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Histochemistry and Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900525/in-focus-in-hcb
#1
EDITORIAL
Douglas J Taatjes, Jürgen Roth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844143/aberrant-expression-of-limk1-impairs-neuronal-migration-during-neocortex-development
#2
Jiongfang Xie, Xuzhao Li, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Chai, Yingxue Huang, Kaikai Li, Xinran Cheng, Shanting Zhao
Neuronal migration is essential for the formation of cortical layers, and proper neuronal migration requires the coordination of cytoskeletal regulation. LIMK1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates actin dynamics by regulating actin depolymerization factor/cofilin. However, the role of LIMK1 in neuronal migration and its potential mechanism remains elusive. Here, we found that using the in utero electroporation to overexpress LIMK1 and its mutants, constitutively active LIMK1 (LIMK1-CA) and dominant-negative LIMK1 (LIMK1-DN), impaired neuronal migration in the embryonic mouse brain...
November 14, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803995/quality-control-of-glycoprotein-folding-and-erad-the-role-of-n-glycan-handling-edem1-and-os-9
#3
REVIEW
Jürgen Roth, Christian Zuber
Protein N-glycosylation and quality control of protein folding as well as the connected ER-associated degradation of misfolded glycoproteins (ERAD) are not only evolutionary highly conserved but also functionally linked. It is now established that particular N-glycan structures which result from processing reactions by exo-glycosidases in the ER are of importance for glycoprotein folding and for ERAD. Thus, mono-glucosylated N-glycan intermediates harbor structural information which is important for promoting glycoprotein folding...
November 1, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796529/in-focus-in-hcb-from-cell-biology-to-tissue-structure-and-function
#4
EDITORIAL
Esther Asan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787612/mutated-olfactomedin-1-in-the-interphotoreceptor-matrix-of-the-mouse-retina-causes-functional-deficits-and-vulnerability-to-light-damage
#5
Marcus A Koch, Bernd Rosenhammer, Walter Paper, Cornelia Volz, Barbara M Braunger, Johanna Hausberger, Herbert Jägle, Ernst R Tamm
Olfactomedin 1 (OLFM1) is a secreted glycoprotein and member of the olfactomedin protein family, which is preferentially expressed in various areas throughout the central nervous system. To learn about the functional properties of OLFM1 in the eye, we investigated its localization in the mouse and pig eye. In addition, we analyzed the ocular phenotype of Olfm1 mutant mice in which 52 amino acids were deleted in the central part (M2 region) of OLFM1. OLFM1 was detected in cornea, sclera, retina, and optic nerve of both wild-type and Olfm1 mutant littermates...
October 27, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774580/trpv1-attenuates-intracranial-arteriole-remodeling-through-inhibiting-vsmc-phenotypic-modulation-in-hypertension
#6
Ming-Jie Zhang, Yun Liu, Zi-Cheng Hu, Yi Zhou, Yan Pi, Lu Guo, Xu Wang, Xue Chen, Jing-Cheng Li, Li-Li Zhang
The phenotypic modulation of contractile vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is widely accepted as the pivotal process in the arterial remodeling induced by hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) on regulating VSMC plasticity and intracranial arteriole remodeling in hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and TRPV1(-/-) mice on a C57BL/6J background were used. By microscopic observation of the histopathological sections of vessels from hypertensive SHR and age-matched normotensive WKY control rats, we found that hypertension induced arterial remodeling...
October 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774579/extravillous-trophoblasts-invade-more-than-uterine-arteries-evidence-for-the-invasion-of-uterine-veins
#7
Gerit Moser, Gregor Weiss, Monika Sundl, Martin Gauster, Monika Siwetz, Ingrid Lang-Olip, Berthold Huppertz
During the first trimester of pregnancy, extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invade into the decidual interstitium to the first third of the myometrium, thereby anchoring the placenta to the uterus. They also follow the endovascular and endoglandular route of invasion; plug, line and remodel spiral arteries, thus being responsible for the establishment of hemotrophic nutrition with the beginning of the second trimester and invade and open uterine glands toward the intervillous space for a histiotrophic nutrition during the first trimester...
