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Violence Against Women

Laurie Cook Heffron
Increasing numbers of Central American women cross the U.S.-Mexico border, prompting social service providers, advocates, and policy makers to investigate motivations and appropriate responses. Drawing from a constructivist grounded theory study and in-depth qualitative interviews, this article explores women's experiences of domestic and sexual violence in relation to migration. Findings reveal interconnections across multiple and interconnecting categories of violence as precipitating factors for migration, during border-crossing, and following arrival in the United States...
September 21, 2018: Violence Against Women
Iain R Brennan, Victoria Burton, Sinéad Gormally, Nicola O'Leary
We examined perspectives of social workers, police officers, and specialist domestic abuse practitioners about their perceived ability and organizational readiness to respond effectively to incidents of coercive and controlling behavior. Interviews revealed intervention and risk assessment strategies structured around an outdated, maladaptive concept of domestic abuse as an unambiguous and violent event and frontline services that lacked appreciation of the power dynamics inherent in controlling relationships...
September 21, 2018: Violence Against Women
Sarah J Ehlke, Michelle L Kelley
This cross-sectional study examined whether depressive symptoms strengthened the relationship between different forms of sexual coercion victimization and drinking to cope motivations, which was hypothesized to influence alcohol use. Participants were 214 female undergraduates who completed an online survey. Participants who experienced any lifetime sexual coercion and reported higher depressive symptoms were the most likely to report drinking to cope motivations, which in turn were associated with alcohol use...
September 21, 2018: Violence Against Women
Amy Reckdenwald, Alec Szalewski, Alexis Yohros
Research demonstrates place matters in the study of intimate partner violence (IPV) and intimate partner homicide (IPH) with rural women experiencing more severe IPV and a higher risk of IPH. In addition, research points to variations in injury patterns with intimates characterized by more wounds and facial injuries. Little is known whether injury for female IPH victims differs across place; however, research suggests that abuse is a product of a larger social context. Using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System, results indicate that some variations exist based on degree of urbanicity of the county in which the IPH occurred...
September 21, 2018: Violence Against Women
Hyunzee Jung, Todd I Herrenkohl, Martie L Skinner, Jungeun Olivia Lee, J Bart Klika, Ashley N Rousson
This study focused on gender differences in the prediction of adult intimate partner violence (IPV) by subtypes of child abuse and children's exposure to IPV. Latent classes of adult IPV consisted of a no violence (20.3%), a psychological violence only (46.2%), a psychological and sexual violence (9.2%), a multitype violence and intimidation (6.8%), and a psychological and physical violence with low intimidation class (17.5%). Physical-emotional child abuse and domestic violence exposure predicted a higher likelihood of multitype violence for males...
August 30, 2018: Violence Against Women
Monica D Ulibarri, Marissa Salazar, Jennifer L Syvertsen, Angela R Bazzi, M Gudelia Rangel, Hugo Staines Orozco, Steffanie A Strathdee
Utilizing mixed methods, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV) behaviors among 428 female sex workers (FSWs) who use drugs and their noncommercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Half of all participants reported perpetrating and experiencing at least one type of IPV behavior in the past year. In interviews, drug use emerged as an important theme associated with IPV behaviors, and we found men and women differed in their motivations for engaging in IPV behaviors. Findings highlight how gender and power are interlinked with and may exacerbate drug use and IPV behaviors among marginalized populations...
August 29, 2018: Violence Against Women
Caroline Mellgren, Anna-Karin Ivert
Prior research shows that women's higher fear of crime compared with men can largely be explained by women's fear of rape. Whether women's higher fear can also be explained by fear of nonviolent sexual harassment has not been explored. This study tested the shadow of sexual assault hypothesis in a sample of almost 3,000 Swedish university students. Our results confirm previous tests of the shadow thesis on the effect of fear of rape. In addition, we show that fear of sexual harassment also explained differences in fear between men and women...
