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Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781389/tracking-neuronal-connectivity-from-electric-brain-signals-to-predict-performance
#1
Fabrizio Vecchio, Francesca Miraglia, Paolo Maria Rossini
The human brain is a complex container of interconnected networks. Network neuroscience is a recent venture aiming to explore the connection matrix built from the human brain or human "Connectome." Network-based algorithms provide parameters that define global organization of the brain; when they are applied to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals network, configuration and excitability can be monitored in millisecond time frames, providing remarkable information on their instantaneous efficacy also for a given task's performance via online evaluation of the underlying instantaneous networks before, during, and after the task...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781367/human-stem-cell-derived-models-lessons-for-autoimmune-diseases-of-the-nervous-system
#2
Oliver Harschnitz
Autoimmunity of the peripheral and central nervous system is an important cause of disease and long-term neurological disability. Autoantibodies can target both intracellular and extracellular neuronal epitopes. Autoantibodies that target cell-surface epitopes infer pathogenicity through several distinct mechanisms, while patients often respond to immunotherapy. However, the underlying pathogenesis of these autoantibodies is yet to be fully understood. Human stem cell-based disease modeling, and the rise of induced pluripotent stem cell technology in particular, has revolutionized the fields of disease modeling and therapeutic screening for neurological disorders...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772957/brain-machine-interfaces-powerful-tools-for-clinical-treatment-and-neuroscientific-investigations
#3
Marc W Slutzky
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have exploded in popularity in the past decade. BMIs, also called brain-computer interfaces, provide a direct link between the brain and a computer, usually to control an external device. BMIs have a wide array of potential clinical applications, ranging from restoring communication to people unable to speak due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or a stroke, to restoring movement to people with paralysis from spinal cord injury or motor neuron disease, to restoring memory to people with cognitive impairment...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742958/mitochondrial-zn-2-accumulation-a-potential-trigger-of-hippocampal-ischemic-injury
#4
Sung G Ji, Yuliya V Medvedeva, Hwai-Lee Wang, Hong Z Yin, John H Weiss
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disabilities worldwide, and it has been long hoped that improved understanding of relevant injury mechanisms would yield targeted neuroprotective therapies. While Ca2+ overload during ischemia-induced glutamate excitotoxicity has been identified as a major contributor, failures of glutamate targeted therapies to achieve desired clinical efficacy have dampened early hopes for the development of new treatments. However, additional studies examining possible contributions of Zn2+ , a highly prevalent cation in the brain, have provided new insights that may help to rekindle the enthusiasm...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716431/dendritic-spine-elimination-molecular-mechanisms-and-implications
#5
Ivar S Stein, Karen Zito
Dynamic modification of synaptic connectivity in response to sensory experience is a vital step in the refinement of brain circuits as they are established during development and modified during learning. In addition to the well-established role for new spine growth and stabilization in the experience-dependent plasticity of neural circuits, dendritic spine elimination has been linked to improvements in learning, and dysregulation of spine elimination has been associated with intellectual disability and behavioral impairment...
April 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683026/exercise-induced-neuroplasticity-a-mechanistic-model-and-prospects-for-promoting-plasticity
#6
Jenin El-Sayes, Diana Harasym, Claudia V Turco, Mitchell B Locke, Aimee J Nelson
Aerobic exercise improves cognitive and motor function by inducing neural changes detected using molecular, cellular, and systems level neuroscience techniques. This review unifies the knowledge gained across various neuroscience techniques to provide a comprehensive profile of the neural mechanisms that mediate exercise-induced neuroplasticity. Using a model of exercise-induced neuroplasticity, this review emphasizes the sequence of neural events that accompany exercise, and ultimately promote changes in human performance...
April 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637805/noncoding-rnas-and-stroke
#7
Xuejing Zhang, Milton H Hamblin, Ke-Jie Yin
Over many years, extensive efforts have focused on the development and improvement of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to reduce stroke-associated neurovascular damage, such as blood-brain barrier dysfunction, brain edema, parenchymal inflammation, and neural cell death. However, the only clinically applied pharmacological therapy to date for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke is thrombolysis. Because of the short therapeutic window of current thrombolytic therapy and the activation of various pathophysiological signaling cascades triggered after ischemic stroke, the development of new therapies is urgently required...
