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Mauricio Andino-Molina, Elías Barquero-Calvo, Christian Seyboldt, Gernot Schmoock, Heinrich Neubauer, Edgardo Tzoc, César Rodríguez, Carlos Quesada-Gómez
Though an overlap of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes (RT) in humans and animals has been noted -particularly in piglets-information regarding C. difficile isolates from swine is scarce in Latin America. A characterization of 10 C. difficile isolates obtained from this origin in Costa Rica revealed the presence of the RT078 (n = 4) and RT014/5-FLI01 (n = 6) ribotypes. Unlike two previous reports from the region, all isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). According to a minimum spanning tree (MST) analysis, our RT078 isolates formed a clonal complex with some German RT078 isolates and the already noted overlap of RT078 strains in humans and animals...
November 8, 2018: Anaerobe
Carolina C Guizelini, Ricardo A A Lemos, Juliana L P de Paula, Rayane C Pupin, Danilo C Gomes, Claudio S L Barros, Danielle A Neves, Lilian O B Alcântara, Rodrigo O S Silva, Francisco C F Lobato, Tessie B Martins
A large outbreak of botulism in feedlot steers fed corn silage contaminated with Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type C (BoNT/C) is reported occurring in Midwestern Brazil in August 2017. The onset of the outbreak occurred 15 days after 1,700 steers started to be fed the contaminated corn silage. Affected steers were alert and afebrile with varying degrees of flaccid paralysis in various muscle groups. A total of 1,100 steers were affected, 1,090 of which died within four days. Ten steers recovered after treatment with antitoxin...
November 5, 2018: Anaerobe
Ana Velikonja, Luka Lipoglavšek, Maša Zorec, Rok Orel, Gorazd Avguštin
Metabolic syndrome is a complex disease that is exponentially increasing in the western world, and diet is one of the possible ways to improve the metabolic status of patients. Barley beta glucans are dietary fibres that show promise for improvement cholesterol levels and postprandial glucose response, but they have been rarely investigated in human trials with concurrent focus on gut microbiota. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial was conducted with 43 volunteers with high risk for metabolic syndrome development or with diagnosed metabolic syndrome...
November 2, 2018: Anaerobe
Ahu Demirtas, Hakan Ozturk, Mert Sudagidan, Erhan Keyvan, Orhan Yavuz, Ozlem Yildiz Gulay, Saad Ahmed Adam Musa
The effects of plant metabolites on rumen metabolism vary greatly depending on their antimicrobial spectrum and applied doses. In this study, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of commercial aldehydes, trans-2-hexenal (T2H), cis-3-hexenal (C3H), trans-2-nonenal (T2N), and trans-2-decenal (T2D) from green leaf volatiles, were tested on rumen bacteria. These compounds were found more effective on Gram-positive rumen bacteria than the Gram-negatives, and C3H was the most effective compound. Then, for 14 days, the in vitro effects of C3H compared with monensin (5 mg/day) on the rumen microbial population and ruminal fermentation at 187...
November 2, 2018: Anaerobe
Qin Xiang Ng, Wayren Loke, Nadine Xinhui Foo, Yin Mo, Wee-Song Yeo, Alex Yu Sen Soh
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an increasingly common occurrence in the hospital setting, and it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In vitro studies have found that rifaximin, a nonabsorbable rifamycin antibiotic, displays potent antimicrobial activity against C. difficile. This systematic review thus aimed to examine the clinical role of rifaximin in CDI. Using the keywords [clostridium OR difficile OR colitis] AND [rifaximin OR xifaxan OR rifagut], a preliminary search on the PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, Clinicaltrials...
November 2, 2018: Anaerobe
Otoniel Maya-Lucas, Selvasankar Murugesan, Khemlal Nirmalkar, Luis David Alcaraz, Carlos Hoyo-Vadillo, María Luisa Pizano-Zárate, Jaime García-Mena
Obesity is a metabolic disorder and global health issue. In Mexico 34.4% of children between 5 and 11 years-old are overweight or obese. Here we address this issue studying the gut microbiome in a sample of Mexican children affected by obesity. We performed metagenomic shotgun-sequencing of DNA isolated from fecal samples from a cohort of normal weight and obese Mexican children using Illumina platform with HiSeq 2500. We also examined their metabolic factors and fecal short-chain fatty acids concentration...
