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Anaerobe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629947/temporal-microbiota-changes-of-high-protein-diet-intake-in-a-rat-model
#1
Chunlong Mu, Yuxiang Yang, Zhen Luo, Weiyun Zhu
Alterations of specific microbes serve as important indicators that link gut health with specific diet intake. Although a six-week high-protein diet (45% protein) upregulates the pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress in colon of rats, the dynamic alteration of gut microbiota remains unclear. To dissect temporal changes of microbiota, dynamic analyses of fecal microbiota were conducted using a rat model. Adult rats were fed a normal-protein diet or an HPD for 6 weeks, and feces collected at different weeks were used for microbiota and metabolite analysis...
June 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627377/mikania-glomerata-sprengel-extract-and-its-major-compound-ent-kaurenoic-acid-display-activity-against-bacteria-present-in-endodontic-infections
#2
Dora Lúcia Carrara Moreti, Luís Fernando Leandro, Thaís da Silva Moraes, Monique Rodrigues Moreira, Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani, Sergio Ricardo Ambrosio, Brenda Paula Figueiredo Almeida Gomes, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
The search for new, effective and safe antimicrobial compounds from plant sources has continued to play an important role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Such compounds can be used to help to eradicate microorganisms from the root canal system, preventing/healing periapical diseases. Mikania glomerata (Spreng.), commonly known as "guaco," is a native climbing plant from Brazil that displays a wide range of pharmacological properties. Many of its activities have been attributed to its phytochemical composition, which is mainly composed of diterpenes, such as ent-kaurenoic acid (KA)...
June 13, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610999/changes-in-faecal-bacteria-during-fattening-in-finishing-swine
#3
Tomomi Ban-Tokuda, Sakiko Maekawa, Takehiro Miwa, Sou Ohkawara, Hiroki Matsui
Body fat accumulation in mice and human is linked to the percentage of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, two bacterial phyla dominant in the large intestine. However, little is known about the relationship between the composition of the gut microbiota and fattening in pig. This study aimed to investigate the abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Bacteroides, which is the major genus within Bacteroidetes, in porcine faeces during fattening. Ten 4-month-old crossbred pigs were given free access to commercial feed for fattening and water for 14 weeks...
June 10, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610998/support-material-dictates-the-attached-biomass-characteristics-during-the-immobilization-process-in-anaerobic-continuous-flow-packed-bed-bioreactor
#4
Jasmina Kerčmar, Albin Pintar
Hydrogen is considered to be an ideal energy alternative to replace environmentally burdensome fossil fuels. For its long-term production the immobilized biofilm system is the most promising and to choose the right support material the most challenging. In this respect, the anaerobic up-flow bioreactors packed with four most used support materials (polyethylene, polyurethane, activated carbon and expanded clay) were tested to investigate the crucial bacteria sensitive period-the immobilization process. Seven-day-operation was necessary and sufficient to reach metabolic and microbial stability regardless of support material used...
June 10, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602805/erm-gene-distribution-among-norwegian-bacteroides-isolates-and-evaluation-of-phenotypic-tests-to-detect-inducible-clindamycin-resistance-in-bacteroides-species
#5
Bjørn Odd Johnsen, Nina Handal, Roger Meisal, Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt, Peter Gaustad, Truls Michael Leegaard
The aims of this study were to describe the distribution of the most common erm genes in a collection of Norwegian Bacteroides isolates and to investigate whether the phenotypic tests for determining inducible clindamycin resistance among Bacteroides species recommended by EUCAST, NordicAST and the manufacturer of E-test(®), are effective. We investigated 175 unique Bacteroides isolates for the presence of erm(B), erm(F) and erm(G) genes, determined their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to clindamycin and categorised their susceptibility according to EUCAST breakpoints...
June 8, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602804/in%C3%A2-vitro-emergence-of-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-cutibacterium-formerly-propionibacterium-acnes-and-molecular-characterization-of-mutations-in-the-gyra-gene
#6
Eve-Marie Takoudju, Aurélie Guillouzouic, Stanimir Kambarev, Frédéric Pecorari, Stéphane Corvec
In vitro occurrence of levofloxacin (LVX) resistance in C. acnes and characterization of its molecular background were investigated. The mutation frequency was determined by inoculation of 10(8) cfu of C. acnes ATCC 11827 (LVX MIC = 0.25 mg/L) on LVX-containing agar plates. The progressive emergence of resistance was studied by a second exposure to increasing LVX concentrations. For mutants, the QRDR regions including the gyrA and parC genes were sequenced and compared to both C. acnes ATCC 11827 and C...
June 8, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583865/breast-abscess-due-to-finegoldia-magna-in-a-non-puerperal-women
#7
Fernando Cobo, Javier Rodríguez-Granger, Antonio Sampedro, José María Navarro-Marí
Finegoldia magna is a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus involved in a wide variety of infections. We report a unusual case of breast abscess in a non-puerperal patient. A 46-year-old woman presented with pain and a nodular lesion in the left breast. Culture of abscess drainage resulted in isolation of F. magna. Initial treatment with clindamycin was changed to a definitive treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate for 10 days due to resistance to clindamycin, and improvement of this infection was documented.
