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Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406055/graph-theory-and-brain-connectivity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Jon delEtoile, Hojjat Adeli
This article presents a review of recent advances in neuroscience research in the specific area of brain connectivity as a potential biomarker of Alzheimer's disease with a focus on the application of graph theory. The review will begin with a brief overview of connectivity and graph theory. Then resent advances in connectivity as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease will be presented and analyzed.
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403673/mechanisms-mediating-functional-hyperemia-in-the-brain
#2
Amy R Nippert, Kyle R Biesecker, Eric A Newman
Neuronal activity within the brain evokes local increases in blood flow, a response termed functional hyperemia. This response ensures that active neurons receive sufficient oxygen and nutrients to maintain tissue function and health. In this review, we discuss the functions of functional hyperemia, the types of vessels that generate the response, and the signaling mechanisms that mediate neurovascular coupling, the communication between neurons and blood vessels. Neurovascular coupling signaling is mediated primarily by the vasoactive metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), by nitric oxide, and by K(+)...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397586/axonal-regulation-of-central-nervous-system-myelination-structure-and-function
#3
Anna Klingseisen, David A Lyons
Approximately half of the human brain consists of myelinated axons. Central nervous system (CNS) myelin is made by oligodendrocytes and is essential for nervous system formation, health, and function. Once thought simply as a static insulator that facilitated rapid impulse conduction, myelin is now known to be made and remodeled in to adult life. Oligodendrocytes have a remarkable capacity to differentiate by default, but many aspects of their development can be influenced by axons. However, how axons and oligodendrocytes interact and cooperate to regulate myelination in the CNS remains unclear...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378628/gabaergic-transmission-during-brain-development-multiple-effects-at-multiple-stages
#4
Knut Kirmse, Christian A Hübner, Dirk Isbrandt, Otto W Witte, Knut Holthoff
In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in deciphering the cellular and network functions of GABAergic transmission in the intact developing brain. First, in vivo studies in non-mammalian and mammalian species confirmed the long-held assumption that GABA acts as a mainly depolarizing neurotransmitter at early developmental stages. At the same time, GABAergic transmission was shown to spatiotemporally constrain spontaneous cortical activity, whereas firm evidence for GABAergic excitation in vivo is currently missing...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351197/the-human-central-pattern-generator-for-locomotion
#5
Karen Minassian, Ursula S Hofstoetter, Florin Dzeladini, Pierre A Guertin, Auke Ijspeert
The ability of dedicated spinal circuits, referred to as central pattern generators (CPGs), to produce the basic rhythm and neural activation patterns underlying locomotion can be demonstrated under specific experimental conditions in reduced animal preparations. The existence of CPGs in humans is a matter of debate. Equally elusive is the contribution of CPGs to normal bipedal locomotion. To address these points, we focus on human studies that utilized spinal cord stimulation or pharmacological neuromodulation to generate rhythmic activity in individuals with spinal cord injury, and on neuromechanical modeling of human locomotion...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345483/spinal-epidural-stimulation-strategies
#6
Prithvi K Shah, Igor Lavrov
Significant advancements in spinal epidural stimulation (ES) strategies to enable volitional motor control in persons with a complete spinal cord injury (SCI) have generated much excitement in the field of neurorehabilitation. Still, an obvious gap lies in the ability of ES to effectively generate a robust locomotor stepping response after a complete SCI in rodents, but not in humans. In order to reveal potential discrepancies between rodent and human studies that account for this void, in this review, we summarize the findings of studies that have utilized ES strategies to enable successful hindlimb stepping in spinal rats...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303740/neurotrophins-and-proneurotrophins
#7
Julien Gibon, Philip A Barker
Neurotrophins have been intensively studied and have multiple roles in the brain. Neurotrophins are first synthetized as proneurotrophins and then cleaved intracellularly and extracellularly. Increasing evidences demonstrate that proneurotrophins and mature neurotrophins exerts opposing role in the central nervous system. In the present review, we explore the role of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), and neurotrophin 4 (NT4) and their respective proform in cellular processes related to learning and memory...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299949/postnatal-neural-stem-cells
#8
Vanessa Donega, Olivier Raineteau
There is growing evidence for a tentative cellular repair in the forebrain following perinatal injuries. In this review, we present the evidences and shortcomings in this regenerative attempt. We discuss recent progress in elucidating the origin, diversity, and competence of postnatal neural stem cells/progenitor cells. Finally, we propose new strategies to recruit postnatal progenitors to generate specific subtypes of cortical neurons or oligodendrocytes, thereby allowing the development of tailor-made approaches to treat perinatal brain injuries...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932591/the-cellular-diversity-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-relevance-to-behavior-in-health-and-aspects-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Ilse S Pienaar, Anthony Vernon, Philip Winn
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a rostral brainstem structure that has extensive connections with basal ganglia nuclei and the thalamus. Through these the PPN contributes to neural circuits that effect cortical and hippocampal activity. The PPN also has descending connections to nuclei of the pontine and medullary reticular formations, deep cerebellar nuclei, and the spinal cord. Interest in the PPN has increased dramatically since it was first suggested to be a novel target for treating patients with Parkinson's disease who are refractory to medication...
