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Histochemistry and Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220245/phosphorylation-of-histone-h3-on-ser-10-by-aurora-b-is-essential-for-chromosome-condensation-in-porcine-embryos-during-the-first-mitotic-division
#1
Changchao Chen, Zixiao Zhang, Panpan Cui, Yaya Liao, Yue Zhang, Lingyun Yao, Rong Rui, Shiqiang Ju
Phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser-10 (H3S10ph) is involved in regulating mitotic chromosome condensation and decondensation, which plays an important regulatory role during mitotic cell cycle progression in mammalian cells. However, whether H3S10ph plays a similar role in early porcine embryos during the first mitotic division remains uncertain. In this study, the subcellular localization and possible roles of H3S10ph were evaluated in the first mitotic cell cycle progression of porcine embryos using western blot, indirect immunofluorescence and barasertib (H3S10ph upstream regulator Aurora-B inhibitor) treatments...
February 20, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220244/resetting-of-renal-tissular-renin-angiotensin-and-bradykinin-kallikrein-systems-after-unilateral-kidney-denervation-in-rats
#2
Jürgen M Bohlender, Jürg Nussberger, Frédéric Birkhäuser, Eric Grouzmann, George N Thalmann, Hans Imboden
The renal tissular renin-angiotensin and bradykinin-kallikrein systems control kidney function together with the renal sympathetic innervation but their interaction is still unclear. To further elucidate this relationship, we investigated these systems in rats 6 days after left kidney denervation (DNX, n = 8) compared to sham-operated controls (CTR, n = 8). Plasma renin concentration was unchanged in DNX vs. CTR (p = NS). Kidney bradykinin (BK) and angiotensin (Ang) I and II concentrations decreased bilaterally in DNX vs...
February 20, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191619/hypothyroidism-reduces-mammary-tumor-progression-via-%C3%AE-catenin-activated-intrinsic-apoptotic-pathway-in-rats
#3
C M López Fontana, L E Zyla, F E Santiano, C V Sasso, F D Cuello-Carrión, V Pistone Creydt, M A Fanelli, R W Carón
Experimental hypothyroidism retards mammary carcinogenesis promoting apoptosis of tumor cells. β-catenin plays a critical role in cell adhesion and intracellular signaling pathways conditioning the prognosis of breast cancer. However, the mechanistic connections associated with the expression of β-catenin in thyroid status and breast cancer are not known. Therefore, we studied the relationship between the expression and localization of β-catenin and apoptosis in mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in hypothyroid (Hypot) and euthyroid (EUT) rats...
February 13, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185006/hair-follicle-stem-cell-proliferation-akt-and-wnt-signaling-activation-in-tpa-induced-hair-regeneration
#4
Weiming Qiu, Mingxing Lei, Ling Zhou, Xiufeng Bai, Xiangdong Lai, Yu Yu, Tian Yang, Xiaohua Lian
Regeneration of hair follicles relies on activation of hair follicle stem cells during telogen to anagen transition process in hair cycle. This process is rigorously controlled by intrinsic and environmental factors. 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor promoter, accelerates reentry of hair follicles into anagen phase. However, it is unclear that how TPA promotes the hair regeneration. In the present study, we topically applied TPA onto the dorsal skin of 2-month-old C57BL/6 female mice to examine the activity of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of signaling pathways during hair regeneration...
February 9, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168650/gsdma3-is-required-for-mammary-gland-development-in-mice
#5
Haiying Guo, Senlin Xu, Yingxin Liu, Yang Yang, Fang Deng, Yizhan Xing, Xiaohua Lian, Yuhong Li
AE (alopecia and excoriation) is a mouse mutant phenotype that harbours a mutation in Gsdma3. Gsdma3 has been reported to regulate the development of skin and hair follicles. However, its role in the mammary glands has not been reported. In this study, we found that descendants bred from an AE mother died within 12 days after birth. Then, we found that the expression of Gsdma3 varied among the developmental stages of mammary glands. Subsequently, we systematically studied the phenotype of the mammary glands of AE and wild-type mice, revealing that the mammary glands were smaller in AE mice...
