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Histochemistry and Cell Biology

Kirsten Sandvig, Simona Kavaliauskiene, Tore Skotland
This article aims at providing an update on the complexity of clathrin-independent endocytosis. It is now almost 30 years since we first wrote a review about its existence; at that time many people believed that with the exception of macropinocytosis, which will only be briefly mentioned in this review, all uptake could be accounted for by clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Now it is generally accepted that there are different clathrin-independent mechanisms, some of them regulated by ligands and membrane lipid composition...
May 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Karl Schilling
The enormous expansion the vertebrate nervous system goes through from its first anlage to its adult shape and organization goes along with extensive rearrangements of its constituent cells and typical cellular migrations, often over long distances, and by convoluted pathways. Here, I try to summarize how the cells that form the cerebellum move and migrate during normal cerebellar histogenesis. The cerebellum is made up of a limited set of clearly distinguishable classes of cells, some of which are also readily accessible by genetic tools...
May 9, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Herbert Kaltner, Gabriel García Caballero, Anna-Kristin Ludwig, Joachim C Manning, Hans-Joachim Gabius
About 60 years ago, the efforts to identify blood group-specific haemagglutinins in plant extracts by broad-scale testing were beginning to make a large panel of these proteins available as laboratory tools. Their ability to 'read' cell surface signals like antibodies do was the reason for W. C. Boyd to call them lectins, from Latin legere (to read). These proteins turned out to be as widely present in nature as glycans (polysaccharides or carbohydrate chains of cellular glycoconjugates) are. Since carbohydrates have the virtue to facilitate high-density coding in a minimum of space and lectins (initially mostly from plants called phytohaemagglutinins) turned out to be receptors for glycans, their pairing made many applications possible...
May 5, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Douglas J Taatjes, Jürgen Roth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Dagmar Kolb-Lenz, Robert Fuchs, Birgit Lohberger, Ellen Heitzer, Katharina Meditz, Dominique Pernitsch, Elisabeth Pritz, Andrea Groselj-Strele, Andreas Leithner, Bernadette Liegl-Atzwanger, Beate Rinner
Chordoma is a rare tumor of the bone derived from remnants of the notochord with pronounced chemoresistance. A common feature of the notochord and chordoma cells is distinct vacuolization. Recently, the notochord vacuole was described as a lysosome-related organelle. Since lysosomes are considered as mediators of drug resistance in cancer, we were interested whether they may also play a role in chemoresistance of chordoma. We characterized the lysosomal compartment in chordoma cell lines by cytochemistry, electron microscopy (ELMI) and mutational analysis of genes essential for the physiology of lysosomes...
May 3, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Sohei Kitazawa, Ryuma Haraguchi, Riko Kitazawa
Cytosine methylation plays a major role in the regulation of sequential and tissue-specific expression of genes. De novo aberrant DNA methylation and demethylation are also crucial processes in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The mechanisms of how and when such aberrant methylation and demethylation occur in tumor cells are still obscure, however. To evaluate subtle epigenetic alteration among minor subclonal populations, morphology-oriented epigenetic analysis is requisite, especially where heterogeneity and flexibility are as notable as in the process of cancer progression and cellular differentiation at critical stages...
May 2, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Paul Severin Wiggenhauser, Silke Schwarz, Nicole Rotter
The biomechanical characteristics of septal cartilage depend strongly on the distinct extracellular matrix of cartilage tissue; therefore, it is essential that the components of this matrix are identified and understood. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and matrilin-3 are localised in articular cartilage. This study was the first to examine all subtypes of mature human nasal cartilages (alar, triangular and septal) with specific attention to the distribution of COMP and matrilin-3. Three whole fresh-frozen noses from human donors were dissected, and exemplary biopsies were examined using histochemical staining (haematoxylin and eosin and Alcian blue) and immunohistochemistry (collagen II, COMP and matrilin-3)...
