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Histochemistry and Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013370/giant-crystals-inside-mitochondria-of-equine-chondrocytes
#1
S Nürnberger, C Rentenberger, K Thiel, B Schädl, I Grunwald, I Ponomarev, St Marlovits, Ch Meyer, D Barnewitz
The present study reports for the first time the presence of giant crystals in mitochondria of equine chondrocytes. These structures show dark contrast in TEM images as well as a granular substructure of regularly aligned 1-2 nm small units. Different zone axes of the crystalline structure were analysed by means of Fourier transformation of lattice-resolution TEM images proving the crystalline nature of the structure. Elemental analysis reveals a high content of nitrogen referring to protein. The outer shape of the crystals is geometrical with an up to hexagonal profile in cross sections...
December 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013369/peroxisomal-abnormalities-in-the-immortalized-human-hepatocyte-ihh-cell-line
#2
Femke C C Klouwer, Janet Koster, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Hans R Waterham
The immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line is increasingly used for studies related to liver metabolism, including hepatic glucose, lipid, lipoprotein and triglyceride metabolism, and the effect of therapeutic interventions. To determine whether the IHH cell line is a good model to investigate hepatic peroxisomal metabolism, we measured several peroxisomal parameters in IHH cells and, for comparison, HepG2 cells and primary skin fibroblasts. This revealed a marked plasmalogen deficiency and a deficient fatty acid α-oxidation in the IHH cells, due to a defect of PEX7, a cytosolic receptor protein required for peroxisomal import of a subset of peroxisomal proteins...
December 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013368/lectins-a-primer-for-histochemists-and-cell-biologists
#3
REVIEW
Joachim C Manning, Antonio Romero, Felix A Habermann, Gabriel García Caballero, Herbert Kaltner, Hans-Joachim Gabius
An experimental observation on selecting binding partners underlies the introduction of the term 'lectin'. Agglutination of erythrocytes depending on their blood-group status revealed the presence of activities in plant extracts that act in an epitope-specific manner like antibodies. As it turned out, their binding partners on the cell surface are carbohydrates of glycoconjugates. By definition, lectins are glycan-specific (mono- or oligosaccharides presented by glycoconjugates or polysaccharides) receptors, distinguished from antibodies, from enzymes using carbohydrates as substrates and from transporters of free saccharides...
December 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013367/actin-polymerization-plays-a-significant-role-in-asbestos-induced-inflammasome-activation-in-mesothelial-cells-in-vitro
#4
Maximilian MacPherson, Catherine Westbom, Helen Kogan, Arti Shukla
Asbestos exposure leads to malignant mesothelioma (MM), a deadly neoplasm of mesothelial cells of various locations. Although there is no doubt about the role of asbestos in MM tumorigenesis, mechanisms are still not well explored. Recently, our group demonstrated that asbestos causes inflammasome priming and activation in mesothelial cells, which in part is dependent on oxidative stress. Our current study sheds light on yet another mechanism of inflammasome activation by asbestos. Here we show the role of actin polymerization in asbestos-induced activation of the nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome...
December 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013366/teaming-up-synthetic-chemistry-and-histochemistry-for-activity-screening-in-galectin-directed-inhibitor-design
#5
René Roy, Yihong Cao, Herbert Kaltner, Naresh Kottari, Tze Chieh Shiao, Karima Belkhadem, Sabine André, Joachim C Manning, Paul V Murphy, Hans-Joachim Gabius
A hallmark of endogenous lectins is their ability to select a few distinct glycoconjugates as counterreceptors for functional pairing from the natural abundance of cellular glycoproteins and glycolipids. As a consequence, assays to assess inhibition of lectin binding should necessarily come as close as possible to the physiological situation, to characterize an impact of a synthetic compound on biorelevant binding with pharmaceutical perspective. We here introduce in a proof-of-principle manner work with sections of paraffin-embedded tissue (jejunum, epididymis) and labeled adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins, harboring one (galectin-1 and galectin-3) or two (galectin-8) types of lectin domain...
December 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012132/galectins-their-network-and-roles-in-immunity-tumor-growth-control
#6
REVIEW
Herbert Kaltner, Stefan Toegel, Gabriel García Caballero, Joachim C Manning, Robert W Ledeen, Hans-Joachim Gabius
One route of realizing the information of glycans involves endogenous receptors (lectins). Occurrence at branch ends renders galactosides particularly accessible. Thus, they are suited for such a recognition process. Fittingly, these epitopes serve as physiological ligands. The ga(lactoside-binding) lectins share the β-sandwich fold with a sequence signature around a central tryptophan residue besides this specificity. Three modes of presentation of the carbohydrate recognition domain are known for galectins, and genome monitoring from fungi to mammals discloses that galectins form a network...
December 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012131/eukaryotic-protein-glycosylation-a-primer-for-histochemists-and-cell-biologists
#7
REVIEW
Anthony Corfield
Proteins undergo co- and posttranslational modifications, and their glycosylation is the most frequent and structurally variegated type. Histochemically, the detection of glycan presence has first been performed by stains. The availability of carbohydrate-specific tools (lectins, monoclonal antibodies) has revolutionized glycophenotyping, allowing monitoring of distinct structures. The different types of protein glycosylation in Eukaryotes are described. Following this educational survey, examples where known biological function is related to the glycan structures carried by proteins are given...
