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Violence Against Women

Chyng Sun, Matthew B Ezzell, Olivia Kendall
Based on in-depth interviews with 16 heterosexual men, this study focuses on participants' meaning-making surrounding a common and controversial sexual act in pornography: ejaculation on a woman's face (EOWF). We analyze the ways that male consumers decoded EOWF and the ways that EOWF, as a sexual script, was included in the men's accounts of their sexual desires and practices. The majority of the men decoded EOWF through the preferred (encoded) meaning as an act of male dominance and sexual aggression and that they wanted to engage in it despite their general belief that women would not be interested in it...
October 21, 2016: Violence Against Women
Ines Domenech Del Rio, Elena Sirvent Garcia Del Valle
Using a nationally representative sample of 10,171 women, this study examines the association between current and previous intimate partner violence and current health status. Current physical or sexual violence was associated with the highest likelihood of reporting health outcomes, followed by current emotional or economic abuse. Current controlling behavior increased the odds of reporting poor health whereas previous controlling behavior has less effect on current health. Controlling behavior alone often is the first expression of mistreatment...
October 11, 2016: Violence Against Women
Jean-Christophe Giger, Gabriela Gonçalves, Ana Susana Almeida
The Domestic Violence Myth Acceptance Scale was adapted to Portuguese (PDVMAS). The PDVMAS displayed reasonable fit indices (Study 1); was positively correlated with right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, belief in a just world (Study 2), and ambivalent sexism (Study 3); and negatively correlated with empathetic tendencies (Study 4). PDVMAS significantly predicted victim blame and aggressor exoneration in scenarios of coercion (Study 5) and physical assault (Study 6). Victims and non-victims of domestic violence equally endorsed domestic violence myths...
October 6, 2016: Violence Against Women
Heather L Storer, Katyayani R Strohl
Teen dating violence (TDV) is a significant public health issue. Preventing TDV requires attention to risk and protective factors across ecological system levels. The media is one of the primary cultural drivers of societal-level social scripts about the causes of TDV. Framing theory asserts that the media's portrayal of social issues, including what contextual information is included and/or excluded, affects individual-level attitudes about TDV and potential policy responses. This study investigates the representation of TDV in young adult (YA) literature, a media genre that is marketed to adolescent audiences...
September 18, 2016: Violence Against Women
Christine K Tirabassi, S Jean Caraway, Raluca M Simons
Sexual assault history, secondary cognitive appraisals, and a dual-process model of self-regulation were examined as predictors of women's intended behavioral responses to hypothetical sexual aggression. College women (N = 435) read a sexually aggressive scenario and rated their intentions to engage in assertive, polite, and passive behavioral responses. Results indicated secondary cognitive appraisals predicted less assertive, more polite, and more passive responses. Good self-control predicted assertive and polite responses, while sexual assault history and poor regulation predicted passive responses...
September 18, 2016: Violence Against Women
Nadine Shaanta Murshid, Allison Zippay
This study explores the experiences of marital violence within the context of microfinance participation among a sample of women living in poverty in Bangladesh. Status inconsistency theory suggests that the higher incomes and female independence that may occur with microfinance participation may threaten or destabilize marital norms in Bangladesh, and have implications in terms of increased violence. We use qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 30 women residing in a slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to assess the circumstances in which there may be an association between microfinance participation and marital violence and elucidate the context in which this interaction occurs...
September 15, 2016: Violence Against Women
Elena Marchetti, Kathleen Daly
Mainstream sentencing courts do little to change the behavior of partner violence offenders, let alone members of more socially marginal groups. Indigenous offenders face a court system that has little relevance to the complexity of their relations and lived experiences. Assisted by respected Elders and Community Representatives, Australian Indigenous sentencing courts seek to create a more meaningful sentencing process that has a deeper impact on Indigenous offenders' attitudes and, ultimately, their behavior...
September 13, 2016: Violence Against Women
Lisa Young Larance, Susan L Miller
Although researchers and practitioners have established that men and women use force in their intimate heterosexual relationships for very different reasons, there is a dearth of information regarding the events surrounds women's arrests and subsequent court orders to anti-violence intervention programming. This information is fundamental to improving Criminal Legal System (CLS) and community-partner understanding of and response to intimate partner violence (IPV). The authors meet this need by analyzing 208 women's descriptions of their arrests and subsequent court order to intervention programs for using force...
September 13, 2016: Violence Against Women
Catherine A Simmons, Sarah W Craun, Melissa Farrar, Rebekah Ray
Reports from 297 mother-child dyads were compared to explore concurrence in relation to violence committed by the father on specific high-risk items and in terms of general risk to the mother and to the child using composite measures. Results indicated the majority of the mother-child dyads report similar risk using eight individual items (60.9%-77.1%) and on the composite measures (61.9% and 54.2%). However, concordance was lower than anticipated. Findings highlight the importance of not simply relying on parental report but instead obtaining the child's report about their own exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) in clinical, research, and forensic applications...
September 5, 2016: Violence Against Women
Jennifer Bronson, Rebecca Reviere
This research is a case study of 309 pregnancy-associated deaths that occurred in Virginia from 1999-2005. Pregnancy-associated deaths due to homicide, suicide, or accidental overdose were compared with natural deaths. Violent deaths accounted for almost 30% of the cases. Homicides accounted for 13% of all the deaths in the sample, larger than any single natural cause of death. Homicide was the leading manner of death for Black women and was 4.5 times the rate of White decedents. Recommendations include expanding maternal death surveillance, committing to ending violence against women, and promoting universal screenings for domestic or interpersonal violence...
