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Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513272/neuronal-dna-methyltransferases-epigenetic-mediators-between-synaptic-activity-and-gene-expression
#1
Gonca Bayraktar, Michael R Kreutz
DNMT3A and 3B are the main de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in the brain that introduce new methylation marks to non-methylated DNA in postmitotic neurons. DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark that is known to regulate important cellular processes in neuronal development and brain plasticity. Accumulating evidence disclosed rapid and dynamic changes in DNA methylation of plasticity-relevant genes that are important for learning and memory formation. To understand how DNMTs contribute to brain function and how they are regulated by neuronal activity is a prerequisite for a deeper appreciation of activity-dependent gene expression in health and disease...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492104/oxytocin-and-vasopressin-powerful-regulators-of-social-behavior
#2
Heather K Caldwell
For many, the terms oxytocin and vasopressin immediately evoke images of animals interacting with one another, as both of these neuropeptides have been implicated as being part of the neurochemical "glue" that socially binds animals. However, social environments and social interactions are complex and include behaviors that bring animals together as well as behaviors that keep animals apart. It is at the intersection of social context, social experience, and an individual's sex that oxytocin and vasopressin act to modulate social behavior and social cognition...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468530/the-epigenetics-of-epilepsy-and-its-progression
#3
Rebecca M Hauser, David C Henshall, Farah D Lubin
Epilepsy is a common and devastating neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked spontaneous seizures. One leading hypothesis for the development and progression of epilepsy is that large-scale changes in gene transcription and protein expression contribute to aberrant network restructuring and hyperexcitability, resulting in the genesis of repeated seizures. Current research shows that epigenetic mechanisms, including posttranslational alterations to the proteins around which DNA is coiled, chemical modifications to DNA, and the activity of various noncoding RNA molecules exert important influences on these gene networks in experimental epilepsy...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459188/the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-sma-and-als-how-does-it-contribute-to-motoneuron-degeneration
#4
Niko Hensel, Peter Claus
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are neurodegenerative diseases with overlapping clinical phenotypes based on impaired motoneuron function. However, the pathomechanisms of both diseases are largely unknown, and it is still unclear whether they converge on the molecular level. SMA is a monogenic disease caused by low levels of functional Survival of Motoneuron (SMN) protein, whereas ALS involves multiple genes as well as environmental factors. Recent evidence argues for involvement of actin regulation as a causative and dysregulated process in both diseases...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459173/olfactory-loss-and-regain-lessons-for-neuroplasticity
#5
Johanna L Reichert, Veronika Schöpf
For the visual and auditory senses, an array of studies has reported on neuronal reorganization processes after sensory loss. In contrast to this, neuroplasticity has been investigated only scarcely after loss of the olfactory sense. The present review focuses on the current extent of literature on structural and functional neuroplasticity effects after loss, with a focus on magnetic resonance imaging-based studies. We also include findings on the regain of the olfactory sense, for example after successful olfactory training...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447501/imaging-acute-and-chronic-pain-in-the-human-brainstem-and-spinal-cord
#6
Luke A Henderson, Kevin A Keay
While acute pain serves as a protective mechanism designed to warn an individual of potential or actual damaging stimuli, chronic pain provides no benefit and is now considered a disease in its own right. Since the advent of human brain imaging techniques, many investigations that have explored the central representation of acute and chronic pain have focused on changes in higher order brain regions. In contrast, far fewer have explored brainstem and spinal cord function, mainly due to significant technical difficulties...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406055/graph-theory-and-brain-connectivity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Jon delEtoile, Hojjat Adeli
This article presents a review of recent advances in neuroscience research in the specific area of brain connectivity as a potential biomarker of Alzheimer's disease with a focus on the application of graph theory. The review will begin with a brief overview of connectivity and graph theory. Then resent advances in connectivity as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease will be presented and analyzed.
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403673/mechanisms-mediating-functional-hyperemia-in-the-brain
#8
Amy R Nippert, Kyle R Biesecker, Eric A Newman
Neuronal activity within the brain evokes local increases in blood flow, a response termed functional hyperemia. This response ensures that active neurons receive sufficient oxygen and nutrients to maintain tissue function and health. In this review, we discuss the functions of functional hyperemia, the types of vessels that generate the response, and the signaling mechanisms that mediate neurovascular coupling, the communication between neurons and blood vessels. Neurovascular coupling signaling is mediated primarily by the vasoactive metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), by nitric oxide, and by K(+)...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397586/axonal-regulation-of-central-nervous-system-myelination-structure-and-function
#9
Anna Klingseisen, David A Lyons
Approximately half of the human brain consists of myelinated axons. Central nervous system (CNS) myelin is made by oligodendrocytes and is essential for nervous system formation, health, and function. Once thought simply as a static insulator that facilitated rapid impulse conduction, myelin is now known to be made and remodeled in to adult life. Oligodendrocytes have a remarkable capacity to differentiate by default, but many aspects of their development can be influenced by axons. However, how axons and oligodendrocytes interact and cooperate to regulate myelination in the CNS remains unclear...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378628/gabaergic-transmission-during-brain-development-multiple-effects-at-multiple-stages
#10
Knut Kirmse, Christian A Hübner, Dirk Isbrandt, Otto W Witte, Knut Holthoff