December 7, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403746/feed-forwardness-of-spinal-networks-in-posture-and-locomotion
#10
Yury Gerasimenko, Dimitry Sayenko, Parag Gad, Chao-Tuan Liu, Niranjala J K Tillakaratne, Roland R Roy, Inessa Kozlovskaya, V Reggie Edgerton
We present a new perspective on the concept of feed-forward compared to feedback mechanisms for motor control. We propose that conceptually all sensory information in real time provided to the brain and spinal cord can be viewed as a feed-forward phenomenon. We also propose that the spinal cord continually adapts to a broad array of ongoing sensory information that is used to adjust the probability of making timely and predictable decisions of selected networks that will execute a given response. One interpretation of the term feedback historically entails responses with short delays...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130838/the-kcc2-cotransporter-and-human-epilepsy-getting-excited-about-inhibition
#11
Kristopher T Kahle, Arjun R Khanna, JingJing Duan, Kevin J Staley, Eric Delpire, Annapurna Poduri
The cation-Cl(-) cotransporter KCC2, encoded by SLC12A5, is required for the emergence and maintenance of GABAergic fast synaptic inhibition in organisms across evolution. These findings have suggested that KCC2 deficiency might play a role in the pathogenesis human epilepsy, but this has only recently been substantiated by two lines of genetic evidence. The first is the discovery of heterozygous missense polymorphisms in SLC12A5, causing decreased KCC2-dependent Cl(-) extrusion capacity, in an Australian family with inherited febrile seizures and in a French-Canadian cohort with severe genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE)...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26552866/multiple-roles-for-nogo-receptor-1-in-visual-system-plasticity
#12
REVIEW
Céleste-Élise Stephany, Michael G Frantz, Aaron W McGee
During the developmental critical period for visual plasticity, discordant vision alters the responsiveness of neurons in visual cortex. The subsequent closure of the critical period not only consolidates neural function but also limits recovery of acuity from preceding abnormal visual experience. Despite species-specific differences in circuitry of the visual system, these characteristics are conserved. The nogo-66 receptor 1 (ngr1) is one of only a small number of genes identified thus far that is essential to closing the critical period...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511040/neural-mechanisms-and-children-s-intellectual-development-multiple-impacts-of-environmental-factors
#13
REVIEW
Hikaru Takeuchi, Ryuta Kawashima
Human psychometric intelligence can predict a number of important social and academic outcomes. Substantial parts of the variances of human intelligence and the brain volume supporting those abilities are explained by environmental factors, and during childhood, human brains have higher plasticity and also 60% of variance of intelligence that is explained by environmental factors. Here, we review the representative environmental factors known to affect human intellectual development during each developmental stage...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26463470/building-an-rna-sequencing-transcriptome-of-the-central-nervous-system
#14
REVIEW
Xiaomin Dong, Yanan You, Jia Qian Wu
The composition and function of the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely complex. In addition to hundreds of subtypes of neurons, other cell types, including glia (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia) and vascular cells (endothelial cells and pericytes) also play important roles in CNS function. Such heterogeneity makes the study of gene transcription in CNS challenging. Transcriptomic studies, namely the analyses of the expression levels and structures of all genes, are essential for interpreting the functional elements and understanding the molecular constituents of the CNS...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26338491/doping-the-mind-dopaminergic-modulation-of-prefrontal-cortical-cognition
#15
REVIEW
Ajit Ranganath, Simon N Jacob
The prefrontal cortex is the center of cognitive control. Processing in prefrontal cortical circuits enables us to direct attention to behaviorally relevant events; to memorize, structure, and categorize information; and to learn new concepts. The prefrontal cortex receives strong projections from midbrain neurons that use dopamine as a transmitter. In this article, we review the crucial role dopamine plays as a modulator of prefrontal cognitive functions, in the primate brain in particular. Following a summary of the anatomy and physiology of the midbrain dopamine system, we focus on recent studies that investigated dopaminergic effects in prefrontal cortex at the cellular level...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26290447/cortical-maps