September 1, 2016: Violence Against Women
Elizabeth J King, Suzanne Maman, Fredinah Namatovu, Deus Kiwanuka, Robert Kairania, John B Ssemanda, Fred Nalugoda, Jennifer A Wagman
The World Health Organization recommends that HIV counseling and testing (HCT) programs implement strategies to address how intimate partner violence (IPV) influences women's ability to protect themselves from and seek care and treatment for HIV infection. We discuss the process used to adapt a screening and brief intervention (SBI) for female clients of HCT services in Rakai, Uganda-a setting with high prevalence of both HIV and IPV. By outlining our collaborative process for adapting and implementing the SBI in Rakai and training counselors for its use, we hope other HCT programs will consider replicating the approach in their settings...
September 1, 2016: Violence Against Women
Ashlee J Warnecke, Yvette Z Szabo, Vicki E Burns, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, James J Miller, Tamara L Newton
This cross-sectional study compared the prevalence of formal and informal sheltering (i.e., staying in an agency shelter, or with friends/family, respectively) and evaluated associations with abuse severity. Community women (N = 197) with divorce histories reported on lifetime intimate partner abuse, including sheltering for safety. Prevalence of informal sheltering (43%) exceeded that of formal sheltering (11%). Rates/levels of coercive control, severe violence, injury, and police involvement were comparable for women who sheltered formally or informally, and exceeded those of women who never sheltered...
August 30, 2016: Violence Against Women
Helene Flood Aakvaag, Siri Thoresen, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Grete Dyb
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a well-established risk factor for adult victimization in women, but little is known about the importance of relationship to perpetrator and exposure to other violence types. This study interviewed 2,437 Norwegian women (response rate = 45.0%) about their experiences with violence. Logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate associations of multiple categories of childhood violence with adult victimization. Women exposed to CSA often experienced other childhood violence, and the total burden of violence was associated with adult rape and intimate partner violence (IPV)...
August 30, 2016: Violence Against Women
Michelle S Ballan, Molly Burke Freyer, Lauren Powledge, C Nathan Marti
Deaf women face heightened rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) compared with hearing women, yet limited research has focused on IPV among this population. Empirical studies are warranted to examine the unique experiences and resource needs of Deaf women, along with barriers excluding Deaf participants from IPV research and service provision. Our study addresses these gaps by providing a profile of 80 Deaf women attending an IPV program serving individuals with disabilities. Demographic and psychosocial characteristics, referral channels that led women to the program, and services sought post-referral are discussed to help guide best practices with Deaf survivors of IPV...
August 30, 2016: Violence Against Women
Sapana D Donde
The present study investigated in a sample of college women (N = 154) (a) assignment of self-blame, perpetrator blame, personal responsibility, and perpetrator responsibility for sexual assault; (b) differences in how women assigned blame versus responsibility toward themselves and the perpetrator; (c) significant correlations between blame and responsibility of self and the perpetrator and positive and negative post-assault outcomes; and (d) the underlying factors that explained different forms of blame and responsibility...
August 30, 2016: Violence Against Women
Jasmine M Hedge, Natallia Sianko, James R McDonell
Structural equation modeling with three waves of data was used to assess a mediation model investigating the relationship between perceived social support, informal help-seeking intentions, and professional help-seeking intentions in the context of adolescent dating violence. The sample included 589 adolescents from a rural, southern county who participated in a longitudinal study of teen dating violence victimization and perpetration. Results suggest that informal help-seeking intentions are an important link between perceived social support and professional help-seeking intentions...
August 30, 2016: Violence Against Women
Kerstin Braun
Cases in which women have killed their sleeping or otherwise inattentive abusive partners to "escape" domestic violence have arisen in both Germany and Australia. In this context, the availability of defenses including provocation and self-defense for abused defendants is controversially debated due to their traditional application and interpretation. It appears that these cases have driven law reform and changed judicial interpretation of defenses to some degree in Australia, whereas the situation in Germany remains stagnant...
August 24, 2016: Violence Against Women
Ragui Assaad, Greta Friedemann-Sánchez, Deborah Levison
We explore the methodological challenges of estimating the effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) against the mother on the educational outcomes of her children. We tackle the problem of potential endogeneity and non-random selection of children into situations where they are exposed to IPV using non-parametric matching methods and parametric instrumental variable methods. Using Colombia's 2005 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), we find that IV and non-IV estimators produce qualitatively similar results at varying degrees of precision, for some educational outcomes...
August 24, 2016: Violence Against Women
Johanna Niemi, Jussi Aaltonen
The European legal instruments on human trafficking encourage states to tackle the demand for services of trafficked persons, for example, by making the use of services of a trafficked person a criminal offense. In Finland, buying sex from a trafficked person is a criminal offense. This article reports the results of an evaluation of the Finnish law and shows that the implementation has been inefficient. The authors argue that with an amendment of the law, the implementation could be improved but a truly efficient policy would require a total ban of sex purchase along the lines of the Swedish model...
August 23, 2016: Violence Against Women
Lesley Laing
This qualitative study explored the experiences of 22 domestic violence survivors attempting to negotiate safe post-separation parenting arrangements through the Australian family law system. Their allegations of violence put them at odds with a system that values mediated settlements and shared parenting. Skeptical responses, accusations of parental alienation, and pressure to agree to unsafe arrangements exacerbated the effects of post-separation violence. Core themes in the women's narratives of engagement with the family law system-silencing, control, and undermining the mother-child relationship-mirrored domestic violence dynamics, suggesting the concept of secondary victimization as a useful lens for understanding their experiences...
August 23, 2016: Violence Against Women
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