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Anaerobe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753109/expression-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-on-the-surface-of-clostridium-perfringens-cells
#1
Nozomu Matsunaga, Haruka Shimizu, Kanako Fujimoto, Kanako Watanabe, Tsutomu Yamasaki, Naoya Hatano, Eiji Tamai, Seiichi Katayama, Yasuo Hitsumoto
During research to identify fibronectin (Fn)-binding proteins (Fbps) on the surface of Clostridium perfringens cells, we identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a candidate Fbp. GAPDH is a glycolytic enzyme found in a wide range of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The Fn-binding activity of recombinant C. perfringens GAPDH (rGAPDH) was investigated using both ligand blotting analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). rGAPDH strongly bound plasminogen but not laminin or gelatin...
May 9, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734011/the-ability-of-human-intestinal-anaerobes-to-metabolize-different-oligosaccharides-novel-means-for-microbiota-modulation
#2
Riichi Ose, Katsuaki Hirano, Shintaro Maeno, Junichi Nakagawa, Seppo Salminen, Takumi Tochio, Akihito Endo
Prebiotic oligosaccharides are known to have significant impacts on gut microbiota and are thus widely used to program healthy microbiota composition and activity from infants to the elderly. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are among the major target microorganisms of oligosaccharides, but the metabolic properties of oligosaccharides in other predominant gut microbes have not been well characterized. In the present study, we demonstrated the metabolic properties of six oligosaccharides in 31 key gut anaerobes...
May 4, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758524/effect-of-ds-2969b-a-novel-gyrb-inhibitor-on-rat-and-monkey-intestinal-microbiota
#3
Manoj Kumar, Tarun Mathur, Vattan Joshi, Dilip J Upadhyay, Shin-Ichi Inoue, Nobuhisa Masuda
DS-2969b, a novel GyrB inhibitor, transiently and reversibly altered the counts of limited intestinal microbiota at around 10 μg/g of faecal levels in rats and monkeys. Considering the high activity of DS-2969b against Clostridium difficile, 10 μg/g of faecal levels would be sufficient for clearing C. difficile from the intestine.
May 2, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729318/bioethanol-production-by-a-xylan-fermenting-thermophilic-isolate-clostridium-strain-dbt-ioc-dc21
#4
Nisha Singh, Munish Puri, Deepak K Tuli, Ravi P Gupta, Colin J Barrow, Anshu S Mathur
To overcome the challenges associated with combined bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel, finding good organisms is essential. An ethanol producing bacteria DBT-IOC-DC21 was isolated from a compost site via preliminary enrichment culture on a pure hemicellulosic substrate and identified as a Clostridium strain by 16S rRNA analysis. This strain presented broad substrate spectrum with ethanol, acetate, lactate, and hydrogen as the primary metabolic end products. The optimum conditions for ethanol production were found to be an initial pH of 7...
May 2, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753202/effects-of-supplementing-corn-silage-with-different-nitrogen-sources-on-ruminal-fermentation-and-microbial-populations-in-vitro
#5
Maren Witzig, Melanie B Lengowski, Karin H R Zuber, Jens Möhring, Markus Rodehutscord
Compared to grass silage (GS)-, corn silage (CS)-based diets appear to increase the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS) in the rumen. Opposite results for the EMPS obtained in vitro have raised the question of whether an inadequate supply of amino N for microbes might explain the low EMPS. We examined the effects of supplementation with different N sources in CS on the EMPS and microbial populations in vitro. GS and CS were used as substrates for in vitro incubation. CS was non-supplemented or supplemented with urea, mixed amino acids (AA), peptone, or protein to adjust the N content to that of GS...
May 1, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730161/the-evolving-epidemic-of-clostridium-difficile-630
#6
Adam P Roberts, Wiep Klaas Smits
Clostridium difficile is a major pathogen responsible for a range of diseases in humans and animals. The genetic tools used to explore C. difficile biology are a relatively recent development in comparison to those used to investigate some other pathogens. Consequently, a rapid and haphazard dispersal of strains throughout the scientific community has led to the evolution of different C. difficile lineages within strains in different geographical locations and these genotypic differences are likely to affect the phenotype of the organism...
April 27, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698754/hmw-profiling-using-maldi-tof-ms-a-screening-method-for-outbreaks-of-clostridioides-difficile
#7
Lucía Ortega, Anna Ryberg, Åsa Johansson
Clostridioides difficile (CD), previously known as Clostridium difficile, is an anaerobic Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium that causes mild to severe diarrhea mainly in hospitalized patients. The bacteria are easily spread between patients and can persist in hospital wards due to its ability to form spores. An outbreak of CD causes great sufferings for patients and is in many aspects very expensive for the health care organization. Continuously monitoring circulating CD isolates in the hospital as well as being able to detect possible spread between patients at an early phase would be of great benefit...