October 24, 2018: Anaerobe
Sara Primavilla, Silvana Farneti, Annalisa Petruzzelli, Ilenia Drigo, Stefania Scuota
This study investigates the contamination of foods with Clostridium difficile in 3 hospitals of Central Italy. We used real-time PCR for tpi gene to analyse 350 food samples, including 296 cooked meals and 54 foods to be eaten raw. The molecular screening test was positive for 3 samples, but toxigenic C. difficile was isolated only in two of them. The prevalence in cooked food was 0,3% (1/296), while in uncooked processed foods was 1,9% (1/54). Data support the potential risk of food as a source of toxigenic C...
October 23, 2018: Anaerobe
Jessica Neilands, Julia R Davies, Floris J Bikker, Gunnel Svensäter
Dental biofilms are complex ecosystems containing many bacterial species that live in mutualistic relationships. These interactions can profoundly affect the virulence properties of the community. In this study we investigated how the production of gingipains, virulence factors from Porphyromonas gingivalis important in periodontal disease, was affected by other commonly found members of the sub-gingival microbiome. To mimic the subgingival microbiome, multispecies consortia (P. gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinomyces naeslundii, Streptococus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus cristatus, with or without Parvimonas micra) as well as dual species consortia (P...
October 22, 2018: Anaerobe
Corentine Alauzet, Alain Lozniewski, Hélène Marchandin
Acquired resistance to metronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole drug largely used worldwide in the empirical treatment of infections caused by anaerobes, is worrisome, especially since such resistance has been described in multidrug-resistant anaerobic bacteria. In anaerobes, acquired resistance to metronidazole may be due to a combination of various and complex mechanisms. Among them, nim genes, possibly located on mobile genetic elements, encode nitro-imidazole-reductases responsible for drug inactivation. Since the first description of Nim proteins about 25 years ago, more nim genes have been identified; currently 11 nim genes are known (nimA to nimK)...
October 11, 2018: Anaerobe
G Broukhanski, P Budylowski
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore forming rod-shaped bacterium which causes mild to severe diarrhea. Spores play a key role in transmission of C. difficile in hospital environment. To investigate ability of spores to stay on fomites and to assess levels of contamination it is essential to prevent loss of spores collected for the analysis. Working with C. difficile spores we noticed a significant loss after vortexing of spore suspensions and investigated if it can be prevented by using a specific brand or type of microcentrifuge tubes...
October 10, 2018: Anaerobe
Corentine Alauzet, Fabien Aujoulat, Alain Lozniewski, Hélène Marchandin
nim genes are associated, in combination with other factors, with acquired resistance to metronidazole (MTZ) in anaerobes. These genes encode 5-nitroimidazole reductase enzymes (Nim proteins) that reduce MTZ into an inactive compound. Eleven variants (nimA to nimK) are currently described in anaerobes with either a chromosomal or a plasmidic location. Mostly found in members of the Bacteroides fragilis group, nim genes were demonstrated in anaerobic taxa outside the phylum Bacteroidetes. Nitroreductase enzymes, weakly related to those found in Bacteroidetes but associated with MTZ inactivation, were also characterized both in anaerobic and non-anaerobic taxa...
October 10, 2018: Anaerobe
D S Pickering, M H Wilcox, C H Chilton
Biofilm-derived spores of strains of four ribotypes (001, 020, 027 & 078) of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile were found to exhibit increased thermotolerance compared to spores produced in planktonic culture. In addition, 'thick' and 'thin' exosporium morphotypes described previously were visualised by electron microscopy in both biofilm and planktonic spores.
October 5, 2018: Anaerobe
Carlos Augusto Oliveira Júnior, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Diogo Soares Gonçalves Cruz, Isadora Honorato Pires, Roberto Maurício Carvalho Guedes, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
One of the main challenges associated with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in humans and domestic animals is the lack of an effective preventive strategy. One strategy with promising results is the oral administration of non-toxigenic strains of C. difficile (NTCD). Recently, Z31, a NTCD strain isolated from a healthy dog, showed promising results to prevent CDI in hamsters. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the capacity of Z31 to prevent CDI in piglets using an experimental model. Twenty neonatal piglets were randomly distributed in three groups: G1 - 106 spores of Z31 followed by 107 spores of a toxigenic C...