February 6, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168649/combined-orcein-and-martius-scarlet-blue-omsb-staining-for-qualitative-and-quantitative-analyses-of-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-brachiocephalic-arteries-in-apoe-ldlr-mice
#6
Mariusz Gajda, Agnieszka Jasztal, Tomasz Banasik, Ewa Jasek-Gajda, Stefan Chlopicki
Numerous cellular and extracellular components should be analyzed in sections of atherosclerotic plaques to assess atherosclerosis progression and vulnerability. Here, we combined orcein (O) staining for elastic fibers and martius scarlet blue (MSB) polychrome to visualize various morphological contents of plaque in brachiocephalic arteries (BCA) of apoE/LDLR(-/-) mice. Elastic fibers (including broken elastic laminae and 'buried' fibrous caps) were stained purple and they could be easily distinguished from collagen fibers (blue)...
February 6, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154952/an-immunohistochemical-study-of-nitrotyrosine-expression-in-pancreatic-islets-of-cases-with-increasing-duration-of-type-1-diabetes-and-without-diabetes
#7
Charlton Martin, Lars Krogvold, Shebani Farik, Satya Amirapu, Fiona Wu, Shiva Reddy, Knut Dahl-Jørgensen
Peroxynitrite-induced nitration of cellular proteins has been shown to associate with various human pathologies. The expression of pancreatic nitrotyrosine and its cellular source relative to insulitis were analysed in cases with increasing duration of type 1 diabetes and compared with non-diabetic autoantibody-negative and -positive cases. Pancreatic tail sections from non-diabetic autoantibody-negative cases (Group 1; n = 7), non-diabetic autoantibody-positive cases (Group 2; n = 6), recently diagnosed cases (Group 3; n = 6), 0...
February 2, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130590/expression-of-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac-and-cftr-in-the-human-epidermis-and-epidermal-appendages
#8
Israel Hanukoglu, Vijay R Boggula, Hananya Vaknine, Sachin Sharma, Thomas Kleyman, Aaron Hanukoglu
A major function of the skin is the regulation of body temperature by sweat secretions. Sweat glands secrete water and salt, especially NaCl. Excreted water evaporates, cooling the skin surface, and Na(+) ions are reabsorbed by the epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). Mutations in ENaC subunit genes lead to a severe multi-system (systemic) form of pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) type I, characterized by salt loss from aldosterone target organs, including sweat glands in the skin. In this study, we mapped the sites of localization of ENaC in the human skin by confocal microscopy using polyclonal antibodies generated against human αENaC...
January 27, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097431/placental-dapk1-and-autophagy-marker-lc3b-ii-are-dysregulated-by-tnf-%C3%AE-in-a-gestational-age-dependent-manner
#9
Andreas Prokesch, Astrid Blaschitz, Tamara Bauer, Gerit Moser, Ursula Hiden, Julianna Zadora, Ralf Dechend, Florian Herse, Martin Gauster
Autophagy, a cell-survival process responsible for degradation of protein aggregates and damaged organelles, is increasingly recognized as another mechanism essential for human placentation. A substantial body of experiments suggests inflammation and oxidative stress as the underlying stimuli for altered placental autophagy, giving rise to placenta dysfunction and pregnancy pathologies. Here, the hypothesis is tested whether or not pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are able to influence the expression profile of autophagy genes in human first-trimester villous placenta...
January 17, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091742/c-jun-is-differentially-expressed-in-embryonic-and-adult-neural-precursor-cells
#10
Fumiaki Kawashima, Kengo Saito, Hirofumi Kurata, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Tetsuji Mori
c-jun, a major component of AP-1 transcription factor, has a wide variety of functions. In the embryonic brain, c-jun mRNA is abundantly expressed in germinal layers around the ventricles. Although the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult brain is a derivative of embryonic germinal layers and contains neural precursor cells (NPCs), the c-jun expression pattern is not clear. To study the function of c-jun in adult neurogenesis, we analyzed c-jun expression in the adult SVZ by immunohistochemistry and compared it with that of the embryonic brain...
