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Histochemistry and Cell Biology

Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Kazuo Tomita, Yusuke Urushihara, Tomoaki Sato, Akihiro Kurimasa, Manabu Fukumoto
Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the major modalities for the treatment of human cancer and has been established as an excellent local treatment for malignant tumors. However, the existence of radioresistant cells remains one of the most critical obstacles in RT. To know the characteristics of radioresistant cells, clinically relevant radioresistant (CRR) cell lines were established. CRR cells can continue to proliferate in vitro and in vivo after exposure to 2 Gy/day of X-rays for more than 30 days. Daily microscopic observation of the irradiated CRR cells has indicated that the increase in cell death is not observed within 7 days of irradiation with 10 Gy of X-rays, suggesting that cell death is involved in cellular radioresistance...
September 20, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Daniela Murtas, Luca Pilloni, Andrea Diana, Laura Casula, Sara Tomei, Franca Piras, Caterina Ferreli, Cristina Maxia, Maria Teresa Perra
While histological analysis represents a powerful tool for the classification of melanocytic lesions as benign or malignant, a clear-cut distinction between a nevus and a melanoma is sometimes a challenging step of the diagnostic process. The immunohistochemical detection of tyrosinase, cardinal melanogenic enzyme during melanocytic maturation, has often been helpful in formulating a differential diagnosis due to the peculiar staining pattern in nevocytes compared with melanoma cells. Tyrosinase distribution in nevi appears to overlap with the cytoarchitectural changes observable within these lesions, that result in epidermal or superficial dermal nevocytes being larger and strongly expressing melanocytic differentiation antigens, such as tyrosinase, compared with deeper dermal nevus cells...
September 19, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Paul Walther, Andrea Bauer, Nadia Wenske, Alberto Catanese, Débora Garrido, Marion Schneider
Scanning transmission electron microscopic (STEM) tomography of high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted semi-thin sections is one of multiple approaches for three-dimensional recording and visualization of electron microscopic samples. Compared to regular TEM tomography thicker sample sections can be investigated since chromatic aberration due to inelastic scattering is not a limit. The method is ideal to investigate subcellular compartments or organelles such as synapses, mitochondria, or microtubule arrangements...
September 18, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Markus Islinger, Alfred Voelkl, H Dariush Fahimi, Michael Schrader
Peroxisomes are key metabolic organelles, which contribute to cellular lipid metabolism, e.g. the β-oxidation of fatty acids and the synthesis of myelin sheath lipids, as well as cellular redox balance. Peroxisomal dysfunction has been linked to severe metabolic disorders in man, but peroxisomes are now also recognized as protective organelles with a wider significance in human health and potential impact on a large number of globally important human diseases such as neurodegeneration, obesity, cancer, and age-related disorders...
September 15, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
María L Segura-Valdez, Lourdes T Agredano-Moreno, Alma L Zamora-Cura, Reyna Lara-Martínez, Luis F Jiménez-García
Light and electron microscopy have been used to study cell structure for many years, but atomic force microscopy is a more recent technique used to analyze cells, mainly due to the absence of techniques to prepare the samples. Isolated molecules or organelles, whole cells, and to a lesser extent in situ cell structure have been observed by different atomic force microscopy imaging modes. Here, we review efforts intended to analyze in situ the cell structures using approaches involving imaging of the surface of semithin sections of samples embedded in resin and sections prepared with an ultramicrotome...
September 11, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Magdalena Grill, Carina Hasenoehrl, Melanie Kienzl, Julia Kargl, Rudolf Schicho
Surveys suggest that Cannabis provides benefit for people with inflammatory bowel disease. However, mechanisms underlying beneficial effects are not clear. We performed in situ hybridization RNAscope® combined with immunohistochemistry to show cell-specific distribution and regulation of cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 (CB1 , CB2 ), G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) mRNA in immune cells using murine models of intestinal and systemic inflammation. In healthy animals, the presence in enteric ganglia is high for CB1 mRNA, but low for CB2 and GPR55 mRNAs...
