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Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737113/micrornas-roles-in-regulating-neuroinflammation
#1
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken, Linda R Watkins, Randy J Nelson, Phillip G Popovich
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that broadly affect cellular and physiological function in all multicellular organisms. Here, the role of miRNAs in neuroinflammation is considered. miRNAs are 21- to 23-oligonucleotide RNAs that regulate translation of specific RNAs by binding to complementary regulatory RNA sequences, thereby causing mRNA degradation or sequestration. More than 5000 miRNAs likely exist in humans, and each miRNA binds an average of 200 RNAs. Specific immunomodulatory miRNAs can regulate a set of RNAs in a coordinated manner, suggesting that effective miRNA-based therapeutic manipulations for neuroinflammatory conditions may be revealed...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691573/plasticity-in-the-working-memory-system-life-span-changes-and-response-to-injury
#2
Sean Froudist-Walsh, Diana López-Barroso, María José Torres-Prioris, Paula Croxson, Marcelo L Berthier
Working memory acts as a key bridge between perception, long-term memory, and action. The brain regions, connections, and neurotransmitters that underlie working memory undergo dramatic plastic changes during the life span, and in response to injury. Early life reliance on deep gray matter structures fades during adolescence as increasing reliance on prefrontal and parietal cortex accompanies the development of executive aspects of working memory. The rise and fall of working memory capacity and executive functions parallels the development and loss of neurotransmitter function in frontal cortical areas...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659070/noninvasive-stimulation-of-the-human-brain-activation-of-multiple-cortical-circuits
#3
Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, John Rothwell, Marco Capogna
Noninvasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial electric stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are widely used tools for both basic research and clinical applications. However, the cortical circuits underlying their effects are poorly defined. Here we review the current knowledge based on data mostly coming from experiments performed on human subjects, and also to a lesser extent on rodent or primate models. The data suggest that multiple mechanisms are likely to be involved, such as the direct activation of layer V pyramidal neurons, but also of different types of GABAergic interneurons...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614981/nuclear-encoded-mitochondrial-mrnas-a-powerful-force-in-axonal-growth-and-development
#4
Jenna R Gale, Armaz Aschrafi, Anthony E Gioio, Barry B Kaplan
Axons, their growth cones, and synaptic nerve terminals are neuronal subcompartments that have high energetic needs. As such, they are enriched in mitochondria, which supply the ATP necessary to meet these demands. To date, a heterogeneous population of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs has been identified in distal axons and growth cones. Accumulating evidence suggests that the local translation of these mRNAs is required for mitochondrial maintenance and axonal viability. Here, we review evidence that suggests a critical role for axonal translation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs in axonal growth and development...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612649/a-brain-on-a-roller-coaster-can-the-dopamine-reward-system-act-as-a-protagonist-to-subdue-the-ups-and-downs-of-bipolar-disorder
#5
Shokouh Arjmand, Mina Behzadi, Gary J Stephens, Sara Ezzatabadipour, Rostam Seifaddini, Shahrad Arjmand, Mohammad Shabani
One of the most interesting but tenebrous parts of the bipolar disorder (BD) story is the switch between (hypo)mania and depression, which can give bipolar patients a thrilling, but somewhat perilous, 'ride'. Numerous studies have pointed out that there are some recognizable differences (either state-dependent or state-independent) in several brain regions of people with BD, including components of the brain's reward system. Understanding the underpinning mechanisms of high and low mood statuses in BD has potential, not only for the development of highly specific and selective pharmaceutical agents, but also for better treatment approaches and psychological interventions to manage BD and, thus, give patients a safer ride...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593814/expanding-axonal-transcriptome-brings-new-functions-for-axonally-synthesized-proteins-in-health-and-disease
#6
Amar N Kar, Seung Joon Lee, Jeffery L Twiss
Intra-axonal protein synthesis has been shown to play critical roles in both development and repair of axons. Axons provide long-range connectivity in the nervous system, and disruption of their function and/or structure is seen in several neurological diseases and disorders. Axonally synthesized proteins or losses in axonally synthesized proteins contribute to neurodegenerative diseases, neuropathic pain, viral transport, and survival of axons. Increasing sensitivity of RNA detection and quantitation coupled with methods to isolate axons to purity has shown that a surprisingly complex transcriptome exists in axons...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580823/ethanol-and-the-developing-brain-inhibition-of-neuronal-activity-and-neuroapoptosis
#7
Nailya Lotfullina, Roustem Khazipov
Ethanol induces massive neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. One of the main hypotheses that has been put forward to explain the deleterious actions of ethanol in the immature brain involves an inhibition of neuronal activity. Here, we review recent evidence for this hypothesis obtained in the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus of neonatal rodents. In both structures, ethanol strongly inhibits brain activity. At the doses inducing massive neuroapoptosis, ethanol completely suppresses the early activity patterns of spindle-bursts and gamma oscillations in the neocortex and the early sharp-waves in the hippocampus...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534438/the-axonal-cytoskeleton-and-the-assembly-of-nodes-of-ranvier