January 16, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013370/giant-crystals-inside-mitochondria-of-equine-chondrocytes
#11
S Nürnberger, C Rentenberger, K Thiel, B Schädl, I Grunwald, I Ponomarev, St Marlovits, Ch Meyer, D Barnewitz
The present study reports for the first time the presence of giant crystals in mitochondria of equine chondrocytes. These structures show dark contrast in TEM images as well as a granular substructure of regularly aligned 1-2 nm small units. Different zone axes of the crystalline structure were analysed by means of Fourier transformation of lattice-resolution TEM images proving the crystalline nature of the structure. Elemental analysis reveals a high content of nitrogen referring to protein. The outer shape of the crystals is geometrical with an up to hexagonal profile in cross sections...
December 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013369/peroxisomal-abnormalities-in-the-immortalized-human-hepatocyte-ihh-cell-line
#12
Femke C C Klouwer, Janet Koster, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Hans R Waterham
The immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line is increasingly used for studies related to liver metabolism, including hepatic glucose, lipid, lipoprotein and triglyceride metabolism, and the effect of therapeutic interventions. To determine whether the IHH cell line is a good model to investigate hepatic peroxisomal metabolism, we measured several peroxisomal parameters in IHH cells and, for comparison, HepG2 cells and primary skin fibroblasts. This revealed a marked plasmalogen deficiency and a deficient fatty acid α-oxidation in the IHH cells, due to a defect of PEX7, a cytosolic receptor protein required for peroxisomal import of a subset of peroxisomal proteins...
December 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013367/actin-polymerization-plays-a-significant-role-in-asbestos-induced-inflammasome-activation-in-mesothelial-cells-in-vitro
#13
Maximilian MacPherson, Catherine Westbom, Helen Kogan, Arti Shukla
Asbestos exposure leads to malignant mesothelioma (MM), a deadly neoplasm of mesothelial cells of various locations. Although there is no doubt about the role of asbestos in MM tumorigenesis, mechanisms are still not well explored. Recently, our group demonstrated that asbestos causes inflammasome priming and activation in mesothelial cells, which in part is dependent on oxidative stress. Our current study sheds light on yet another mechanism of inflammasome activation by asbestos. Here we show the role of actin polymerization in asbestos-induced activation of the nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome...
December 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012130/accumulation-of-the-advanced-glycation-end-product-carboxymethyl-lysine-in-breast-cancer-is-positively-associated-with-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-unfavorable-prognosis-in-estrogen-receptor-negative-cases
#14
Norbert Nass, Atanas Ignatov, Ludwig Andreas, Christine Weißenborn, Thomas Kalinski, Saadettin Sel
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate as a result of high concentrations of reactive aldehydes, oxidative stress, and insufficient degradation of glycated proteins. AGEs are therefore accepted biomarkers for aging, diabetes, and several degenerative diseases. Due to the Warburg effect and increased oxidative stress, cancer cells frequently accumulate significant amounts of AGEs. As the accumulation of AGEs may reflect the metabolic state and receptor signaling, we evaluated the potential prognostic and predictive value of this biomarker...
December 23, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012129/expression-of-cd24-and-siglec-10-in-first-trimester-placenta-implications-for-immune-tolerance-at-the-fetal-maternal-interface
#15
Marei Sammar, Monika Siwetz, Hamutal Meiri, Viktor Fleming, Peter Altevogt, Berthold Huppertz
During pregnancy, the fetal-maternal interface establishes immune tolerance between the fetus and the mother. CD24, a mucin-like glycoprotein expressed at the surface of hematopoietic cells and diverse tumor cells, is known to interact with the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins (Siglecs). This interaction was assessed as a candidate complex for the immune suppression response in the placenta. CD24 was affinity purified from term placenta and characterized by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA. Binding of recombinant Siglecs to placental CD24 was evaluated by ELISA...