September 8, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Douglas J Taatjes, Jürgen Roth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Jaakko Saraste, Michaël Marie
Despite its discovery more than three decades ago and well-established role in protein sorting and trafficking in the early secretory pathway, the intermediate compartment (IC) has remained enigmatic. The prevailing view is that the IC evolved as a specialized organelle to mediate long-distance endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi communication in metazoan cells, but is lacking in other eukaryotes, such as plants and fungi. However, this distinction is difficult to reconcile with the high conservation of the core machineries that regulate early secretory trafficking from yeast to man...
September 1, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Maria Vittoria Enzo, Paola Cattelan, Marco Rastrelli, Annalisa Tosi, Carlo Riccardo Rossi, Uros Hladnik, Daniela Segat
Desmoid-like fibromatosis (DF) is a rare myofibroblastic benign tumor, often associated with local and repeated injuries, spontaneous regression and stabilization of disease progression suggesting the involvement of altered Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation and/or aberrant response of the DF cells to external environmental stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of DF cells to microenvironmental factors such as inflammatory and growth factors or hormones. We observed that the inflammatory cytokine, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1) stimulated cell growth and myofibroblast differentiation of DF cells regardless of the presence of a β-catenin mutation...
September 1, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Eva L Peters, David Comerford, Frédéric M Vaz, Willem J van der Laarse
Uncoupling of mitochondrial proton pumping and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production lowers mitochondrial efficiency. Current methods to determine mitochondrial efficiency require substantial amounts of tissue and permeabilization or isolation procedures. A simple histochemical method has been described by Meijer and Vloedman (Histochemistry 69:217-232, 1980, ), but this was not quantitative. We found linear correlations between (1) absorbance and sections thickness and (2) absorbance and incubation time...
August 29, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Hiroto Kobayashi, Saori Yoshida, Nobuyuki Shirasawa, Kunihiko Maeda, Akira Naito
Parietal cells in the gastric mucosa are known not only as cells playing major roles in food digestion but also as cells bearing endocrine function. In addition to their production of gastrin and ghrelin, it has been recently revealed that these cells are also involved in the synthesis and secretion of estrogens with their expression of aromatase in experimental animals. Although aromatase activity has been detected in human gastric cancer cells and related cell lines, much less study has been done to ascertain the expression of the enzymatic activity in normal gastric mucosa...
August 28, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Michal Zalecki
Gastric ulceration, a focal tissue damage accompanied by inflammation, can influence other parts of the stomach. Substance P and its receptors are strongly involved in regulation of gastrointestinal motility, secretion and inflammation. The enteric nervous system is one of the regulators of gastrointestinal functioning and contributes to tissue response to the pathology. The pig, an omnivorous animal, is a valuable species for gastrointestinal experiments. Thus, the objective of the study was to verify whether the antral ulceration induces changes in the expression of substance P and tachykinin receptors in the neighboring (antrum) and distanced (corpus, pylorus) porcine gastric tissues and therein localized myenteric and submucosal perikarya as well as in the intrinsic descending neurons supplying pyloric sphincter...
August 28, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Sarah Erem, Mohammed S Razzaque
Phosphate is a common ingredient in many healthy foods but, it is also present in foods containing additives and preservatives. When found in foods, phosphate is absorbed in the intestines and filtered from the blood by the kidneys. Generally, any excess is excreted in the urine. In renal pathologies, however, such as chronic kidney disease, a reduced renal ability to excrete phosphate can result in excess accumulation in the body. This accumulation can be a catalyst for widespread damage to the cellular components, bones, and cardiovascular structures...
August 25, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Nikhil R Yedulla, Akshata R Naik, Keith M Kokotovich, Wenxi Yu, Miriam L Greenberg, Bhanu P Jena
Valproate (VPA), an FDA approved anti-epileptic drug with a half-life of 12-18 h in humans, has been shown to perturb the vacuolar proton pump (vH+ -ATPase) function in yeasts by inhibiting myo-inositol phosphate synthase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme in inositol biosynthesis, thereby resulting in inositol depletion. vH+ -ATPase transfers protons (H+ ) across cell membranes, which help maintain pH gradients within cells necessary for various cellular functions including secretion. This proton pump has a membrane (V0 ) and a soluble cytosolic (V1 ) domain, with C-subunit associated with V1 ...
