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Histochemistry and Cell Biology

Manja Luckner, Gerhard Wanner
Unfortunately, part of the legend to Fig. 6 has been incorrectly published.
July 10, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Lívia Uličná, Darina Paprčková, Veronika Fáberová, Pavel Hozák
Even though the majority of knowledge about phospholipids comes from their cytoplasmic functions, in the last decade, it has been shown that nuclear phospholipids and their building blocks, inositol phosphates, have many important roles in the cell nucleus. There are clear connections of phospholipids with the regulation of gene expression and chromatin biology, however, this review focuses on less known functions of nuclear phospholipids in connection with the epigenome regulation. In particular, we highlight the roles of nuclear phospholipids and inositol phosphates that involve histone modifications, such as acetylation or methylation, tightly connected with the cell physiology...
July 7, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Tim Steinbacher, Klaus Ebnet
The formation of cell-cell junctions and the development of stable cell-cell adhesion require the association of actin filaments with the sites of cell-cell adhesion. From the initial formation of cell-cell junctions, which appear as punctate, spot-like junctions, to the formation of a stable actin belt that runs adjacent to cell-cell junctions, the actin cytoskeleton is closely associated with the adhesion apparatus. Importantly, the junctional actin is highly dynamic, even after the maturation of intercellular junctions and the development of apico-basal polarity...
July 5, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Eduardo Alonso Cruz Monroy, Pedro Paulo de Andrade Santos, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa Lopes, Adalberto Mosqueda-Taylor, Leão Pereira Pinto, Lélia Batista de Souza
Benign epithelial odontogenic lesions are great clinical importance entities that develop in the jaws from the tissues that form teeth. It has been shown that benign and malignant tumors are present in a large number of tumor stem cells, which has great implications in the development of these lesions. Oct-4 and CD44 have been demonstrated as important markers for tumoral stem cells. The aim of this study was investigate the presence of stem cell markers Oct-4 and CD44 in benign epithelial odontogenic lesions...
July 3, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Gordin Zupkovitz, Sabine Lagger, David Martin, Marianne Steiner, Astrid Hagelkruys, Christian Seiser, Christian Schöfer, Oliver Pusch
Aging is associated with profound changes in the epigenome, resulting in alterations of gene expression, epigenetic landscape, and genome architecture. Class I Histone deacetylases (HDACs), consisting of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC8, play a major role in epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure and transcriptional control, and have been implicated as key players in the pathogenesis of age-dependent diseases and disorders affecting health and longevity. Here, we report the identification of class I Hdac orthologs and their detailed spatio-temporal expression profile in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri from the onset of embryogenesis until old age covering the entire lifespan of the organism...
June 28, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Felke Steijns, Jolanda van Hengel, Patrick Sips, Julie De Backer, Marjolijn Renard
Fibrillins are major constituents of microfibrils, which are essential components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissues where they contribute to the tissue homeostasis. Although it is known that microfibrils are abundantly expressed in the left ventricle of the heart, limited data are available about the presence of microfibrils in the other parts of the myocardial tissue and whether there are age or sex-related differences in the spatial arrangement of the microfibrils. This basic knowledge is essential to better understand the impact of fibrillin-1 pathogenic variants on the myocardial tissue as seen in Marfan related cardiomyopathy...
June 20, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Janine McCaughey, David J Stephens
The export of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum is fundamental to the ongoing maintenance of cell and tissue structure and function. After co-translational translocation into the ER, proteins destined for downstream intracellular compartments or secretion from the cell are sorted and packaged into transport vesicles by the COPII coat protein complex. The fundamental discovery and characterization of the pathway has now been augmented by a greater understanding of the role of COPII in diverse aspects of cell function...
June 18, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Douglas J Taatjes, Jürgen Roth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
D Durand-Herrera, F Campos, B D Jaimes-Parra, J D Sánchez-López, R Fernández-Valadés, M Alaminos, A Campos, V Carriel
Microtissues (MT) are currently considered as a promising alternative for the fabrication of natural, 3D biomimetic functional units for the construction of bio-artificial substitutes by tissue engineering (TE). The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of generating mesenchymal cell-based MT using human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stromal cells (WJSC-MT). MT were generated using agarose microchips and evaluated ex vivo during 28 days. Fibroblasts MT (FIB-MT) were used as control. Morphometry, cell viability and metabolism, MT-formation process and ECM synthesis were assessed by phase-contrast microscopy, functional biochemical assays, and histological analyses...
June 11, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Giorgia Galiazzo, Fiorella Giancola, Agnese Stanzani, Federico Fracassi, Chiara Bernardini, Monica Forni, Marco Pietra, Roberto Chiocchetti
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is composed of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the enzymes involved in endocannabinoid turnover. Modulating the activity of the ECS may influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that activation of cannabinoid receptors by endogenous, plant-derived, or synthetic cannabinoids may exert beneficial effects on gastrointestinal inflammation and visceral pain. The present ex vivo study aimed to investigate immunohistochemically the distribution of cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), and peroxisome proliferation activation receptor alpha (PPARα) in the canine gastrointestinal tract...