December 23, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999994/functional-characterisation-of-the-yipf-protein-family-in-mammalian-cells
#16
Tilen Kranjc, Eugene Dempsey, Gerard Cagney, Nobuhiro Nakamura, Denis C Shields, Jeremy C Simpson
In this study, we carry out a systematic characterisation of the YIPF family of proteins with respect to their subcellular localisation profile, membrane topology and functional effects on the endomembrane system. YIPF proteins primarily localise to the Golgi complex and can be grouped into trans-Golgi-localising YIPFs (YIPF1 and YIPF2) and cis-Golgi-localising YIPFs (YIPF3, YIPF4 and YIPF5), with YIPF6 and YIPF7 showing a broader profile being distributed throughout the Golgi stack. YIPF proteins have a long soluble N-terminal region, which is orientated towards the cytosol, followed by 5 closely stacked transmembrane domains, and a C terminus, orientated towards the lumen of the Golgi...
December 20, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975144/golgi-apparatus-dis-and-reorganizations-studied-with-the-aid-of-2-deoxy-d-glucose-and-visualized-by-3d-electron-tomography
#17
Carmen Ranftler, Claudia Meisslitzer-Ruppitsch, Josef Neumüller, Adolf Ellinger, Margit Pavelka
We studied Golgi apparatus disorganizations and reorganizations in human HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells by using the nonmetabolizable glucose analogue 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and analyzing the changes in Golgi stack architectures by 3D-electron tomography. Golgi stacks remodel in response to 2DG-treatment and are replaced by tubulo-glomerular Golgi bodies, from which mini-Golgi stacks emerge again after removal of 2DG. The Golgi stack changes correlate with the measured ATP-values. Our findings indicate that the classic Golgi stack architecture is impeded, while cells are under the influence of 2DG at constantly low ATP-levels, but the Golgi apparatus is maintained in forms of the Golgi bodies and Golgi stacks can be rebuilt as soon as 2DG is removed...
December 14, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942867/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-overexpression-regulates-neuron-production-and-spatial-distribution-in-the-developing-avian-optic-tectum
#18
Mael Lever, Carsten Theiss, Gabriela Morosan-Puopolo, Beate Brand-Saberi
Thymosin β4 (Tβ4), the principal G-actin regulating entity in eukaryotic cells, has also multiple intra- and extracellular functions related to tissue regeneration and healing. While its effect in adult organs is being widely investigated, currently, little is known about its influence on embryonic tissues, i.e., in the developing nervous system. The importance of Tβ4 for neural stem cell proliferation in the embryonic chicken optic tectum (OT) has previously been shown by us for the first time. In the present study, using in ovo electroporation, we carried out a quantification of the effects of the Tβ4-overexpression on the developing chicken OT between E4 and E6 at the hemisphere as well as cellular level...
December 10, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942866/protective-effects-of-levamisole-acetylsalicylic-acid-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol-against-dioxin-toxicity-measured-as-the-expression-of-ahr-and-cox-2-in-a-chicken-embryo-model
#19
Kinga Gostomska-Pampuch, Alicja Ostrowska, Piotr Kuropka, Maciej Dobrzyński, Piotr Ziółkowski, Artur Kowalczyk, Ewa Łukaszewicz, Andrzej Gamian, Ireneusz Całkosiński
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins) are classed as persistent organic pollutants and have adverse effects on multiple functions within the body. Dioxins are known carcinogens, immunotoxins, and teratogens. Dioxins are transformed in vivo, and interactions between the products and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) lead to the formation of proinflammatory and toxic metabolites. The aim of this study was to determine whether α-tocopherol (vitamin E), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and levamisole can decrease the amount of damage caused by dioxins...
December 10, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013368/lectins-a-primer-for-histochemists-and-cell-biologists
#20
REVIEW
Joachim C Manning, Antonio Romero, Felix A Habermann, Gabriel García Caballero, Herbert Kaltner, Hans-Joachim Gabius
An experimental observation on selecting binding partners underlies the introduction of the term 'lectin'. Agglutination of erythrocytes depending on their blood-group status revealed the presence of activities in plant extracts that act in an epitope-specific manner like antibodies. As it turned out, their binding partners on the cell surface are carbohydrates of glycoconjugates. By definition, lectins are glycan-specific (mono- or oligosaccharides presented by glycoconjugates or polysaccharides) receptors, distinguished from antibodies, from enzymes using carbohydrates as substrates and from transporters of free saccharides...
February 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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