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Violence Against Women

Alexandra I Zelin, Ruth V Walker, Dawn M Johnson
While a negative relationship between rape myth acceptance (RMA) and bystander behavior is established, the specific myths associated with bystander behavior are not well understood. In Study 1, we presented 260 participants with vignettes manipulating clothing and alcohol intake of a woman victim to see how it affected intention to help. In Study 2, we presented 247 participants with similar vignettes, manipulating alcohol intake and relationship with the bystander. Contrary to previous research on RMA, participants were significantly more willing to intervene if the woman was intoxicated...
November 13, 2018: Violence Against Women
Catherine A Simmons, Joy A Clay
To better understand what and how institutions of higher education (IHEs) communicate information about sexual assault (SA) on their websites, the current cross-sectional descriptive exploratory study analyzed a stratified sample representing 15% of the IHE websites in the United States. Findings show the availability, location, and type of SA information posted on IHE websites differ based on student population and residential character. Large and primarily residential schools are more likely to include SA information, across multiple pages, with a wider informational span than other categories...
November 13, 2018: Violence Against Women
Nik Taylor, Damien W Riggs, Catherine Donovan, Tania Signal, Heather Fraser
This article reports on a thematic analysis of open-ended questions about how humans respond to violence directed toward animals in the context of violent human relationships, derived from an Australian-U.K. survey of people of diverse genders and/or sexualities. From the 137 responses, three major themes were identified: (a) animals are an important source of support, (b) humans actively protect animal companions, and (c) witnessing animal abuse can trigger leaving violent relationships. The findings offer unique insights for practitioners into the help-seeking needs of people of diverse genders and/or sexualities who live with animal companions in the context of domestic violence...
November 13, 2018: Violence Against Women
Sarah Jane Brubaker, Brittany Keegan
Changes in how campuses respond to sexual assault under Title IX may dramatically alter the experiences of survivors and the roles of responders. This exploratory study examines how the roles of campus-based sexual assault victim advocates are changing and the effects on advocacy and survivors. Although most advocates agree that Title IX has increased awareness and reporting of sexual assault, they are concerned about the loss of confidential outlets for reporting, conflicts with other responders, and devaluation of their role...
October 29, 2018: Violence Against Women
Brett A Murphy, Beryl Manning-Geist, Amelia Conrad, Samantha J Chao, Dawit Desalegn, Alexis Richards, Melis Borovali, Sarah Sexton, Jennifer Goedken
This study presents data from a large sample of clinic-evaluated sexual assault survivors ( N = 1,667) in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2015, one of the largest such samples ever analyzed in an African country. Statistical analyses revealed a disproportionate number of minors presenting to the clinics, an extremely high prevalence of special kidnapping cases, significant differences in access and assault characteristics between survivors from within the clinic cities and those from outside of them, and an unacceptable clinical focus on unreliable hymenal findings...
October 29, 2018: Violence Against Women
Mitchell Kirwan, Daniel J Lanni, Andrew Warnke, Scott M Pickett, Michele R Parkhill
Sexual assault remains a significant problem on college campuses, and previous research identifies alcohol and emotion regulation as potential contributors to perpetration. Data were collected from 101 male undergraduates, assessing emotion regulation difficulties, sexual aggression perpetration toward women, and alcohol consumption. Results showed that emotion regulation moderated the relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual aggression, such that those with high emotion regulation difficulties were more likely to behave in a sexually aggressive manner...
October 25, 2018: Violence Against Women
Hanna Love, Meredith Dank, Sino Esthappan, Janine Zweig
Despite the attention forced marriage has received abroad, it remains poorly understood in the United States. This study is one of the first to examine the practice domestically, with a focus on service provision. Using interviews with those who have experienced forced marriage and relevant stakeholders, we describe challenges in recognizing, naming, and disclosing forced marriage. Findings indicate that people are unaware forced marriage services exist, face barriers to disclosing, may not identify with the term, and are reluctant to seek services...
October 25, 2018: Violence Against Women
Monica C Yndo, Rebecca Weston, Linda L Marshall
Friends and family members' reactions to intimate partner violence (IPV) disclosure play an important role in social support because disclosure often precedes requests for support. Perceptions of social reactions to IPV disclosure are likely to vary by context. Yet, research is limited on the role of ethnicity and severity of physical violence in perceptions of social reactions. We examined perceptions of social reactions to IPV disclosure using data from Wave 6 interviews for Project HOW: Health Outcomes of Women...
October 25, 2018: Violence Against Women
Kristin Haglund, Ruth Ann Belknap, Lisa M Edwards, Marcel Tassara, James Van Hoven, Aimee Woda
In the United States, teen dating violence (TDV) is a concern across ethnic groups. Attitudes and correlates of violence differ by gender, culture, and acculturation. This study used a qualitative interpretive approach. Data were obtained in focus groups with 23 Latino male adolescents. Themes reflected contexts of participants' lives, and definitions and nature of dating relationships and TDV. Participants described the importance of respecting dating partners, the destructive effects of TDV, and the pressure to display masculinity that can lead some young men to perpetrate TDV...
October 25, 2018: Violence Against Women
Fran S Danis, Kate Keisel-Caballero, Catherine Hurd Johnson
When your residential program is full, finding emergency shelter for human trafficking and domestic violence survivors can be challenging. Advocates often spend hours calling one agency after another to locate an appropriate placement. The Safe Shelter Collaborative is an innovative technological approach to locating emergency shelter. By sending out a blast alert to certified users within a geographic network, agencies provide faster access for a greater number and diversity of survivors. This article reports on an evaluation of the Safe Shelter Collaborative and the ways it has transformed the process of finding emergency shelter...