June 3, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583864/the-gut-bacterium-and-pathobiont-bacteroides-vulgatus-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-a-human-gut-epithelial-cell-line-in-a-strain-and-growth-phase-dependent-manner
#8
Páraic Ó Cuív, Tomas de Wouters, Rabina Giri, Stanislas Mondot, Wendy J Smith, Hervé M Blottière, Jakob Begun, Mark Morrison
The gut microbiota is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) although the identity of the bacteria that underpin these diseases has remained elusive. The pathobiont Bacteroides vulgatus has been associated with both diseases although relatively little is known about how its growth and functional activity might drive the host inflammatory response. We identified an ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) export system and lipoprotein in B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 and B...
June 2, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578133/extraintestinal-clostridium-difficile-infection-due-to-a-ribotype-different-from-that-isolated-from-the-feces-of-the-patient-a-case-report
#9
Yoshihiro Onada, Shiro Endo, Takahisa Umemoto, Tomomichi Kajino, Yoshiharu Amasaki, Akira Furusaki
Extraintestinal infections due to Clostridium difficile are uncommon. When such infections occur, extraintestinal C. difficile isolates are usually identical to fecal isolates. We present a rare case of a large postoperative abscess caused by C. difficile infection, in which different C. difficile strains were isolated from the abscess and from feces of the patient. An 82-year-old woman with cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa developed pain, skin ulcers, and extensive necrosis of the right leg. Above-knee amputation was performed without stopping antiplatelet therapy, leading to postoperative hematoma...
May 31, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578132/effect-of-electro-activated-aqueous-solutions-nisin-and-moderate-heat-treatment-on-the-inactivation-of-clostridium-sporogenes-pa-3679-spores-in-green-beans-puree-and-whole-green-beans
#10
Omar El Jaam, Ismail Fliss, Mohammed Aïder
In this work, the synergistic effect of electro-activated solutions (EAS) of potassium acetate and potassium citrate, nisin and moderate heat treatment to inactivate C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores was evaluated in green beans puree and whole green beans. Electro-activated solutions (EAS) of potassium acetate and potassium citrate were generated under 400 mA during 60 min. They were characterized by an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and pH values ranged from +300 to +1090 mV and 2.8 to 3.67, respectively...
May 31, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576713/adaptation-of-continuous-biogas-reactors-operating-under-wet-fermentation-conditions-to-dry-conditions-with-corn-stover-as-substrate
#11
Balázs Kakuk, Kornél L Kovács, Márk Szuhaj, Gábor Rákhely, Zoltán Bagi
Corn stover (CS) is the agricultural by-product of maize cultivation. Due to its high abundance and high energy content it is a promising substrate for the bioenergy sector. However, it is currently neglected in industrial scale biogas plants, because of its slow decomposition and hydrophobic character. To assess the maximum biomethane potential of CS, long-term batch fermentations were carried out with various substrate concentrations and particle sizes for 72 days. In separate experiments we adapted the biogas producing microbial community in wet fermentation arrangement first to the lignocellulosic substrate, in Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), then subsequently, by continuously elevating the feed-in concentration, to dry conditions in solid state fermenters (SS-AD)...
May 30, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571698/a-novel-antimicrobial-peptide-against-dental-caries-associated-bacteria
#12
Long Chen, Lili Jia, Qiang Zhang, Xirui Zhou, Zhuqing Liu, Bingjie Li, Zhentai Zhu, Fenwei Wang, Changyuan Yu, Qian Zhang, Feng Chen, Shi-Zhong Luo
Dental caries, a highly prevalent oral disease, is primarily caused by pathogenic bacteria infection, and most of them are anaerobic. Herein, we investigated the activity of a designed antimicrobial peptide ZXR-2, and found it showed broad-spectrum activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative oral bacteria, particularly the caries-related taxa Streptococcus mutans. Time-course killing assays indicated that ZXR-2 killed most bacterial cells within 5 min at 4 × MIC. The mechanism of ZXR-2 involved disruption of cell membranes, as observed by scanning electron microscopy...
May 29, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554814/bioaugmentation-of-the-thermophilic-anaerobic-biodegradation-of-cellulose-and-corn-stover
#13
Orsolya Strang, Norbert Ács, Roland Wirth, Gergely Maróti, Zoltán Bagi, Gábor Rákhely, Kornél L Kovács
Two stable, thermophilic mixed cellulolytic consortia were enriched from an industrial scale biogas fermenter. The two consortia, marked as AD1 and AD2, were used for bioaugmentation in laboratory scale batch reactors. They enhanced the methane yield by 22-24%. Next generation sequencing method revealed the main orders being Thermoanaerobacterales and Clostridiales and the predominant strains were Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, Caldanaerobacter subterraneus, Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus and Clostridium cellulolyticum...
