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Anaerobe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030100/antimicrobial-susceptibility-profiles-of-oral-treponema-species
#1
Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama, Jin Sekino, Kouki Yoshikawa, Atsushi Saito, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Treponemes occur in the microflora of the dental plaque. Certain Treponema species that are frequently isolated from chronic periodontitis lesions are involved in its initiation and progression. In addition to mechanical instrumentation, antimicrobial agents are used as an adjunctive treatment modality for periodontitis. Despite its importance for successful antimicrobial treatment, information about susceptibility is limited for Treponema species. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of Treponema denticola strains, Treponema socranskii, and Treponema vincentii to eleven antimicrobial agents...
October 13, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031928/the-role-of-purified-clostridium-difficile-glucosylating-toxins-in-disease-pathogenesis-utilizing-a-murine-cecum-injection-model
#2
Yongrong Zhang, Zhiyong Yang, Si Gao, Therwa Hamza, Harris G Yfantis, Michael Lipsky, Hanping Feng
Most pathogenic Clostridium difficile produce two major exotoxins TcdA and TcdB, in the absence of which the bacterium is non-pathogenic. While it is important to investigate the role of each toxin in the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) using isogenic strains, it is impossible to precisely control the expression levels of individual toxins and exclude bacterial factors that may contribute to the toxins' effects during infection. In this study, we utilized an acute intestinal disease model by injecting purified toxins directly into mouse cecum after a midline laparotomy...
October 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024758/pcr-ribotype-distribution-of-clostridium-difficile-in-irish-pigs
#3
Katharina Stein, Sarah Egan, Helen Lynch, Céline Harmanus, Lorraine Kyne, Celine Herra, Sinead McDermott, Ed Kuijper, Fidelma Fitzpatrick, Susan FitzGerald, Lynda Fenelon, Denise Drudy
Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen in humans causing infections in the healthcare environment and the community. Carriage of C. difficile and C. difficile-related enterocolitis has been reported in piglets worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of C. difficile isolation from pigs in Ireland. Faecal samples from piglet litters and sows were collected from six farms in 2015. The sows were non-diarrhoeal at the time of sampling. The diarrhoeal status of the piglets was unknown...
October 9, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017951/identification-of-cfia-coding-genes-in-bacteroides-fragilis-isolates-recovered-in-argentina-inconsistencies-in-cfia-organization-and-nomenclature
#4
Mirta R Litterio, Daniela Cejas, Gabriel Gutkind, Marcela Radice
CfiA (CcrA) metallo-β-lactamase is the main carbapenem resistance mechanism in B. fragilis. From cfiA positive isolates detected in a previous surveillance study, 3 displayed resistance to imipenem while the remaining were susceptible. The aim of this study was to identify the cfiA alleles and to analyze the presence of IS elements in their upstream regions. CfiA-1, CfiA-4, CfiA-13, CfiA-19 and CfiA-22 were detected. IS elements belonging to IS21 family and IS942 group were identified upstream to cfiA in the 3 imipenem resistant isolates...
October 7, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988773/rifaximin-resistant-clostridium-difficile-strains-isolated-from-symptomatic-patients
#5
E Reigadas, P Muñoz-Pacheco, L Alcalá, M Marín, A Martin, E Bouza
BACKGROUND: Rifaximin has been proposed as an alternative treatment for specific cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and intestinal decontamination. Rifaximin-resistant C. difficile has occasionally been reported. Antibiotic susceptibility testing relies on anaerobic agar dilution (reference method), which is cumbersome and not routinely used. There is no commercial test for detection of resistance to rifaximin. OBJECTIVES: To assess resistance to rifaximin by C...
October 6, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987390/molecular-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-brazilian-cancer-hospital
#6
Cecília Leite Costa, Cibele Barreto Mano de Carvalho, Rafael Holanda González, Markus Andret Cavalcante Gifoni, Ronaldo de Albuquerque Ribeiro, Carlos Quesada-Gómez, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore forming anaerobic bacterium and the main cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea. This study aimed to perform the phenotypic characterization and molecular typing of Clostridium difficile isolates among patients at a cancer hospital in Brazil. During 18 months, 48 diarrheic fecal samples were collected, of these 48% were positive in either one or both of the performed tests: detection of toxins A/B and culture. Clostridium difficile was recovered from four samples (17%)...
October 5, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935196/genetic-identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clinically-isolated-anaerobic-bacteria-a-prospective-multicenter-surveillance-study-in-japan
#7
Tomoyuki Yunoki, Yasufumi Matsumura, Masaki Yamamoto, Michio Tanaka, Kyoko Hamano, Satoshi Nakano, Taro Noguchi, Miki Nagao, Satoshi Ichiyama
This prospective multicenter surveillance study was designed to provide antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of clinical anaerobic bacteria with genetic species identification in Japan. In 2014, a total of 526 non-duplicate clinical anaerobic isolates were collected from 11 acute-care hospitals in the Kyoto and Shiga regions of Japan. Genetic identification was performed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined in the central laboratory and were interpreted using the CLSI criteria...
