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Matteo Boattini, Gabriele Bianco, Rossana Cavallo, Cristina Costa
Parvimonas micra is an anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus belonging to oral, gastrointestinal and genital flora, rarely causing infections in humans. It was mainly deemed to cause bacteremia, septic bone and cerebral infections in patients which have undergone dental procedures or with suboptimal dental hygiene. We report the first case of Parvimonas micra bacteremia following endoscopic retrograde colangiopancreatography performed due to choledocholithiasis in a patient with good oral health. Identification of P...
September 11, 2018: Anaerobe
Hiroki Watanabe, Yusuke Koizumi, Asami Matsumoto, Nobuhiro Asai, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
OBJECTIVES: Clostridioides difficile strains cause severe infection. Previous studies suggested that the virulence of C. difficile is dependent on ribotype; however, this hypothesis is still controversial. We aim to investigate the relationship between ribotypes, restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) types, and toxin gene expression in C. difficile strains. METHODS: We utilized 53 clinical C. difficile strains. All strains were assigned a molecular strain type using PCR ribotyping and REA typing and classified into 17 ribotypes and six REA types...
September 7, 2018: Anaerobe
Dareen Fteita, Eija Könönen, Mervi Gürsoy, Xiaochu Ma, Herman O Sintim, Ulvi Kahraman Gürsoy
Quorum sensing (QS) signaling regulates the motility, adhesion, and biofilm formation of bacteria, and at the same time activates immune response in eukaryotic organisms. We recently demonstrated that the QS molecule, dihydroxy-2, 3-pentanedione (DPD), and its analogs significantly inhibit estradiol-regulated virulence of Prevotella aurantiaca, one of the four species in the Prevotella intermedia group. Here, we examined the combined effects of estradiol and QS signaling on 1) cytokine response of human gingival keratinocytes (HMK) against whole cell extract (WCE) of P...
September 3, 2018: Anaerobe
Lidia García-Agudo, Einar Nilsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Anaerobe
Wen-Yuan Yang, Chung-Hsi Chou, Chinling Wang
Necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens, a Clostridium perfringens infection, has re-emerged due to the removal of antibiotic growth promoters in feeds in recent years, thus contributing to significant economic losses for the industry. Toxins produced by C. perfringens in conjunction with predisposing factors are responsible for the onset and development of NE. Recently, several lines of evidence indicated the potential role of plasmid-encoded toxins in the virulence of NE, particularly necrotic enteritis B-like (NetB) toxin...
August 28, 2018: Anaerobe
Samantha B Regan, Zuha Anwar, Patricia Miraflor, Libra B Williams, Sarah Shetty, Juan Sepulveda, Jake Moreh, Sam Bogdanov, Sylvia Haigh, Abigail Lustig, Steffi Gaehde, Anthony Vartanian, Noah Rubin, Jennifer R Linden
Food samples (n = 216) from New York city were tested for the presence of C. perfringens via PCR for specific toxin genes. Thirty-four (16%) samples were positive for C. perfringens. Of these 34, 31 (91.2%) were type A or E, one (2.9%) was type B, and two (5.9%) were type D.
August 28, 2018: Anaerobe
Yoko Buya, Toshiyuki Shigoka, Hiroki Tahara, Yuka Uehara, Reina Motomura, Shinji Sakurai, Koichi Tanimoto, Takehisa Matsumoto
We here report a case of Dysgonomonas mossii bacteremia with cholangitis. An 85-year-old male patient with recurrent hepatitis B surface antigen-negative/anti-hepatitis C virus-negative hepatocellular carcinoma came to our hospital in poor physical condition. Two sets of blood cultures revealed a positive result for D. mossii. As matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry failed to identify D. mossii, analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed; however, this gene is not specific enough to distinguish between D...