October 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709293/expression-of-fas-fasl-caspase-8-and-other-factors-of-the-extrinsic-apoptotic-pathway-during-the-onset-of-interdigital-tissue-elimination
#8
E Budisova Svandova, B Vesela, H Lesot, A Poliard, E Matalova
Elimination of the interdigital web is considered to be the classical model for assessing apoptosis. So far, most of the molecules described in the process have been connected to the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway. The extrinsic (receptor mediated) apoptotic pathway has been rather neglected, although it is important in development, immunomodulation and cancer therapy. This work aimed to investigate factors of the extrinsic apoptotic machinery during interdigital regression with a focus on three crucial initiators: Fas, Fas ligand and caspase-8...
October 5, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704212/high-mobility-group-box-1-hmgb1-dual-functions-in-the-cochlear-auditory-neurons-in-response-to-stress
#9
Sabine Ladrech, Jing Wang, Marc Mathieu, Jean-Luc Puel, Marc Lenoir
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA-binding protein that facilitates gene transcription and may act extracellularly as a late mediator of inflammation. The roles of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) of the cochlea are currently unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that early phenotypical changes in the SGNs of the amikacin-poisoned rat cochlea are mediated by HMGB1. Our results showed that a marked downregulation of HMGB1 had occurred by completion of amikacin treatment, coinciding with acute damage at the dendrite extremities of the SGNs...
October 4, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704211/deep-tissue-imaging-a-review-from-a-preclinical-cancer-research-perspective
#10
Annette Feuchtinger, Axel Walch, Michael Dobosz
This review delves into the rapidly evolving field of deep tissue imaging at cellular resolution, reviewing popular tissue clearing and staining methods in combination with light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) including quantification and three-dimensional visualization tools, the field of applications and perspective, particularly with the focus on preclinical cancer research and drug development. The LSFM technique presented here allows an extremely fast optical sectioning for three-dimensional reconstruction of centimeter-sized tissue samples at cellular resolution...
October 4, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695940/immunohistochemical-and-electronmicroscopic-features-of-mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition-in-human-developing-postnatal-and-nephrotic-podocytes
#11
Natalija Filipovic, Katarina Vukojevic, Ivana Bocina, Marijan Saraga, Merica Glavina Durdov, Boris Kablar, Mirna Saraga-Babic
Differentiation of human podocytes starts with mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) of the metanephric mesenchyme into the S-shaped nephrons. During further development, differentiating podocytes regain mesenchyme-like cell characteristics by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to formation of the terminally differentiated, non-dividing cell. Both MET and EMT processes involve changes in content and organization of cytoskeletal and actin filaments, accompanied by the increased glomerular vascularization...
October 1, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695943/the-role-of-cea-related-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-ceacam1-in-vascular-homeostasis
#12
Uwe Rueckschloss, Stefanie Kuerten, Süleyman Ergün
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related cell adhesion molecules belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily, are expressed in a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types and exert context-dependent activating as well as inhibitory effects. Among these molecules, the CEA-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1) is a transmembrane molecule with an extracellular, a transmembrane and a cytoplasmic domain. The latter contains immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs and functions as a signaling molecule. CEACAM1 can form homo- and heterodimers which is relevant for its signaling activities...
September 30, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695942/the-development-of-anatomy-from-macroscopic-body-dissections-to-stem-cell-derived-organoids
#13
Beate Brand-Saberi, Holm Zaehres
Anatomy as a descriptive topic of research and instruction in medicine has been increasingly influenced by discoveries in molecular cell and developmental biology and most recently the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells and organoids. We summarize here how anatomy has been influenced by developmental and stem cell biologists, and how in vitro modelling of the three-dimensional body environment is emerging to understand structure and function of cells during differentiation processes in development and disease...
September 30, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688058/current-insights-into-the-sulfatase-pathway-in-human-testis-and-cultured-sertoli-cells
#14
K Hartmann, J Bennien, B Wapelhorst, K Bakhaus, V Schumacher, S Kliesch, W Weidner, M Bergmann, J Geyer, D Fietz
Within the human testis, large amounts of sulfated steroid hormones are produced. As shown in breast tissue and placenta, these might not only be excretion intermediates, but re-activated in target cells by steroid sulfatase (STS). This process is called sulfatase pathway and may play a pivotal role in para- and/or intracrine regulation by creating a local supply for steroid hormones. This requires a facilitated transport via uptake carriers and efflux transporters as these hydrophilic molecules cannot pass the cell membrane...
