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Anaerobe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215985/detection-of-clostridium-perfringens-toxin-genes-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-autistic-children
#1
Sydney M Finegold, Paula H Summanen, Julia Downes, Karen Corbett, Tomoe Komoriya
We studied stool specimens from 33 autistic children aged 2-9 years with gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities and 13 control children without autism and without GI symptoms. We performed quantitative comparison of all Clostridium species and Clostridium perfringens strains from the fecal microbiota by conventional, selective anaerobic culture methods. We isolated C. perfringens strains and performed PCR analysis for the main C. perfringens toxin genes, alpha, beta, beta2, epsilon, iota and C. perfringens enterotoxin gene...
February 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216085/occurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotype-027-in-hospitals-of-silesia-poland
#2
Małgorzata Aptekorz, Anna Szczegielniak, Barbara Wiechuła, Celine Harmanus, Ed Kuijper, Gayane Martirosian
Clostridium difficile is an important healthcare-associated pathogen, responsible for a broad spectrum of diarrheal diseases. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile infection (CDI), to characterize cultured C. difficile strains and to investigate the association of fecal lactoferrin with CDI. Between January 2013 and June 2014, 148 stool samples were obtained from adult diarrheal patients (C. difficile as a suspected pathogen) hospitalized in different healthcare facilities of 15 Silesian hospitals...
February 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189831/thermal-pretreatment-and-bioaugmentation-improve-methane-yield-of-microalgal-mix-produced-in-thermophilic-anaerobic-digestate
#3
Lea Lavrič, Ana Cerar, Lijana Fanedl, Borut Lazar, Miha Žitnik, Romana Marinšek Logar
Liquid fraction produced in anaerobic digestion (AD) of biodegradable waste can be treated on-site with microalgae, which can be recycled back as substrate to the biogas plant. For this research, a pilot high rate algal pond (HRAP) was set with connections to a full scale biogas plant that enabled the use of waste heat and CO2 from a combined heat and power gen-set (CHP). The microalgal mix produced in the thermophilic anaerobic digestate supernatant was tested as a substrate for biogas production in the thermophilic AD (i...
February 8, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189830/proteotyping-of-laboratory-scale-biogas-plants-reveals-multiple-steady-states-in-community-composition
#4
F Kohrs, R Heyer, T Bissinger, R Kottler, K Schallert, S Püttker, A Behne, E Rapp, D Benndorf, U Reichl
Complex microbial communities are the functional core of anaerobic digestion processes taking place in biogas plants (BGP). So far, however, a comprehensive characterization of the microbiomes involved in methane formation is technically challenging. As an alternative, enriched communities from laboratory-scale experiments can be investigated that have a reduced number of organisms and are easier to characterize by state of the art mass spectrometric-based (MS) metaproteomic workflows. Six parallel laboratory digesters were inoculated with sludge from a full-scale BGP to study the development of enriched microbial communities under defined conditions...
February 8, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189829/-association-of-periodontopathic-anaerobic-bacterial-co-occurrence-to-atherosclerosis-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Krishnan Mahalakshmi, Padma Krishnan, Mylapore Ganesan Krishna Baba, Vaithiyanathan Dhivyapriya, Sarasa Bharathi Arumugam
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown a link between periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Hence the present study was chosen to assess the presence of eight anaerobic periodontal pathogens and their virulence genes in subgingival plaque (SGP) and atheromatous plaque (AP) of patients who underwent Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). METHODS: SGP and AP collected from 65 CABG patients were screened for the presence of periodontal bacterial pathogens by Polymerase chain reaction...
February 8, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188880/comparison-of-clostridium-difficile-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-obtained-using-agar-dilution-vs-broth-microdilution-methods
#6
Christine J Hastey, Suzanne E Dale, Julia Nary, Diane Citron, Jennifer H Law, Darcie E Roe-Carpenter, Laurent Chesnel
Due to increasing antibiotic resistance among anaerobic bacteria, routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). This study compared the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from 920 Clostridium difficile isolates tested against seven antimicrobial agents using the two current CLSI reference methodologies, agar dilution method, vs broth microdilution method. A subset of isolate testing was performed independently by two laboratories to evaluate reproducibility...
February 7, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188879/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-of-active-dried-yeast-on-fecal-methanogenic-archaea-diversity-in-dairy-cows
#7
Dingxing Jin, Kun Kang, Hongze Wang, Zhisheng Wang, Bai Xue, Lizhi Wang, Feng Xu, Quanhui Peng
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of different dosages of active dried yeast (ADY) on the fecal methanogenic archaea community of dairy cattle. Twelve multiparous, healthy, mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows (body weight: 584 ± 23.2 kg, milk produced: 26.3 ± 1.22 kg/d) were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (control, ADY2, and ADY4) according to body weight with four replicates per treatment. Cows in the control group were fed conventional rations without ADY supplementation, while cows in the ADY2 and ADY4 group were fed rations supplemented with ADY at 2 or 4 g/d/head...