#16
REVIEW
James A Bednar, Stuart P Wilson
In this article, we review functional organization in sensory cortical regions-how the cortex represents the world. We consider four interrelated aspects of cortical organization: (1) the set of receptive fields of individual cortical sensory neurons, (2) how lateral interaction between cortical neurons reflects the similarity of their receptive fields, (3) the spatial distribution of receptive-field properties across the horizontal extent of the cortical tissue, and (4) how the spatial distributions of different receptive-field properties interact with one another...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26290446/the-insula-a-hub-of-activity-in-migraine
#17
REVIEW
David Borsook, Rosanna Veggeberg, Nathalie Erpelding, Ronald Borra, Clas Linnman, Rami Burstein, Lino Becerra
The insula, a "cortical hub" buried within the lateral sulcus, is involved in a number of processes including goal-directed cognition, conscious awareness, autonomic regulation, interoception, and somatosensation. While some of these processes are well known in the clinical presentation of migraine (i.e., autonomic and somatosensory alterations), other more complex behaviors in migraine, such as conscious awareness and error detection, are less well described. Since the insula processes and relays afferent inputs from brain areas involved in these functions to areas involved in higher cortical function such as frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, it may be implicated as a brain region that translates the signals of altered internal milieu in migraine, along with other chronic pain conditions, through the insula into complex behaviors...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872341/amygdala-circuits-for-fear-memory-a-key-role-for-dopamine-regulation
#18
REVIEW
Joo Han Lee, Seungho Lee, Joung-Hun Kim
In addition to modulating a number of cognitive functions including reward, punishment, motivation, and salience, dopamine (DA) plays a pivotal role in regulating threat-related emotional memory. Changes in neural circuits of the amygdala nuclei are also critically involved in the acquisition and expression of emotional memory. In this review, we summarize the regulation of amygdala circuits by DA. Specifically, we describe DA signaling in the amygdala, and DA regulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity of the amygdala neurons...
November 20, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837180/neurogenesis-regulation-by-alternative-splicing-and-related-posttranscriptional-processes
#19
REVIEW
Enrique Lara-Pezzi, Manuel Desco, Alberto Gatto, María Victoria Gómez-Gaviro
The complexity of the mammalian brain requires highly specialized protein function and diversity. As neurons differentiate and the neuronal circuitry is established, several mRNAs undergo alternative splicing and other posttranscriptional changes that expand the variety of protein isoforms produced. Recent advances are beginning to shed light on the molecular mechanisms that regulate isoform switching during neurogenesis and the role played by specific RNA binding proteins in this process. Neurogenesis and neuronal wiring were recently shown to also be regulated by RNA degradation through nonsense-mediated decay...
November 10, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784761/dynamic-networks-in-the-emotional-brain
#20
REVIEW
Luiz Pessoa, Brenton McMenamin
Research on the emotional brain has often focused on a few structures thought to be central to this type of processing-hypothalamus, amygdala, insula, and so on. Conceptual thinking about emotion has viewed this mental faculty as linked to broader brain circuits, too, including early ideas by Papez and others. In this article, we discuss research that embraces a distributed view of emotion circuits and efforts to unravel the impact on emotional manipulations on the processing of several large-scale brain networks that are chiefly important for mental operations traditionally labeled with terms such as "perception," "action," and "cognition...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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