August 29, 2018: Violence Against Women
Megan E Sutter, Annie E Rabinovitch, Michael A Trujillo, Paul B Perrin, Lisa D Goldberg, Bethany M Coston, Jenna M Calton
This study explored patterns of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration in 150 sexual minority women (SMW): 25.3% had been sexually victimized, 34% physically victimized, 76% psychologically victimized, and 29.3% suffered an IPV-related injury. A latent class analysis found four behavioral patterns: (1) minor-only psychological perpetration and victimization; (2) no IPV; (3) minor-severe psychological, physical assault, and injury victimization, and minor-only psychological, physical, and injury perpetration; and (4) severe psychological, sexual, physical assault, and injury victimization and perpetration...
August 29, 2018: Violence Against Women
Simon McCarthy-Jones, Ailise Bulfin, Elizabeth Nixon, Veronica O'Keane, Ivana Bacik, Rosaleen McElvaney
The effects of nonconsensual first experiences of sexual intercourse in women are understudied. This was investigated in 3,875 adult women of whom 6.7% reported "persuaded" first-sex and 0.8% reported forced first-sex. Compared with willing first-sex, both forced and "persuaded" first-sex occurred earlier, involved a greater age difference between partners, and were associated with more lifetime sexual partners and some measures of worse psychological well-being. In addition, "persuaded" first-sex was associated with worse general physical health...
August 24, 2018: Violence Against Women
Amie Zarling
Gondolf, Bennett, and Mankowski raise many concerns about the ACTV batterers' intervention program (BIP) and the Zarling, Bannon, and Berta evaluation of ACTV, including (a) the researchers' and the Iowa Department of Corrections' promotion of ACTV; (b) research design, outcome measure, and results; (c) contextual issues; and (d) the effectiveness debate surrounding BIPs. The current commentary responds to each of these concerns, as well as identifies errors and corrects misinformation in their article. It is hoped that this response will also clarify the broader context of ACTV development and research and contribute to the ongoing discussion about BIPs...
August 24, 2018: Violence Against Women
Christopher D Kilgore, Peter Lehmann, Rachel Voth Schrag
This exploratory study employs discourse and narrative analysis to assess men's ( n = 45) responses to a writing assignment completed at the end of a solution-focused voluntary batterer intervention program. The study finds that the men primarily use the assignment to reassure themselves of their future success, defined through traditionally male paradigms. The narrative analysis then divides the letters according to type: Participants (22.7%) use a "transformative" discourse of behavior change and intimate partner violence (IPV)-sustaining discourse (18...
August 21, 2018: Violence Against Women
Irene E Jonker, Danielle A M Lako, Mariëlle D Beijersbergen, Marit Sijbrandij, Albert M van Hemert, Judith R L M Wolf
In this study, linear mixed-effects regression analyses were used to examine whether sociodemographic variables, abuse-related variables, and well-being variables were associated with symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in abused women residing in shelters. Results pointed out that symptoms of depression severity were positively associated with migration background and the experience of physical abuse and negatively associated with self-esteem and social support. PTSD symptoms were positively associated with the experience of sexual abuse and negatively associated with self-esteem...
August 20, 2018: Violence Against Women
Brittany E Hayes
The current study assessed which bystander intervention behaviors individuals reported they would engage in when exposed to abuse in their online network and the correlates of these behaviors. Data were drawn from college students' responses ( N = 600) to three vignettes, ranging in severity, where the respondent's male friend commented about his ex-girlfriend on a social network. Although it was hypothesized respondents would intervene on the website when exposed to abuse, results suggested this was not the case...
August 17, 2018: Violence Against Women
Huong Thu Nguyen
The precarious situation faced by women and girls in the wake of climate-related disasters is illustrated through fieldwork conducted in Eastern Visayas in the Philippines, one of the regions most affected by Super Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. However, this article illustrates that these heightened levels of gendered violence faced by women and girls are not a result of the disaster alone; rather, they are rooted in the inequalities inherent in the social construction of gender prior to the catastrophe, which then become sharpened as efforts to survive become more urgent...
