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Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement

Mahipal Singh Kesawat, Dong Kyun Kim, Naheed Zeba, Mi Chung Suh, Xinli Xia, Choo Bong Hong
Advances in molecular biology have improved crops through transferring genes from one organism to new hosts, and these efforts have raised concerns about potential unexpected outcomes. Here, we provide evidence that a gene with a specific function in one organism can yield completely different effects in a new host. CaRZFP1 is a C3HC4-type RING zinc finger protein gene previously isolated from a cDNA library for heat-stressed hot pepper. In our previous work investigating in vivo CaRZFP1 function, we transferred CaRZFP1 into tobacco; transgenic tobacco exhibited enhanced growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Manje Gowda, Yoseph Beyene, Dan Makumbi, Kassa Semagn, Michael S Olsen, Jumbo M Bright, Biswanath Das, Stephen Mugo, L M Suresh, Boddupalli M Prasanna
In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is the key determinant of food security for smallholder farmers. The sudden outbreak of maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease is seriously threatening the maize production in the region. Understanding the genetic basis of MLN resistance is crucial. In this study, we used four biparental populations applied linkage mapping and joint linkage mapping approaches to identify and validate the MLN resistance-associated genomic regions. All populations were genotyped with low to high density markers and phenotyped in multiple environments against MLN under artificial inoculation...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Yanning Tan, Xuewu Sun, Baohua Fang, Dong Yu, Zhizhong Sun, Weiping Wang, Xiabing Sheng, Xiaolin Yin, Ling Liu, Yongfei Zhang, Meijuan Duan, Dingyang Yuan
A maintainer line of 3-line hybrid rice commonly presents a certain genetic distance to a 2-line restorer line, but in many cases, 2-line restorer lines present defects upon recovery of the object cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line of the maintainer line, which impedes the utilization of their heterosis. Here, we report a strategy and an example of converting a maintainer into a photoperiod/temperature-sensitive genic male sterile (P/TGMS) line with an almost identical genetic background, thus maximizing the heterosis...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Amanda Avelar de Oliveira, Maria Marta Pastina, Vander Filipe de Souza, Rafael Augusto da Costa Parrella, Roberto Willians Noda, Maria Lúcia Ferreira Simeone, Robert Eugene Schaffert, Jurandir Vieira de Magalhães, Cynthia Maria Borges Damasceno, Gabriel Rodrigues Alves Margarido
The increasing cost of energy and finite oil and gas reserves have created a need to develop alternative fuels from renewable sources. Due to its abiotic stress tolerance and annual cultivation, high-biomass sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) shows potential as a bioenergy crop. Genomic selection is a useful tool for accelerating genetic gains and could restructure plant breeding programs by enabling early selection and reducing breeding cycle duration. This work aimed at predicting breeding values via genomic selection models for 200 sorghum genotypes comprising landrace accessions and breeding lines from biomass and saccharine groups...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
M Tyrka, S Oleszczuk, J Rabiza-Swider, H Wos, M Wedzony, J Zimny, A Ponitka, A Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, R J Metzger, P S Baenziger, A J Lukaszewski
To create a framework for genetic dissection of hexaploid triticale, six populations of doubled haploid (DH) lines were developed from pairwise hybrids of high-yielding winter triticale cultivars. The six populations comprise between 97 and 231 genotyped DH lines each, totaling 957 DH lines. A consensus genetic map spans 4593.9 cM is composed of 1576 unique DArT markers. The maps reveal several structural rearrangements in triticale genomes. In preliminary tests of the populations and maps, markers specific to wheat segments of the engineered rye chromosome 1R (RM1B) were identified...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
K S Sandhu, F M You, R L Conner, P M Balasubramanian, Anfu Hou
Seed hardness trait has a profound impact on cooking time and canning quality in dry beans. This study aims to identify the unknown genetic factors and associated molecular markers to better understand and tag this trait. An F2:7 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was derived from a cross between the hard and soft seeded black bean parents (H68-4 and BK04-001). Eighty-five RILs and the parental lines were grown at two locations in southern Manitoba during years 2014-2016. Seed samples were harvested manually at maturity to test for seed hardness traits...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Charlotte N Miller, Andrea L Harper, Martin Trick, Nikolaus Wellner, Peter Werner, Keith W Waldron, Ian Bancroft