May 2, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Sergey Shityakov, Carola Y Förster
In silico methods and models in the pathology of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or also called BBB "computational pathology", are based on using mathematical approaches together with complex, high-dimensional experimental data to evaluate and predict disease-related impacts on the CNS. These computational methods and tools have been designed to deal with BBB-linked neuropathology at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ levels. The molecular and cellular levels mainly include molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations (atomistic and coarse-grain) of mutated or misfolded tight junction proteins, receptors, and various BBB transporters...
May 2, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Anji Anura, Anees Kazi, Mousumi Pal, Ranjan Rashmi Paul, Sanghamitra Sengupta, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee
Epithelial abnormality during the transformation of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) into oral squamous cell carcinoma has been well studied and documented. However, the differential contribution of atrophy and hyperplasia for malignant potentiality of OSF is yet to be resolved. Existing diagnostic conjectures lack precise diagnostic attributes which may be effectively resolved by substantiation of specific molecular pathology signatures. Present study elucidates existence of cellular competitiveness in OSF conditions using computer-assisted neighbourhood analysis in quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) framework...
April 23, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Lazar Kopanja, Zorana Kovacevic, Marin Tadic, Monika Cecilija Žužek, Milka Vrecl, Robert Frangež
Detailed shape analysis of cells is important to better understand the physiological mechanisms of toxins and determine their effects on cell morphology. This study aimed to develop a procedure for accurate morphological analysis of cell shape and use it as a tool to estimate toxin activity. With the aim of optimizing the method of cell morphology analysis, we determined the influence of ostreolysin A and pleurotolysin B complex (OlyA/PlyB) on the morphology of murine neuronal NG108-15 cells. A computational method was introduced and successfully applied to quantify morphological attributes of the NG108-15 cell line before and after 30 and 60 min exposure to OlyA/PlyB using confocal microscopy...
April 23, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Adriana Mañas, Aislinn Davis, Sydney Lamerand, Jialing Xiang
Bax∆2 is a pro-apoptotic protein originally discovered in colon cancer patients with high microsatellite instability. Unlike most pro-apoptotic Bax family members, Bax∆2 mediates cell death through a non-mitochondrial caspase 8-dependent pathway. In the scope of analyzing the distribution of Bax∆2 expression in human tissues, we examined a panel of human brain samples. Here, we report four cerebellar cases in which the subjects had no neurological disorder or disease documented. We found Bax∆2 positive cells scattered in all areas of the cerebellum, but most strikingly concentrated in Purkinje cell bodies and dendrites...
April 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Kefei Yang, Ibrahim M Adham, Andreas Meinhardt, Sigrid Hoyer-Fender
Tight connection between sperm head and tail is crucial for the transport of the male genome and fertilization. The linkage complex, the sperm head-to-tail coupling apparatus (HTCA), originates from the centrosome and anchors to the nuclear membrane. In contrast to its ultra-structural organization, which is already well known for decades, its protein composition largely still awaits future deciphering. SUN-domain proteins are essential components of a complex that links the cytoskeleton to the peripheral nucleoskeleton, which is the nuclear lamina...
April 16, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Kazuhiro Yamanoi, Jun Nakayama
Gastric gland mucin secreted from pyloric gland cells, mucous neck cells, and cardiac gland cells of the gastric mucosa harbors unique O-glycans carrying terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (αGlcNAc), which are primarily attached to the scaffold mucin core protein MUC6. αGlcNAc acts as an antibiotic against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a microbe causing gastric cancer. In addition, mice deficient in A4gnt, which encodes the enzyme α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (α4GnT) that catalyzes αGlcNAc biosynthesis, spontaneously develop gastric differentiated-type adenocarcinoma, even if not infected by H...
April 16, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Seo-Yoon Jung, David William Green, Han-Sung Jung, Eun-Jung Kim
Enamel knot (EK) is known to be a central organ in tooth development, especially for cusp patterning. To trace the exact position and movement among the inner dental epithelium (IDE) and EK cells, and to monitor the relationship between the EK and cusp patterning, it is essential that we understand the cell cycle status of the EK in early stages of tooth development. In this study, thymidine analogous (IdU, BrdU) staining was used to evaluate the cell cycle phase of the primary EK at the early casp stage (E13...
