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Anaerobe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462695/a-3d-intestinal-tissue-model-supports-clostridioides-difficile-germination-colonization-toxin-production-and-epithelial-damage
#1
Lamyaa Shaban, Ying Chen, Alyssa C Fasciano, Yinan Lin, David L Kaplan, Carol A Kumamoto, Joan Mecsas
Endospore-forming Clostridioides difficile is a causative agent of antibiotic-induced diarrhea, a major nosocomial infection. Studies of its interactions with mammalian tissues have been hampered by the fact that C. difficile requires anaerobic conditions to survive after spore germination. We recently developed a bioengineered 3D human intestinal tissue model and found that low O2 conditions are produced in the lumen of these tissues. Here, we compared the ability of C. difficile spores to germinate, produce toxin and cause tissue damage in our bioengineered 3D tissue model versus in a 2D transwell model in which human cells form a polarized monolayer...
February 17, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454109/comparative-evaluation-of-lignocellulolytic-activities-of-filamentous-cultures-of-monocentric-and-polycentric-anaerobic-fungi
#2
Sumit S Dagar, Sanjay Kumar, Priti Mudgil, Anil K Puniya
Sixteen strains of monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi were evaluated for cellulase, xylanase and esterase activities. Though strain level variations were observed among all genera, Neocallimastix and Orpinomyces strains exhibited the highest lignocellulolytic activities. The esterase activities of a monocentric group of anaerobic fungi were better than the polycentric group.
February 14, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454108/detection-of-b-fragilis-group-and-diversity-of-bft-enterotoxin-and-antibiotic-resistance-markers-cepa-cfia-and-nim-among-intestinal-bacteroides-fragilis-strains-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Marjan Rashidan, Masoumeh Azimirad, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mehdi Ghobakhlou, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Mohammad Reza Zali
We compared frequency of the members of B. fragilis group in 100 and 20 colon biopsy specimens of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD patients. Agar dilution and PCR were orderly used to detect minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin, imipenem, and metronidazole, and carriage of related resistance genes cepA, cfi, and nim. B. fragilis group was detected in 38% of IBD (UC: 36/89; CD:1/11) and 25% (5/20) of non-IBD patients. While B. vulgatus (UC: 20/36, CD: 1/2, control: 1/6); B. fragilis (UC: 18/36, CD: 1/2, control: 5/6); B...
February 14, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432849/cultivation-of-multiple-genera-of-hydrogenotrophic-methanogens-from-different-environmental-niches
#4
Akshay Joshi, Vikram B Lanjekar, Prashant K Dhakephalkar, Sumit S Dagar
Six genera of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, namely Methanobrevibacter, Methanobacterium, Methanocorpusculum, Methanothermobacter, Methanoculleus, and Methanospirillum were cultivated from diverse environmental niches like rumen, feces, gut, and sediments using BY medium. We also report a putative novel genus and two novel species of methanogens isolated from termite, Indian star tortoise, and green iguana.
February 9, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432848/characterization-of-a-recombinant-bacteroides-fragilis-sialidase-expressed-in-escherichia-coli
#5
Takaaki Yamamoto, Hideyo Ugai, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Ayano Tada, Miad Elahi, Hitoshi Houchi, Tomomi Kuwahara
The human gut commensal Bacteroides fragilis produces sialidases that remove a terminal sialic acid from host-derived polysaccharides. Sialidase is considered to be involved in B. fragilis infection pathology. A native B. fragilis sialidase has been purified and characterized, and was shown to be post-translationally modified by glycosylation. However, the biochemical properties of recombinant B. fragilis sialidase expressed in a heterologous host remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the enzymatic properties of the 60-kDa sialidase NanH1 of B...
February 9, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427630/lactobacillus-crispatus-represses-vaginolysin-expression-by-bv-associated-gardnerella-vaginalis-and-reduces-cell-cytotoxicity
#6
Joana Castro, Ana Paula Martins, Maria Elisa Rodrigues, Nuno Cerca
Using a chemically-defined medium simulating genital tract secretions, we have shown that pre-adhering Lactobacillus crispatus to Hela epithelial cells reduced cytotoxicity caused by Gardnerella vaginalis. This effect was associated to the expression of vaginolysin and was specific to L. crispatus interference, as other vaginal facultative anaerobes had no protective effect.