April 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557710/the-subthalamic-nucleus-unravelling-new-roles-and-mechanisms-in-the-control-of-action
#8
Tora Bonnevie, Kareem A Zaghloul
How do we decide what we do? This is the essence of action control, the process of selecting the most appropriate response among multiple possible choices. Suboptimal action control can involve a failure to initiate or adapt actions, or conversely it can involve making actions impulsively. There has been an increasing focus on the specific role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in action control. This has been fueled by the clinical relevance of this basal ganglia nucleus as a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS), primarily in Parkinson's disease but also in obsessive-compulsive disorder...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557255/neural-mechanisms-of-inflammation-induced-fever
#9
Anders Blomqvist, David Engblom
Fever is a common symptom of infectious and inflammatory disease. It is well-established that prostaglandin E2 is the final mediator of fever, which by binding to its EP3 receptor subtype in the preoptic hypothalamus initiates thermogenesis. Here, we review the different hypotheses on how the presence of peripherally released pyrogenic substances can be signaled to the brain to elicit fever. We conclude that there is unequivocal evidence for a humoral signaling pathway by which proinflammatory cytokines, through their binding to receptors on brain endothelial cells, evoke fever by eliciting prostaglandin E2 synthesis in these cells...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542386/potassium-channel-gain-of-function-in-epilepsy-an-unresolved-paradox
#10
Zachary Niday, Anastasios V Tzingounis
Exome and targeted sequencing have revolutionized clinical diagnosis. This has been particularly striking in epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders, for which new genes or new variants of preexisting candidate genes are being continuously identified at increasing rates every year. A surprising finding of these efforts is the recognition that gain of function potassium channel variants are actually associated with certain types of epilepsy, such as malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy or early-onset epileptic encephalopathy...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529924/the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-and-memory-moving-beyond-protein-degradation
#11
Timothy J Jarome, Rishi K Devulapalli
Cellular models of memory formation have focused on the need for protein synthesis. Recently, evidence has emerged that protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is also important for this process. This has led to revised cellular models of memory formation that focus on a balance between protein degradation and synthesis. However, protein degradation is only one function of the UPS. Studies using single-celled organisms have shown that non-proteolytic ubiquitin-proteasome signaling is involved in histone modifications and DNA methylation, suggesting that ubiquitin and the proteasome can regulate chromatin remodeling independent of protein degradation...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757119/perspectives-on-neuroscience-and-behavior
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514579/perspectives-on-neuroscience-and-behavior
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29254416/the-subventricular-zone-a-key-player-in-human-neocortical-development
#14
J Alberto Ortega, Fani Memi, Nevena Radonjic, Radmila Filipovic, Inseyah Bagasrawala, Nada Zecevic, Igor Jakovcevski
One of the main characteristics of the developing brain is that all neurons and the majority of macroglia originate first in the ventricular zone (VZ), next to the lumen of the cerebral ventricles, and later on in a secondary germinal area above the VZ, the subventricular zone (SVZ). The SVZ is a transient compartment mitotically active in humans for several gestational months. It serves as a major source of cortical projection neurons as well as an additional source of glial cells and potentially some interneuron subpopulations...
April 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614981/nuclear-encoded-mitochondrial-mrnas-a-powerful-force-in-axonal-growth-and-development
#15
Jenna R Gale, Armaz Aschrafi, Anthony E Gioio, Barry B Kaplan
Axons, their growth cones, and synaptic nerve terminals are neuronal subcompartments that have high energetic needs. As such, they are enriched in mitochondria, which supply the ATP necessary to meet these demands. To date, a heterogeneous population of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs has been identified in distal axons and growth cones. Accumulating evidence suggests that the local translation of these mRNAs is required for mitochondrial maintenance and axonal viability. Here, we review evidence that suggests a critical role for axonal translation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs in axonal growth and development...
April 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593814/expanding-axonal-transcriptome-brings-new-functions-for-axonally-synthesized-proteins-in-health-and-disease
#16
Amar N Kar, Seung Joon Lee, Jeffery L Twiss
Intra-axonal protein synthesis has been shown to play critical roles in both development and repair of axons. Axons provide long-range connectivity in the nervous system, and disruption of their function and/or structure is seen in several neurological diseases and disorders. Axonally synthesized proteins or losses in axonally synthesized proteins contribute to neurodegenerative diseases, neuropathic pain, viral transport, and survival of axons. Increasing sensitivity of RNA detection and quantitation coupled with methods to isolate axons to purity has shown that a surprisingly complex transcriptome exists in axons...
April 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580823/ethanol-and-the-developing-brain-inhibition-of-neuronal-activity-and-neuroapoptosis
#17
Nailya Lotfullina, Roustem Khazipov
Ethanol induces massive neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. One of the main hypotheses that has been put forward to explain the deleterious actions of ethanol in the immature brain involves an inhibition of neuronal activity. Here, we review recent evidence for this hypothesis obtained in the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus of neonatal rodents. In both structures, ethanol strongly inhibits brain activity. At the doses inducing massive neuroapoptosis, ethanol completely suppresses the early activity patterns of spindle-bursts and gamma oscillations in the neocortex and the early sharp-waves in the hippocampus...
April 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534438/the-axonal-cytoskeleton-and-the-assembly-of-nodes-of-ranvier
#18
Aniket Ghosh, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Vertebrate nervous systems rely on rapid nerve impulse transmission to support their complex functions. Fast conduction depends on ensheathment of nerve axons by myelin-forming glia and the clustering of high concentrations of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) in the axonal gaps between myelinated segments. These gaps are the nodes of Ranvier. Depolarization of the axonal membrane initiates the action potential responsible for impulse transmission, and the Nav help ensure that this is restricted to nodes...
April 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513272/neuronal-dna-methyltransferases-epigenetic-mediators-between-synaptic-activity-and-gene-expression
#19
Gonca Bayraktar, Michael R Kreutz
DNMT3A and 3B are the main de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in the brain that introduce new methylation marks to non-methylated DNA in postmitotic neurons. DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark that is known to regulate important cellular processes in neuronal development and brain plasticity. Accumulating evidence disclosed rapid and dynamic changes in DNA methylation of plasticity-relevant genes that are important for learning and memory formation. To understand how DNMTs contribute to brain function and how they are regulated by neuronal activity is a prerequisite for a deeper appreciation of activity-dependent gene expression in health and disease...
April 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468530/the-epigenetics-of-epilepsy-and-its-progression
#20
Rebecca M Hauser, David C Henshall, Farah D Lubin
Epilepsy is a common and devastating neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked spontaneous seizures. One leading hypothesis for the development and progression of epilepsy is that large-scale changes in gene transcription and protein expression contribute to aberrant network restructuring and hyperexcitability, resulting in the genesis of repeated seizures. Current research shows that epigenetic mechanisms, including posttranslational alterations to the proteins around which DNA is coiled, chemical modifications to DNA, and the activity of various noncoding RNA molecules exert important influences on these gene networks in experimental epilepsy...
April 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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