August 25, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Jovana Paunovic, Danijela Vucevic, Tatjana Radosavljevic, Senka Pantic, Milena Veskovic, Igor Pantic
Periportal hepatocytes (PPHs) and perivenous hepatocytes (PVHs) in standard optical microscopy appear to be morphologically identical. However, the functional properties of these two cell populations and their roles in liver lobules are not the same. Despite significant differences in gene expression between these two hepatocyte populations, it is still unclear whether the differences are present at the higher levels of chromatin organization. In this study, we present results, indicating that periportal and perivenous hepatocytes, when stained using toluidine blue histological dye, have different chromatin textural patterns quantified with gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method...
August 24, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Tomohide Uno, Yusuke Ozakiya, Masayuki Furutani, Katsuhiko Sakamoto, Yuichi Uno, Hideyuki Kajiwara, Kengo Kanamaru, Akira Mizoguchi
Rab proteins are low-molecular weight (20-25 kDa) monomeric GTPases that are central to the control and regulation of vesicle trafficking. RabX6 is an insect-specific Rab protein that has no close homolog in vertebrates. However, little information about insect-specific Rab proteins is available. In this study, RabX6 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. Antibodies against Bombyx mori RabX6 were produced in rabbits and rats for western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Western blotting of testis tissues revealed two bands, at positions corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 26 kDa...
August 21, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Jacob H Rand, Douglas J Taatjes
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune thrombophilic disorder that was described as a diagnostic entity over 30 years ago. And yet the pathogenic mechanisms that are responsible for its clinical manifestations remain to be definitively established. The syndrome is defined by (1) the concurrence of vascular thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications together with (2) positivity for immunoassays and coagulation tests that were derived from clinical observations of two anomalous laboratory test results-specifically, false positivity for syphilis infection in uninfected individuals and the finding of inhibitors of blood coagulation in patients who lacked any bleeding tendencies...
August 18, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Nicole M Pirozzi, Jacob P Hoogenboom, Ben N G Giepmans
Nanometer-scale identification of multiple targets is crucial to understand how biomolecules regulate life. Markers, or probes, of specific biomolecules help to visualize and to identify. Electron microscopy (EM), the highest resolution imaging modality, provides ultrastructural information where several subcellular structures can be readily identified. For precise tagging of (macro)molecules, electron-dense probes, distinguishable in gray-scale EM, are being used. However, practically these genetically-encoded or immune-targeted probes are limited to three targets...
August 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Dariusz Stępiński
The rates of ribosome production by a nucleolus and of protein biosynthesis by ribosomes are tightly correlated with the rate of cell growth and proliferation. All these processes must be matched and appropriately regulated to provide optimal cell functioning. Deregulation of certain factors, including oncogenes, controlling these processes, especially ribosome biosynthesis, can lead to cell transformation. Cancer cells are characterized by intense ribosome biosynthesis which is advantageous for their growth and proliferation...
August 13, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
A Vela-Romera, V Carriel, M A Martín-Piedra, J Aneiros-Fernández, F Campos, J Chato-Astrain, N Prados-Olleta, A Campos, M Alaminos, I Garzón
The structure of the human skin is directly dependent on its location and the mechanical forces to which it is subjected. In the present work, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the human ridged and non-ridged skin to identify the differences and similarities between both skin types. For this purpose, human skin samples were obtained from dorsal hand skin (DHS), palmar hand skin (PHS), dorsal foot skin (DFS) and plantar foot skin (PFS) from the same cadaveric donors. Histological, histochemical and semiquantitative and quantitative immunohistochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate the epidermis, dermis and basement membrane...
August 11, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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