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Anaerobe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223548/co-occurrence-of-early-gut-colonization-in-neonatal-piglets-with-microbiota-in-the-maternal-and-surrounding-delivery-environments
#1
Xue Chen, Jumei Xu, Erdou Ren, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
The early development of gut microbiota plays a fundamental role in host health; so far, the main origins of the first colonization in newborn piglets are largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the early development of gut microbiota in newborn piglets during lactation and their co-occurrence with microbes in the maternal and surrounding environments by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that the microbial richness and diversity in piglets' feces (PF) significantly increased from birth to weaning (21 d)...
December 6, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221987/hierarchical-recognition-of-amino-acid-co-germinants-during-clostridioides-difficile-spore-germination
#2
Ritu Shrestha, Joseph A Sorg
Bile acids are an important signal for germination of Clostridioides difficile spores; however, the bile acid signal alone is not sufficient. Amino acids, such as glycine, are another signal necessary for germination by C. difficile spores. Prior studies on the amino acid signal required for germination have shown that there is a preference for the amino acid used as a signal for germination. Previously we found that d-alanine can function as a co-germinant for C. difficile spores at 37 °C but not at 25 °C...
December 5, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175428/developing-an-in-vitro-artificial-sebum-model-to-study-propionibacterium-acnes-biofilms
#3
Karl-Jan Spittaels, Tom Coenye
AIM: The aim of the present study was to develop a new model system to study Propionibacterium acnes biofilms. This model should be representative for the conditions encountered in the pilosebaceous unit. METHODS AND RESULTS: The new model, consists of an artificial sebum pellet supported by a silicone disc. Sebum pellets were inoculated with various P. acnes strains isolated from both normal and acneic skin. Growth and biofilm formation was verified by conventional plating at different time points, as well as by resazurin assays and fluorescence microscopy after LIVE/DEAD staining...
November 21, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155162/chorioamnionitis-due-to-leptotrichia-trevisanii
#4
Dionisia Fontanals, Carlos García-Miralles, Rosa Ballester, Belen Cochs, Ruth Orellana, Sílvia Capilla
Very long fusiform gram-negative bacilli were observed after Gram staining of amniotic fluid from a 36-year-old multigravida woman. At 24 hours, pure, abundant growth of smooth, gray, only slightly convex catalase-positive and oxidase-negative colonies measuring about 2 mm were observed. Growth was greater in anaerobic than in aerobic conditions. The bacterium was identified as Leptotrichia trevisanii by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Ampicillin and gentamicin were prescribed for chorioamnionitis, and vaginal prostaglandins were administered to terminate the pregnancy...
November 15, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100929/in-vitro-evaluation-of-marine-derived-fungi-against-cutibacterium-acnes
#5
Shivankar Agrawal, Alok Adholeya, Colin J Barrow, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh
Cutibacterium acnes (or Propionibacterium acnes) is the main target for the prevention and medical treatment of acne vulgaris. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-C. acnes and anti-S. epidermidis properties of some marine fungi isolated from different Indian marine environments. Seventy fungal isolates were obtained from samples collected from the west coasts and Andaman Island, India. Methanol extracts of 35 isolates were screened for their antibacterial properties and 5 out of the 35 isolates displayed significant inhibition as compared with tetracycline...
November 10, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097270/a-molecular-technique-to-explore-the-relationship-between-porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-severity-of-chronic-periodontitis-a-clinical-approach
#6
J Bagavad Gita, A B Aishwarya, N Pavithra, S C Chandrasekaran, Ann V George, A Gnanamani
Relationship between clinical severities of periodontal disease and the expression of the associated pathogens serve as good indicators of real time disease activity and progression. A double blind study using Image J software carried out to assess the density of the amplified band for Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontally healthy and disease subjects. Results on image densities of P. gingivalis showed a statistical significance (p < 0.005) between healthy and diseased subjects and also within the various groups of periodontal disease severity...
October 31, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107126/the-international-anaerobe-quality-assurance-scheme-iaqas
#7
LETTER
T Morris, S Copsey-Mawer, H Hughes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074149/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-st-1-in-buenos-aires-argentina
#8
Daniela Cejas, Néstor Raúl Ríos Osorio, Rodolfo Quirós, Roxana Sadorin, María Alejandra Berger, Gabriel Gutkind, Liliana Fernández Canigia, Marcela Radice
Thirty one C. difficile isolates recovered in 2015 were characterized. Nineteen/31 were positive for tcdA/B, among them, 4 isolates were also positive for CDT coding genes. Two/4 cdtA/B positives isolates corresponded to ST 1 resembling BI/NAP1/027/ST 1 strain, while the others corresponded to ST 226 and ST 377.
