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Larry K Kociolek, Eric R Purdue, Warren N Fawley, Mark H Wilcox, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson
Restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and PCR ribotyping are two typing systems that have been frequently utilized for molecular epidemiologic characterization of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile. To correlate typing data obtained from each method, we performed both REA and PCR ribotyping on a large and diverse set of historical and contemporary C. difficile infection clinical isolates. Eighty isolates were selected from each reference laboratory in the United States (Microbiology Reference Laboratory, Hines VA Medical Center) and United Kingdom (Clostridium difficile Network for England and Northern Ireland laboratory, University of Leeds)...
July 13, 2018: Anaerobe
Eva Maria Ingvadottir, Sean M Scully, Johann Orlygsson
Clostridium strain AK1 was investigated for its capacity of producing 1,2-propanediol from L-rhamnose but not L-fucose. The maximum yields of 1,2-propanediol from rhamnose was 0.81 mol 1,2-PD/mol L-rhamnose. The influence of different initial substrate concentrations as well as the effect of temperature and pH on 1,2-PD production was investigated.
July 13, 2018: Anaerobe
Jan Tkadlec, Marcela Krutova, Jana Matejkova, Otakar Nyc, Pavel Drevinek
Bacteroides pyogenes can cause infections in humans. We describe a case of bloodstream infection caused by Bacteroides denticanum that probably originated from a dog bite. MALDI-TOF MS misidentified this new species as B. pyogenes. Subsequent analysis using the 16S rRNA sequencing approach identified the species as B. denticanum.
July 10, 2018: Anaerobe
John F Kokai-Kun, J Lauren Sarver, Robert J Carman
During a Phase 2b study with SYN-004 (ribaxamase) for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) conducted in North America and Eastern Europe, 45 C. difficile isolates from subjects with laboratory-confirmed CDI and or colonized with C. difficile were collected and characterized. Several C. difficile PCR ribotypes, including 027 and 198, were identified.
July 5, 2018: Anaerobe
EllieJ C Goldstein, Diane M Citron, Kerin L Tyrrell
Eravacycline, a novel fluorocycline antibiotic, has been evaluated against complicated mixed aerobic/anaerobic intra-abdominal infections but scant supporting in vitro data against anaerobes has been published. We found that eravacycline had good anaerobic in vitro activity with MICs of 4 μg/ml or less against all Bacteroides and Parabacteroides strains tested, except for two B. ovatus strains that had MICs of 8 μg/ml and one strain that had an MIC of 16 μg/ml. Eravacycline was four-to-eight fold more active than tigecycline...
July 4, 2018: Anaerobe
Shinsmon Jose, Anindita Mukherjee, Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Lin Leng, Richard Bucala, Divya Sharma, Rajat Madan
Clostridium difficile is an important cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the western world. Toxins (A, B, and binary toxins) generated by C. difficile bacteria damage intestinal epithelial cells. Hallmarks of host response to C. difficile infection (CDI) include upregulation of inflammatory mediators and tissue infiltration by immune cells. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine that is known to enhance the host immune response to infectious pathogens. Additionally, MIF can adversely impact host survival to numerous infections...
June 23, 2018: Anaerobe
Emily C Woods, Daniela Wetzel, Monjori Mukerjee, Shonna M McBride
Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile causes severe diarrheal disease that is directly associated with antibiotic use and resistance. Although C. difficile demonstrates intrinsic resistance to many antimicrobials, few genetic mechanisms of resistance have been characterized in this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the putative resistance factor, CD1240 (VanZ1), an ortholog of the teicoplanin resistance factor, VanZ, of Enterococcus faecium. In C. difficile, the vanZ1 gene is located within the skin element of the sporulation factor σK , which is excised from the mother cell compartment during sporulation...
