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Histochemistry and Cell Biology

Min-Jung Lee, Dong-Joon Lee, Han-Sung Jung
The skin wound healing ability of animals differs depending on the environment. The gerbil wound model showed a different wound healing mechanism than was known thus far. Many other wound healing mechanisms have been found to involve transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1). However, in the wound healing of gerbil skin, the expression of TGF-β1 seems to be not enough compared to mouse. In this study, we compared the wound healing process of gerbil and mouse back skin. At 3 days after wounding, the TGF-β1 level was downregulated in gerbil skin wound healing compared mouse...
November 3, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Lars Knudsen, Matthias Ochs
The mammalian lung´s structural design is optimized to serve its main function: gas exchange. It takes place in the alveolar region (parenchyma) where air and blood are brought in close proximity over a large surface. Air reaches the alveolar lumen via a conducting airway tree. Blood flows in a capillary network embedded in inter-alveolar septa. The barrier between air and blood consists of a continuous alveolar epithelium (a mosaic of type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells), a continuous capillary endothelium and the connective tissue layer in-between...
November 2, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Johannes C Schittny
During the last 10 + years biologically and clinically significant questions about postnatal lung development could be answered due to the application of modern cutting-edge microscopic and quantitative histological techniques. These are in particular synchrotron radiation based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), but also 3 Helium Magnetic Resonance Imaging, as well as the stereological estimation of the number of alveoli and the length of the free septal edge. First, the most important new finding may be the following: alveolarization of the lung does not cease after the maturation of the alveolar microvasculature but continues until young adulthood and, even more important, maybe reactivated lifelong if needed to rescue structural damages of the lungs...
November 2, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Wiesława Kranc, Maciej Brązert, Joanna Budna, Piotr Celichowski, Artur Bryja, Mariusz J Nawrocki, Katarzyna Ożegowska, Maurycy Jankowski, Błażej Chermuła, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Michal Jeseta, Leszek Pawelczyk, Andrzej Bręborowicz, Dominik Rachoń, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel, Bartosz Kempisty
The human ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) surround the oocyte and form the proper architecture of the ovarian follicle. The ability of GCs to proliferate and differentiate in the conditions of in vitro culture has been proven. However, there is still a large field for extensive investigation of molecular basics, as well as marker genes, responsible for these processes. This study aimed to find the new marker genes, encoding proteins that regulate human GCs in vitro capability for proliferation and differentiation during long-term primary culture...
October 31, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Eric Bekoe Offei, Xuesong Yang, Beate Brand-Saberi
During embryonic development, cells need to undergo a number of morphological changes that are decisive for the shaping of the embryo's body, initiating organogenesis and differentiation into functional tissues. These remodeling processes are accompanied by profound changes in the cell membrane, the cytoskeleton, organelles, and extracellular matrix composition. While considerably detailed insight into the role of autophagy in stem cells biology has been gained in the recent years, information regarding the participation of autophagy in morphogenetic processes is only sparse...
October 31, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Rajender Nandigama, Berin Upcin, Bertal H Aktas, Süleyman Ergün, Erik Henke
As in the systemic treatment of any disease, it is crucial for anti-cancer drugs to reach their target at a sufficient that is a therapeutically effective dose. However, unlike normal organs, solid tumors have a tendency to be undersupplied and hypoxic. This not only leads to insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients but also to inefficient transport of drugs into tumors. As a consequence, administered doses have to be raised, resulting in increased side effects and often premature termination of treatment...
October 25, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Ramona Jühlen, Birthe Fahrenkrog
The nuclear pore complex is the main transportation hub for exchange between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. It is built from nucleoporins that form distinct subcomplexes to establish this huge protein complex in the nuclear envelope. Malfunctioning of nucleoporins is well known in human malignancies, such as gene fusions of NUP214 and NUP98 in hematological neoplasms and overexpression of NUP88 in a variety of human cancers. In the past decade, the incremental utilization of next-generation sequencing has unraveled mutations in nucleoporin genes in the context of an increasing number of hereditary diseases, often in a tissue-specific manner...