December 23, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012130/accumulation-of-the-advanced-glycation-end-product-carboxymethyl-lysine-in-breast-cancer-is-positively-associated-with-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-unfavorable-prognosis-in-estrogen-receptor-negative-cases
#8
Norbert Nass, Atanas Ignatov, Ludwig Andreas, Christine Weißenborn, Thomas Kalinski, Saadettin Sel
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate as a result of high concentrations of reactive aldehydes, oxidative stress, and insufficient degradation of glycated proteins. AGEs are therefore accepted biomarkers for aging, diabetes, and several degenerative diseases. Due to the Warburg effect and increased oxidative stress, cancer cells frequently accumulate significant amounts of AGEs. As the accumulation of AGEs may reflect the metabolic state and receptor signaling, we evaluated the potential prognostic and predictive value of this biomarker...
December 23, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012129/expression-of-cd24-and-siglec-10-in-first-trimester-placenta-implications-for-immune-tolerance-at-the-fetal-maternal-interface
#9
Marei Sammar, Monika Siwetz, Hamutal Meiri, Viktor Fleming, Peter Altevogt, Berthold Huppertz
During pregnancy, the fetal-maternal interface establishes immune tolerance between the fetus and the mother. CD24, a mucin-like glycoprotein expressed at the surface of hematopoietic cells and diverse tumor cells, is known to interact with the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins (Siglecs). This interaction was assessed as a candidate complex for the immune suppression response in the placenta. CD24 was affinity purified from term placenta and characterized by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA. Binding of recombinant Siglecs to placental CD24 was evaluated by ELISA...
December 23, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999995/lipid-glycosylation-a-primer-for-histochemists-and-cell-biologists
#10
REVIEW
Jürgen Kopitz
Glycolipids are glycoconjugates that are predominantly found on the extracellular surface of cells ranging from bacteria to men. In bacteria and plants, glycoglycerolipids represent the main glycolipid species. Ceramides as carrier for glycans, termed glycosphingolipids (GSLs), are characteristic for vertebrates and insects. The glycan part is involved in a variety of biological activities including cell adhesion and initiation of signaling. Most of these functions rest on two basic principles: (1) GSLs spontaneously contribute to organize lipid rafts in biological membranes, thereby forming functional complexes ('glycosynapses') with receptor proteins and ion channels and (2) their glycans are bound by receptors like galectins (protein-glycan recognition) or cognate glycans (glycan-glycan recognition)...
December 20, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999994/functional-characterisation-of-the-yipf-protein-family-in-mammalian-cells
#11
Tilen Kranjc, Eugene Dempsey, Gerard Cagney, Nobuhiro Nakamura, Denis C Shields, Jeremy C Simpson
In this study, we carry out a systematic characterisation of the YIPF family of proteins with respect to their subcellular localisation profile, membrane topology and functional effects on the endomembrane system. YIPF proteins primarily localise to the Golgi complex and can be grouped into trans-Golgi-localising YIPFs (YIPF1 and YIPF2) and cis-Golgi-localising YIPFs (YIPF3, YIPF4 and YIPF5), with YIPF6 and YIPF7 showing a broader profile being distributed throughout the Golgi stack. YIPF proteins have a long soluble N-terminal region, which is orientated towards the cytosol, followed by 5 closely stacked transmembrane domains, and a C terminus, orientated towards the lumen of the Golgi...
December 20, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999993/the-sugar-code-in-neuronal-physiology
#12
REVIEW
Alonso M Higuero, Natalia Díez-Revuelta, José Abad-Rodríguez
Carbohydrate-related interactions are necessary for the correct development and function of the nervous system. As we illustrate with several examples, those interactions are controlled by carbohydrate-modifying enzymes and by carbohydrate-binding proteins that regulate a plethora of complex axonal processes. Among others, glycan-related proteins as sialidase Neu3 or galectins-1, -3, and -4 play central roles in the determination of axonal fate, axon growth, guidance and regeneration, as well as in polarized axonal glycoprotein transport...
December 20, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999992/c-type-lectins-their-network-and-roles-in-pathogen-recognition-and-immunity
#13
REVIEW
Sabine Mayer, Marie-Kristin Raulf, Bernd Lepenies
C-type lectins (CTLs) represent the most complex family of animal/human lectins that comprises 17 different groups. During evolution, CTLs have developed by diversification to cover a broad range of glycan ligands. However, ligand binding by CTLs is not necessarily restricted to glycans as some CTLs also bind to proteins, lipids, inorganic molecules, or ice crystals. CTLs share a common fold that harbors a Ca(2+) for contact to the sugar and about 18 invariant residues in a phylogenetically conserved pattern...