#8
Aniket Ghosh, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Vertebrate nervous systems rely on rapid nerve impulse transmission to support their complex functions. Fast conduction depends on ensheathment of nerve axons by myelin-forming glia and the clustering of high concentrations of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) in the axonal gaps between myelinated segments. These gaps are the nodes of Ranvier. Depolarization of the axonal membrane initiates the action potential responsible for impulse transmission, and the Nav help ensure that this is restricted to nodes...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513272/neuronal-dna-methyltransferases-epigenetic-mediators-between-synaptic-activity-and-gene-expression
#9
Gonca Bayraktar, Michael R Kreutz
DNMT3A and 3B are the main de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in the brain that introduce new methylation marks to non-methylated DNA in postmitotic neurons. DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark that is known to regulate important cellular processes in neuronal development and brain plasticity. Accumulating evidence disclosed rapid and dynamic changes in DNA methylation of plasticity-relevant genes that are important for learning and memory formation. To understand how DNMTs contribute to brain function and how they are regulated by neuronal activity is a prerequisite for a deeper appreciation of activity-dependent gene expression in health and disease...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492104/oxytocin-and-vasopressin-powerful-regulators-of-social-behavior
#10
Heather K Caldwell
For many, the terms oxytocin and vasopressin immediately evoke images of animals interacting with one another, as both of these neuropeptides have been implicated as being part of the neurochemical "glue" that socially binds animals. However, social environments and social interactions are complex and include behaviors that bring animals together as well as behaviors that keep animals apart. It is at the intersection of social context, social experience, and an individual's sex that oxytocin and vasopressin act to modulate social behavior and social cognition...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468530/the-epigenetics-of-epilepsy-and-its-progression
#11
Rebecca M Hauser, David C Henshall, Farah D Lubin
Epilepsy is a common and devastating neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked spontaneous seizures. One leading hypothesis for the development and progression of epilepsy is that large-scale changes in gene transcription and protein expression contribute to aberrant network restructuring and hyperexcitability, resulting in the genesis of repeated seizures. Current research shows that epigenetic mechanisms, including posttranslational alterations to the proteins around which DNA is coiled, chemical modifications to DNA, and the activity of various noncoding RNA molecules exert important influences on these gene networks in experimental epilepsy...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459188/the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-sma-and-als-how-does-it-contribute-to-motoneuron-degeneration
#12
Niko Hensel, Peter Claus
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are neurodegenerative diseases with overlapping clinical phenotypes based on impaired motoneuron function. However, the pathomechanisms of both diseases are largely unknown, and it is still unclear whether they converge on the molecular level. SMA is a monogenic disease caused by low levels of functional Survival of Motoneuron (SMN) protein, whereas ALS involves multiple genes as well as environmental factors. Recent evidence argues for involvement of actin regulation as a causative and dysregulated process in both diseases...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459173/olfactory-loss-and-regain-lessons-for-neuroplasticity
#13
Johanna L Reichert, Veronika Schöpf
For the visual and auditory senses, an array of studies has reported on neuronal reorganization processes after sensory loss. In contrast to this, neuroplasticity has been investigated only scarcely after loss of the olfactory sense. The present review focuses on the current extent of literature on structural and functional neuroplasticity effects after loss, with a focus on magnetic resonance imaging-based studies. We also include findings on the regain of the olfactory sense, for example after successful olfactory training...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447501/imaging-acute-and-chronic-pain-in-the-human-brainstem-and-spinal-cord
#14
Luke A Henderson, Kevin A Keay
While acute pain serves as a protective mechanism designed to warn an individual of potential or actual damaging stimuli, chronic pain provides no benefit and is now considered a disease in its own right. Since the advent of human brain imaging techniques, many investigations that have explored the central representation of acute and chronic pain have focused on changes in higher order brain regions. In contrast, far fewer have explored brainstem and spinal cord function, mainly due to significant technical difficulties...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406055/graph-theory-and-brain-connectivity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Jon delEtoile, Hojjat Adeli
This article presents a review of recent advances in neuroscience research in the specific area of brain connectivity as a potential biomarker of Alzheimer's disease with a focus on the application of graph theory. The review will begin with a brief overview of connectivity and graph theory. Then resent advances in connectivity as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease will be presented and analyzed.