February 7, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425733/polymicrobial-anaerobic-bacteremia-due-to-atopobium-rimae-and-parvimonas-micra-in-a-patient-with-cancer
#7
Fernando Cobo, Jaime Borrego, Ma Dolores Rojo, José María Navarro-Marí
Atopobium rimae and Parvimonas micra are both Gram-positive anaerobes involved infrequently in human infections. We report a polymicrobial anaerobic bacteremia caused by these microorganisms. A 43-year-old woman receiving coadjuvant chemotherapy due to a retroperitoneal leiomiosarcoma presented with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever (38 °C). The two blood cultures resulted in isolation of A. rimae and P. micra, being identified at species level by matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology with high log scores...
February 6, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408599/characterization-of-fusobacterium-necrophorum-subsp-necrophorum-outer-membrane-proteins
#8
S Menon, D K Pillai, S Narayanan
Liver abscesses are of major economic importance to the cattle industry. These are mainly associated with the presence of Fusobacterium necrophorum, a non-spore forming and Gram-negative anaerobe. There are two main subspecies, F. necrophorum subspecies necrophorum and subsp. fundiliforme, and they differ molecularly, morphologically, biochemically and in virulence. Previous studies have shown that the outer membrane proteins (OMP) of F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum are important for its successful binding to immobilized bovine adrenal gland capillary endothelial (EJG) cells...
February 1, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409815/fusobacterium-nucleatum-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-a-review-of-epidemiological-and-mechanistic-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Emilie L Vander Haar, Jeewon So, Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman, Yiping W Han
Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative anaerobic oral commensal commonly found in periodontal disease. F. nucleatum has been associated with multiple systemic diseases, including oral, gastro-intestinal, rheumatologic, and vascular pathology. As pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of periodontal disease, there has also been significant research into the effects of periodontal disease on adverse pregnancy outcomes. This article reviews the epidemiological and mechanistic evidence of the association and role of F...
January 31, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408598/investigating-the-effect-of-supplementation-on-clostridium-difficile-spore-recovery-in-two-solid-agars
#10
D S Pickering, J J Vernon, J Freeman, M H Wilcox, C H Chilton
BACKGROUND: A variety of supplemented solid media are used within Clostridium difficile research to optimally recover spores. Our study sought to investigate different media and additives, providing a method of optimised C. difficile spore recovery. Additionally, due to the results observed in the initial experiments, the inhibitory effects of three amino acids (glycine, L-histidine & L-phenylalanine) on C. difficile spore outgrowth were investigated. METHODS: Spores of five C...
January 31, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408016/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalized-patients-with-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Mehdi Goudarzi, Bahareh Hajikhani, Mona Ghazi, Hossein Goudarzi, Ramin Pouriran
Clostridium difficile is the main infectious cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD). The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of C. difficile AAD in hospitalized patients. We searched MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane library for subject headings and text words related to C. difficile AAD. Studies that investigated the prevalence or frequency of C. difficile AAD in health care settings were considered eligible. Using a random-effects model, data obtained from the identified studies were combined...
January 31, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408597/clostridial-diviva-and-mind-interact-in-the-absence-of-minj
#12
Romana Valenčíková, Eva Krascsenitsová, Naďa Labajová, Jana Makroczyová, Imrich Barák
One of the key regulators ensuring proper Z-ring placement in rod-shaped bacteria is the Min system. It does so by creating a concentration gradient of the MinC septation inhibitor along the cell axis. In Escherichia coli, this gradient is established by a MinE-mediated pole-to-pole oscillation of the MinCDE complex. In Bacillus subtilis, the creation of an inhibitory gradient relies on the MinJ and DivIVA pair of topological determinants, which target MinCD to the newly formed cell poles. Introducing the E...
January 30, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408017/effect-of-the-ionophore-monensin-and-tannin-extracts-supplemented-to-grass-silage-on-populations-of-ruminal-cellulolytics-and-methanogens-in-vitro
#13
M Witzig, M Zeder, M Rodehutscord
This study examined whether the methane-decreasing effect of monensin (∼21%) and different hydrolysable tannins (24%-65%) during in vitro fermentation of grass silage was accompanied by changes in abundances of cellulolytics and methanogens. Samples of liquid (LAM) and solid (SAM) associated microbes were obtained from two rumen simulation technique experiments in which grass silage was either tested in combination with monensin (0, 2 or 4 mg d-1) or with different tannin extracts from chestnut, valonea, sumac and grape seed (0 or 1...