October 25, 2018: Violence Against Women
Eran Shor
This article analyzes the content of 172 popular videos from the pornographic website . Although I found no difference between the levels of aggression in videos featuring teenage performers and those featuring adult performers, the former were more likely to have a title that suggests aggression and to include anal penetration and facial ejaculation. In addition, although all female performers were more likely to express pleasure following aggression, this association was stronger in videos featuring teenage performers...
October 25, 2018: Violence Against Women
Sarah R Meyer, W Courtland Robinson, Casey Branchini, Nada Abshir, Aye Aye Mar, Michele R Decker
We describe human rights violations against migrant workers at the Thailand-Myanmar border, and evaluate differences by gender and industry. This mixed methods study pairs key informant interviews ( n = 40) with a cross-sectional quantitative survey of migrant workers from Myanmar ( n = 589) recruited via respondent-driven sampling. Key informants described significant hazards during migration, including deception, theft, and physical and sexual abuse, the latter primarily for women. Quantitative results confirmed prevalent mistreatment and abuse, with significant gender differences, most notably women's disproportionate burden of sexual abuse...
October 16, 2018: Violence Against Women
Kristen E Ravi, Beverly M Black, Diane B Mitschke, Katelyn Pearson
While teen dating violence (TDV) prevention programs generally report changes in participants' attitudes and mixed findings about changes in behavior, little is known about the impact of TDV programs on ethnic minority youth. This study examined the effectiveness of Safe Dates, an evidence-based TDV prevention program, in educating 21 resettled Karen refugee youth from Burma. Findings indicated changes in attitudes toward violence occurred from pretest to follow-up. Years living in the United States was significantly related to pretest and posttest attitudes...
October 16, 2018: Violence Against Women
Mieko Yoshihama, Tomoko Yunomae, Azumi Tsuge, Keiko Ikeda, Reiko Masai
This study reports on 82 unduplicated cases of violence against women and children after the Great East Japan Disaster of March 2011. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from informants who worked with the disaster-affected populations. In addition to domestic violence, reported cases involved sexual assault and unwanted sexual contact, including quid pro quo assault perpetrated by nonintimates. Perpetrators often exploited a sense of fear, helplessness, and powerlessness and used threats to force compliance with sexual demands in exchange for life-sustaining resources...
October 16, 2018: Violence Against Women
Ashley Colleen Feely Hutson, Julie Christine Krueger
This study investigates the role of physical mobility in street harassment by analyzing a stratified random sample of 334 cases posted to Hollaback!, an online community documenting experiences of street harassment. Findings suggest that harassers utilize means of transportation as weapons to inflict or threaten physical harm, to escape or preserve anonymity, and to pursue targets and as a hunting ground for potential targets. By identifying the mechanisms of street harassment, we theorize how harassers negotiate mobility-particular types of mobility, especially that which is enabled by public transportation and owner vehicles-to gain advantage over targets of harassment...
October 15, 2018: Violence Against Women
Laura Pomicino, Lucia Beltramini, Patrizia Romito
This study examines the situation of women ( N = 124) who had presented themselves to an anti-violence center in Italy in the previous 3-5 years. At follow-up, 37.3% had no contact with the perpetrator, 22.7% had stayed with him, and 39.8% had "forced" contact. Almost half of the sample was still subjected to intimate partner violence (IPV). Compared to women with "no contact," the risk of IPV was 5.9 times higher for women who stayed with the perpetrator, and 10.5 times higher for women with "forced" contact...
October 12, 2018: Violence Against Women
Megan R Greeson, Jennifer Watling Neal, Rebecca Campbell
The current study used social network analysis (SNA) to examine relationships within three effective Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) that coordinate the response of legal, medical, and advocacy organizations to sexual assault. Within each SART, organizations reported on each other member organization valuing their role, serving as a resource to their work, and communication outside of official meetings. Across the SARTs, there was high connectedness and reciprocity and low to moderate dependence on one organization to drive relationships...
October 10, 2018: Violence Against Women
Adele Marais, Caroline C Kuo, Robin Julies, Dan J Stein, John A Joska, Caron Zlotnick
Pregnancy represents a time of increased risk for intimate partner violence (IPV), and an HIV diagnosis further increases the vulnerability of this at-risk group. This study explores experiences of recent IPV using qualitative interviews with N = 12 HIV-positive pregnant women recruited from a clinical setting in South Africa, a location with a high global prevalence of IPV and HIV. Partner dynamics around IPV resulted in HIV shame and stigma and adversely affected engagement in HIV care and HIV treatment behaviors...
October 9, 2018: Violence Against Women
Leah Woolner, Myriam Denov, Sarilee Kahn, Jeanne Mwiliriza, Charlotte Karikwera
The 1994 Rwandan genocide was characterized by brutal acts of widespread sexual violence against women that, for some, led to unwanted pregnancy, childbirth, and motherhood. This study explores the perspectives and experiences of 44 Rwandan women with children born of genocidal rape through in-depth qualitative interviews. Emerging from the data are the themes of identity and belonging, ambivalence, and truth-telling in the mother-child relationship. Findings highlight the lasting and intergenerational legacy of genocidal rape, and practice and policy implications are discussed...
October 5, 2018: Violence Against Women
Christopher T Allen, Juliana Carlson, Erin A Casey, Richard M Tolman, Cliff Leek
As global efforts to engage men in preventing gender-based violence (GBV) continue to grow, understanding male participants' perceptions of prevention events is needed. Data from a global sample of 319 men who had attended GBV prevention events were used to (a) assess men's perceptions of what topics were covered, (b) determine whether profiles of these perceptions could be identified, and (c) describe the degree to which content prerception profiles are associated with levels of men's motivation and confidence related to antiviolence action...
September 24, 2018: Violence Against Women
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