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Exercise Immunology Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859514/muscle-atrophy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-roles-of-inflammatory-pathways-physical-activity-and-exercise
#1
Ben D Perry, Marissa K Caldow, Tara C Brennan-Speranza, Melissa Sbaraglia, George Jerums, Andrew Garnham, Chiew Wong, Pazit Levinger, Muhammad Asrar Ul Haq, David L Hare, S Russ Price, Itamar Levinger
Muscle atrophy is caused by an imbalance in contractile protein synthesis and degradation which can be triggered by various conditions including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Reduced muscle quality in patients with T2DM adversely affects muscle function, the capacity to perform activities of daily living, quality of life and ultimately may increase the risk of premature mortality. Systemic inflammation initiated by obesity and prolonged overnutrition not only contributes to insulin resistance typical of T2DM, but also promotes muscle atrophy via decreased muscle protein synthesis and increased ubiquitin-proteasome, lysosomal-proteasome and caspase 3- mediated protein degradation...
2016: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859426/effects-of-acute-aerobic-exercise-on-leukocyte-inflammatory-gene-expression-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#2
L A Perandini, D Sales-de-Oliveira, D C Almeida, H Azevedo, C A Moreira-Filho, M A Cenedeze, F B Benatti, F R Lima, E Borba, E Bonfa, A L Sa-Pinto, H Roschel, N O S Camara, B Gualano
UNLABELLED: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a persistent systemic inflammation. Exercise induced inflammatory response in SLE remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acuteexercise on leukocyte gene expression in active (SLEACTIVE) and inactive SLE (SLEINACTIVE) patients and healthy controls(HC). METHODS: All subjects (n = 4 per group) performed a 30-min single bout of acute aerobic exercise (~70% of VO2peak) on a treadmill, and blood samples were collected for RNA extraction from circulating leukocyte at baseline, at the end of exercise, and after three hours of recovery...
2016: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853678/emerging-roles-of-pro-resolving-lipid-mediators-in-immunological-and-adaptive-responses-to-exercise-induced-muscle-injury
#3
James F Markworth, Krishna Rao Maddipati, David Cameron-Smith
Lipid mediators are bioactive metabolites of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that play diverse roles inthe initiation, self-limitation, and active resolution of inflammation. Prostaglandins, classical pro-inflammatory lipid metabolites of arachidonic acid, have long been implicated in immunological and adaptive muscle responses to acute injury and exercise-induced stress. More recently, PUFA metabolites have been discovered during the resolution phase of inflammation which collectively function as endogenous 'stop signals' to control inflammation whilst actively promoting the return to a non-inflamed state...
2016: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853557/exercise-inflammation-and-fatigue-in-cancer-survivors
#4
Emily C P LaVoy, Christopher P Fagundes, Robert Dantzer
Cancer-related fatigue significantly disrupts normal functioning and quality of life for a substantial portion of cancer survivors, and may persist for years following cancer treatment. While the causes of persistent fatigue among cancer survivors are not yet fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests that several pathways, including chronic inflammation, autonomic imbalance, HPA-axis dysfunction, and/or mitochondrial damage, could contribute towards the disruption of normal neuronal function and result in the symptom of cancer-related fatigue...
2016: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853488/salivary-immunoglobulin-free-light-chains-reference-ranges-and-responses-to-exercise-in-young-and-older-adults
#5
Jennifer L J Heaney, Michael Gleeson, Anna C Phillips, Ian M Taylor, Mark T Drayson, Margret Goodall, Cheng-Shiun He, Ida S Svendsen, Sophie C Killer, John P Campbell
BACKGROUND: Free light chains (FLCs) have a range of biological functions and may act as a broad marker of immunesuppression and activation and inflammation. Measurement of salivary FLCs may provide practical advantages in a range of clinical populations. The aim of the present study was to develop normal reference ranges of FLCs in saliva and assess the effects of acute exercise on FLC levels in younger and older adults. METHODS: Saliva FLC concentrations and secretion rates were measuredin young (n = 88, aged 18-36) and older (n = 53, aged 60-80) adults...
2016: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853300/is-there-an-optimal-vitamin-d-status-for-immunity-in-athletes-and-military-personnel
#6
Cheng-Shiun He, Xin Hui Aw Yong, Neil P Walsh, Michael Gleeson
Vitamin D is mainly obtained through sunlight ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure of the skin, with a small amount typically coming from the diet.It is now clear that vitamin D has important roles beyond its well-known effects on calcium and bone homeostasis. Immune cells express the vitamin D receptor, including antigen presenting cells, T cells and B cells, and these cells are all capable of synthesizing the biologically active vitamin D metabolite, 1, 25 hydroxy vitamin D.There has been growing interest in the benefits of supplementing vitamin D as studies report vitamin D insufficiency (circulating 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) in more than half of all athletes and military personnel tested during the winter, when skin sunlight UVB is negligible...