September 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688057/using-electron-microscopes-to-look-into-the-lung
#15
Matthias Ochs, Lars Knudsen, Jan Hegermann, Christoph Wrede, Roman Grothausmann, Christian Mühlfeld
In the nineteenth century, there was a dispute about the existence of a lung alveolar epithelium which remained unsolved until the invention of electron microscopy (EM) and its application to the lung. From the early 1960s, Ewald Weibel became the master of lung EM. He showed that the alveolar epithelium is covered with a lining layer containing surfactant. Weibel also explained the phenomenon of "non-nucleated plates" observed already in 1881 by Albert Kölliker. Weibel's most significant contribution was to the development of stereological methods...
September 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680547/chemosensory-epithelial-cells-in-the-urethra-sentinels-of-the-urinary-tract
#16
Klaus Deckmann, Wolfgang Kummer
A peculiar cell type of the respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia, originally termed "brush cell" or "tuft cell" by electron microscopists because of its apical tuft of microvilli, utilizes the canonical bitter taste transduction cascade known from oropharyngeal taste buds to detect potential hazardous compounds, e.g. bacterial products. Upon stimulation, this cell initiates protective reflexes and local inflammatory responses through release of acetylcholine and chemokines. Guided by the understanding of these cells as sentinels, they have been newly discovered at previously unrecognized anatomical locations, including the urethra...
September 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680546/contraction-of-endothelial-cells-40%C3%A2-years-of-research-but-the-debate-still-lives
#17
Hans Schnittler
Force generation in non-muscle cells is vital for many cellular and tissue functions. Force-generating mechanisms include actomyosin-mediated contraction, actin polymerization that drives plasma membrane protrusions and filopodia as well as kinesin- and dynein-controlled transport of vesicles and organelles along the microtubule cytoskeleton. The actomyosin-mediated contractility and actin remodeling in both epithelium and endothelium were shown to have significant impact on cell migration, shape change and formation and control of intercellular junctions...
September 28, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678007/enteric-co-innervation-of-striated-muscle-in-the-esophagus-still-enigmatic
#18
Winfried L Neuhuber, Jürgen Wörl
The existence of a distinct ganglionated myenteric plexus between the two layers of the striated tunica muscularis of the mammalian esophagus has represented an enigma for quite a while. Although an enteric co-innervation of vagally innervated motor endplates in the esophagus has been suggested repeatedly, it was not possible until recently to demonstrate this dual innervation. Twenty-two years ago, we were able to demonstrate that motor endplates in the rat esophagus receive dual innervation from both vagal nerve fibers originating in the brain stem and from varicose enteric nerve fibers originating in the myenteric plexus...
September 28, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665281/targeting-the-gastrointestinal-tract-with-viral-vectors-state-of-the-art-and-possible-applications-in-research-and-therapy
#19
Roeland Buckinx, Jean-Pierre Timmermans
While there is a large body of preclinical data on the use of viral vectors in gene transfer, relatively little is known about viral gene transfer in the gastrointestinal tract. Viral vector technology is especially underused in the field of neurogastroenterology when compared to brain research. This review provides an overview of the studies employing viral vectors-in particular retroviruses, adenoviruses and adeno-associated viruses-to transduce different cell types in the intestine. Early work mainly focused on mucosal transduction, but had limited success due to the harsh luminal conditions in the gastrointestinal tract and the high turnover rate of enterocytes...
September 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665280/truncated-epha2-likely-potentiates-cell-adhesion-via-integrins-as-well-as-infiltration-and-or-lodgment-of-a-monocyte-macrophage-cell-line-in-the-red-pulp-and-marginal-zone-of-the-mouse-spleen-where-ephrin-a1-is-prominently-expressed-in-the-vasculature
#20
Naoko Konda, Noritaka Saeki, Shingo Nishino, Kazushige Ogawa
We previously established a J774.1 monocyte/macrophage subline expressing a truncated EphA2 construct lacking the kinase domain. We demonstrated that following ephrin-A1 stimulation, endogenous EphA2 promotes cell adhesion through interaction with integrins and integrin ligands such as ICAM1 and that truncated EphA2 potentiates the adhesion and becomes associated with the integrin/integrin ligand complex. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the EphA/ephrin-A system, particularly EphA2/ephrin-A1, regulates transendothelial migration/tissue infiltration of monocytes/macrophages, because ephrin-A1 is widely recognized to be upregulated in inflammatory vasculatures...
September 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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