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Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872341/amygdala-circuits-for-fear-memory-a-key-role-for-dopamine-regulation
#1
REVIEW
Joo Han Lee, Seungho Lee, Joung-Hun Kim
In addition to modulating a number of cognitive functions including reward, punishment, motivation, and salience, dopamine (DA) plays a pivotal role in regulating threat-related emotional memory. Changes in neural circuits of the amygdala nuclei are also critically involved in the acquisition and expression of emotional memory. In this review, we summarize the regulation of amygdala circuits by DA. Specifically, we describe DA signaling in the amygdala, and DA regulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity of the amygdala neurons...
November 20, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837180/neurogenesis-regulation-by-alternative-splicing-and-related-posttranscriptional-processes
#2
REVIEW
Enrique Lara-Pezzi, Manuel Desco, Alberto Gatto, María Victoria Gómez-Gaviro
The complexity of the mammalian brain requires highly specialized protein function and diversity. As neurons differentiate and the neuronal circuitry is established, several mRNAs undergo alternative splicing and other posttranscriptional changes that expand the variety of protein isoforms produced. Recent advances are beginning to shed light on the molecular mechanisms that regulate isoform switching during neurogenesis and the role played by specific RNA binding proteins in this process. Neurogenesis and neuronal wiring were recently shown to also be regulated by RNA degradation through nonsense-mediated decay...
November 10, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784761/dynamic-networks-in-the-emotional-brain
#3
REVIEW
Luiz Pessoa, Brenton McMenamin
Research on the emotional brain has often focused on a few structures thought to be central to this type of processing-hypothalamus, amygdala, insula, and so on. Conceptual thinking about emotion has viewed this mental faculty as linked to broader brain circuits, too, including early ideas by Papez and others. In this article, we discuss research that embraces a distributed view of emotion circuits and efforts to unravel the impact on emotional manipulations on the processing of several large-scale brain networks that are chiefly important for mental operations traditionally labeled with terms such as "perception," "action," and "cognition...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777337/blindsight-and-unconscious-vision-what-they-teach-us-about-the-human-visual-system
#4
Sara Ajina, Holly Bridge
Damage to the primary visual cortex removes the major input from the eyes to the brain, causing significant visual loss as patients are unable to perceive the side of the world contralateral to the damage. Some patients, however, retain the ability to detect visual information within this blind region; this is known as blindsight. By studying the visual pathways that underlie this residual vision in patients, we can uncover additional aspects of the human visual system that likely contribute to normal visual function but cannot be revealed under physiological conditions...
October 23, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707995/glycogen-multiple-roles-in-the-cns
#5
Laura Rich, Angus M Brown
The historically neurocentric view of astrocytes as Styrofoam cushioning that rigidly clad neurons within the brain parenchyma has been superseded in the past 30 years by an increasing appreciation of the myriad roles astrocytes contribute to supporting physiological brain function. It is widely recognized that the continuous support provided by astrocytes, from prenatal development to maturity, is vital for neuronal function. Indeed, the numerous and diverse roles furnished by astrocytes contrasts with the vital but restricted transmission of action potentials that is the neuron's primary role...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660241/the-neural-code-for-pain-from-single-cell-electrophysiology-to-the-dynamic-pain-connectome
#6
Aaron Kucyi, Karen D Davis
Pain occurs in time. In naturalistic settings, pain perception is sometimes stable but often varies in intensity and quality over the course of seconds, minutes, and days. A principal aim in classic electrophysiology studies of pain was to uncover a neural code based on the temporal patterns of single neuron firing. In contrast, modern neuroimaging studies have placed emphasis on uncovering the spatial pattern of brain activity (or "map") that may reflect the pain experience. However, in the emerging field of connectomics, communication within and among brain networks is characterized as intrinsically dynamic on multiple time scales...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660240/neurons-versus-networks-the-interplay-between-individual-neurons-and-neural-networks-in-cognitive-functions
#7
Yuri I Arshavsky
The main paradigm of cognitive neuroscience is the connectionist concept postulating that the higher nervous activity is performed through interactions of neurons forming complex networks, whereas the function of individual neurons is restricted to generating electrical potentials and transmitting signals to other cells. In this article, I describe the observations from three fields-neurolinguistics, physiology of memory, and sensory perception-that can hardly be explained within the constraints of a purely connectionist concept...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655008/small-world-brain-networks-revisited
#8
Danielle S Bassett, Edward T Bullmore
It is nearly 20 years since the concept of a small-world network was first quantitatively defined, by a combination of high clustering and short path length; and about 10 years since this metric of complex network topology began to be widely applied to analysis of neuroimaging and other neuroscience data as part of the rapid growth of the new field of connectomics. Here, we review briefly the foundational concepts of graph theoretical estimation and generation of small-world networks. We take stock of some of the key developments in the field in the past decade and we consider in some detail the implications of recent studies using high-resolution tract-tracing methods to map the anatomical networks of the macaque and the mouse...