2016: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853134/human-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-the-immune-response-to-exercise
#7
Richard J Simpson, Austin B Bigley, Guillaume Spielmann, Emily C P LaVoy, Hawley Kunz, Catherine M Bollard
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous -herpes virus that has co-evolved with its host since the very beginning of human life. The vast majority of adults worldwide carry the virus in a latent state, which is known to have striking effects on the composition and function of both T-cells and NK-cells. While there is evidence to suggest that prior exposure to HCMV can have beneficial effects in the immune competent host, poor control of the virus may contribute to T-cell exhaustion and the early onset of immunosenescence...
2016: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25830597/circulatory-endotoxin-concentration-and-cytokine-profile-in-response-to-exertional-heat-stress-during-a-multi-stage-ultra-marathon-competition
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Samantha K Gill, Ana Teixeira, Luis Rama, Jonato Prestes, Fatima Rosado, Joanne Hankey, Volker Scheer, Krystal Hemmings, Paula Ansley-Robson, Ricardo J S Costa
Exertional-heat stress has the potential to disturb intestinal integrity, leading to enhanced permeability of enteric pathogenic micro-organisms and associated clinical manifestations. The study aimed to determine the circulatory endotoxin concentration and cytokine profile of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n=19) and a control group (CON, n=12) during a five stage 230km ultra-marathon (mean ± SD: 27h38min ± 3h55min) conducted in hot and dry environmental conditions (30ºC to 40ºC and 31% to 40% relative humidity)...
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25828753/letter-to-the-editor-the-evidence-of-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction-in-endurance-runners-genetic-basis-and-gender-differences
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Asghar Abbasi, Rodolfo de Paula Vieira, Hinnak Northoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25826432/cytokine-expression-and-secretion-by-skeletal-muscle-cells-regulatory-mechanisms-and-exercise-effects
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan M Peake, Paul Della Gatta, Katsuhiko Suzuki, David C Nieman
Cytokines are important mediators of various aspects of health and disease, including appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. Over the past decade or so, considerable attention has focused on the potential for regular exercise to counteract a range of disease states by modulating cytokine production. Exercise stimulates moderate to large increases in the circulating concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL- 10, IL-1 receptor antagonist, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, and smaller increases in tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-1β, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, IL-12p35/p40 and IL-15...
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25826388/exercise-skeletal-muscle-and-inflammation-are-binding-proteins-as-key-regulators-in-inflammatory-and-adaptive-networks
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Beiter, Miriam Hoene, Frauke Prenzler, Frank C Mooren, Jürgen M Steinacker, Cora Weigert, Andreas M Nieß, Barbara Munz
The role of inflammation in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise is complex and has hardly been elucidated so far. While the acute inflammatory response to exercise seems to promote skeletal muscle training adaptation and regeneration, persistent, low-grade inflammation, as seen in a multitude of chronic diseases, is obviously detrimental. The regulation of cytokine production in skeletal muscle cells has been relatively well studied, yet little is known about the compensatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms that resolve inflammation and restore tissue homeostasis...
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25826370/a-single-bout-of-dynamic-exercise-enhances-the-expansion-of-mage-a4-and-prame-specific-cytotoxic-t-cells-from-healthy-adults
#12
Emily C P LaVoy, Catherine M Bollard, Patrick J Hanley, James W Blaney, Daniel P O'Connor, Jos A Bosch, Richard J Simpson
The ex vivo expansion of tumor-associated-antigen (TAA)- specific cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) from healthy donors for adoptive transfer to cancer patients is now providing additional treatment options for patients. Many studies have shown that adoptive transfer of expanded CTLs can reduce the risk of relapse in cancer patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, the procedure can be limited by difficulties in priming and expanding sufficient numbers of TAA-specific-CTLs. Because acute dynamic exercise mobilizes large numbers of T-cells to peripheral blood, we hypothesized that a single bout of exercise would augment the ex vivo expansion of TAA-specific-CTLs...
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25826329/exercise-and-inflammation-related-epigenetic-modifications-focus-on-dna-methylation
#13
REVIEW
Steven Horsburgh, Paula Robson-Ansley, Rozanne Adams, Carine Smith
Epigenetics is the study of mitotically or meiotically heritable phenotypes that occur as a result of modifications to DNA, thereby regulating gene expression independently of changes in base sequence due to manipulation of the chromatin structure. These modifications occur through a variety of mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs, and can cause transcriptional suppression or activation depending on the location within the gene. Environmental stimuli, such as diet and exercise, are thought to be able to regulate these mechanisms, with inflammation as a probable contributory factor...
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25826292/influence-of-age-and-physical-fitness-on-mirna-21-tgf-%C3%AE-and-its-receptors-in-leukocytes-of-healthy-women
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Barbara Halper, Marlene Hofmann, Stefan Oesen, Bernhard Franzke, Petra Stuparits, Claudia Vidotto, Harald Tschan, Norbert Bachl, Eva-Maria Strasser, Michael Quittan, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Barbara Wessner
The TGF-β superfamily has been shown to play an important role in a wide range of physiological as well as pathological processes including ageing, immune modulation, atherosclerosis and cancer development. The aim of the current study was to investigate (i) whether TGF-β signalling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) would differ between young and old females and (ii) whether physical performance parameters of elderly women would be related to the expression of TGF-β or its receptors. Sixteen healthy young (22-28 years; YF) and 90 healthy older (65-92 years; OF) females participated in the study...