October 23, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066337/clostridium-difficile-causing-pediatric-infections-new-findings-from-a-hospital-based-study-in-italy
#9
Patrizia Spigaglia, Fabrizio Barbanti, Elio Castagnola, Maria Cristina Diana, Luisa Pescetto, Roberto Bandettini
Recent studies support a change of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) epidemiology in pediatric patients. Since limited information is available about C. difficile in this population, we investigated the epidemiology of CDI in a large pediatric hospital that acts as reference centre in Italy and analyzed C. difficile isolates to identify the prevalent PCR-ribotypes (RTs), the binary toxin (CDT)-positive strains and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The CDI incidence was 6.6 cases/1000 admissions and the majority (92%) of CDI were healthcare-associated (47% occurred in the Hematology-Oncology and in the Gastroenterology units)...
October 21, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030100/antimicrobial-susceptibility-profiles-of-oral-treponema-species
#10
Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama, Jin Sekino, Kouki Yoshikawa, Atsushi Saito, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Treponemes occur in the microflora of the dental plaque. Certain Treponema species that are frequently isolated from chronic periodontitis lesions are involved in its initiation and progression. In addition to mechanical instrumentation, antimicrobial agents are used as an adjunctive treatment modality for periodontitis. Despite its importance for successful antimicrobial treatment, information about susceptibility is limited for Treponema species. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of Treponema denticola strains, Treponema socranskii, and Treponema vincentii to eleven antimicrobial agents...
October 13, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031928/the-role-of-purified-clostridium-difficile-glucosylating-toxins-in-disease-pathogenesis-utilizing-a-murine-cecum-injection-model
#11
Yongrong Zhang, Zhiyong Yang, Si Gao, Therwa Hamza, Harris G Yfantis, Michael Lipsky, Hanping Feng
Most pathogenic Clostridium difficile produce two major exotoxins TcdA and TcdB, in the absence of which the bacterium is non-pathogenic. While it is important to investigate the role of each toxin in the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) using isogenic strains, it is impossible to precisely control the expression levels of individual toxins and exclude bacterial factors that may contribute to the toxins' effects during infection. In this study, we utilized an acute intestinal disease model by injecting purified toxins directly into mouse cecum after a midline laparotomy...
October 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024758/pcr-ribotype-distribution-of-clostridium-difficile-in-irish-pigs
#12
Katharina Stein, Sarah Egan, Helen Lynch, Céline Harmanus, Lorraine Kyne, Celine Herra, Sinead McDermott, Ed Kuijper, Fidelma Fitzpatrick, Susan FitzGerald, Lynda Fenelon, Denise Drudy
Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen in humans causing infections in the healthcare environment and the community. Carriage of C. difficile and C. difficile-related enterocolitis has been reported in piglets worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of C. difficile isolation from pigs in Ireland. Faecal samples from piglet litters and sows were collected from six farms in 2015. The sows were non-diarrhoeal at the time of sampling. The diarrhoeal status of the piglets was unknown...
October 9, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017951/identification-of-cfia-coding-genes-in-bacteroides-fragilis-isolates-recovered-in-argentina-inconsistencies-in-cfia-organization-and-nomenclature
#13
Mirta R Litterio, Daniela Cejas, Gabriel Gutkind, Marcela Radice
CfiA (CcrA) metallo-β-lactamase is the main carbapenem resistance mechanism in B. fragilis. From cfiA positive isolates detected in a previous surveillance study, 3 displayed resistance to imipenem while the remaining were susceptible. The aim of this study was to identify the cfiA alleles and to analyze the presence of IS elements in their upstream regions. CfiA-1, CfiA-4, CfiA-13, CfiA-19 and CfiA-22 were detected. IS elements belonging to IS21 family and IS942 group were identified upstream to cfiA in the 3 imipenem resistant isolates...
October 7, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988773/rifaximin-resistant-clostridium-difficile-strains-isolated-from-symptomatic-patients
#14
E Reigadas, P Muñoz-Pacheco, L Alcalá, M Marín, A Martin, E Bouza
BACKGROUND: Rifaximin has been proposed as an alternative treatment for specific cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and intestinal decontamination. Rifaximin-resistant C. difficile has occasionally been reported. Antibiotic susceptibility testing relies on anaerobic agar dilution (reference method), which is cumbersome and not routinely used. There is no commercial test for detection of resistance to rifaximin. OBJECTIVES: To assess resistance to rifaximin by C...
