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Histochemistry and Cell Biology

E Budisova Svandova, B Vesela, H Lesot, A Poliard, E Matalova
Elimination of the interdigital web is considered to be the classical model for assessing apoptosis. So far, most of the molecules described in the process have been connected to the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway. The extrinsic (receptor mediated) apoptotic pathway has been rather neglected, although it is important in development, immunomodulation and cancer therapy. This work aimed to investigate factors of the extrinsic apoptotic machinery during interdigital regression with a focus on three crucial initiators: Fas, Fas ligand and caspase-8...
October 5, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Sabine Ladrech, Jing Wang, Marc Mathieu, Jean-Luc Puel, Marc Lenoir
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA-binding protein that facilitates gene transcription and may act extracellularly as a late mediator of inflammation. The roles of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) of the cochlea are currently unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that early phenotypical changes in the SGNs of the amikacin-poisoned rat cochlea are mediated by HMGB1. Our results showed that a marked downregulation of HMGB1 had occurred by completion of amikacin treatment, coinciding with acute damage at the dendrite extremities of the SGNs...
October 4, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Annette Feuchtinger, Axel Walch, Michael Dobosz
This review delves into the rapidly evolving field of deep tissue imaging at cellular resolution, reviewing popular tissue clearing and staining methods in combination with light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) including quantification and three-dimensional visualization tools, the field of applications and perspective, particularly with the focus on preclinical cancer research and drug development. The LSFM technique presented here allows an extremely fast optical sectioning for three-dimensional reconstruction of centimeter-sized tissue samples at cellular resolution...
October 4, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Natalija Filipovic, Katarina Vukojevic, Ivana Bocina, Marijan Saraga, Merica Glavina Durdov, Boris Kablar, Mirna Saraga-Babic
Differentiation of human podocytes starts with mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) of the metanephric mesenchyme into the S-shaped nephrons. During further development, differentiating podocytes regain mesenchyme-like cell characteristics by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to formation of the terminally differentiated, non-dividing cell. Both MET and EMT processes involve changes in content and organization of cytoskeletal and actin filaments, accompanied by the increased glomerular vascularization...
October 1, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Uwe Rueckschloss, Stefanie Kuerten, Süleyman Ergün
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related cell adhesion molecules belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily, are expressed in a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types and exert context-dependent activating as well as inhibitory effects. Among these molecules, the CEA-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1) is a transmembrane molecule with an extracellular, a transmembrane and a cytoplasmic domain. The latter contains immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs and functions as a signaling molecule. CEACAM1 can form homo- and heterodimers which is relevant for its signaling activities...
September 30, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Beate Brand-Saberi, Holm Zaehres
Anatomy as a descriptive topic of research and instruction in medicine has been increasingly influenced by discoveries in molecular cell and developmental biology and most recently the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells and organoids. We summarize here how anatomy has been influenced by developmental and stem cell biologists, and how in vitro modelling of the three-dimensional body environment is emerging to understand structure and function of cells during differentiation processes in development and disease...
September 30, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
K Hartmann, J Bennien, B Wapelhorst, K Bakhaus, V Schumacher, S Kliesch, W Weidner, M Bergmann, J Geyer, D Fietz
Within the human testis, large amounts of sulfated steroid hormones are produced. As shown in breast tissue and placenta, these might not only be excretion intermediates, but re-activated in target cells by steroid sulfatase (STS). This process is called sulfatase pathway and may play a pivotal role in para- and/or intracrine regulation by creating a local supply for steroid hormones. This requires a facilitated transport via uptake carriers and efflux transporters as these hydrophilic molecules cannot pass the cell membrane...
September 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Matthias Ochs, Lars Knudsen, Jan Hegermann, Christoph Wrede, Roman Grothausmann, Christian Mühlfeld
In the nineteenth century, there was a dispute about the existence of a lung alveolar epithelium which remained unsolved until the invention of electron microscopy (EM) and its application to the lung. From the early 1960s, Ewald Weibel became the master of lung EM. He showed that the alveolar epithelium is covered with a lining layer containing surfactant. Weibel also explained the phenomenon of "non-nucleated plates" observed already in 1881 by Albert Kölliker. Weibel's most significant contribution was to the development of stereological methods...
September 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Klaus Deckmann, Wolfgang Kummer
A peculiar cell type of the respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia, originally termed "brush cell" or "tuft cell" by electron microscopists because of its apical tuft of microvilli, utilizes the canonical bitter taste transduction cascade known from oropharyngeal taste buds to detect potential hazardous compounds, e.g. bacterial products. Upon stimulation, this cell initiates protective reflexes and local inflammatory responses through release of acetylcholine and chemokines. Guided by the understanding of these cells as sentinels, they have been newly discovered at previously unrecognized anatomical locations, including the urethra...
September 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Hans Schnittler
Force generation in non-muscle cells is vital for many cellular and tissue functions. Force-generating mechanisms include actomyosin-mediated contraction, actin polymerization that drives plasma membrane protrusions and filopodia as well as kinesin- and dynein-controlled transport of vesicles and organelles along the microtubule cytoskeleton. The actomyosin-mediated contractility and actin remodeling in both epithelium and endothelium were shown to have significant impact on cell migration, shape change and formation and control of intercellular junctions...