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25826127/understanding-graft-versus-host-disease-preliminary-findings-regarding-the-effects-of-exercise-in-affected-patients
#15
REVIEW
Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Nuria Garatachea, Richard J Simpson, Nathan A Berger, Manuel Ramírez, Alejandro Lucia
Advances in this century regarding allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) have led to an expanding population of long-term survivors, many of whom suffer severe side effects, particularly those related to graft-versushost disease (GVHD), a potentially multi-systemic disorder caused by immunoeffector donor lymphocytes that destroy host tissues. The GVHD, especially in its chronic form (cGVHD), generates considerable morbidity and compromises the physical capacity of patients. We have reviewed the main pathophysiological aspects of the disease as well as the data available on the effects of exercise in GVHD, based on animal and human patient research...
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25826051/changes-of-thioredoxin-oxidative-stress-markers-inflammation-and-muscle-renal-damage-following-intensive-endurance-exercise
#16
Kaoru Sugama, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Kayo Yoshitani, Koso Shiraishi, Shigeki Miura, Hiroshi Yoshioka, Yuichi Mori, Takashi Kometani
Thioredoxin (TRX) is a 12 kDa protein that is induced by oxidative stress, scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) and modulates chemotaxis. Furthermore it is thought to play a protective role in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Complement 5a (C5a) is a chemotactic factor of neutrophils and is produced after ischemia/reperfusion injury in the kidney. Both TRX and C5a increase after endurance exercise. Therefore, it may be possible that TRX has an association with C5a in renal disorders and/or renal protection caused by endurance exercise...
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25826002/exercise-induced-increases-in-cell-free-dna-in-human-plasma-originate-predominantly-from-cells-of-the-haematopoietic-lineage
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Suzan Tug, Susanne Helmig, Eva Ricarda Deichmann, Anna Schmeier-Jürchott, Eva Wagner, Tim Zimmermann, Markus Radsak, Mauro Giacca, Perikles Simon
The role of cell free DNA (cfDNA) has been intensively discussed under various pathological conditions and after acute bouts of exercise. To date, there is still no conclusive evidence concerning the cellular origin of cfDNA and the entire mechanism leading to elevated cfDNA concentrations in human plasma and serum. Here, we investigated the cellular origin of cfDNA in sex-mismatched haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and liver transplantation (LT) patients by determining the relative proportion of Y-chromosomal to total nuclear cfDNA...
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25825956/metabolic-signals-and-innate-immune-activation-in-obesity-and-exercise
#18
REVIEW
Robert Ringseis, Klaus Eder, Frank C Mooren, Karsten Krüger
The combination of a sedentary lifestyle and excess energy intake has led to an increased prevalence of obesity which constitutes a major risk factor for several co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Intensive research during the last two decades has revealed that a characteristic feature of obesity linking it to insulin resistance is the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation being indicative of activation of the innate immune system. Recent evidence suggests that activation of the innate immune system in the course of obesity is mediated by metabolic signals, such as free fatty acids (FFAs), being elevated in many obese subjects, through activation of pattern recognition receptors thereby leading to stimulation of critical inflammatory signaling cascades, like IκBα kinase/nuclear factor-κB (IKK/NF- κB), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway, that interfere with insulin signaling...
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25825908/the-microbiota-an-exercise-immunology-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Stéphane Bermon, Bernardo Petriz, Alma Kajėnienė, Jonato Prestes, Lindy Castell, Octavio L Franco
The gut microbiota consists of a cluster of microorganisms that produces several signaling molecules of a hormonal nature which are released into the blood stream and act at distal sites. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that microbiota may be modulated by several environmental conditions, including different exercise stimulus, as well some pathologies. Enriched bacterial diversity has also been associated with improved health status and alterations in immune system, making multiple connections between host and microbiota...
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25825870/inflammatory-cytokine-kinetics-to-single-bouts-of-acute-moderate-and-intense-aerobic-exercise-in-women-with-active-and-inactive-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
L A Perandini, D Sales-de-Oliveira, Sbv Mello, N O Camara, F B Benatti, F R Lima, E Borba, E Bonfa, H Roschel, A L Sá-Pinto, B Gualano
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the cytokines INF-γ, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α and soluble TNF receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) in response to single bouts of acute moderate and intense exercise in systemic lupus erythematosus women with active (SLE(ACTIVE)) and inactive (SLE(INACTIVE)) disease. Twelve SLE(INACTIVE) women (age: 35.3 ± 5.7 yrs; BMI: 25.6±3.4 kg/m2), eleven SLE(ACTIVE) women (age: 30.4 ± 4.5 yrs; BMI: 26.1±4.8 kg/m2), and 10 age- and BMI-matched healthy control women (HC) performed 30 minutes of acute moderate (~50% of VO(2)peak) and intense (~70% of VO(2)peak) exercise bout...
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
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