August 27, 2018: Anaerobe
Tengfei Zhang, Wenting Zhang, Diyun Ai, Rongrong Zhang, Qin Lu, Qingping Luo, Huabin Shao
We report that Clostridium perfringens was present in 23.1% (130/562) of broiler chickens and 15.1% (38/252) of retail chicken meat samples in central China. Among 168 isolates, type A was the preponderant genotype, and 3% of isolates were positive C. perfringens enterotoxin (cpe). Among different sources, the prevalence was higher in free-range chickens compared to chickens from intensive poultry farms, but with lower proportions of antimicrobial resistance.
August 22, 2018: Anaerobe
Francesca Murru, Katerina Fliegerova, Erica Mura, Jakub Mrázek, Jan Kopečný, Giuseppe Moniello
The diversity of the methanogenic archaea associated with the six segments of the horse and donkey hindgut (caecum, right ventral colon, left ventral colon, left dorsal colon, right dorsal colon, and rectum) was analyzed using 16S rDNA gene clone library. A total of 641 positive clones, 321 from the horse and 320 from the donkey hindgut, were examined by the RFLP, revealing 9 different ribotypes, 8 in the horse and 5 in the donkey hindgut. In both the animals Methanobacteriales (Methanobrevibacter-like sequences) and Methanomicrobiales (Methanocorpusculum-like sequences) were detected as the dominant orders followed by the uncultured Methanomassiliicoccales...
August 22, 2018: Anaerobe
Mairéad C Connor, John W McGrath, Geoff McMullan, Nikki Marks, Derek J Fairley
Clostridium difficile is a spore forming bacterium and the leading cause of colitis and antibiotic associated diarrhoea in the developed world. Effective recovery of spores, particularly in low numbers, is imperative to obtain accurate prevalence data, due to the low number of spores found within non-clinical samples (<20/ml). Through comparison of C. difficile enrichment media, this study showed the importance of selecting an effective enrichment media. Commonly used broths, such as Cooked Meat broth, promote significantly less growth than other available broths such as Brain Heart Infusion broth, BHI...
August 16, 2018: Anaerobe
Pietro Badagliacca, Francesco Pomilio, Bruna Auricchio, Anna Franca Sperandii, Andrea Di Provvido, Mauro Di Ventura, Giacomo Migliorati, Mario Caudullo, Daniela Morelli, Fabrizio Anniballi
This report describes an outbreak of botulism occurred among a free-living population of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and geese (Anser anser) in an urban park. Mortality rate among investigated population was 86,8% (118 dead out of 136). Twenty-seven carcasses were collected for macroscopic examination and screened for microbiological, virological, toxicological investigations. A sick mallard was captured and neurological symptoms were observed. No causative agent of viral avian diseases was found in the examined animals and screening for environmental neurotoxic substances proved negative as well...
August 16, 2018: Anaerobe
J C Rodríguez Duque, P Galindo Rubín, B González Humara, A A Quesada Sanz, M B Busta Vallina, M Fernández-Sampedro
The anaerobic Gram-negative rod Fusobacterium nucleatum is an oral commensal and periodontal pathogen that has been associated with a wide variety of infections, yet it is extremely rare to be associated with prosthetic joint infection. After an exhaustive literature review, only two cases of prosthetic joint infection by F. nucleatum have been previously reported. To our knowledge, the case we report on here is the first combined with periprosthetic abscess and related with hemochromatosis. We therefore sought to provide a comprehensive literature review of case reports or series of less commonly encountered anaerobic microorganisms isolated from prosthetic joint infections...
August 16, 2018: Anaerobe
Guilherme Grossi Lopes Cançado, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Maja Rupnik, Amanda Pontes Nader, Joana Starling de Carvalho, Gabriela Miana de Mattos Paixão, Bruna Araújo Martins Resende, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Eduardo Garcia Vilela
A cohort of 110 adult individuals was analyzed to compare clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients who received antibiotics and developed Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with those who received antibiotics and did not develop the disease in a university Hospital in Brazil. CDI was diagnosed by toxigenic culture and C. difficile isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping. Stool samples were also screened for Clostridium perfringens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Klebsiella oxytoca...
