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Fish & Shellfish Immunology

Jing-Rong Kong, Wei Wei, Xue-Li Qiao, Huan Kang, Di Huang, Yuan Liu, Wei-Na Wang
It is well known that PI3K regulates various processes in mammalian cells by generating a secondary messenger that later activates AKT. However, its innate immune function in crustaceans remains unclear. We report the characterization of Litopenaeus vannamei PI3K (LvPI3K) for investigating how PI3K participates in the innate immunity of crustaceans. Full-length LvPI3K cDNA was 3357 bp long, with a 3222 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a putative protein of 1292 amino acids. The PI3K catalytic domain (PI3Kc) of LvPI3K was found to be rather conserved when the PI3Ks from other species were analyzed...
March 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shuang-An Li, Wei-Dan Jiang, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Juan Yang, Xu Tang, He-Qun Shi, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary myo-inositol on the intestinal immune barrier function and related signaling pathway in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp (221.33 ± 0.84 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of myo-inositol (27.0, 137.9, 286.8, 438.6, 587.7 and 737.3 mg/kg) for 10 weeks. After the growth trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicated that compared with the optimal dietary myo-inositol level, myo-inositol deficiency (27...
March 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mariola A Dietrich, Piotr Hliwa, Mikołaj Adamek, Dieter Steinhagen, Halina Karol, Andrzej Ciereszko
The environmental temperature affects plasma biochemical indicators, antioxidant status and hematological and immunological parameters in fish. So far, only single blood proteins have been identified in response to temperature changes. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of carp blood plasma from males acclimated to warm (30 °C) and cold (10 °C) temperatures by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 47 spots were found to be differentially regulated by temperature (>1...
March 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xiao-Wen Zhang, Xin Man, Xin Huang, Yue Wang, Qi-Sheng Song, Kai-Min Hui, Hong-Wei Zhang
C-type lectins are important immune molecules that participate in crustacean defense response. The present work reports a novel C-type lectin (PcLec6) from the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. PcLec6 encodes a single-peptide protein of 385 amino acids, which include a C-type lectin domain (CTLD) and a serine-rich region. PcLec6 expression in lymph organ and gills was up-regulated after bacterial challenge by Vibrio alginolyticus or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Recombinant full-length PcLec6 or its CTLD proteins were used for the functional analyses...
March 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jee Youn Hwang, Kesavan Markkandan, Mun Gyeong Kwon, Jung Soo Seo, Seung-Il Yoo, Seong Don Hwang, Maeng-Hyun Son, Junhyung Park
Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in South Korea and faces tremendous exposure to the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Given the growing importance of flounder, it is therefore essential to understand the host defense of P. olivaceus against VHSV infection, but studies on its immune mechanism are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In this study, the P. olivaceus was infected with disease-causing VHSV isolates, ADC-VHS2012-11 and ADC-VHS2014-5 which showed moderate virulent (20% mortality) and high virulent (65% mortality), in order to investigate the effect of difference in pathogenicity in head kidney during 1, 3, 7 days of post-infection using Illumina sequencing...
March 9, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shuhuan Zhang, Qiaoqing Xu, Elisa Boscari, Hao Du, Zhitao Qi, Youshen Li, Jun Huang, Jun Di, Huamei Yue, Chuangju Li, Leonardo Congiu, Qiwei Wei
Dabry's sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) is mainly distributed in the upper Yangtze River. Although extensively farmed, little information is available on its innate immune system. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly of the head kidney to create a comprehensive dataset for A. dabryanus. A total of 51,324,686 high quality reads were obtained from head kidney cDNA library by the Illumina sequencing platform and 131,261 unigenes were determined to contain complete ORFs. The complete coding sequences of g- and c-type lysozymes were identified from unigenes, and designated as ADLysG and ADLysC...
March 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Qiang Li, Yuan Ren, Chunlei Liang, Guo Qiao, Yinan Wang, Shigen Ye, Ruijun Li
Sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is one of the most important holothurian species cultured in China. Severe evisceration induced by various natural and artificial factors commonly occurs during transport and culture of A. japonicus. Evisceration causes higher mortality and lower yield. Along with the visceral regeneration process, sea cucumbers also regenerate coelomocytes in order to recover immune function. In this study, evisceration of A. japonicus was induced by intracoelomic injection of 0.35 M KCl...