September 28, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Winfried L Neuhuber, Jürgen Wörl
The existence of a distinct ganglionated myenteric plexus between the two layers of the striated tunica muscularis of the mammalian esophagus has represented an enigma for quite a while. Although an enteric co-innervation of vagally innervated motor endplates in the esophagus has been suggested repeatedly, it was not possible until recently to demonstrate this dual innervation. Twenty-two years ago, we were able to demonstrate that motor endplates in the rat esophagus receive dual innervation from both vagal nerve fibers originating in the brain stem and from varicose enteric nerve fibers originating in the myenteric plexus...
September 28, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Douglas J Taatjes, Jürgen Roth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Roeland Buckinx, Jean-Pierre Timmermans
While there is a large body of preclinical data on the use of viral vectors in gene transfer, relatively little is known about viral gene transfer in the gastrointestinal tract. Viral vector technology is especially underused in the field of neurogastroenterology when compared to brain research. This review provides an overview of the studies employing viral vectors-in particular retroviruses, adenoviruses and adeno-associated viruses-to transduce different cell types in the intestine. Early work mainly focused on mucosal transduction, but had limited success due to the harsh luminal conditions in the gastrointestinal tract and the high turnover rate of enterocytes...
September 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Naoko Konda, Noritaka Saeki, Shingo Nishino, Kazushige Ogawa
We previously established a J774.1 monocyte/macrophage subline expressing a truncated EphA2 construct lacking the kinase domain. We demonstrated that following ephrin-A1 stimulation, endogenous EphA2 promotes cell adhesion through interaction with integrins and integrin ligands such as ICAM1 and that truncated EphA2 potentiates the adhesion and becomes associated with the integrin/integrin ligand complex. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the EphA/ephrin-A system, particularly EphA2/ephrin-A1, regulates transendothelial migration/tissue infiltration of monocytes/macrophages, because ephrin-A1 is widely recognized to be upregulated in inflammatory vasculatures...
September 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
K Barth, R Bläsche, A Neißer, S Bramke, J A Frank, M Kasper
The purinergic receptor P2X7 represents an ATP-gated ionotropic receptor with a selective localization in alveolar epithelial type I cells of the lung. Despite the involvement of the receptor in inflammatory processes of the lung, it is not established whether this receptor plays a specific role in the alveolar epithelial cell biology. There is evidence that P2X7 receptor influences Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells under conditions of injury. Here, we investigated the expression of GSK-3β, a potent protein kinase involved in alveolar epithelial barrier functions, and of tight junction molecules occludin, claudin-4 and claudin-18 in wild-type and P2X7(-/-) mice...
September 23, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Rebecca Möller, Gert H Hansen, E Michael Danielsen
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) transfer in opposite directions across the small intestinal brush border serves different purposes in early life and in adulthood. In the neonate, maternal IgG is taken up from the gut lumen into the blood, conferring passive immunity to the offspring, whereas in the adult immunoglobulins, including IgG made by plasma cells in the lamina propria, are secreted via the brush border to the lumen as part of the mucosal defense. Here, IgG has been proposed to perform a luminal immune surveillance which eventually includes a reuptake through the brush border as pathogen-containing immune complexes...
September 19, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Ivan A Lopez, Gail Ishiyama, Seji Hosokawa, Kumiko Hosokawa, Dora Acuna, Fred H Linthicum, Akira Ishiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Hanna Müller, Christel Weiss, Marcus Renner, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Jan Mollenhauer
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is characterized by surfactant inactivation and inflammation. As lung epithelial cells up-regulate nitric oxide (NO) in response to inflammation, the NO production following meconium exposition was examined in relation to expression of Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), a protein with functions in innate immunity and inflammatory regulation. Here, DMBT1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in postmortem lung sections from patients with MAS. The lung epithelial cell line A549, stably transfected with a DMBT1 (DMBT1+ cells) expression plasmid or with an empty expression plasmid (DMBT1- cells), was exposed to meconium...
September 15, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Kaori Oya, Ken Ishida, Tomoki Nishida, Sunao Sato, Mitsunobu Kishino, Katsutoshi Hirose, Yuzo Ogawa, Kazunori Ikebe, Fumio Takeshige, Hidehiro Yasuda, Toshihisa Komori, Satoru Toyosawa
Dmp1 is an acidic phosphoprotein that is specifically expressed in osteocytes. During the secretory process, the full-length, precursor Dmp1 is cleaved into N- and C-terminal fragments. C-terminal Dmp1 is phosphorylated, becoming a highly negatively charged domain that may assist in bone mineralization by recruiting calcium ions and influencing subsequent mineral deposition. It has been recently reported that the Golgi-localized protein kinase Fam20C phosphorylates Dmp1 in vitro. To investigate this phosphorylation in situ, we determined the locations of phosphorylated Dmp1 and Fam20C in rat bones using immunohistochemistry...
September 10, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Jingjing Zhang, Gongqiang Yuan, Muchen Dong, Ting Zhang, Gao Hua, Qingjun Zhou, Weiyun Shi
Elevated Notch signaling has been verified in a large range of fibrotic diseases developed in the kidney, liver, and lung, inducing the development of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of this study was to observe the involvement of Notch signaling in the EMT of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In vitro cultivated human RPE cells (ARPE-19) were treated with 10 ng/mL transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 for 24, 48, and 72 h...
September 7, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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