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Violence Against Women

Bianca Fileborn
Street harassment may be considered an "unspeakable" harm on account of the routine silencing and trivialization of victims' experiences. Disclosing street harassment is vital in making its harms visible and in working to transform social and cultural attitudes. Despite a recent resurgence of interest in street harassment via online activist groups, there is scant research on disclosure practices. Drawing on findings from an online, mixed-methods survey with 292 participants who have experienced street harassment, I examine disclosure practices using an intersectional lens...
May 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Aliya R Webermann, Christopher M Murphy
The present study assesses childhood abuse/neglect as a predictor of dissociative intimate partner violence (IPV) among 118 partner-abusive men. One third (36%) endorsed dissociative IPV, most commonly losing control (18%), surroundings seeming unreal (16%), feeling someone other than oneself is aggressing (16%), and seeing oneself from a distance aggressing (10%). Childhood physical abuse/neglect predicted IPV-specific derealization/depersonalization, aggressive self-states, and flashbacks to past violence...
April 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Bethany Devenish, Merrilyn Hooley, David Mellor
Socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents who are exposed to social norms related to violence against women are more likely to experience or be perpetrators of intimate partner violence. This study evaluated factors hypothesized to be associated with acceptance of wife beating among 240 male and female adolescents aged 10-16 years participating in a World Vision program in Armenia. Acceptance of wife beating was associated with relational victimization, perceived social support, and parent and community boundaries and expectations, but was not associated with overt victimization or aggression...
April 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Susanne J M Strand, Jennifer E Storey
This study compared the severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the relationship between risk factors for IPV and overall risk judgments of future IPV in urban, rural, and remote areas. IPV risk assessments conducted by the Swedish police between 2010 and 2014 in urban ( n = 564), rural ( n = 456), and remote ( n = 196) areas were examined. Rurality was associated with the severity of IPV reported, as well as the presence of risk factors and their relationship to overall risk judgments. Cases in remote areas included more severe IPV as well as more risk factors...
April 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Kevin Hamdullahpur, Kahá Wi J Jacobs, Kathryn J Gill
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult mental health were explored in a sample of urban Aboriginal ( n = 83) and non-Aboriginal ( n = 89) women. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with negative home environments, teenage pregnancy, lifetime suicide attempts, and treatment seeking. Aboriginal women with CSA witnessed higher levels of physical/sexual abuse of family members. The severity of current psychological distress was associated with a history of childhood neglect. The results indicate that CSA rarely occurs in isolation, and that multiple ACEs are strongly associated with suicide attempts and treatment seeking in adulthood...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Sonia Kapur, Anna Zajicek
How are the images of abused South Asian marriage migrants shaped by domestic violence advocates? We explore the social constructions of battered Asian Indian marriage migrants in the victim advocates' narratives. First, we find the narratives both reproduce and challenge the dominant stereotypes, utilizing some individualistic typifications while constructing these images with an understanding of the broader context of battered South Asian women's experiences. Second, depending on the issue (e.g., economic dependence or religion), the advocates paint either a multidimensional or a one-dimensional picture of their clients...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Natalie Jovanovski, Meagan Tyler
In this article, we use feminist critical discourse analysis to examine online brothel reviews (148 reviews and 2,424 reply posts) of sex buyers in the context of debates surrounding harm minimization. Our findings show that sex buyers actively construct and normalize narratives of sexual violation and violence against women in licensed brothels through their language, referencing objectification, unsafe sex practices, and, in more extreme cases, rape to create a sense of community with other punters. Through this analysis, we challenge existing assumptions about harm minimization in systems of prostitution, which are legalized or fully decriminalized...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Morgan Pommells, Corinne Schuster-Wallace, Susan Watt, Zachariah Mulawa
The purpose of this study was to better understand the gender violence risks that exist in communities where poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) access is a known problem. Focus groups and key informant interviews were used to capture the lived experiences of community and health care practitioners from Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya. This article provides lived narratives of the various cultural and environmental conditions leading to assaults directly attributable to inadequate WaSH. The results shed light on the complex intersections between water access and violence and have significant implications for achieving gender equity and universal access to WaSH...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Jackson Katz
This article outlines the origins, philosophy, and pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) program, which has played a significant role in the gender violence prevention field since its inception in 1993. MVP was one of the first large-scale programs to target men for prevention efforts, as well as the first to operate systematically in sports culture and the U.S. military. MVP also introduced the "bystander" approach to the field. MVP employs a social justice, gender-focused approach to prevention...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Jackson Katz
In this article, the author responds to three commentaries about his article "Bystander Training as Leadership Training: Notes on the Origins, Philosophy, and Pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention Model," published in this volume. Topics covered in the commentaries and response include questions about evaluation and evidence for program effectiveness; the necessity for gender violence prevention education to be gender transformative and part of a comprehensive, multilevel prevention approach, especially for adolescents; and the degree to which Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP), as a "social justice"-oriented program, incorporates intersectional and anti-oppression frameworks and perspectives...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Ann L Coker