October 4, 2018: Anaerobe
Asami Matsumoto, Yuka Yamagishi, Kentaro Miyamoto, Kentaro Oka, Motomichi Takahashi, Hiroshige Mikamo
The composition of vaginal microbiota changes throughout life in response to health status, sexual activity, and pregnancy. Here the constitution of the vaginal microbiota among non-pregnant women, pregnant woman, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Japan were compared. Vaginal samples were obtained from 54 women between January 2014 and February 2015 and the microbiota of each was analyzed by 16S metagenomics as well as cluster and diversity analyses to identify differences. In addition, vaginal Lactobacillus spp...
October 3, 2018: Anaerobe
Nicolas Dauby, Delphine Martiny, Laurent Busson, Alexandra Cogan, Alaeddine Meghraoui, Maria Angeles Argudín, Claire Nonhoff, Marie Hallin, Déborah Konopnicki
Atopobium vaginae is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium recognized as a causative agent of bacterial vaginosis and associated with preterm delivery. Invasive infection and bacteremia have been rarely reported. We describe the case of a woman expecting her firstborn child who presented with a A. vaginae bacteremia during labor. Identification was performed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both maternal and fetal outcomes were favorable due to the maternal treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. We identified three other cases in the literature with different fetal outcome...
October 3, 2018: Anaerobe
Assaf Mizrahi, Jean-François Bruxelle, Séverine Péchiné, Alban Le Monnier
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea. SlpA is the precursor of the S-layer of C. difficile. The aim of this work was to evaluate the humoral immune response of hospitalized patients to SlpA and its potential role on CDI outcome. Sera of 87 included patients were collected the day of CDI diagnosis as well as at early and late periods after infection. SlpA appeared to be immunogenic with a heterogeneous response between patients after a CDI. Patients with a single episode had a significantly higher anti-SlpA IgG antibody level than patients with recurrent CDI (p = 0...
October 2, 2018: Anaerobe
Wei Hong, Yumei Cheng, Fengqin Rao, Jing Yang, Guzhen Cui, Zhenghong Chen, Jian Liao, Xiaolin Huang, Jie Zhang, Pixiang Wang, Shaohua Wang, Yi Wang, Zhizhong Guan, Xiaolan Qi
Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile and Bacillus cereus infections are frequently reported in human individually. However, co-infection of both pathogens in human is extremely rare. In the present study, we reported a case of human enteric disease caused by co-infection of C. difficile and B. cereus in Guizhou, China. The 16S rDNA sequencing result showed that C. difficile GMU1 and B. cereus GMU2 were most related to C. difficile ATCC 9689 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. The toxin genotype of C. difficile GMU1 and B...
September 28, 2018: Anaerobe
J Arca-Suárez, F Galán-Sánchez, F Cano-Cano, G García-Santos, M A Rodríguez-Iglesias
Antimicrobial susceptibility to 6 antimicrobial agents, PCR-ribotyping and molecular genetics of fluoroquinolone resistance was assessed in 70 toxigenic clinical isolates of C. difficile recovered from patients attended in a hospital in southern Spain with suspected Clostridium difficile infection. Moxifloxacin was the least active drug, mainly driven by the aminoacid substitution Thr82Ile in GyrA, while PCR-ribotype 078 was the most prevalent lineage identified and grouped several of the fluoroquinolone resistant isolates...
September 25, 2018: Anaerobe
Peivern Fong, Michelle J Francis, John F Hamblin, Tony M Korman, Maryza Graham
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a reliable tool for bacterial identification. This study compared the Bruker MALDI-TOF BioTyper MS (MBT) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the identification of Actinomyces and Actinotignum spp. The MBT identified 68/77 (88.3%) of Actinomyces isolates to the genus-level and 44/77 (57.1%) of Actinomyces isolates to the species-level using the manufacturer's identification criteria. The MBT did not yield reliable identification for only 1/77 (1...
September 24, 2018: Anaerobe
Govindarajan Bhuvana Priya, Ravi Kant Agrawal, Arockiasamy Arun Prince Milton, Madhu Mishra, Sanjod Kumar Mendiratta, Rajesh Kumar Agarwal, Ashish Luke, Bhoj Raj Singh, Deepak Kumar
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a promising, simple, rapid and sensitive molecular detection method. In the present study, LAMP assay was developed for detecting Clostridium perfringens in chevon. Primers were designed to detect the cpa gene of C. perfringens. A panel of 19 bacterial strains, including 3 C. perfringens and 16 other strains, were included in this study to standardize and evaluate the LAMP assay. No false positive amplification was observed indicating 100% specificity of the assay...
September 22, 2018: Anaerobe
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