Read by QxMD icon Read

Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement

Corey J Lees, Genyi Li, Robert W Duncan
Identifying parental combinations that exhibit high heterosis is a constant target for commercial Brassica napus L. hybrid development programs. Finding high heterotic parental combinations can require hundreds of test crosses and years of yield evaluation. Heterotic pool development could be used to divide breeding material into specific breeding pools and focus the number of parental combinations created. Here, we report the genotypic characterization of 79 B. napus genotypes by calculating genetic distance based on sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and genotyping by sequencing (GBS) in association with a neighbour-joining clustering algorithm...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Wirulda Pootakham, Chutima Sonthirod, Chaiwat Naktang, Nukoon Jomchai, Duangjai Sangsrakru, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang
Advances in next generation sequencing have facilitated a large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in many crop species. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach couples next generation sequencing with genome complexity reduction techniques to simultaneously identify and genotype SNPs. Choice of enzymes used in GBS library preparation depends on several factors including the number of markers required, the desired level of multiplexing, and whether the enrichment of genic SNP is preferred. We evaluated various combinations of methylation-sensitive (AatII, PstI, MspI) and methylation-insensitive (SphI, MseI) enzymes for their effectiveness in genome complexity reduction and enrichment of genic SNPs...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Benjamin Dubois, Pierre Bertin, Dominique Mingeot
The gluten proteins of cereals such as bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum) and spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta) are responsible for celiac disease (CD). The α-gliadins constitute the most immunogenic class of gluten proteins as they include four main T-cell stimulatory epitopes that affect CD patients. Spelt has been less studied than bread wheat and could constitute a source of valuable diversity. The objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of spelt α-gliadin transcripts and to compare it with those of bread wheat...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Y Wang, X L Wang, J Y Meng, Y J Zhang, Z H He, Y Yang
Wheat grain color does not only affect the brightness of flour but also seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) tolerance. The transcription factor Tamyb10 is an important candidate for R-1 gene, and the expression of its homologs determines wheat seed coat color. In the present study, the allelic variations of Tamyb10 were explored in a set of Chinese bread wheat varieties and advanced lines with different PHS tolerance, and a sequenced-tagged site (STS) marker for Tamyb10-D1 gene was developed, designated as Tamyb10D, which could be used as an efficient and reliable marker to evaluate the depth dormancy of wheat seeds...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Virginia W Gitonga, Robert Stolker, Carole F S Koning-Boucoiran, Mitra Aelaei, Richard G F Visser, Chris Maliepaard, Frans A Krens
The success of cut rose cultivars is a direct result of their aesthetic value. The rose industry thrives on novelty, and the production of novel flower color has been extensively studied. The most popular color is red, and it is, therefore, important for breeders to produce a good red cultivar. The final visible color of the flower is a combination of a number of factors including the type of anthocyanin accumulating, modifications to the anthocyanidin molecule, co-pigmentation and vacuolar pH. Here, we analyze the quantitative variation of the biochemical constituents of flower color in a tetraploid rose population and combine this with marker information in the segregating rose population to map the chromosomal locations of putative QTLs for flower color traits...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Roeland E Voorrips, Marco C A M Bink, Johannes W Kruisselbrink, Herma J J Koehorst-van Putten, W Eric van de Weg
In the study of large outbred pedigrees with many founders, individual bi-allelic markers, such as SNP markers, carry little information. After phasing the marker genotypes, multi-allelic loci consisting of groups of closely linked markers can be identified, which are called "haploblocks". Here, we describe PediHaplotyper, an R package capable of assigning consistent alleles to such haploblocks, allowing for missing and incorrect SNP data. These haploblock genotypes are much easier to interpret by the human investigator than the original SNP data and also allow more efficient QTL analyses that require less memory and computation time...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Yansong Ma, Jochen C Reif, Yong Jiang, Zixiang Wen, Dechun Wang, Zhangxiong Liu, Yong Guo, Shuhong Wei, Shuming Wang, Chunming Yang, Huicai Wang, Chunyan Yang, Weiguo Lu, Ran Xu, Rong Zhou, Ruizhen Wang, Zudong Sun, Huaizhu Chen, Wanhai Zhang, Jian Wu, Guohua Hu, Chunyan Liu, Xiaoyan Luan, Yashu Fu, Tai Guo, Tianfu Han, Mengchen Zhang, Bincheng Sun, Lei Zhang, Weiyuan Chen, Cunxiang Wu, Shi Sun, Baojun Yuan, Xinan Zhou, Dezhi Han, Hongrui Yan, Wenbin Li, Lijuan Qiu