This response to Katz's commentary is based on our team's experiences and findings in bystander intervention design and evaluation among male and female adolescents in several high school settings. Three themes emerged in reflecting on "what worked" in our large evaluation in light of Katz's commentary. First, our field needs data from multiple rigorous bystander intervention evaluations. Second, bystander interventions must be acceptable to the population receiving the intervention. Third, engaging all adolescent and young adults in prevention independent of sex or sexual orientation is essential to reduce sexual violence including harassment and bullying...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Elizabeth Wilmerding, Mari Knuth-Bouracee, Jeffrey L Edleson
This article offers reflections on the article "Bystander Training as Leadership Training: Notes on the Origins, Philosophy and Pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention Model" by Jackson Katz in this issue of Violence Against Women. The authors rely on their unique perspectives in varying roles at the University of California (UC) Berkeley, as well as on relevant social science and social justice research. The article explores five themes of violence prevention and anti-oppression work: leadership, social justice, gender identity, issues of identity and status, and diffusion of innovation...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Elizabeth Miller
The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Cynthia Fraga Rizo, Jennifer O'Brien, Rebecca Macy, Dania Ermentrout, Paul Lanier
Given the overlap between intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment, IPV-exposed child participants in research might disclose instances of child maltreatment. Such disclosures might require researchers to report the maltreatment to child protective services (CPS). However, the literature provides minimal guidance on how to navigate the complex challenges and ethical dilemmas around reporting in the context of research. To help address this gap and stimulate discussion regarding protocols and policies for reporting child maltreatment, this article presents a CPS reporting protocol developed as part of a community-engaged research project evaluating a parenting intervention for system-involved mothers experiencing IPV...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Alexis A Adams-Clark, Joan C Chrisler
Many people believe that rape is always perpetrated by a stranger and involves vaginal intercourse. To clarify perceptions of rape that do not follow traditional beliefs, participants were presented with a vignette that described a rape in which the marital status and sexual act were manipulated. Participants were then asked to assess the incident's severity and the victim's responsibility. Results indicated that there was no difference in perceptions between vignettes based on marital status. However, rapes involving vaginal intercourse were associated with lesser degrees of victim blame and minimization than were rapes involving forced oral sex or digital sex...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Allison Bloom
Drawing on ethnographic and historical research, this article illuminates the limitations of the Uruguayan domestic violence services system. In spite of how advocates in Uruguay successfully used a human rights platform to secure legislation and services, this system now faces significant critique. Using Iris Marion Young's work on the "logic of masculinist protection" and historical parallels in Uruguay's welfare system, I discuss how a paternalistic approach may be to blame. I highlight how this paternalism contributes to the paternalism that problematically underlies gendered violence-reinforcing rather than addressing oppressive ideologies and structures that impede improving conditions for women...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Jessica Williamson, Kelly Serna
The goal of the current study was to assess the effects of self-labeling on attitudes related to victim- and self-blaming and self-compassion outcomes in 85 participants (75 women, 10 men) who have experienced sexual assault. Participants classified themselves as either a survivor, victim, or neither survivor nor victim of sexual assault. Regardless of self-classification, groups did not differ in victim-blaming (rape myth acceptance), self-blaming, or levels of self-compassion. Implications for language and forced labels of those who have experienced sexual assault are discussed...
May 2018: Violence Against Women
Niamh Reilly
The recent unprecedented focus on ending impunity for conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) is positive in many respects. However, it has narrowed the scope of Security Council Resolution 1325 and the women, peace, and security (WPS) agenda it established in 2000. Through a critical discursive genealogy of the interrelation of two UN agendas-protection of civilians in armed conflict and women, peace, and security-the author traces how CRSV emerged as the defining issue of the latter while the transformative imperative of making women's participation central to every UN endeavor for peace and security has failed to gain traction...
May 2018: Violence Against Women
Bianca Klettke, David Mellor
This study investigated perceptions of victim culpability in sexual assaults against girls and women according to victim age, perceiver gender, and perceiver parental status. Overall, 420 jury-eligible participants completed an online survey recording their attributions of guilt, responsibility, and blame toward 10-, 15-, and 20-year-old girls and women in relation to sexual assault. Attributions of culpability were affected by whether the victim physically or verbally resisted the abuse, wore sexually revealing clothes, or was described as having acted promiscuously...
May 2018: Violence Against Women
Tova Band-Winterstein, Ilanit Tuito
This research note addresses how ultra-Orthodox Jewish women in Israel coping with intimate partner violence experienced the spouse selection process. In-depth semistructured qualitative-phenomenological interviews were conducted with 17 women. Four major themes emerged: (a) "The matchmaker seemingly fell asleep on her watch"; (b) The parents' mistakes; (c) "The rabbi told me to jump into the water. Now he should hand me the paddles to get out!" The rabbi's role; and (d) "That's it ...
May 2018: Violence Against Women
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