August 16, 2018: Violence Against Women
Judith W Herrman, Lori-Ann Palen, Marni Kan, Mark Feinberg, Jennifer Hill, Erin Magee, Katherine M Haigh
Teens and young adults who are pregnant or parenting are important targets for efforts to prevent intimate partner violence (IPV). To intervene appropriately and effectively, we need to fully understand the unique issues and contexts for IPV in this population. This focus group study examined young parents' ( N = 28) perceptions of their relationships, stressors and sources of conflict, forms of IPV, and help-seeking behaviors. We examined data using template, content, thematic, and framework analyses. Findings about relationships and violence between young parents provide valuable insights for future intervention programs designed to prevent or address IPV among teen parents...
August 2, 2018: Violence Against Women
Jill C Hoxmeier, Julia O'Connor, Sarah McMahon
The White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault recommends bystander training as part of campus sexual assault prevention efforts. The current study sought to understand salient themes among students' qualitative responses for why they did not intervene in sexual assault risk situations. In 2014, undergraduate students ( N = 9,358) at a large public university completed a web-based survey to assess bystander opportunities and responses for six risk situations. Content coding analysis indicated that students report several unique barriers to intervention...
July 31, 2018: Violence Against Women
Patricia Easteal, Kate Holland, Michelle Dunne Breen, Cathy Vaughan, Georgina Sutherland
This study uses critical discourse analysis to examine news reporting of two cases of intimate partner violence in Australia. The fine-grained analysis of newswriting and news-editing practices focuses particularly on the lexical features and referential strategies used to represent the perpetrator and the victim, the crime, and the location of the crime. Findings show that reporting often omits social context, sensationalizes, and acts to shift blame in ways that do not increase public understanding of the nature of domestic violence...
July 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Nadine Shaanta Murshid, Elizabeth A Bowen
Immigrant women in the United States are among the groups disproportionately affected by intimate partner violence (IPV). Undocumented immigrants generally have fewer resources for coping with violence and may experience a range of personal, cultural, and immigration status-related barriers to reporting violence and accessing help. Thus, undocumented immigrant victims of IPV could benefit significantly from policies that promote access to trauma-informed services and legal options. This article applies a trauma-informed policy analysis framework to the Violence Against Women Act's immigration protections to demonstrate how the Act's U-Visa provisions and implementation practices could be improved by incorporating trauma-informed principles of trustworthiness and transparency, empowerment, choice, safety, collaboration, and intersectionality...
October 2018: Violence Against Women
Cara J Person, Kathryn E Beth Moracco, Christine Agnew-Brune, J Michael Bowling
One in three U.S. women has experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) and many seek domestic violence protective orders (DVPOs) for secondary IPV prevention. Because judges have considerable autonomy making DVPO decisions, there is a need to describe how courtroom interactions and information available to judges may influence DVPO dispositions. We conducted DVPO hearing observations and phone interviews with District Court Judges. Qualitative themes emerged that may influence judges' decision making in DVPO hearings: case information availability, judge engagement level, and litigant credibility...
October 2018: Violence Against Women
Katherine Lorenz, Sarah E Ullman, Anne Kirkner, Rupashree Mandala, Amanda L Vasquez, Rannveig Sigurvinsdottir
This interview study examined 45 informal support dyads where sexual assault was disclosed. Analysis showed social reactions and appraisals of reactions varied by relationship type (family, friend, significant other). Themes identified were role reversal or "parentification" of supporters, reactions of anger and aggression toward perpetrators, supporters using their own trauma experiences to respond to survivors, and reactions of betrayal. Results revealed the potential for identifying relational patterns and dynamics occurring in social reactions through dyadic analysis not otherwise captured by a survivor-only perspective...
October 2018: Violence Against Women
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