Lodging continues to be a major cause of yield loss in important crop species such as Brassica napus. Understanding the genetic regulation of lodging resistance is therefore of key interest to breeders worldwide. Current strategies aimed at minimising lodging risk involve the incorporation of dwarfing genes or the application of plant growth regulators. However, despite these efforts, lodging continues to be a persistent problem and it is therefore of high interest that novel, complimentary strategies for lodging control are implemented...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Katherine A Steele, Mark J Quinton-Tulloch, Resham B Amgai, Rajeev Dhakal, Shambhu P Khatiwada, Darshna Vyas, Martin Heine, John R Witcombe
Few public sector rice breeders have the capacity to use NGS-derived markers in their breeding programmes despite rapidly expanding repositories of rice genome sequence data. They rely on > 18,000 mapped microsatellites (SSRs) for marker-assisted selection (MAS) using gel analysis. Lack of knowledge about target SNP and InDel variant loci has hampered the uptake by many breeders of Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP), a proprietary technology of LGC genomics that can distinguish alleles at variant loci...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Omnia Gamal El-Dien, Blaise Ratcliffe, Jaroslav Klápště, Ilga Porth, Charles Chen, Yousry A El-Kassaby
The advantages of open-pollinated (OP) family testing over controlled crossing (i.e., structured pedigree) are the potential to screen and rank a large number of parents and offspring with minimal cost and efforts; however, the method produces inflated genetic parameters as the actual sibling relatedness within OP families rarely meets the half-sib relatedness assumption. Here, we demonstrate the unsurpassed utility of OP testing after shifting the analytical mode from pedigree- (ABLUP) to genomic-based (GBLUP) relationship using phenotypic tree height (HT) and wood density (WD) and genotypic (30k SNPs) data for 1126 38-year-old Interior spruce ( Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x P...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Shalabh Dixit, Anshuman Singh, Nitika Sandhu, Aditi Bhandari, Prashant Vikram, Arvind Kumar
TDK1 is a popular rice variety from the Lao PDR. Originally developed for irrigated conditions, this variety suffers a high decline in yield under drought conditions. Studies have identified three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield under drought conditions, qDTY 3.1 , qDTY 6.1 , and qDTY 6.2 , that show a high effect in the background of this variety. We report here the pyramiding of these three QTLs with SUB1 that provides 2-3 weeks of tolerance to complete submergence, with the aim to develop drought- and submergence-tolerant near-isogenic lines (NILs) of TDK1...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Eduardo Cruz-Rus, Rafael Sesmero, José A Ángel-Pérez, José F Sánchez-Sevilla, Detlef Ulrich, Iraida Amaya
Flavor improvement is currently one of the most important goals for strawberry breeders. At the same time, it is one of the most complex traits to improve, involving the balanced combination of several desired characteristics such as high sweetness, moderate acidity, and the appropriate combination of aroma compounds that are beginning to be delineated in consumer tests. DNA-informed breeding will expedite the selection of complex traits, such as flavor, over traditional phenotypic evaluation, particularly when markers linked to several traits of interests are combined during the breeding process...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Jiayin Song, Brett F Carver, Carol Powers, Liuling Yan, Jaroslav Klápště, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Charles Chen
Crop improvement is a long-term, expensive institutional endeavor. Genomic selection (GS), which uses single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information to estimate genomic breeding values, has proven efficient to increasing genetic gain by accelerating the breeding process in animal breeding programs. As for crop improvement, with few exceptions, GS applicability remains in the evaluation of algorithm performance. In this study, we examined factors related to GS applicability in line development stage for grain yield using a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
María-Dolores Rey, Azahara C Martín, Janet Higgins, David Swarbreck, Cristobal Uauy, Peter Shaw, Graham Moore
Despite possessing related ancestral genomes, hexaploid wheat behaves as a diploid during meiosis. The wheat Ph1 locus promotes accurate synapsis and crossover of homologous chromosomes. Interspecific hybrids between wheat and wild relatives are exploited by breeders to introgress important traits from wild relatives into wheat, although in hybrids between hexaploid wheat and wild relatives, which possess only homoeologues, crossovers do not take place during meiosis at metaphase I. However, in hybrids between Ph1 deletion mutants and wild relatives, crossovers do take place...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Jiemeng Xu, Nicky Driedonks, Marc J M Rutten, Wim H Vriezen, Gert-Jan de Boer, Ivo Rieu