Genomic selection is a promising molecular breeding strategy enhancing genetic gain per unit time. The objectives of our study were to (1) explore the prediction accuracy of genomic selection for plant height and yield per plant in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], (2) discuss the relationship between prediction accuracy and numbers of markers, and (3) evaluate the effect of marker preselection based on different methods on the prediction accuracy. Our study is based on a population of 235 soybean varieties which were evaluated for plant height and yield per plant at multiple locations and genotyped by 5361 single nucleotide polymorphism markers...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Sanjaya Gyawali, Myrtle Harrington, Jonathan Durkin, Kyla Horner, Isobel A P Parkin, Dwayne D Hegedus, Diana Bekkaoui, Lone Buchwaldt
The fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes stem rot of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) worldwide. In preparation for genome-wide association mapping (GWAM) of sclerotinia resistance in B. napus, 152 accessions from diverse geographical regions were screened with a single Canadian isolate, #321. Plants were inoculated by attaching mycelium plugs to the main stem at full flower. Lesion lengths measured 7, 14 and 21 days after inoculation were used to calculate the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC)...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Weijun Ye, Shikai Hu, Liwen Wu, Changwei Ge, Yongtao Cui, Ping Chen, Xiaoqi Wang, Jie Xu, Deyong Ren, Guojun Dong, Qian Qian, Longbiao Guo
Chloroplast is a crucial organelle for plant photosynthesis and maintaining normal life activities in higher plants. Although some genes related to chloroplast development and pigment synthesis have been identified or cloned in rice, little is known about the relationship between these genes and abiotic stress response. In this study, we identified a novel mutant white stripe leaf 12 (wsl12) affecting pigment synthesis, chloroplast development and abiotic stress response in rice. The mutant phenotype was obvious at seeding and tillering stages and in response to the temperature change...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Bjarne Larsen, Marian Ørgaard, Torben Bo Toldam-Andersen, Carsten Pedersen
We present a new efficient screening tool for detection of S-alleles in apple. The protocol using general and multiplexed primers for PCR reaction and fragment detection on an automatized capillary DNA sequencer exposed a higher number of alleles than any previous studies. Analysis of alleles is made on basis of three individual fragment sizes making the allele interpretation highly accurate. The method was employed to genotype 432 Malus accessions and exposed 25 different S-alleles in a selection of Malus domestica cultivars of mainly Danish origin (402 accessions) as well as a selection of other Malus species (30 accessions)...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Yongli Zhao, Chong Zhang, Hua Chen, Mei Yuan, Rick Nipper, C S Prakash, Weijian Zhuang, Guohao He
Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a serious, global, disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), but it is especially destructive in China. Identification of DNA markers linked to the resistance to this disease will help peanut breeders efficiently develop resistant cultivars through molecular breeding. A F2 population, from a cross between disease-resistant and disease-susceptible cultivars, was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the resistance to this disease in the cultivated peanut...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Claire Lessa Alvim Kamei, Edouard I Severing, Annemarie Dechesne, Heleen Furrer, Oene Dolstra, Luisa M Trindade
Many important crops have received little attention by the scientific community, either because they are not considered economically important or due to their large and complex genomes. De novo transcriptome assembly, using next-generation sequencing data, is an attractive option for the study of these orphan crops. In spite of the large amount of sequencing data that can be generated, there is currently a lack of tools which can effectively help molecular breeders and biologists to mine this type of information...
2016: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Elitsur Yaniv, Dina Raats, Yefim Ronin, Abraham B Korol, Adriana Grama, Harbans Bariana, Jorge Dubcovsky, Alan H Schulman
Stripe rust disease is caused by the fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and severely threatens wheat worldwide, repeatedly breaking resistance conferred by resistance genes and evolving more aggressive strains. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, is an important source for novel stripe rust resistance (Yr) genes. Yr15, a major gene located on chromosome 1BS of T. dicoccoides, was previously reported to confer resistance to a broad spectrum of stripe rust isolates, at both seedling and adult plant stages...