May 26, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554813/impact-of-exopolysaccharides-epss-of-lactobacillus-gasseri-strains-isolated-from-human-vagina-on-cervical-tumor-cells-hela
#14
Tolga Sungur, Belma Aslim, Cagtay Karaaslan, Busra Aktas
Lactobacilli, commonly used as probiotics, have been shown to maintain vaginal health and contribute to host microbiota interaction. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactobacillus have been found to have an important role in probiotic activity; however, there is limited knowledge concerning their impact on cervical cancer and urogenital health. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare EPSs of L. gasseri strains (G10 and H15), isolated from a healthy human vagina, for their capability to inhibit cervical cancer cell (HeLa) growth and modulate immune response...
May 26, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552417/quantification-isolation-and-characterization-of-bifidobacterium-from-the-vaginal-microbiomes-of-reproductive-aged-women
#15
Aline C Freitas, Janet E Hill
The vaginal microbiome plays an important role in women's reproductive health. Imbalances in this microbiota, such as the poorly defined condition of bacterial vaginosis, are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and negative reproductive outcomes. Currently, a "healthy" vaginal microbiota in reproductive aged women is understood to be dominated by Lactobacillus, although "atypical" microbiomes, such as Bifidobacterium-dominated profiles, have been described. Despite these observations, vaginal bifidobacteria remain relatively poorly characterized, and questions remain regarding their actual abundance in the microbiome...
May 25, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552416/case-of-pacemaker-pocket-infection-caused-by-finegoldia-magna
#16
Seyed Hamed Hosseini Dehkordi, Georgina Osorio
Finegoldia magna (formerly called Peptostreptococcus magnus) is a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus which is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen. We present a case of F. magna associated non-valvular cardiovascular device-related infection in an 83 year-old male who received a permanent pacemaker for sick sinus syndrome seven weeks prior to his presentation. Five weeks after the implantation, the pacemaker and leads were explanted because of clinical evidence of pacemaker pocket infection. He was initially treated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim based on the Gram stain results from the removed pacemaker...
May 25, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546029/gardnerella-vaginalis-bacteremia-associated-with-severe-acute-encephalopathy-in-a-young-female-patient
#17
Jacques Tankovic, Albertas Timinskas, Migle Janulaitiene, Milda Zilnyte, Jean-Luc Baudel, Eric Maury, Aurelija Zvirbliene, Milda Pleckaityte
Gardnerella vaginalis is a facultative anaerobic bacterium that inhabits the genitourinary tract of both healthy women and those with bacterial vaginosis. We report a case of G. vaginalis bacteremia associated with severe toxic encephalopathy in a young woman. Anaerobic blood cultures yielded pure growth of small gram-variable rods later identified as G. vaginalis by both rapid biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient recovered after treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate according to the in vitro susceptibility testing...
May 22, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526497/mixed-species-biofilms-of-fusobacterium-necrophorum-and-porphyromonas-levii-impair-the-oxidative-response-of-bovine-neutrophils-in%C3%A2-vitro
#18
Joey S Lockhart, Andre G Buret, Howard Ceri, Douglas G Storey, Stefanie J Anderson, Douglas W Morck
Biofilms composed of anaerobic bacteria can result in persistent infections and chronic inflammation. Host immune cells have difficulties clearing biofilm-related infections and this can result in tissue damage. Neutrophils are a vital component of the innate immune system and help clear biofilms. The comparative neutrophilic response to biofilms versus planktonic bacteria remains incompletely understood, particularly in the context of mixed infections. The objective of this study was to generate mixed species anaerobic bacterial biofilms composed of two opportunistic pathogens, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii, and evaluate neutrophil responses to extracellular fractions from both biofilms and planktonic cell co-cultures of the same bacteria...
May 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526496/molecular-characterization-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-clostridium-perfringens-type-a-isolates-from-humans-animals-fish-and-their-environment
#19
Jay Prakash Yadav, Suresh Chandra Das, Pankaj Dhaka, Deepthi Vijay, Manesh Kumar, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Goutam Chowdhury, Pranav Chauhan, Rahul Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Satya Veer Singh Malik, Ashok Kumar
The study was aimed to characterize, and determine antibiogram of C. perfringens type A isolated from the feces of human and animal diarrhoeal cases, as well as healthy animals, meat of pigs and goats, gills and intestine of fish and samples from fish pond. A total of 460 samples, including human diarrhoeal cases (n = 130); diarrhoeal cases of pig (n = 52) and goat (n = 50); fecal samples from healthy pig (n = 50) and goat (n = 50); meat samples viz. pork meat (n = 52); goat meat (n = 50) and fish including their environmental sources (n = 26) were used for isolation and identification of C...
May 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522363/a-bloodstream-infection-by-ruminococcus-gnavus-in-a-patient-with-a-gall-bladder-perforation
#20
Young Jin Kim, Hee Yoon Kang, Yujin Han, Mi Suk Lee, Hee Joo Lee
Ruminococcus gnavus is frequently found among human gut microbiome. However, human bloodstream infections by R. gnavus have been reported only three times. Clinical details were lacking for one case; the other two cases with concurrent bacteremia in patients with diverticulitis. We report a case of R. gnavus bloodstream infection in a patient with a gall bladder perforation suggesting its association with damage to the gastrointestinal tract. R. gnavus was misidentified using biochemical test but 16S rRNA sequencing and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were useful for correct identification...
May 15, 2017: Anaerobe
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