October 6, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987390/molecular-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-brazilian-cancer-hospital
#15
Cecília Leite Costa, Cibele Barreto Mano de Carvalho, Rafael Holanda González, Markus Andret Cavalcante Gifoni, Ronaldo de Albuquerque Ribeiro, Carlos Quesada-Gómez, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore forming anaerobic bacterium and the main cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea. This study aimed to perform the phenotypic characterization and molecular typing of Clostridium difficile isolates among patients at a cancer hospital in Brazil. During 18 months, 48 diarrheic fecal samples were collected, of these 48% were positive in either one or both of the performed tests: detection of toxins A/B and culture. Clostridium difficile was recovered from four samples (17%)...
October 5, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935196/genetic-identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clinically-isolated-anaerobic-bacteria-a-prospective-multicenter-surveillance-study-in-japan
#16
Tomoyuki Yunoki, Yasufumi Matsumura, Masaki Yamamoto, Michio Tanaka, Kyoko Hamano, Satoshi Nakano, Taro Noguchi, Miki Nagao, Satoshi Ichiyama
This prospective multicenter surveillance study was designed to provide antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of clinical anaerobic bacteria with genetic species identification in Japan. In 2014, a total of 526 non-duplicate clinical anaerobic isolates were collected from 11 acute-care hospitals in the Kyoto and Shiga regions of Japan. Genetic identification was performed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined in the central laboratory and were interpreted using the CLSI criteria...
September 19, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928035/molecular-analysis-of-three-clostridium-difficile-strain-genomes-isolated-from-pig-farm-related-samples
#17
I Martín-Burriel, S Andrés-Lasheras, F Harders, R C Mainar-Jaime, B Ranera, P Zaragoza, V Falceto, Y Bolea, E Kuijper, R Bolea, A Bossers, M Chirino-Trejo
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic spore-forming bacillus that usually causes gastrointestinal disorders in man and other animal species. Most of the strains isolated from animals are toxigenic being the virulent ribotype (RT) 078 predominant in several animal species. Although C. difficile is pathogenic to both humans and animals, there is no direct evidence of zoonosis. Deep genome sequencing provides sufficient resolution to analyse which strains found in animals might be related to human pathogens. So far, there are only a few fully sequenced genomes of C...
September 18, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627377/mikania-glomerata-sprengel-extract-and-its-major-compound-ent-kaurenoic-acid-display-activity-against-bacteria-present-in-endodontic-infections
#18
Dora Lúcia Carrara Moreti, Luís Fernando Leandro, Thaís da Silva Moraes, Monique Rodrigues Moreira, Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani, Sergio Ricardo Ambrosio, Brenda Paula Figueiredo Almeida Gomes, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
The search for new, effective and safe antimicrobial compounds from plant sources has continued to play an important role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Such compounds can be used to help to eradicate microorganisms from the root canal system, preventing/healing periapical diseases. Mikania glomerata (Spreng.), commonly known as "guaco," is a native climbing plant from Brazil that displays a wide range of pharmacological properties. Many of its activities have been attributed to its phytochemical composition, which is mainly composed of diterpenes, such as ent-kaurenoic acid (KA)...
October 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522362/susceptibility-of-bacterial-vaginosis-bv-associated-bacteria-to-secnidazole-compared-to-metronidazole-tinidazole-and-clindamycin
#19
Melinda A B Petrina, Lisa A Cosentino, Lorna K Rabe, Sharon L Hillier
Secnidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole with a longer half-life, is structurally related to metronidazole and tinidazole. For treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV), secnidazole is a suitable single-dose oral drug having a longer serum half-life than metronidazole. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of vaginal isolates of facultative and anaerobic bacteria to secnidazole, metronidazole, tinidazole and clindamycin. A total of 605 unique BV-related bacteria and 108 isolates of lactobacilli recovered from the human vagina of US women during the years 2009-2015 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by the agar dilution CLSI reference method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)...
October 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870713/dietary-pomegranate-extract-and-inulin-affect-gut-microbiome-differentially-in-mice-fed-an-obesogenic-diet
#20
Song Zhang, Jieping Yang, Susanne M Henning, Rupo Lee, Mark Hsu, Emma Grojean, Rita Pisegna, Austin Ly, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
Growing evidence suggests that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated with pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Using dietary intervention to shape the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota is increasingly recognized. In the present study, we investigated the effects of polysaccharide inulin and polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) alone or in combination on the cecal microbiota composition and function in a diet induced obesity mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups and consumed either high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose, 17% energy from protein)] diet, HF/HS diet supplemented with PomX (0...
September 13, 2017: Anaerobe
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