January 2015: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Dorota Sołtys-Kalina, Katarzyna Szajko, Izabela Sierocka, Jadwiga Śliwka, Danuta Strzelczyk-Żyta, Iwona Wasilewicz-Flis, Henryka Jakuczun, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska, Waldemar Marczewski
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers exhibit significant variation in reducing sugar content directly after harvest, cold storage and reconditioning. Here, we performed QTL analysis for chip color, which is strongly influenced by reducing sugar content, in a diploid potato mapping population. Two QTL on chromosomes I and VI were detected for chip color after harvest and reconditioning. Only one region on chromosome VI was linked with cold-induced sweetening. Using the RT-PCR technique, we showed differential expression of the auxin-regulated protein (AuxRP) gene...
2015: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Cancan Wang, Chuanrong Li, Charles A Leslie, Qingrong Sun, Xianfeng Guo, Keqiang Yang
Tocopherol cyclase (VTE1) plays a key role in promoting the production of γ-tocopherol and improving total tocopherol content in photosynthetic organisms. Walnut is an important source of tocopherols in the human diet, and γ-tocopherol is the major tocopherol compound in walnut kernels. In this study, a full-length cDNA of the VTE1 gene was isolated from walnut using RT-PCR and RACE, and designated as JrVTE1. The full-length cDNA of the JrVTE1 gene contained a 1353-bp open-reading frame encoding a 451-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 49...
2015: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Agnieszka Niedziela, Dariusz Mańkowski, Piotr T Bednarek
The tolerance of triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) cultivars to aluminum (Al) stress observed in acid soils is an important agronomic trait affecting seed yield. Traditionally, breeding of Al-tolerant cultivars was selection based; for example, using a physiological test. However, such selection methods are relatively slow and require numerous plants for phenotype evaluation. Alternatively, DNA-based molecular marker systems could be applied to identify markers useful for selection purposes. Among many marker platforms available, Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) is one of the most promising...
2015: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Xiaochun Sun, Rita H Mumm
Multiple trait integration (MTI) is the process by which a target hybrid (or variety) is converted to add value-added traits to the comprehensive performance package represented by that genotype. The goal is to recover all the attributes of the target hybrid, with the addition of the specified value-added traits. In maize, this process utilizes the backcross breeding method to incorporate transgenic events (or genes) of interest. Thus, MTI involves four main steps: single event introgression, event pyramiding, trait fixation, and version testing to ensure recovery of equivalent performance with at least one version of the converted hybrid...
2015: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Yi Ren, Di Jiao, Guoyi Gong, Haiying Zhang, Shaogui Guo, Jie Zhang, Yong Xu
Fusarium wilt (FW) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) is the major soilborne disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.). The development and deployment of resistant cultivars is generally considered to be an effective approach to control FW. In this study, an F8 population consisting of 103 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the cultivar 97103 and a wild accession PI 296341-FR was used for FON race 1 and race 2 fungal inoculations. One major QTL on chromosome 1 for FON race 1 resistance was detected with a logarithm of odds of 13...
2015: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
G R A Margarido, M M Pastina, A P Souza, A A F Garcia
Breeding trials typically consist of phenotypic observations for various traits evaluated in multiple environments. For sugarcane in particular, repeated measures are obtained for plant crop and one or more ratoons, such that joint analysis through mixed models for modeling heterogeneous genetic (co)variances between traits, locations and harvests is appropriate. This modeling approach also enables us to include molecular marker information, aiding in understanding the genetic architecture of quantitative traits...
2015: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Marty J Faville, Lyn Briggs, Mingshu Cao, Albert Koulman, M Z Zulfi Jahufer, John Koolaard, David E Hume
The association between perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and its Epichloë fungal endophyte symbiont, Epichloë festucae var. lolii, supports the persistence of ryegrass-based pastures principally by producing bioactive alkaloid compounds that deter invertebrate herbivory. The host plant genotype affects endophyte trait expression, and elucidation of the underlying genetic mechanisms would enhance understanding of the symbiosis and support improvement of in planta endophyte performance through plant breeding...
2015: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"