March 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mahalingam Anjugam, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Arokiadhas Iswarya, Narayanan Gobi, Mani Divya, Merlin P Thangaraj, Preetham Elumalai
Recently, several immunostimulants such as β-glucan, microbial and plant products have been used as dietary supplements to combat disease outbreaks in aquaculture. The present study investigates the potential of Portunus pelagicus β-1, 3 glucan binding protein based zinc oxide nanoparticles (Ppβ-GBP-ZnO NPs) supplemented diet on growth, immune response and disease resistance in Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. The immune-related protein β-GBP was purified from the haemolymph of P. pelagicus using Sephadex G-100 affinity column chromatography...
March 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Vipin Kumar Verma, Kumari Vandana Rani, Shiva Raj Kumar, Om Prakash
The laboratory acclimatized Clarias gariepinus (80 ± 10 g) were divided into six groups and five subgroups each containing 10 fish. A fish feed was reconstituted by adding 33% powder of Leucaena leucocephala seed in place of fish trash. Group B, C and E were fed on reconstituted feed and group A, D and F were fed on artificial feed containing animal protein for 7 days prior to start of experiments. Then Group B was challenged with BSA while other groups were challenged with Vibrio harveyi (Group C, D) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Group E, F)...
March 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yueling Zhang, Guicai Gao, Ruihong Lin, Jude Juventus Aweya, Mengyuan Tao, Fan Wang
Although vertebrate immunity has been well studied for the past decades, invertebrate immunity was much less explored. One possible reason was that in vitro culture system was not well established. In this study, Litopenaeus vannamei was applied as an invertebrate study model. Primary culture conditions for L. vannamei hemocytes were optimized to get relatively quiescent state cells. LPS was used as an immune stimulator and the responses of primary cultured hemocytes were transcriptomically analyzed. Our results showed that around 1600 genes were upregulated and 800 genes were downregulated from LPS treated hemocytes...
March 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Qi-Lin Zhang, Qian-Hua Zhu, Ming-Zhong Liang, Feng Wang, Jun Guo, Xian-Yu Deng, Jun-Yuan Chen, Yu-Jun Wang, Lian-Bing Lin
Amphioxus, a basal chordate, is widely considered to be an existing proxy of the invertebrate ancestor of vertebrates, and it exhibits susceptibility to various pathogen infections and pathogenic mimic challenges. Here, in order to understand more clearly its antibacterial mechanisms, we analyzed the ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-depleted transcriptome of Chinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. p.) via next-generation deep sequencing technology (RNA-seq). We identified a total of 3214 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing V...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Bor-Chyuan Su, Wen-Chun Lin, Jyh-Yih Chen
Recombinant Epinephelus lanceolatus serum amyloid A (rElSAA) exhibits strong immunostimulant activity and enhances phagocytic clearance of bacteria by macrophages. However, the effects of dietary rElSAA supplementation on growth performance, immunomodulation and disease resistance in giant grouper have not been previously evaluated. To test whether oral administration of rElSAA affects growth, fish were fed with 0, 0.88, 4.4 or 22 mg/kg rElSAA-containing diet for 28 days. No statistically significant differences in body weight were observed between groups...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shungo Minami, Kyuma Suzuki, Shun Watanabe, Motohiko Sano, Goshi Kato
In this study, we investigated maturation-associated changes in non-specific immune responses of ayu against Flavobacterium psychrophilum. The gonadosomatic index was minimum on 16 June, began to increase on 17 July, and reached the maximum value during August. The highest phagocytic rate (16.3%) was observed on 16 June, which decreased significantly to 5.6% on 26 August. The number of viable bacteria after the serum treatment was highest during August, suggesting that bactericidal activity of the serum decreased along with the sexual maturation...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Chun-Hsi Tso, Ming-Wei Lu
Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection has been considered a serious disease in farmed grouper. Particularly, the persistent infection model conducts the grouper into a carrier state that continues to spread the virus through spawning. This particular model makes disease control more difficult in the aquaculture industry. In the present study, we used RNA-Seq, a high-throughput method based on next-generation sequencing, to profile the expression of genes during the period of NNV persistent infection. We evaluated the transcriptomic changes in the brain tissue of grouper...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Chamilani Nikapitiya, S H S Dananjaya, B C J De Silva, Gang-Joon Heo, Chulhong Oh, Mahanama De Zoysa, Jehee Lee
Chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) were synthesized by ionic gelation method and its immunomodulatory properties were investigated in zebrafish larvae. Average particle size and zeta potential were 181.2 nm and +37.2 mv, respectively. Initially, toxicity profile was tested in zebrafish embryo at 96 h post fertilization (hpf) stage using medium molecular weight chitosan (MMW-C) and CNPs. At 5 μg/mL, the hatching rate was almost similar in both treatments, however, the survival rate was lower in MMW-C compared to CNPs exposure, suggesting that toxicity effect of CNPs in hatched larvae was minimal at 5 μg/mL compared to MMW-C...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Asad Nawaz, Allah Bakhsh Javaid, Sana Irshad, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Hanguo Xiong
The gut immune system is, the main option for maintaining host's health, affected by numerous factors comprising dietary constituents and commensal bacteria. These dietary components that affect the intestinal immunity and considered as an alternative of antibiotics are called immunosaccharides. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), Galactooligosaccharide (GOS), inulin, dietary carbohydrates, and xylooligosaccharide (XOS) are among the most studied prebiotics in human as well as in aquaculture. Although prebiotics and probiotics have revealed potential as treatment for numerous illnesses in both human and fish, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism behind direct and indirect effect on the intestinal immune response will help more and perhaps extra effective therapy intended for ailments...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jorge Galindo-Villegas, Alicia García-Alcazar, José Meseguer, Victoriano Mulero
A key goal of a successful vaccine formulation is the strong induction of persistent protective immune responses without producing side-effects. Adjuvants have been proved to be successful in several species at inducing increased immune responses against poorly immunogenic antigens. Fish are not the exception and promising results of adjuvanted vaccine formulations in many species are needed. In this study, over a period of 300 days, we characterized the apparent damage and immune response in gilthead seabream immunized by intraperitoneal injection with the model antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) alone or formulated with Montanide ISA water-in-oil (761 or 763), or Imject™ aluminum hydroxide (aluminium), as adjuvants...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Rahul Krishnan, Jeena K, Zahoor Mushtaq, K U Shyam, Pani Prasad Kurcheti
The innate immune signaling adapter, Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) coordinates the signals received from two independent RLRs (RIG-1 and MDA5) to induce IFN & interferon stimulatory genes (ISGs). In the present study, we report identification of an orthologue of MAVS from Lates calcarifer (LcMAVS) and its functional role in piscine RLR signaling. The LcMAVS-cDNA was cloned into pcDNA and transfected into SISS cells. LcMAVS was detected to be a 61KDa protein in western blot. Confocal microscopy demonstrated the mitochondrial localization of LcMAVS...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
E-Bin Gao, Guifang Chen
Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) rhabdovirus (MSRV) was isolated from infected juveniles of largemouth bass, and the infected fish exhibited corkscrew, irregular swimming, and crooked body. To our knowledge, the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of MSRV infection remain largely unknown. In the current study, we found that MSRV infection in largemouth bass skin (LBS) cells induced typical apoptosis, evidenced by the presence of apoptotic bodies and caspase-3 activation. To further analyze the host factors involved in MSRV infection in LBS cells, the transcriptomic profiles during MSRV infection were uncovered using deep RNA sequencing technique, and several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were validated by quantitative PCR...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xiaona Zhang, Junkai Lu, Changkao Mu, Ronghua Li, Weiwei Song, Yangfang Ye, Ce Shi, Lei Liu, Chunlin Wang
C-type lectin plays an important role in the innate immune response of crustaceans including Portunus trituberculatus which is an important marine species. In the present study, we cloned the full length of a C-type lectin (designated as PtCTL4) from P. trituberculatus via 3'RACE. The full length of the nucleic acid sequence had a length of 654 bp including an open reading frame (ORF) of 480 bp. PtCTL4 possesses conserved CTL features, while containing a CRD domain with Ca2+ binding site 2 and six conserved cysteine residues...
March 1, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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