December 20, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975144/golgi-apparatus-dis-and-reorganizations-studied-with-the-aid-of-2-deoxy-d-glucose-and-visualized-by-3d-electron-tomography
#14
Carmen Ranftler, Claudia Meisslitzer-Ruppitsch, Josef Neumüller, Adolf Ellinger, Margit Pavelka
We studied Golgi apparatus disorganizations and reorganizations in human HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells by using the nonmetabolizable glucose analogue 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and analyzing the changes in Golgi stack architectures by 3D-electron tomography. Golgi stacks remodel in response to 2DG-treatment and are replaced by tubulo-glomerular Golgi bodies, from which mini-Golgi stacks emerge again after removal of 2DG. The Golgi stack changes correlate with the measured ATP-values. Our findings indicate that the classic Golgi stack architecture is impeded, while cells are under the influence of 2DG at constantly low ATP-levels, but the Golgi apparatus is maintained in forms of the Golgi bodies and Golgi stacks can be rebuilt as soon as 2DG is removed...
December 14, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975143/sialylation-of-n-glycans-mechanism-cellular-compartmentalization-and-function
#15
REVIEW
Gaurang P Bhide, Karen J Colley
Sialylated N-glycans play essential roles in the immune system, pathogen recognition and cancer. This review approaches the sialylation of N-glycans from three perspectives. The first section focuses on the sialyltransferases that add sialic acid to N-glycans. Included in the discussion is a description of these enzymes' glycan acceptors, conserved domain organization and sequences, molecular structure and catalytic mechanism. In addition, we discuss the protein interactions underlying the polysialylation of a select group of adhesion and signaling molecules...
December 14, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975142/an-introduction-to-the-sugar-code
#16
EDITORIAL
Hans-Joachim Gabius, Jürgen Roth
Carbohydrates have physiological importance far beyond their roles as source of energy (glycolysis) and activated hydrogen for synthesis (pentosephosphate pathway) or as constituent of the backbone of nucleic acids and of cell wall polysaccharides. The extent of compositional and structural variability of their oligomers (glycans) is unsurpassed in Nature due to the unique property of independently combining the following parameters with sequence: anomeric status, linkage positions, ring size, addition of branches and site-specific introduction of substitutions...
December 14, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942867/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-overexpression-regulates-neuron-production-and-spatial-distribution-in-the-developing-avian-optic-tectum
#17
Mael Lever, Carsten Theiss, Gabriela Morosan-Puopolo, Beate Brand-Saberi
Thymosin β4 (Tβ4), the principal G-actin regulating entity in eukaryotic cells, has also multiple intra- and extracellular functions related to tissue regeneration and healing. While its effect in adult organs is being widely investigated, currently, little is known about its influence on embryonic tissues, i.e., in the developing nervous system. The importance of Tβ4 for neural stem cell proliferation in the embryonic chicken optic tectum (OT) has previously been shown by us for the first time. In the present study, using in ovo electroporation, we carried out a quantification of the effects of the Tβ4-overexpression on the developing chicken OT between E4 and E6 at the hemisphere as well as cellular level...
December 10, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942866/protective-effects-of-levamisole-acetylsalicylic-acid-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol-against-dioxin-toxicity-measured-as-the-expression-of-ahr-and-cox-2-in-a-chicken-embryo-model
#18
Kinga Gostomska-Pampuch, Alicja Ostrowska, Piotr Kuropka, Maciej Dobrzyński, Piotr Ziółkowski, Artur Kowalczyk, Ewa Łukaszewicz, Andrzej Gamian, Ireneusz Całkosiński
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins) are classed as persistent organic pollutants and have adverse effects on multiple functions within the body. Dioxins are known carcinogens, immunotoxins, and teratogens. Dioxins are transformed in vivo, and interactions between the products and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) lead to the formation of proinflammatory and toxic metabolites. The aim of this study was to determine whether α-tocopherol (vitamin E), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and levamisole can decrease the amount of damage caused by dioxins...
December 10, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844143/aberrant-expression-of-limk1-impairs-neuronal-migration-during-neocortex-development
#19
Jiongfang Xie, Xuzhao Li, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Chai, Yingxue Huang, Kaikai Li, Xinran Cheng, Shanting Zhao
Neuronal migration is essential for the formation of cortical layers, and proper neuronal migration requires the coordination of cytoskeletal regulation. LIMK1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates actin dynamics by regulating actin depolymerization factor/cofilin. However, the role of LIMK1 in neuronal migration and its potential mechanism remains elusive. Here, we found that using the in utero electroporation to overexpress LIMK1 and its mutants, constitutively active LIMK1 (LIMK1-CA) and dominant-negative LIMK1 (LIMK1-DN), impaired neuronal migration in the embryonic mouse brain...
November 14, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803995/quality-control-of-glycoprotein-folding-and-erad-the-role-of-n-glycan-handling-edem1-and-os-9
#20
REVIEW
Jürgen Roth, Christian Zuber
Protein N-glycosylation and quality control of protein folding as well as the connected ER-associated degradation of misfolded glycoproteins (ERAD) are not only evolutionary highly conserved but also functionally linked. It is now established that particular N-glycan structures which result from processing reactions by exo-glycosidases in the ER are of importance for glycoprotein folding and for ERAD. Thus, mono-glucosylated N-glycan intermediates harbor structural information which is important for promoting glycoprotein folding...
November 1, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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