April 12, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Nancy A Erickson, Kristina Dietert, Jana Enders, Rainer Glauben, Geraldine Nouailles, Achim D Gruber, Lars Mundhenk
The secreted airway mucus cell protein chloride channel regulator, calcium-activated 1, CLCA1, plays a role in inflammatory respiratory diseases via as yet unidentified pathways. For example, deficiency of CLCA1 in a mouse model of acute pneumonia resulted in reduced cytokine expression with less leukocyte recruitment and the human CLCA1 was shown to be capable of activating macrophages in vitro. Translation of experimental data between human and mouse models has proven problematic due to several CLCA species-specific differences...
April 2, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Wei-Hua Tang, Chao-Ping Wang, Teng-Hung Yu, Pei-Yang Tai, Shih-Shin Liang, Wei-Chin Hung, Cheng-Ching Wu, Sung-Hao Huang, Yau-Jiunn Lee, Shih-Chieh Chen
The goal of the present studies is to investigate that the impact of p-cresylsulfate (PCS) on the endothelial barrier integrity via in situ exposure and systemic exposure. Vascular permeability changes induced by local injection of PCS were evaluated by the techniques of both Evans blue (EB) and India ink tracer. Rats were intravenously injected with EB or India ink followed by intradermal injections of various doses of PCS (0, 0.4, 2, 10 and 50 µmol/site) on rat back skins. At different time points, skin EB was extracted and quantified...
March 28, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
T Montanari, M Colitti
The Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) cell strain is widely considered to be a representative in vitro model of human subcutaneous white pre-adipocytes. These cells achieve a transient expression of classical brown markers, such as uncoupling protein 1, peaking at day 14 of differentiation and decreasing thereafter. Adipocyte browning process involves dynamic changes in lipid droplet (LD) dimension, in mitochondria morphology, and in the expression of brown-specific marker genes. This study analyzes SGBS transient phenotypic transformation by quantifying the heterogeneity of LDs, mitochondrial dynamics, and a panel of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation and browning...
March 24, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Ewa Jankowska-Steifer, Justyna Niderla-Bielińska, Bogdan Ciszek, Marek Kujawa, Mateusz Bartkowiak, Aleksandra Flaht-Zabost, Daria Klosinska, Anna Ratajska
During embryonic development, hematopoietic cells are present in areas of blood-vessel differentiation. These hematopoietic cells emerge from a specific subpopulation of endothelial cells called the hemogenic endothelium. We have previously found that mouse proepicardium contained its own population of endothelial cells forming a network of vascular tubules. We hypothesize that this EC population contains cells of hematopoietic potential. Therefore, we investigated an in vitro hematopoietic potential of proepicardial cell populations...
March 16, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Chien-Liang Liu, Po-Sheng Yang, Ming-Nan Chien, Yuan-Ching Chang, Chi-Hsin Lin, Shih-Ping Cheng
SPINT1, also known as HAI-1, is a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor that inhibits multiple proteases including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activator and matriptase. SPINT1 has been shown to modulate HGF/MET activation in certain cancer types. In the present study, we analyzed microarray datasets and found that SPINT1 was consistently upregulated in differentiated thyroid cancer. SPINT1 protein expression was investigated using tissue microarrays and independent samples of our 143 patients. Strong SPINT1 expression was observed in 61-68% of papillary thyroid cancer and 41-50% of follicular thyroid cancer...
March 12, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Dmitri Atiakshin, Igor Buchwalow, Vera Samoilova, Markus Tiemann
Mast cells are haematopoietic cells that arise from pluripotent precursors of the bone marrow. They play immunomodulatory roles in both health and disease. When appropriately activated, mast cells undergo degranulation, and preformed granule compounds are rapidly released into the surroundings. In many cases, the effects that mast cells have on various inflammatory settings are closely associated with the enzymatic characteristics of tryptase, the main granule compound of mast cells. Tryptase degranulation is often linked with the development of an immune response, allergy, inflammation, and remodelling of tissue architecture...
March 12, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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