April 23, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709869/a-repeat-offender-recurrent-extraintestinal-clostridium-difficile-infection-following-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#8
Bradley J Gardiner, Cheleste M Thorpe, Nicholas V Pinkham, Laura A McDermott, Seth T Walk, David R Snydman
Extraintestinal infection with Clostridium difficile has been reported but remains uncommon. Treatment of this unusual complication is complex given the limitations of current therapeutic options. Here we report a novel case of recurrent extraintestinal C. difficile infection that occurred following fecal microbiota transplantation. Using whole genome sequencing, we confirmed recrudescence rather than reinfection was responsible. The patient ultimately responded to prolonged, targeted antimicrobial therapy informed by susceptibility testing...
April 21, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689301/distinct-consequences-of-amoxicillin-and-ertapenem-exposure-in-the-porcine-gut-microbiome
#9
Sheila Connelly, Poorani Subramanian, Nur A Hasan, Rita R Colwell, Michael Kaleko
The gut microbiome influences many, if not all, aspects of human health. Antibiotics, while lifesaving, have the unintended consequence of killing commensal microbiota inhabiting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which can lead to overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Here, porcine models were developed to evaluate changes to the gut microbiome caused by two distinct types of beta-lactam antibiotics delivered via common administration routes, oral amoxicillin and intravenous ertapenem...
April 21, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679648/in-vitro-activity-of-tigecycline-and-comparators-against-a-european-collection-of-anaerobes-collected-as-part-of-the-tigecycline-evaluation-and-surveillance-trial-t-e-s-t-2010-2016
#10
Arne C Rodloff, Michael J Dowzicky
The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) is a global program that aims to monitor the in vitro antimicrobial activities of current therapeutic agents against clinical isolates. This study presents surveillance data for Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic isolates (N = 7008) collected from nine European countries between 2010 and 2016. Presented in this study are antimicrobial susceptibility data, according to the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions...
April 18, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678457/erratum-to-investigation-of-clostridium-botulinum-group-iii-s-mobilome-content-anaerobe-49-2018-71-77
#11
Cédric Woudstra, Caroline Le Maréchal, Rozenn Souillard, Fabrizio Anniballi, Bruna Auricchio, Luca Bano, Marie-Hélène Bayon-Auboyer, Miriam Koene, Isabelle Mermoud, Roseane B Brito, Francisco C F Lobato, Rodrigo O S Silva, Martin B Dorner, Patrick Fach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655966/secular-trends-in-the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-barcelona-2006-2015-a-prospective-observational-study
#12
Thais Larrainzar-Coghen, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Mireia Puig-Asensio, Carles Pigrau, Carmen Ferrer, Virginia Rodríguez, Rosa Bartolomé, David Campany, Benito Almirante
OBJECTIVE: Describe secular trends in the epidemiology and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) at a tertiary hospital. METHODS: All consecutive primary CDI episodes in adults (January 2006-December 2015) were included. CDI was diagnosed on the presence of diarrhoea and a positive stool test for C. difficile toxin A and/or B. To define trends, a time-series analysis was performed using yearly data on demographics, clinical characteristics, management, antimicrobial treatment, and outcome of CDI...
April 12, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654837/restoration-of-short-chain-fatty-acid-and-bile-acid-metabolism-following-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#13
Anna M Seekatz, Casey M Theriot, Krishna Rao, Yu-Ming Chang, Alison E Freeman, John Y Kao, Vincent B Young
A significant proportion of individuals develop recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) following initial disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a highly effective treatment method for recurrent CDI, has been demonstrated to induce microbiota recovery. One of the proposed functions associated with restoration of colonization resistance against C. difficile has been recovery of bile acid metabolism. In this study, we aimed to assess recovery of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in addition to bile acids alongside microbial community structure in six patients with recurrent CDI following treatment with FMT over time...
April 12, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680295/rodents-are-carriers-of-clostridioides-difficile-strains-similar-to-those-isolated-from-piglets
#14
Carlos Augusto de Oliveira, Michelle de Paula Gabardo, Roberto Maurício Carvalho Guedes, Fabrice Poncet, Dominique S Blanc, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva
Features of Clostridioides difficile transmission in swine and the role of rodents as C. difficile reservoir are not clear. To investigate if rodents can carry strains of C. difficile that are genetically similar to those isolated from swine, 97 fecal samples from neonatal piglets and 41 intestinal contents from rodents were collected in two farms. All samples were subjected to C. difficile culture and the presence of A/B toxins in piglet feces were accessed by commercial enzyme imunoassay (EIA). C. difficile isolates were typed by double- (DLST) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)...