February 7, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185856/exposure-to-%C3%AE-lactams-results-in-the-alteration-of-penicillin-binding-proteins-in-clostridium-perfringens
#8
Miseon Park, Fatemeh Rafii
Clostridium perfringens causes a variety of mild to severe infections in humans and other animals. A decrease in the affinity of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) transpeptidases for β-lactams is considered one of the mechanisms of β-lactam resistance in bacteria. Two strains of C. perfringens isolated from bovines and one isolated from a chicken, which had decreased susceptibility to β-lactams, had variations in the amino acid sequences of the central penicillin-binding regions of the PBPs. β-Lactam-resistant mutants of another C...
February 6, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161414/dairy-propionibacteria-prevent-the-proliferative-effect-of-plant-lectins-on-sw480%C3%A2-cells-and-protect-the-metabolic-activity-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in%C3%A2-vitro
#9
Gabriela Zárate, Gabriel D Sáez, Adriana Pérez Chaia
Plant lectins are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins that are widespread in legumes such as beans and pulses, seeds, cereals, and many plants used as farm feeds. They are highly resistant to cooking and digestion, reaching the intestinal lumen and/or blood circulation with biological activity. Since many legume lectins trigger harmful local and systemic reactions after their binding to the mucosal surface, these molecules are generally considered anti-nutritive and/or toxic substances. In the gut, specific cell receptors and bacteria may interact with these dietary components, leading to changes in intestinal physiology...
February 1, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159707/prevalence-and-molecular-typing-of-clostridium-perfringens-in-captive-wildlife-in-india
#10
Arockiasamy Arun Prince Milton, Rajesh Kumar Agarwal, Govindarajan Bhuvana Priya, Mani Saminathan, Manivasagam Aravind, Avinash Reddy, C K Athira, Thadiyampuram Ramees, Anil Kumar Sharma, Ashok Kumar
The prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in captive wildlife in India has not been reported. The objective of the study was to determine the fecal prevalence of C. perfringens in captive wildlife in India. The prevalence in captive wild ruminants, non-ruminants, birds and caretakers were 34.1%, 36%, 22.5% and 6.7%, respectively. Toxinotyping of C. perfringens indicated that the predominant type was type A with a prevalence rate of 69.7%, followed by type A with cpb2 gene (28.3%) and type B (2.%).
February 1, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108392/a-case-of-pyometrocolpos-with-bifidobacterium-species
#11
Maanasa M Bhaskar, Sujatha Sistla, S Kumaravel
Bifidobacterium species, a normal commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract, female genitourinary tract and vagina is usually considered non-pathogenic and is being used therapeutically as probiotic due to its beneficial effects. However, there are several case reports implicating Bifidobacteria as the causative agent in various infectious conditions. Infections with Bifidobacteria are often ignored or underreported as they are part of the normal gut microbiome. Here we discuss a case of pyometrocolpos with Bifidobacterium species...
January 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108391/diversity-of-the-subspecies-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis
#12
Vera Bunesova, Jiri Killer, Barbora Javurkova, Eva Vlkova, Vaclav Tejnecky, Sarka Musilova, Vojtech Rada
Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are well-known health-promoting probiotics used commercially. B. animalis subsp. lactis has been isolated from different sources, and little is known about animal isolates of this taxon. The aim of this study was to examine the genotypic and phenotypic diversity between B. animalis subsp. lactis strains different animal hosts including Cameroon sheep, Barbary sheep, okapi, mouflon, German shepard) and to compare to BB12, food isolates and the collection strain DSM 10140...
January 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108390/fatal-sepsis-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteroides-fragilis-harboring-a-cfia-gene-and-an-upstream-insertion-sequence-element-in-japan
#13
Itaru Nakamura, Kotaro Aoki, Yuri Miura, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Matsumoto
Here, we report a case of fatal sepsis resulting from an intra-abdominal infection caused by a Bacteroides fragilis strain containing a CfiA4 metallo-β-lactamase and an upstream insertion sequence (IS) element. Meropenem was used as empiric therapy for septic shock as a result of the intra-abdominal infection, although two rounds of carbapenem treatment had been administered previously. B. fragilis was isolated from two anaerobic blood culture bottles 4 days after the onset of septic shock. Susceptibility testing revealed that the isolate was non-susceptible to all tested agents except metronidazole and tigecycline...
