sara J Singer, Robert S Nocon, Michael T Quinn, Mary Breheny, Amanda Campbell, Cynthia T Schaefer, Loretta J Heuer, Marshall H Chin
This article discusses development and testing of the Provider and Staff Perceptions of Integrated Care Survey, a 21-item questionnaire, informed by Singer and colleagues' seven-construct framework. Questionnaires were sent to 2,936 providers and staff at 100 federally qualified health centers and other safety net clinics in 10 Midwestern U.S. states; 332 were ineligible, leaving 2,604 potential participants. Following 4 mailings, 781 (30%) responded from 97 health centers. Item analyses, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were undertaken...
December 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Min Chen, David C Grabowski
This study examines whether the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP), which penalizes hospitals with excess readmissions for certain conditions, has reduced hospital readmissions and led to unintended consequences. Our analyses of Florida hospital administrative data between 2008 and 2014 find that the HRRP resulted in a reduction in the likelihood of readmissions by 1% to 2% for traditional Medicare (TM) beneficiaries with heart failure, pneumonia, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Readmission rates for Medicare Advantage (MA) beneficiaries and privately insured patients with heart attack and heart failure decreased even more than TM patients with the same target condition (e...
December 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Vivian Ho, Joseph S Ross, Claudia A Steiner, Aditya Mandawat, Marah Short, Meei-Hsiang Ku-Goto, Harlan M Krumholz
Multiple studies claim that public place smoking bans are associated with reductions in smoking-related hospitalization rates. No national study using complete hospitalization counts by area that accounts for contemporaneous controls including state cigarette taxes has been conducted. We examine the association between county-level smoking-related hospitalization rates and comprehensive smoking bans in 28 states from 2001 to 2008. Differences-in-differences analysis measures changes in hospitalization rates before versus after introducing bans in bars, restaurants, and workplaces, controlling for cigarette taxes, adjusting for local health and provider characteristics...
December 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Elizabeth M Goldberg, Amal N Trivedi, Vincent Mor, Hye-Young Jung, Momotazur Rahman
The 2003 Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) increased payments to Medicare Advantage plans and instituted a new risk-adjustment payment model to reduce plans' incentives to enroll healthier Medicare beneficiaries and avoid those with higher costs. Whether the MMA reduced risk selection remains debatable. This study uses mortality differences, nursing home utilization, and switch rates to assess whether the MMA successfully decreased risk selection from 2000 to 2012. We found no decrease in the mortality difference or adjusted difference in nursing home use between plan beneficiaries pre- and post the MMA...
December 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Steven C Martino, Rachel Grob, Sarah Davis, Andrew M Parker, Melissa L Finucane, Jennifer L Cerully, Lise Rybowski, Dale Shaller, Mark Schlesinger
We conducted a simulated clinician-choice experiment, comparing choices and decision-making processes of participants ( N = 688) randomized among four experimental arms: a conventional website reporting only quantitative performance information, a website reporting both qualitative (patient comments) and quantitative information, the second website augmented by a decision aid (labeling of patient comments), and the decision-aided website further augmented by the presence of a trained navigator. Introducing patient comments enhanced engagement with the quality information but led to a decline in decision quality, particularly the consistency of choices with consumers' stated preferences...
November 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Étienne Gaudette, Gwyn C Pauley, Julie M Zissimopoulos
Over the past decade, the number of studies examining the effects of health insurance has grown rapidly, along with the breadth of outcomes considered. In light of growing research in this area and the intense policy focus on coverage expansions in the United States, there is need for an up-to-date and comprehensive literature review and synthesis of lessons learned. We reviewed 112 experimental or quasi-experimental studies on the effects of health insurance prior to people becoming eligible for Medicare on a broad set of outcomes...
November 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
S Marie Harvey, Lisa P Oakley, Jangho Yoon, Jeff Luck
In 2012, Oregon's Medicaid program implemented a comprehensive accountable care model delivered through coordinated care organizations (CCOs). Because CCOs are expected to improve utilization of services and health outcomes, neonatal and infant outcomes may be important indicators of their impact. Estimating difference-in-differences models, we compared prepost CCO changes in outcomes (e.g., low birth weight, abnormal conditions, 5-minute Apgar score, congenital anomalies, and infant mortality) between Medicaid and non-Medicaid births among 99,924 infants born in Oregon during 2011 and 2013...
November 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Hyunjee Kim, Christina J Charlesworth, K John McConnell, Jennifer B Valentine, David C Grabowski
Dual-eligible beneficiaries or "duals" are individuals enrolled in both the Medicare and Medicaid programs. For both Medicare and Medicaid, they may be enrolled in fee-for-service or managed care, creating a mix of possible coverage models. Understanding these different models is essential to improving care for duals. Using All-Payer All-Claims data, we empirically described health service use and quality of care for Oregon duals across five coverage models with different combinations of fee-for-service, managed care, and plan alignment status across Medicare and Medicaid...
November 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Hari Sharma, R Tamara Konetzka, Fabrice Smieliauskas
Dramatic improvements in reported nursing home quality, including staffing ratios, have come under increased scrutiny in recent years because they are based on data self-reported by nursing homes. In contrast to other domains, the key mechanism for real improvement in the staffing ratios domain is clearer: to improve scores, nursing homes should increase staffing expenditures. We analyze the relationship between changes in expenditures and reported staffing quality pre- versus post the 5-star rating system...
November 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Valerie A Lewis, Katherine I Tierney, Taressa Fraze, Genevra F Murray
Although accountable care organizations (ACOs) proliferate, little is known about the activities and strategies ACOs are pursuing to meet goals of reducing costs and improving quality. We use semistructured interviews with executives at 16 ACOs to understand ACO approaches. We identified two overarching ACO approaches to changing clinical care: a practice-based transformation approach, working to overhaul care processes and teams from the inside out; and an overlay approach, where ACO activities were centralized and delivered external to physician practices...
October 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Laura M Keohane, Amal Trivedi, Vincent Mor
Medically needy pathways may provide temporary catastrophic coverage for low-income Medicare beneficiaries who do not otherwise qualify for full Medicaid benefits. Between January 2009 and June 2010, states with medically needy pathways had a higher percentage of low-income beneficiaries join Medicaid than states without such programs (7.5% vs. 4.1%, p < .01). However, among new full Medicaid participants, living in a state with a medically needy pathway was associated with a 3.8 percentage point (adjusted 95% confidence interval [1...
October 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Kyle J Caswell, Timothy A Waidmann
Using a novel data set from a major credit bureau, we examine the early effects of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansions on personal finance. We analyze less common events such as personal bankruptcy, and more common occurrences such as medical collection balances, and change in credit scores. We estimate triple-difference models that compare individual outcomes across counties that expanded Medicaid versus counties that did not, and across expansion counties that had more uninsured residents versus those with fewer...
September 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
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