June 7, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Shelly C Y Lin, Peter R Thorne, Gary D Housley, Srdjan M Vlajkovic
Aminoglycoside ototoxicity results in permanent loss of the sensory hair cells in the mammalian cochlea. It usually begins at the basal turn causing high-frequency hearing loss. Here we describe previously unreported resistance of hair cells to neomycin ototoxicity in the extreme basal (hook) region of the developing cochlea of the C57BL/6 mouse. Organ of Corti explants from mice at postnatal day 3 were incubated (37 °C, 5% CO2 ) in normal culture medium for 19.5 h prior to and after exposure to neomycin (1 mM, 3 h)...
June 4, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Giovanna Berruti, Michela Ceriani, Enzo Martegani
Spermatids are haploid differentiating cells that, in the meantime they differentiate, translocate along the seminiferous epithelium towards the tubule lumen to be just released as spermatozoa. The success of such a migration depends on dynamic of spermatid-Sertoli cell contacts, the molecular nature of which has not been well defined yet. It was demonstrated that the vascular endothelial cadherin (VEC) is expressed transitorily in the mouse seminiferous epithelium. Here, we evaluated the pattern of VEC expression by immunohistochemistry first in seminiferous tubules at different stages of the epithelial cycle when only unique types of germ cell associations are present...
May 25, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Margherita Sisto, Sabrina Lisi, Domenico Ribatti
The link between inflammatory microenvironment and cancer emerged in the last years as a decisive factor in the induction of the pathological epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The EMT induces changes of cell states converting the epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells when this program is fully executed and EMT has emerged as a central driver of tumor malignancy. Cellular pathways activated by chronic inflammation brought about by chronic infections, by immune-mediated diseases, or by dysregulated wound healing at sites of repetitive tissue injury, constitute risk factors or initial cell transformation and for cancer progression...
May 23, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Manja Luckner, Gerhard Wanner
A portfolio is presented documenting economic, high-resolution correlative focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) in routine, comprising: (i) the use of custom-labeled slides and coverslips, (ii) embedding of cells in thin, or ultra-thin resin layers for correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) and (iii) the claim to reach the highest resolution possible with FIB/SEM in xyz. Regions of interest (ROIs) defined in light microscope (LM), can be relocated quickly and precisely in SEM. As proof of principle, HeLa cells were investigated in 3D context at all stages of the cell cycle, documenting ultrastructural changes during mitosis: nuclear envelope breakdown and reassembly, Golgi degradation and reconstitution and the formation of the midzone and midbody...
May 23, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Kirsten Sandvig, Simona Kavaliauskiene, Tore Skotland
This article aims at providing an update on the complexity of clathrin-independent endocytosis. It is now almost 30 years since we first wrote a review about its existence; at that time many people believed that with the exception of macropinocytosis, which will only be briefly mentioned in this review, all uptake could be accounted for by clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Now it is generally accepted that there are different clathrin-independent mechanisms, some of them regulated by ligands and membrane lipid composition...
May 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Karl Schilling
The enormous expansion the vertebrate nervous system goes through from its first anlage to its adult shape and organization goes along with extensive rearrangements of its constituent cells and typical cellular migrations, often over long distances, and by convoluted pathways. Here, I try to summarize how the cells that form the cerebellum move and migrate during normal cerebellar histogenesis. The cerebellum is made up of a limited set of clearly distinguishable classes of cells, some of which are also readily accessible by genetic tools...
May 9, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Douglas J Taatjes, Jürgen Roth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Dagmar Kolb-Lenz, Robert Fuchs, Birgit Lohberger, Ellen Heitzer, Katharina Meditz, Dominique Pernitsch, Elisabeth Pritz, Andrea Groselj-Strele, Andreas Leithner, Bernadette Liegl-Atzwanger, Beate Rinner
Chordoma is a rare tumor of the bone derived from remnants of the notochord with pronounced chemoresistance. A common feature of the notochord and chordoma cells is distinct vacuolization. Recently, the notochord vacuole was described as a lysosome-related organelle. Since lysosomes are considered as mediators of drug resistance in cancer, we were interested whether they may also play a role in chemoresistance of chordoma. We characterized the lysosomal compartment in chordoma cell lines by cytochemistry, electron microscopy (ELMI) and mutational analysis of genes essential for the physiology of lysosomes...
May 3, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Sohei Kitazawa, Ryuma Haraguchi, Riko Kitazawa
Cytosine methylation plays a major role in the regulation of sequential and tissue-specific expression of genes. De novo aberrant DNA methylation and demethylation are also crucial processes in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The mechanisms of how and when such aberrant methylation and demethylation occur in tumor cells are still obscure, however. To evaluate subtle epigenetic alteration among minor subclonal populations, morphology-oriented epigenetic analysis is requisite, especially where heterogeneity and flexibility are as notable as in the process of cancer progression and cellular differentiation at critical stages...
May 2, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Paul Severin Wiggenhauser, Silke Schwarz, Nicole Rotter
The biomechanical characteristics of septal cartilage depend strongly on the distinct extracellular matrix of cartilage tissue; therefore, it is essential that the components of this matrix are identified and understood. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and matrilin-3 are localised in articular cartilage. This study was the first to examine all subtypes of mature human nasal cartilages (alar, triangular and septal) with specific attention to the distribution of COMP and matrilin-3. Three whole fresh-frozen noses from human donors were dissected, and exemplary biopsies were examined using histochemical staining (haematoxylin and eosin and Alcian blue) and immunohistochemistry (collagen II, COMP and matrilin-3)...
May 2, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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