September 21, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624848/how-wnt-signaling-builds-the-brain-bridging-development-and-disease
#9
Rivka Noelanders, Kris Vleminckx
Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a crucial role throughout all stages of brain development and remains important in the adult brain. Accordingly, many neurological disorders have been linked to Wnt signaling. Defects in Wnt signaling during neural development can give rise to birth defects or lead to neurological dysfunction later in life. Developmental signaling events can also be hijacked in the adult and result in disease. Moreover, knowledge about the physiological role of Wnt signaling in the brain might lead to new therapeutic strategies for neurological diseases...
September 13, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811316/the-neuroscientist-comments
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811315/forthcoming-articles
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26552866/multiple-roles-for-nogo-receptor-1-in-visual-system-plasticity
#12
REVIEW
Céleste-Élise Stephany, Michael G Frantz, Aaron W McGee
During the developmental critical period for visual plasticity, discordant vision alters the responsiveness of neurons in visual cortex. The subsequent closure of the critical period not only consolidates neural function but also limits recovery of acuity from preceding abnormal visual experience. Despite species-specific differences in circuitry of the visual system, these characteristics are conserved. The nogo-66 receptor 1 (ngr1) is one of only a small number of genes identified thus far that is essential to closing the critical period...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26463470/building-an-rna-sequencing-transcriptome-of-the-central-nervous-system
#13
REVIEW
Xiaomin Dong, Yanan You, Jia Qian Wu
The composition and function of the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely complex. In addition to hundreds of subtypes of neurons, other cell types, including glia (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia) and vascular cells (endothelial cells and pericytes) also play important roles in CNS function. Such heterogeneity makes the study of gene transcription in CNS challenging. Transcriptomic studies, namely the analyses of the expression levels and structures of all genes, are essential for interpreting the functional elements and understanding the molecular constituents of the CNS...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26338491/doping-the-mind-dopaminergic-modulation-of-prefrontal-cortical-cognition
#14
REVIEW
Ajit Ranganath, Simon N Jacob
The prefrontal cortex is the center of cognitive control. Processing in prefrontal cortical circuits enables us to direct attention to behaviorally relevant events; to memorize, structure, and categorize information; and to learn new concepts. The prefrontal cortex receives strong projections from midbrain neurons that use dopamine as a transmitter. In this article, we review the crucial role dopamine plays as a modulator of prefrontal cognitive functions, in the primate brain in particular. Following a summary of the anatomy and physiology of the midbrain dopamine system, we focus on recent studies that investigated dopaminergic effects in prefrontal cortex at the cellular level...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621368/the-effects-of-extended-pain-on-behavior-recent-progress
#15
REVIEW
Ted B Usdin, Eugene L Dimitrov
Chronic pain is frequently associated with anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunction. This review discusses recent work in rodents that contributes to the understanding of their neurobiological links. Brain regions that contain circuits that mediate persistent changes in behavior that are caused by nerve injury or joint inflammation include the rostral anterior cingulate and other parts of the medial prefrontal cortex, the basolateral and central nucleus of the amygdala, and the nucleus accumbens. Functional changes, including increases in the activity within specific neuronal pathways and in the levels of specific synaptic components, that are associated with the behavior changes, or are in some cases necessary for them, have recently been identified...
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621367/the-neuroscientist-comments
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621366/forthcoming-articles
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511041/roles-of-calcium-stores-and-store-operated-channels-in-plasticity-of-dendritic-spines
#18
REVIEW
Menahem Segal, Eduard Korkotian
Calcium stores in the endoplasmic reticulum play important roles in a variety of mammalian cellular functions. However, the multitude of calcium-handling machineries in neurons, including voltage- and ligand-gated channels, calcium-binding proteins, pumps, and transporters, as well as the rapid mobility of calcium ions among different cellular compartments hampered the singling out of calcium stores as a pivotal player in synaptic plasticity. Despite these methodological obstacles, novel molecular and imaging tools afforded a rapid progress in deciphering the role of specific calcium stores in neuronal functions...
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26450593/epigenetic-basis-of-mental-illness
#19
Eric J Nestler, Catherine J Peña, Marija Kundakovic, Amanda Mitchell, Schahram Akbarian
Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function as well as likely abnormalities in glial cells. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of most mental disorders, the relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins, particularly for depression and other stress-related syndromes, clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses...
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26396150/the-multifarious-hippocampal-functions-of-microrna-137
#20
Aron Kos, Armaz Aschrafi, Nael Nadif Kasri
MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as a powerful class of endogenous noncoding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene expression regulation. miR-137 has repeatedly been associated with schizophrenia and intellectual disability. Recent studies describe the mechanisms of miR-137 in mediating basic synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus. A picture is emerging in which miR-137 acts as a potent player in regulating glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus by controlling the translation of functionally critical genes at spatially opposite ends of the synapse, contributing to the pathogenesis of cognitive impairments as seen in neurodevelopmental disorders...
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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