September 19, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928035/molecular-analysis-of-three-clostridium-difficile-strain-genomes-isolated-from-pig-farm-related-samples
#8
I Martín-Burriel, S Andrés-Lasheras, F Harders, R C Mainar-Jaime, B Ranera, P Zaragoza, V Falceto, Y Bolea, E Kuijper, R Bolea, A Bossers, M Chirino-Trejo
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic spore-forming bacillus that usually causes gastrointestinal disorders in man and other animal species. Most of the strains isolated from animals are toxigenic being the virulent ribotype (RT) 078 predominant in several animal species. Although C. difficile is pathogenic to both humans and animals, there is no direct evidence of zoonosis. Deep genome sequencing provides sufficient resolution to analyse which strains found in animals might be related to human pathogens. So far, there are only a few fully sequenced genomes of C...
September 18, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870713/dietary-pomegranate-extract-and-inulin-affect-gut-microbiome-differentially-in-mice-fed-an-obesogenic-diet
#9
Song Zhang, Jieping Yang, Susanne M Henning, Rupo Lee, Mark Hsu, Emma Grojean, Rita Pisegna, Austin Ly, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
Growing evidence suggests that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated with pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Using dietary intervention to shape the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota is increasingly recognized. In the present study, we investigated the effects of polysaccharide inulin and polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) alone or in combination on the cecal microbiota composition and function in a diet induced obesity mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups and consumed either high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose, 17% energy from protein)] diet, HF/HS diet supplemented with PomX (0...
September 13, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899647/improving-gene-transfer-in-clostridium-pasteurianum-through-the-isolation-of-rare-hypertransformable-variants
#10
Alexander Grosse-Honebrink, Katrin M Schwarz, Hengzheng Wang, Nigel P Minton, Ying Zhang
Effective microbial metabolic engineering is reliant on efficient gene transfer. Here we present a simple screening strategy that may be deployed to isolate rare, hypertransformable variants. The procedure was used to increase the frequency of transformation of the solvent producing organism Clostridium pasteurianum by three to four orders of magnitude.
September 9, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882708/fermentation-properties-of-isomaltooligosaccharides-are-affected-by-human-fecal-enterotypes
#11
Qinqin Wu, Xiong'e Pi, Wei Liu, Huahai Chen, Yeshi Yin, Hongwei D Yu, Xin Wang, Liying Zhu
Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) are enzymatically synthesized oligosaccharides that have potential prebiotic effects. Five IMO substrates with 2-16° of polymerization (DP) were studied for their fermentation capacities using human microbiomes in an in vitro batch fermentation model. Eleven fecal slurries belonging to three enterotypes, including the Bacteroides-, Prevotella- and Mixed-type, exhibited different degradation rates for long chain IMOs (DP 7 to 16). In contrast, the degradation rates for short chain IMOs (DP 2 to 6) were not affected by enterotypes...
September 4, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866113/infected-breast-cyst-due-to-prevotella-buccae-resistant-to-metronidazole
#12
Fernando Cobo, Javier Rodríguez-Granger, Antonio Sampedro, José María Navarro-Marí
Prevotella buccae is a Gram-negative anaerobic rod involved in some human infections. We report the first case of an infected breast cyst in a non-puerperal women due to this pathogen. A 53-year-old woman presented with pain and a cystic lesion in the right breast. Culture of abscess drainage resulted in isolation of P. buccae. High level of resistance to metronidazole was documented. Treatment with drainage and amoxicillin-clavulanate was established, and improvement of this infection was observed.
September 1, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859990/immune-discrepancies-during-in%C3%A2-vitro-granuloma-formation-in-response-to-cutibacterium-formerly-propionibacterium-acnes-infection
#13
Guillaume Ghislain Aubin, Grâce Ada Da Silva, Yoshinobu Eishi, Cédric Jacqueline, Frédéric Altare, Stéphane Corvec, Karim Asehnoune
Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes is involved in chronic/low-grade pathologies such as sarcoidosis or prosthetic joint infection (PJI). In these diseases, granulomatous structures are frequently observed. In this study, we induced a physiological granulomatous reaction in response to different well-characterized clinical C. acnes isolates in order to investigate the cellular process during granuloma formation. Three C. acnes isolates selected according to their origin (PJI, sarcoidosis and acne) were typed by MLST...