June 22, 2018: Anaerobe
Catherine Eckert, Thomas Devallière, Rabab Syed-Zaidi, Valérie Lalande, Frédéric Barbut
The objective of this study was to evaluate the Amplidiag C. difficile+027® assay, a new molecular method that detects toxin B gene in stool samples and identifies the hypervirulent 027 strain, to diagnose Clostridium difficile infections. The assay was compared to the reference method i.e. toxigenic culture. Amplidiag C. difficile+027® assay was prospectively evaluated from 309 diarrheal stool specimens of patients suspected of C. difficile infection. Forty-five (14.6%) stools were positive by toxigenic culture and 11 (3...
June 21, 2018: Anaerobe
Wen-Si Hu, Hun Kim, Ok Kyung Koo
Clostridium perfringens is one of the leading causes of food poisoning worldwide. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of C. perfringens in food supplied to school cafeterias, to assess the presence of toxin genes in the isolates, and to investigate the biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates. A total of 30 C. perfringens strains (12.9%) from 232 samples of beef, pork, chicken, and duck meat were isolated. Toxin genes, including cpa, cpe, cpb2, and netB, were detected, while the cpb, etx, iap and tpeL genes were absent...
June 21, 2018: Anaerobe
Kaarel Adamberg, Signe Adamberg, Karin Ernits, Anneli Larionova, Tiia Voor, Madis Jaagura, Triinu Visnapuu, Tiina Alamäe
The aim of the study was to investigate the metabolism of non-digestible oligo- and polysaccharides by fecal microbiota, using isothermal microcalorimetry. The five tested substrates were raffinose, melibiose, a mixture of oligo- and polysaccharides produced from raffinose by levansucrase, levan synthesized from raffinose, and levan from timothy grass. Two inocula were comprised of pooled fecal samples from overweight or normal-weight children, from healthy adult volunteers and a pure culture of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron as a reference bacterium for colon microbiota...
June 20, 2018: Anaerobe
Sujeet Kumar, Mohmad Mashooq, Ravi Kumar Gandham, S V Alavandi, Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar
Clostridium chauvoei causes fatal black quarter infection in cattle and buffaloes. The quorum sensing (QS) system, a bacterial cell to cell communication process, of the pathogen was characterized in the current study. The results indicated that C. chauvoei lacked luxS (autoinducer-2) based quorum sensing as detected by the sensor strain Vibrio harveyi BB170. This was supported by absence of luxS gene in C. chauvoei genome. However, the genomic analysis indicated the presence of agrBD system in all three genomes of C...
June 18, 2018: Anaerobe
Himani Kaushik, Aparna Dixit, Lalit C Garg
The epsilon toxin (Etx) produced by Clostridium perfringens type B and D causes severe enterotoxaemia associated with a general edema and neurological alterations, leading to subsequent death and is listed as one of the most lethal toxins. Currently employed vaccines against C. perfringens epsilon toxin include toxoid based vaccines. Use of peptide vaccines has become an interesting approach for vaccination after the successful licensing of peptide vaccines against Haemophilus influenza, Neisseria meningitides and Streptococcus pneumonia that have demonstrated the potential and effectiveness of these vaccines...
June 16, 2018: Anaerobe
Thomas E Rams, Jacqueline D Sautter, Chinhua Y Hsiao, Arie J van Winkelhoff
The accuracy of a phenotypic scheme to recognize periodontal Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens group clinical isolates on primary isolation culture plates was assessed with matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A total of 84 fresh subgingival isolates from 23 chronic periodontitis patients were presumptively recognized on anaerobically-incubated enriched Brucella blood agar primary isolation plates as P. intermedia/nigrescens based on their dark-pigmented colony morphology, brick-red autofluorescence under long-wave ultraviolet light, and a negative fluorescence test for lactose production...
June 15, 2018: Anaerobe
Izumi Mashima, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Frank A Scannapieco, Futoshi Nakazawa
Oral biofilm, the cause of dental caries and periodontal diseases, consists of multiple bacterial species. Streptococcus spp. and Veillonella spp. have been reported as to be initial and early colonizers of oral biofilms. Our previous studies showed that Veillonella tobetsuensis may play an important role on the development of S. gordonii biofilms without coaggregation involving extracellular biomolecules. In this study, the effect of a cyclic dipeptide autoinducer from culture supernatants from V. tobetsuensis at late-exponential growth phase on S...