Global warming has become a worldwide concern due to its adverse effects on agricultural output. In particular, long-term mildly high temperatures interfere with sexual reproduction and thus fruit and seed set. To uncover the genetic basis of observed variation in tolerance against heat, a bi-parental F2 mapping population from two contrasting cultivars, i.e. Nagcarlang and NCHS-1, was generated and phenotyped under continuous mild heat conditions for a number of traits underlying reproductive success, i.e...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
F K S Yeo, R Bouchon, R Kuijken, A Loriaux, C Boyd, R E Niks, T C Marcel
Partial resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) Rphq11 and rphq16 against Puccinia hordei isolate 1.2.1 were previously mapped in seedlings of the mapping populations Steptoe/Morex and Oregon Wolfe Barleys, respectively. In this study, QTL mapping was performed at adult plant stage for the two mapping populations challenged with the same rust isolate. The results suggest that Rphq11 and rphq16 are effective only at seedling stage, and not at adult plant stage. The cloning of several genes responsible for partial resistance of barley to P...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
María-Dolores Rey, Pilar Prieto
Simple, reliable methods for the identification of alien genetic introgressions are required in plant breeding programmes. The use of genomic dot-blot hybridisation allows the detection of small Hordeum chilense genomic introgressions in the descendants of genetic crosses between wheat and H. chilense addition or substitution lines in wheat when molecular markers are difficult to use. Based on genomic in situ hybridisation, DNA samples from wheat lines carrying putatively H. chilense introgressions were immobilised on a membrane, blocked with wheat genomic DNA and hybridised with biotin-labelled H...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Cheng Xu, Yonghong Ren, Yinqiao Jian, Zifeng Guo, Yan Zhang, Chuanxiao Xie, Junjie Fu, Hongwu Wang, Guoying Wang, Yunbi Xu, Ping Li, Cheng Zou
With the decrease of cost in genotyping, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have gained wide acceptance because of their abundance, even distribution throughout the maize (Zea mays L.) genome, and suitability for high-throughput analysis. In this study, a maize 55 K SNP array with improved genome coverage for molecular breeding was developed on an Affymetrix® Axiom® platform with 55,229 SNPs evenly distributed across the genome, including 22,278 exonic and 19,425 intronic SNPs. This array contains 451 markers that are associated with 368 known genes and two traits of agronomic importance (drought tolerance and kernel oil biosynthesis), 4067 markers that are not covered by the current reference genome, 734 markers that are differentiated significantly between heterotic groups, and 132 markers that are tags for important transgenic events...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Yuning Chen, Xiaoping Ren, Yanli Zheng, Xiaojing Zhou, Li Huang, Liying Yan, Yongqing Jiao, Weigang Chen, Shunmou Huang, Liyun Wan, Yong Lei, Boshou Liao, Dongxin Huai, Wenhui Wei, Huifang Jiang
The genetic architecture determinants of yield traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are poorly understood. In the present study, an effort was made to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield traits using recombinant inbred lines (RIL). A genetic linkage map was constructed containing 609 loci, covering a total of 1557.48 cM with an average distance of 2.56 cM between adjacent markers. The present map exhibited good collinearity with the physical map of diploid species of Arachis. Ninety-two repeatable QTLs were identified for 11 traits including height of main stem, total branching number, and nine pod- and seed-related traits...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Yiqian Fu, Alex van Silfhout, Arwa Shahin, Ronny Egberts, Martin Beers, Ans van der Velde, Adrie van Houten, Jaap M van Tuyl, Richard G F Visser, Paul Arens
Gerbera hybrida is an economically important cut flower. In the production and transportation of gerbera with unavoidable periods of high relative humidity, grey mould occurs and results in losses in quality and quantity of flowers. Considering the limitations of chemical use in greenhouses and the impossibility to use these chemicals in auction or after sale, breeding for resistant gerbera cultivars is considered as the best practical approach. In this study, we developed two segregating F1 populations (called S and F)...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Goettel Wolfgang, Yong-Qiang Charles An
North American soybean breeders have successfully developed a large number of elite cultivars with diverse maturity groups (MG) from a small number of ancestral landraces. To understand molecular and genetic basis underlying the large variation in their maturity and flowering times, we integrated pedigree and maturity data of 166 cultivars representing North American soybean breeding. Network analysis and visualization of their pedigree relationships revealed a clear separation of southern and northern soybean breeding programs, suggesting that little genetic exchange occurred between northern (MG 0-IV) and southern cultivars (MG V-VIII)...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
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