April 9, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627510/occurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-serbia-and-high-proportion-of-pcr-ribotype-027-strains-in-two-hospitals-in-belgrade
#15
Milica Jovanović, Tanja Tošić, Mitra Drakulović, Rajica Stošović, Snežana Jovanović
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the Clinical Center of Serbia (CCS) and the entire Serbia has been constantly rising in the previous 5 years. We aimed to study C. difficile PCR-ribotypes isolated from patients hospitalized at two healthcare institutions: CCS and Specialized Hospital for Cerebrovascular Diseases "Sveti Sava" (SS), both of them from Belgrade, and to investigate the incidence rates of CDI in hospital settings in Serbia, from 2009 to 2013...
April 5, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626623/maldi-tof-ms-in-anaerobiospirillum-succiniciproducens-bacteremia-a-report-of-4-cases-in-different-hosts
#16
B Fox, M A Berger, M Roncallo, L Pinoche, M E Ibáñez, Fraga S Gonzalez, Canigia L Fernández
Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens is known as an uncommon cause of diarrhea and bacteremia in humans, usually in immunocompromised hosts. We report four cases of A. succiniciproducens bloodstream infection in different hosts, including a previously healthy man. We describe clinical features, antibiotics susceptibility profile, treatment and outcomes. Strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences which contributed to the extension of our MALDI-TOF MS database.
April 4, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626622/bacteroides-fragilis-a-whole-maldi-based-workflow-from-identification-to-confirmation-of-carbapenemase-production-for-routine-laboratories
#17
M Cordovana, M Kostrzewa, J Sóki, E Witt, S Ambretti, A B Pranada
Bacteroides fragilis is a frequent anaerobic pathogen and can cause severe infections. Resistance to carbapenems, associated with the cfiA gene encoded carbapenemase, represents an emerging problem. To date, no rapid methods are available to detect and confirm this resistance mechanism in routine laboratories, and the missed recognition of carbapenemase-producing strains can lead to therapeutic failures. In this study we have investigated a whole MALDI-TOF MS-based workflow to detect carbapenemase-producing B...
April 4, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621604/clostridioides-difficile-infection-in-dogs-with-chronic-recurring-diarrhea-responsive-to-dietary-changes
#18
Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior, Dominique S Blanc, Silvia Trindade Pereira, Mário Cesar Rennó, Artur Vasconcelos, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
Five dogs with chronic-recurring diarrhea were positive for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), but were unresponsive to treatment with metronidazole. One of these animals was subjected to a colonoscopy, which revealed eosinophilic infiltration of the colon. All five animals completely recovered after dietary changes. The present work suggests that CDI might occur in dogs with other intestinal alterations. In addition, this report suggests that dysbiosis should be considered in animals that have chronic-recurring diarrhea and test positive for C...
April 2, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621603/type-c-botulism-in-domestic-chickens-dogs-and-black-pencilled-marmoset-callithrix-penicillata-in-minas-gerais-brazil
#19
Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Ronaldo Alves Martins, Ronnie Antunes Assis, Carlos Augusto Oliveira Junior, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
Botulism is a well-known intoxication that affects humans and animals. The disease is endemic in cattle in Brazil and recently emerged as an important disease in commercial laying hens and broiler chickens in Europe. Dogs and other animal species can also be affected. Although antitoxins are commonly administered to humans diagnosed with botulism, in animals this is rarely the case and the treatment of botulism is still based only on support therapy. In the present work, we report an outbreak of type C botulism in Brazil that simultaneously affected domestic chickens, dogs and a black-pencilled marmoset (Callithrix penicillata)...
April 2, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604338/high-prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-078-in-pigs-in-korea
#20
Ha-Young Kim, Ara Cho, Jong Wan Kim, Heejung Kim, Bumseok Kim
Clostridium difficile can cause neonatal enteritis, but has been isolated from both diseased and healthy pigs. C. difficile shedding by pigs is a potential source of zoonotic transmission to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the prevalence and genotype of C. difficile with respect to age and health status in the pig industry for the first time in Korea. Fecal samples of 910 pigs were analyzed for the presence of C. difficile. In total, 176 (19.3%) C. difficile strains were isolated. The prevalence was significantly higher (p < 0...
March 28, 2018: Anaerobe
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