January 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108389/development-of-clostridium-difficile-r20291%C3%AE-paloc-model-strains-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-methodologies-reveals-cdtr-is-required-for-the-production-of-cdt-to-cytotoxic-levels
#14
T W Bilverstone, N L Kinsmore, N P Minton, S A Kuehne
Assessing the regulation of Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT), is complicated by the presence of a Pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) which encodes Toxins A and B. Here we developed R20291ΔPaLoc model strains and cell-based assays to quantify CDT-mediated virulence. Their application demonstrated that the transcriptional regulator, CdtR, was required for CDT-mediated cytotoxicity.
January 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108388/c-%C3%A2-difficile-pcr-ribotype-023-might-go-undetected-when-using-chromid-c-%C3%A2-difficile-agar
#15
E Reigadas, L Alcalá, M Marín, A Martín, E Bouza
We compared the performance of the new chromogenic medium ChromID C. difficile with that of CLO agar. ChromID C. difficile agar is a sensitive medium that can accelerate the presumptive identification of C. difficile, however ribotype 023 might go undetected when using this chromogenic medium.
January 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104533/antimicrobial-activity-of-stable-hemiaminals-against-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#16
Teresa Olczak, Michał Śmiga, Anna Kwiecień, Marcin Bielecki, Robert Wróbel, Mariusz Olczak, Zbigniew Ciunik
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major etiologic agent and a key pathogen responsible for the development and progression of chronic periodontitis. Controlling the number of periodontal pathogens is one of the primary actions for maintaining oral health; therefore, active compounds with a capacity to exert antimicrobial activity have received considerable attention as they may represent potential new therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Heterocyclic compounds possessing 1,2,4- or 1,2,3-triazoles are known for several biological activities, including antibacterial properties...
January 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077337/stress-hormone-epinephrine-adrenaline-and-norepinephrine-noradrenaline-effects-on-the-anaerobic-bacteria
#17
REVIEW
Lyudmila Boyanova
Microbial endocrinology is a relatively new research area that already encompasses the anaerobes. Stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, can affect the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella spp., Porhyromonas spp., Tanerella forsythia and Propionibacterium acnes and can increase virulence gene expression, iron acquisition and many virulence factors of some anaerobic species such as Clostridium perfringens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Brachyspira pilosicoli. Epinephrine and norepinephrine effects can lead to a growth increase or decrease, or no effect on the growth of the anaerobes...
January 8, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082244/isolation-of-clostridium-perfringens-type-a-from-wild-bharals-pseudois-nayaur-following-sudden-death-in-tibet-china
#18
Lingwei Zhu, Wei Zhou, Tiecheng Wang, Haiyang Xiang, Xue Ji, Yixiao Han, Yuan Tian, Yang Sun, Jun Liu, Xuejun Guo
Dozens of wild bharals died suddenly in Tibet. Necropsy showed severe congestion and hemorrhage in multiple organs, with large numbers of Gram-positive bacilli. Strains of Clostridium perfringens type A were isolated from the different organs and the intestinal contents. The other possible pathogens were ruled out by PCR.
January 7, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065666/simple-biogas-desulfurization-by-microaeration-full-scale-experience
#19
P Jeníček, J Horejš, L Pokorná-Krayzelová, J Bindzar, J Bartáček
Hydrogen sulfide in biogas is common problem during anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high sulfate concentration (breweries, distilleries, etc.) and needs to be removed before biogas utilization. Physico-chemical desulfurization methods are energetically demanding and expensive compare to biochemical methods. Microaeration, i.e. dosing of small amount of air, is suitable and cost effective biochemical method of sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur. It has been widely used in biogas plants, but its application in anaerobic reactors for wastewater treatment has been rarely studied or tested...
January 5, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062270/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease-in%C3%A2-vitro-modeling-of-host-microbe-interactions-at-the-aerobe-anaerobe-interphase-of-the-human-gut
#20
REVIEW
Julius Z H von Martels, Mehdi Sadaghian Sadabad, Arno R Bourgonje, Tjasso Blokzijl, Gerard Dijkstra, Klaas Nico Faber, Hermie J M Harmsen
The microbiota of the gut has many crucial functions in human health. Dysbiosis of the microbiota has been correlated to a large and still increasing number of diseases. Recent studies have mostly focused on analyzing the associations between disease and an aberrant microbiota composition. Functional studies using (in vitro) gut models are required to investigate the precise interactions that occur between specific bacteria (or bacterial mixtures) and gut epithelial cells. As most gut bacteria are obligate or facultative anaerobes, studying their effect on oxygen-requiring human gut epithelial cells is technically challenging...
January 3, 2017: Anaerobe
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