June 13, 2018: Anaerobe
Izumi Mashima, Ariadna A Djais, Elaine M Haase, Frank A Scannapieco, Maiko Otomo, Masato Saitoh, Futoshi Nakazawa
Recently, Veillonella infantium was isolated from tongue biofilm of a Thai child and established as a novel Veillonella species. In this study, a species-specific primer was designed to identify V. infantium on the basis of the sequence of the 70 kDa heat shock protein (dnaK) gene of Veillonella infantium JCM 31738T (= TSD-88T ). The primer pair generated a specific PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) product specific for V. infantium, but not for other oral Veillonella species. This specific primer pair could detect dnaK even from 1 pg of genomic DNA extracted from the V...
June 11, 2018: Anaerobe
Ellie J C Goldstein, Diane M Citron, Kerin L Tyrrell, Eliza Leoncio
Oral vancomycin is used to treat Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection. Several different preparations are available including reconstituted IV solutions, vancomycin capsules, and grape flavored vancomycin oral solution kit (CutisPharma). The shelf life for IV after reconstitution varies between 7 and 14 days under refrigeration, and a standard 30 days for vancomycin oral solution kit (CutisPharma). The impact of storage on the in vitro potency was determined in 3 different vancomycin preparations by measuring MICs for 100 strains of C...
June 11, 2018: Anaerobe
Fanny Hidalgo-Villeda, Edgardo Tzoc, Luque Torres, Efraín Bu, César Rodríguez, Carlos Quesada-Gómez
In recent years, reports of NAP1/RT027/ST01 epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile producing outbreaks of healthcare-associated diarrhea have increased in America and Europe. We cultivated multidrug-resistant NAP1/RT027/ST01 strains from the FQR2 linage from TcdA/TcdB+ stool samples obtained from patients in two Honduran hospitals. The PFGE macrorestriction patterns of two of the isolates were new. These bacteria were toxigenic and induced with different magnitude classical cytopathic effects on HeLa cells...
June 8, 2018: Anaerobe
Francisco A Uzal, Mauricio A Navarro, Jihong Li, John C Freedman, Archana Shrestha, Bruce A McClane
Several enteric clostridial diseases can affect humans and animals. Of these, the enteric infections caused by Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile are amongst the most prevalent and they are reviewed here. C. perfringens type A strains encoding alpha toxin (CPA) are frequently associated with enteric disease of many animal mammalian species, but their role in these diseased mammals remains to be clarified. C. perfringens type B encoding CPA, beta (CPB) and epsilon (ETX) toxins causes necro-hemorrhagic enteritis, mostly in sheep, and these strains have been recently suggested to be involved in multiple sclerosis in humans, although evidence of this involvement is lacking...
June 5, 2018: Anaerobe
Meina Neumann-Schaal, Nicole G Metzendorf, Daniel Troitzsch, Aaron Mischa Nuss, Julia Danielle Hofmann, Michael Beckstette, Petra Dersch, Andreas Otto, Susanne Sievers
Clostridioides difficile is the major pathogen causing diarrhea following antibiotic treatment. It is considered to be a strictly anaerobic bacterium, however, previous studies have shown a certain and strain-dependent oxygen tolerance. In this study, the model strain C. difficile 630Δerm was shifted to micro-aerobiosis and was found to stay growing to the same extent as anaerobically growing cells with only few changes in the metabolite pattern. However, an extensive change in gene expression was determined by RNA-Seq...
May 31, 2018: Anaerobe
Anna M Seekatz, Emily Wolfrum, Christopher M DeWald, Rosemary K B Putler, Kimberly C Vendrov, Krishna Rao, Vincent B Young
Recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) places a major burden on the healthcare system. Previous studies have suggested that specific C. difficile strains, or ribotypes, are associated with severe disease and/or recurrence. However, in some patients a new strain is detected in subsequent infections, complicating longitudinal studies focused on strain differences that may contribute to disease outcome. We examined ribotype composition over time in patients who did or did not develop recurrence to examine infection with multiple C...
May 31, 2018: Anaerobe
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