October 25, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Yurika Saitoh, Akio Kamijo, Junji Yamauchi, Takeharu Sakamoto, Nobuo Terada
A membrane skeletal molecular complex, protein 4.1G-membrane palmitoylated protein 6 (MPP6)-Lin7-cell adhesion molecule 4 (CADM4), is incorporated in Schwann cells, especially in Schmidt-Lanterman incisures (SLIs), in the mouse peripheral nervous system (PNS). MPP6, Lin7, and CADM4 are transported to SLIs by 4.1G. In this study, we created MPP6-deficient mice and evaluated myelin structure and MPP6 protein complexes. In SLIs in MPP6-deficient nerves, Lin7 was rarely detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, but the localization and amount of CADM4 and 4...
October 24, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Linda J Fothergill, John B Furness
Enteroendocrine cells were historically classified by a letter code, each linked to a single hormone, deduced to be the only hormone produced by the cell. One type, the L cell, was recognised to store and secrete two products, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-related peptides. Many other exceptions to the one-cell one-hormone classifications have been reported over the last 40 years or so, and yet the one-hormone dogma has persisted. In the last 6 years, a plethora of data has appeared that makes the concept unviable...
October 24, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Sylwia Libard, Dijana Cerjan, Irina Alafuzoff
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is influenced by several factors such as cold ischemia time, fixative, fixation time, paraffin, storage time, antibody, antigen retrieval technique and detection systems. In the setting of post-mortem tissue, not only post-mortem delay, but also agonal state is of interest. Here, we assessed an additional variable, i.e., the thickness of the section, and noted that this variable also influenced the IHC outcome. This is of significance when the extent of labelling is a parameter to be assessed, for example when assigning a stage or grade of a disease...
October 24, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Ana Sousa-Oliveira, Ana Brandão, Martin Vojtek, Salomé Gonçalves-Monteiro, Joana B Sousa, Carmen Diniz
Adenosinergic system regulates vascular tonicity through the complex system of adenosine, adenosine receptors (ARs) and nucleoside transporters. This work aimed at evaluating the impact of hypertension on adenosine bioavailability and expression/distribution profile of AR subtypes (A1 , A2A , A2B , A3 ) and equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT1, ENT2, ENT3, ENT4). Adenosine was measured in vascular tissue extracts by HPLC (fluorescence detection); immunoreactivities (ARs/ENTs) in mesenteric arteries/veins from normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were analyzed by histomorphometry...
October 24, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Akane Ozaki, Takahito Otani, Norio Kitagawa, Kayoko Ogata, Hiroshi Iida, Hiroshi Kojima, Tetsuichiro Inai
Vitamin A, which is found in serum, is known to affect keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal differentiation, and keratinization. In mice, stratified epithelia in the oral cavity, esophagus, and forestomach are keratinized; however, these epithelia are not keratinized in humans. Several studies have reported that three-dimensional (3D) cultures of human keratinocytes in serum-containing medium could form keratinized epithelia. Here, we evaluated the effects of serum on the morphology, expression, and localization of differentiation markers and tight junction proteins, and paracellular permeability in 3D cultures of mouse keratinocytes...
October 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Maëva Cherif-Feildel, Kristell Kellner, Didier Goux, Nicolas Elie, Béatrice Adeline, Christophe Lelong, Clothilde Heude Berthelin
While our knowledge of bivalve gametogenesis recently progressed, data on early stages of gametogenesis remain to be developed, especially when dealing with germinal stem cells (GSC) and their niche in these organisms. Here, we wish to develop a strategy to identify putative GSC in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas based on morphological criteria combined with vasa marker expression. A histological quantitative approach, based on stereology, allowed us to identify two types of early germ cells in the germinal epithelium, one presenting round nuclei and the other irregular ones...
October 15, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Keyla S N Pires, Sue Y Sun, Camilla M Gonçalves, Jaqueline C Santos, Liliane P G Tenorio, Rayane M Botelho, Ana Lucia M Silva, Hillary Gabriela S Oliveira, Karen Priscila T Pendeloski, Silvia Daher, Karen S C Borbely, Alexandre U Borbely
Versican is a proteoglycan known to interact with cells to influence their ability to proliferate, differentiate, migrate, invade and assemble extracellular matrix, with all of these cell functions present during placentation. In the placenta, cytotrophoblast cells have the ability to differentiate into the syncytiotrophoblast, a mechanism that is greatly increased in gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD). Nevertheless, the molecular signaling underlying the increased syncytiotrophoblast differentiation are still being unveiled and may result in novel therapeutic targets for GTD...