August 13, 2018: Anaerobe
Yuka Yamagishi, Yoko Matsukawa, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hiroshige Mikamo
The in vitro activities of lascufloxacin were evaluated by comparison with seven reference compounds using 412 clinical isolates of anaerobes and Streptococcus anginosus group. Lascufloxacin showed potent and broad antibacterial activities greater than those of existing quinolones against the clinical isolates used in this study.
August 13, 2018: Anaerobe
Alex G Peniche, Jennifer K Spinler, Prapaporn Boonma, Tor C Savidge, Sara M Dann
BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality associated with Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) rises progressively with advanced age (≥65 years) due in part to perturbations of the gut microbiota and immune dysfunction. Epidemiological data of community-acquired CDI suggests increased susceptibility may begin earlier during middle-age (45-64 years) but the causation remains unknown. METHODS: Middle-aged (12-14 months) and young (2-4 months) adult mice were infected with C...
August 9, 2018: Anaerobe
Eva Maria Ingvadottir, Sean M Scully, Johann Orlygsson
Clostridium strain AK1 was investigated for its capacity of producing 1,2-propanediol from l-rhamnose but not l-fucose. The maximum yields of 1,2-propanediol from rhamnose was 0.81 mol 1,2-PD/mol l-rhamnose. The influence of different initial substrate concentrations as well as the effect of temperature and pH on 1,2-PD production was investigated.
August 4, 2018: Anaerobe
Wei Guo, Sisi Bi, Jingpeng Kang, Ying Zhang, Ruijun Long, Xiaodan Huang, M N Shan, Robin C Anderson
The objectives of this current study were to characterize the overall rumen bacterial community in grazing yak and two sheep species (Tibetan and Small Tail Han sheep) reared in the unique environmental conditions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, as well as the bacterial community associated with the detoxification of a phytotoxin, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA), during in vitro culture with 4.2 mM NPA. Using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, it was found that the yak rumen harbored populations showing a higher bacterial diversity compared to Tibetan sheep...
August 3, 2018: Anaerobe
Larry K Kociolek, Eric R Perdue, Warren N Fawley, Mark H Wilcox, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson
Restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and PCR ribotyping are two typing systems that have been frequently utilized for molecular epidemiologic characterization of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile. To correlate typing data obtained from each method, we performed both REA and PCR ribotyping on a large and diverse set of historical and contemporary C. difficile infection clinical isolates. Eighty isolates were selected from each reference laboratory in the United States (Microbiology Reference Laboratory, Hines VA Medical Center) and United Kingdom (Clostridium difficile Network for England and Northern Ireland laboratory, University of Leeds)...
August 3, 2018: Anaerobe
Mao Hagihara, Rieko Yamashita, Asami Matsumoto, Takeshi Mori, Yasutoshi Kuroki, Hayami Kudo, Kentaro Oka, Motomichi Takahashi, Tsunemasa Nonogaki, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 (CBM 588) is a probiotic bacterium that is used as an anti-diarrheal medicine in Japan. However, the impact of this probiotic on the gut microbiome has not been fully elucidated, especially, when used with antimicrobials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In an in vivo study, CBM 588 monotherapy, clindamycin monotherapy, CBM 588 and clindamycin (combination therapy), or normal saline (control) was orally administered to mice for 4 days, and fecal samples were collected for 18 days to enumerate C...
August 1, 2018: Anaerobe
Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Marina Carvalho Duarte, Carlos Augusto Oliveira Junior, Ronnie Antunes de Assis, Angela Maria Quintão Lana, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
Rabbits and guinea pigs are used in the official control and validation of clostridial vaccines, but it is unknown whether the antitoxin titers obtained in these animals corroborate with the humoral response in bovine. The objective of the study was to compare the humoral antibody response of guinea pig and rabbits to those obtained in cattle vaccinated with a commercial vaccine containing Clostridium perfringens epsilon and beta, and Clostridium botulinum types C and D toxoids. This study revealed the same level of humoral response in rabbits and cattle for all four toxoids tested, including C...
August 1, 2018: Anaerobe
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