January 30, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391258/identification-of-clostridium-species-using-the-vitek%C3%A2-ms
#14
Lucia Sanchez Ramos, Arne C Rodloff
The genus Clostridium is of high clinical relevance, as some species may cause rapid and even lethal infections. Thus, a timely identification of these anaerobic bacteria is desirable. Conventional identification methods rely on biochemical properties of these organisms, however, establishing these is time-consuming and not always reliable. Alternatively, 16S rRNA gene sequence based diagnostic methods may be used, but they are expensive and not ubiquitously available. This study was designed to assess the possibility to identify Clostridium species employing the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
January 29, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374525/periprosthetic-joint-infection-caused-by-anaerobes-retrospective-analysis-reveals-no-need-for-prolonged-cultivation-time-if-sensitive-supplemented-growth-media-are-used
#15
Heime Rieber, Andre Frontzek, Jörg Jerosch, Michael Alefeld, Thomas Strohecker, Martin Ulatowski, Thomas Morawietz, Stefan Hinsenkamp, Andreas Bell, Dervis Kücükköylü, Lars Frommelt
BACKGROUND: In microbiological diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) culture media and incubation time are controversially discussed, especially if anaerobic bacteria are the causative agent. This study was conducted to demonstrate the influence of sensitive supplemented growth media on the duration of culturing anaerobes. METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive cases were included in this retrospective study. For definition of PJI, the criteria of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) were considered...
January 24, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371096/first-case-of-pleural-empyema-and-pulmonary-abscess-caused-by-eggerthia-catenaformis
#16
Pauline Duport, Guillaume Miltgen, Clément Kebbabi, Olivier Belmonte, Nathalie Coolen-Allou, Jérôme Allyn, Nicolas Allou
Few data are available on the anaerobic bacterium Eggerthia catenaformis. Here we report the first clinical case of a patient with sepsis caused by pulmonary infection with E. catenaformis, and present the minimal inhibitory concentrations of different antimicrobial agents.
January 22, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330119/temporal-changes-of-the-bacterial-community-colonizing-wheat-straw-in-the-cow-rumen
#17
Wei Jin, Ying Wang, Yuanfei Li, Yanfen Cheng, Weiyun Zhu
This study used Miseq pyrosequencing and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the temporal changes in the bacterial community tightly attached to wheat straw in the cow rumen. The wheat straw was incubated in the rumens and samples were recovered at various times. The wheat straw degradation exhibited three phases: the first degradation phase occurred within 0.5 h, and the second degradation phase occurred after 6 h, with a stalling phase occurring between 0.5 and 6 h. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the colonization of the microorganisms on the wheat straw over time...
January 9, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325875/fatal-thoracic-empyema-involving-campylobacter-rectus-a-case-report
#18
A Noël, A Verroken, L Belkhir, H Rodriguez-Villalobos
We report the case of a 69-year-old man admitted for septic shock secondary to necrotic pneumoniae complicated by thoracic empyema of fatal issue. Microbiological examination of pleural liquid revealed a mixed anaerobic flora involving Campylobacter rectus and Actinomyces meyeri. Campylobacter rectus is an infrequent anaerobic pathogen of oral origin To our knowledge, this is the first case report of fatal C. rectus - associated thoracic empyema, and only the second reported case in which identification was successfully performed by MALDI-TOF MS...
January 8, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309845/non-conventional-antimicrobial-and-alternative-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#19
REVIEW
Niloufar Roshan, Katherine A Hammer, Thomas V Riley
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus that causes disease ranging from self-limiting diarrhoea to severe pseudomembranous colitis. C. difficile infection (CDI) commonly affects hospitalised patients and is increasingly identified in patients in the community with no hospital contact. For the last 15 years the incidence of CDI worldwide has been rising, especially in the northern hemisphere. The yearly average number of hospitalizations as a result of this disease is estimated to be over a quarter of a million per year in the United States alone...
January 5, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307651/acute-periprosthetic-joint-infection-due-to-fusobacterium-nucleatum-in-a-non-immunocompromised-patient-failure-using-a-debridement-antibiotics-implant-retention-approach
#20
Pablo S Corona, Mayli Lung, Dolors Rodriguez-Pardo, Carles Pigrau, Francisco Soldado, Carles Amat, Luis Carrera
Fusobacterium nucleatum is an obligately anaerobic gram-negative rod, a component of the microbiome of the oropharynx and the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts, causing an array of human infections which often include periodontal pathologies. As far as we know, there are no previous publications about acute periprosthetic joint infection due to Fusobacterium sp.; we report the first case in the medical literature of an aggressive, acute knee prosthetic infection due to F. nucleatum in a non-immunocompromised patient, unsuccessfully treated with a DAIR approach (Debridement + Antibiotics + Implant Retention)...
January 4, 2018: Anaerobe
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