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403673/mechanisms-mediating-functional-hyperemia-in-the-brain
#16
Amy R Nippert, Kyle R Biesecker, Eric A Newman
Neuronal activity within the brain evokes local increases in blood flow, a response termed functional hyperemia. This response ensures that active neurons receive sufficient oxygen and nutrients to maintain tissue function and health. In this review, we discuss the functions of functional hyperemia, the types of vessels that generate the response, and the signaling mechanisms that mediate neurovascular coupling, the communication between neurons and blood vessels. Neurovascular coupling signaling is mediated primarily by the vasoactive metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), by nitric oxide, and by K(+)...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397586/axonal-regulation-of-central-nervous-system-myelination-structure-and-function
#17
Anna Klingseisen, David A Lyons
Approximately half of the human brain consists of myelinated axons. Central nervous system (CNS) myelin is made by oligodendrocytes and is essential for nervous system formation, health, and function. Once thought simply as a static insulator that facilitated rapid impulse conduction, myelin is now known to be made and remodeled in to adult life. Oligodendrocytes have a remarkable capacity to differentiate by default, but many aspects of their development can be influenced by axons. However, how axons and oligodendrocytes interact and cooperate to regulate myelination in the CNS remains unclear...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378628/gabaergic-transmission-during-brain-development-multiple-effects-at-multiple-stages
#18
Knut Kirmse, Christian A Hübner, Dirk Isbrandt, Otto W Witte, Knut Holthoff
In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in deciphering the cellular and network functions of GABAergic transmission in the intact developing brain. First, in vivo studies in non-mammalian and mammalian species confirmed the long-held assumption that GABA acts as a mainly depolarizing neurotransmitter at early developmental stages. At the same time, GABAergic transmission was shown to spatiotemporally constrain spontaneous cortical activity, whereas firm evidence for GABAergic excitation in vivo is currently missing...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351197/the-human-central-pattern-generator-for-locomotion
#19
Karen Minassian, Ursula S Hofstoetter, Florin Dzeladini, Pierre A Guertin, Auke Ijspeert
The ability of dedicated spinal circuits, referred to as central pattern generators (CPGs), to produce the basic rhythm and neural activation patterns underlying locomotion can be demonstrated under specific experimental conditions in reduced animal preparations. The existence of CPGs in humans is a matter of debate. Equally elusive is the contribution of CPGs to normal bipedal locomotion. To address these points, we focus on human studies that utilized spinal cord stimulation or pharmacological neuromodulation to generate rhythmic activity in individuals with spinal cord injury, and on neuromechanical modeling of human locomotion...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345483/spinal-epidural-stimulation-strategies
#20
Prithvi K Shah, Igor Lavrov
Significant advancements in spinal epidural stimulation (ES) strategies to enable volitional motor control in persons with a complete spinal cord injury (SCI) have generated much excitement in the field of neurorehabilitation. Still, an obvious gap lies in the ability of ES to effectively generate a robust locomotor stepping response after a complete SCI in rodents, but not in humans. In order to reveal potential discrepancies between rodent and human studies that account for this void, in this review, we summarize the findings of studies that have utilized ES strategies to enable successful hindlimb stepping in spinal rats...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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