October 8, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Misaki Nikaido, Takahito Otani, Norio Kitagawa, Kayoko Ogata, Hiroshi Iida, Hisashi Anan, Tetsuichiro Inai
Keratinocytes in the oral mucosal epithelium, which is a non-keratinized stratified epithelium, are exposed to various stimuli from the oral cavity. JNK and p38 are stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are phosphorylated by various stimuli and are involved in the assembly and disassembly of tight junctions (TJs) in keratinocytes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of stress-activated MAPKs on TJs in a mouse keratinocyte cell line during cell-cell junction formation in two-dimensional (2D) cultures or stratification to form non-keratinized epithelium in 3D cultures...
October 4, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Alisha M Bothun, Dori C Woods
WNT signaling has been shown to play a pivotal role in mammalian gonad development and sex differentiation; however, its role in the developing human ovary has not been investigated. We analyzed a quantitative mass spectrometry dataset to determine the expression of WNT signaling components between 47 and 137 days of development and in adult ovarian cortex tissue. WNT signaling was identified within the top ten canonical pathways of proteins detected at every developmental stage examined. We further examined the specific localization of WNT signaling components glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3B), frizzled 2 (FZD2), and β-catenin (CTNNB1) within ovarian tissue...
October 4, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Andreja Erman, Gregor Kapun, Sara Novak, Mojca Pavlin, Goran Dražić, Damjana Drobne, Peter Veranič
The majority of bladder cancers in humans are non-muscle-invasive cancers that recur frequently after standard treatment procedures. Mouse models are widely used to develop anti-tumor treatments. The purpose of our work was to establish an orthotopic mouse bladder tumor model and to explore early stages of implantation of cancerous MB49 cells in vivo using various labeling and microscopic techniques. To distinguish cancer cells from normal urothelial cells in mouse urinary bladders, we performed molecular characterization of MB49 cells before intravesical injection experiments...
October 3, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Christian Mühlfeld, Joana Neves, Christina Brandenberger, Jan Hegermann, Christoph Wrede, Sandro Altamura, Martina U Muckenthaler
Iron accumulates in the lungs of patients with common respiratory diseases or transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia. Based on our previous work, we hypothesized that systemic iron overload affects the alveolar region of the lung and in particular the surfactant producing alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells. Mice with a point mutation in the iron exporter ferroportin, a model for human hemochromatosis type 4 were compared to wildtype mice (n = 5 each). Lungs were fixed and prepared for light and electron microscopy (EM) according to state-of-the-art protocols to detect subcellular iron localization by scanning EM/EDX and to perform design-based stereology...
October 3, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Amandeep Kaur, Weirong Xing, Subburaman Mohan, Charles H Rundle
To identify the repertoire of ephrin genes that might regulate endochondral bone fracture repair, we examined changes in ephrin ligand and receptor (Eph) gene expression in fracture callus tissues during bone fracture healing. Ephrin and Eph proteins were then localized in the fracture callus tissues present when changes in gene expression were observed. Ephrin gene expression was widespread in fracture tissues, but the repertoire of ephrin genes with significant changes in expression that might suggest a regulatory role in fracture callus development was restricted to the ephrin A family members Epha4, Epha5 and the ephrin B family member Efnb1...
September 24, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Ciqing Yang, Xiaoying Li, Lihong Guan, Shuanqing Li, Liang Qiao, Juntang Lin
N-cadherin, a member of the cadherin family, plays an important role in neural development. In addition, N-cadherin has been reported to be crucial in neuronal migration, axonal outgrowth, and axonal path-finding. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of N-cadherin in neuronal migration is not entirely clear. In this study, we investigated the overexpression or knockdown of N-cadherin in the optic tectum during chicken embryo development, and then analyzed the effect of N-cadherin on neuronal migration...
September 24, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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