August 30, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842275/preferential-isolation-of-megasphaera-elsdenii-from-pig-feces
#14
Yu Kajihara, Shota Yoshikawa, Yuichiro Cho, Toshiyuki Ito, Hirokuni Miyamoto, Hiroaki Kodama
Lactic acid produced by intestinal bacteria is fermented by lactate-utilizing bacteria. In this study, we developed a selective culture medium (KMI medium) for Megasphaera elsdenii, a lactate-utilizing bacterium that is abundant in pig intestines. Supplementation of the medium with lactate and beef extract powder was necessary for the preferential growth of M. elsdenii. In addition, we designed a species-specific primer set to detect M. elsdenii. When pig fecal samples were plated on KMI agar medium, approximately 60-100% of the resulting colonies tested positive using the M...
August 28, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830842/clinical-epidemiological-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-relapse-and-re-infection-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
Sara Gómez, Fernando Chaves, M Angeles Orellana
Recurrent diarrhea is a common complication of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Recurrent CDI (r-CDI) may be produced by the persistence of spores (relapse) or by the acquisition of a new strain (reinfection). In this study, we analyze epidemiological, clinical, microbiological and laboratory data from patients with r-CDI, relapse, and reinfection-CDI over 5 years and compared with a control group (non r-CDI). Among 60 patients with r-CDI, 36 patients had stool samples collected from two or more episodes, which were molecularly analyzed...
August 19, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823884/conversion-of-food-processing-wastes-to-biofuel-using-clostridia
#16
Mohamed Hemida Abd-Alla, Abdel-Naser Ahmed Zohri, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek El-Enany, Shimaa Mohamed Ali
This study aims to demonstrate the recycling of food processing wastes as a low cost-effective substrate for acetone - butanol - ethanol (ABE) production. Potato peels and cheese whey were utilized during fermentation with eight local Clostridium strains in addition to the commercial strain, C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 for ABE and organic acids production. From potato peels, Clostridium beijerinckii ASU10 produced the highest ABE production (17.91 g/l) representing 61.3% butanol (10.98 g/l), 33.6% acetone (6...
August 18, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823592/fusobacterium-nucleatum-detected-simultaneously-in-a-pyogenic-liver-abscess-and-advanced-sigmoid-colon-cancer
#17
Ryuta Shigefuku, Tsunamasa Watanabe, Yuki Kanno, Hiroki Ikeda, Hiroyasu Nakano, Nobuhiro Hattori, Kotaro Matsunaga, Nobuyuki Matsumoto, Shin-Ichi Kanno, Katsuhiko Nosho, Atsuko Hachiya, Yasumasa Iwatani, Tomoko Matsumori, Satoshi Tsukikawa, Ryoji Makizumi, Takehito Otsubo, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Fumio Itoh
Fusobacterium nucleatum is an invasive, adherent, and pro-inflammatory anaerobic bacterium involved in various infections and colorectal cancer. We report a case with pyogenic liver abscess, diagnosed with advanced sigmoid colon cancer, in whom F. nucleatum was simultaneously detected. In this patient, F. nucleatum was systematically analyzed using the molecular biological techniques of metagenome analysis, conventional PCR, and microbial fluorescence in situ hybridization.
August 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821458/dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-and-quorum-sensing-signaling-in-biofilm-related-virulence-of-prevotella-aurantiaca
#18
Dareen Fteita, Ahmed Ali Musrati, Eija Könönen, Xiaochu Ma, Mervi Gürsoy, Markus Peurla, Eva Söderling, Herman O Sintim, Ulvi Kahraman Gürsoy
Biofilm formation and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) enzyme activity contribute to the virulence of oral bacteria, and these virulence factors are partly regulated by quorum sensing signaling system. We recently demonstrated that estradiol regulates growth properties and DPPIV activity of Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella pallens. Here, we examined the DPPIV dependency of biofilm formation of Prevotella aurantiaca. Three strains (two clinical strains AHN 37505 and 37552 and the type strain CCUG 57723) were incubated in three estradiol concentrations (30, 90, and 120 nmol/L)...
August 15, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807623/spatio-temporal-variability-of-the-epidemic-027-clostridium-difficile-strains-in-france-based-on-mlva-typing
#19
Jeanne Couturier, Catherine Eckert, Frédéric Barbut
MLVA analysis of 103 PCR ribotype 027 strains showed a regional specificity and the persistence of the same clone within a hospital several years apart. Capillary electrophoresis PCR ribotyping led to the identification of seven 027 variant strains and five 176 strains, four of them being implicated in an outbreak.
August 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807622/community-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-emergency-department-patients-in-western-australia
#20
Deirdre A Collins, Linda A Selvey, Antonio Celenza, Thomas V Riley
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is primarily associated with hospitalised patients, however, community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) has increased in Australia. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology and outcomes of CA-CDI cases presenting to hospital emergency departments in Western Australia (WA). A retrospective case-control study of CA-CDI cases presenting at six emergency departments in WA from July 2013 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical signs, recent medication, hospitalisations and potential risk factors for CA-CDI were investigated for cases (n = 34) and unmatched controls (n = 62) who were infected with another gastrointestinal pathogen, including Campylobacter spp...
August 12, 2017: Anaerobe
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