In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in deciphering the cellular and network functions of GABAergic transmission in the intact developing brain. First, in vivo studies in non-mammalian and mammalian species confirmed the long-held assumption that GABA acts as a mainly depolarizing neurotransmitter at early developmental stages. At the same time, GABAergic transmission was shown to spatiotemporally constrain spontaneous cortical activity, whereas firm evidence for GABAergic excitation in vivo is currently missing...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351197/the-human-central-pattern-generator-for-locomotion
#11
Karen Minassian, Ursula S Hofstoetter, Florin Dzeladini, Pierre A Guertin, Auke Ijspeert
The ability of dedicated spinal circuits, referred to as central pattern generators (CPGs), to produce the basic rhythm and neural activation patterns underlying locomotion can be demonstrated under specific experimental conditions in reduced animal preparations. The existence of CPGs in humans is a matter of debate. Equally elusive is the contribution of CPGs to normal bipedal locomotion. To address these points, we focus on human studies that utilized spinal cord stimulation or pharmacological neuromodulation to generate rhythmic activity in individuals with spinal cord injury, and on neuromechanical modeling of human locomotion...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345483/spinal-epidural-stimulation-strategies
#12
Prithvi K Shah, Igor Lavrov
Significant advancements in spinal epidural stimulation (ES) strategies to enable volitional motor control in persons with a complete spinal cord injury (SCI) have generated much excitement in the field of neurorehabilitation. Still, an obvious gap lies in the ability of ES to effectively generate a robust locomotor stepping response after a complete SCI in rodents, but not in humans. In order to reveal potential discrepancies between rodent and human studies that account for this void, in this review, we summarize the findings of studies that have utilized ES strategies to enable successful hindlimb stepping in spinal rats...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303740/neurotrophins-and-proneurotrophins
#13
Julien Gibon, Philip A Barker
Neurotrophins have been intensively studied and have multiple roles in the brain. Neurotrophins are first synthetized as proneurotrophins and then cleaved intracellularly and extracellularly. Increasing evidences demonstrate that proneurotrophins and mature neurotrophins exerts opposing role in the central nervous system. In the present review, we explore the role of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), and neurotrophin 4 (NT4) and their respective proform in cellular processes related to learning and memory...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299949/postnatal-neural-stem-cells
#14
Vanessa Donega, Olivier Raineteau
There is growing evidence for a tentative cellular repair in the forebrain following perinatal injuries. In this review, we present the evidences and shortcomings in this regenerative attempt. We discuss recent progress in elucidating the origin, diversity, and competence of postnatal neural stem cells/progenitor cells. Finally, we propose new strategies to recruit postnatal progenitors to generate specific subtypes of cortical neurons or oligodendrocytes, thereby allowing the development of tailor-made approaches to treat perinatal brain injuries...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466758/the-glymphatic-pathway
#15
Helene Benveniste, Hedok Lee, Nora D Volkow
The overall premise of this review is that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is transported within a dedicated peri-vascular network facilitating metabolic waste clearance from the central nervous system while we sleep. The anatomical profile of the network is complex and has been defined as a peri-arterial CSF influx pathway and peri-venous clearance routes, which are functionally coupled by interstitial bulk flow supported by astrocytic aquaporin 4 water channels. The role of the newly discovered system in the brain is equivalent to the lymphatic system present in other body organs and has been termed the "glymphatic pathway" or "(g)lymphatics" because of its dependence on glial cells...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932591/the-cellular-diversity-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-relevance-to-behavior-in-health-and-aspects-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Ilse S Pienaar, Anthony Vernon, Philip Winn
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a rostral brainstem structure that has extensive connections with basal ganglia nuclei and the thalamus. Through these the PPN contributes to neural circuits that effect cortical and hippocampal activity. The PPN also has descending connections to nuclei of the pontine and medullary reticular formations, deep cerebellar nuclei, and the spinal cord. Interest in the PPN has increased dramatically since it was first suggested to be a novel target for treating patients with Parkinson's disease who are refractory to medication...
December 7, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403746/feed-forwardness-of-spinal-networks-in-posture-and-locomotion
#17
Yury Gerasimenko, Dimitry Sayenko, Parag Gad, Chao-Tuan Liu, Niranjala J K Tillakaratne, Roland R Roy, Inessa Kozlovskaya, V Reggie Edgerton
We present a new perspective on the concept of feed-forward compared to feedback mechanisms for motor control. We propose that conceptually all sensory information in real time provided to the brain and spinal cord can be viewed as a feed-forward phenomenon. We also propose that the spinal cord continually adapts to a broad array of ongoing sensory information that is used to adjust the probability of making timely and predictable decisions of selected networks that will execute a given response. One interpretation of the term feedback historically entails responses with short delays...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130838/the-kcc2-cotransporter-and-human-epilepsy-getting-excited-about-inhibition
#18
Kristopher T Kahle, Arjun R Khanna, JingJing Duan, Kevin J Staley, Eric Delpire, Annapurna Poduri
The cation-Cl(-) cotransporter KCC2, encoded by SLC12A5, is required for the emergence and maintenance of GABAergic fast synaptic inhibition in organisms across evolution. These findings have suggested that KCC2 deficiency might play a role in the pathogenesis human epilepsy, but this has only recently been substantiated by two lines of genetic evidence. The first is the discovery of heterozygous missense polymorphisms in SLC12A5, causing decreased KCC2-dependent Cl(-) extrusion capacity, in an Australian family with inherited febrile seizures and in a French-Canadian cohort with severe genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE)...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26552866/multiple-roles-for-nogo-receptor-1-in-visual-system-plasticity
#19
REVIEW
Céleste-Élise Stephany, Michael G Frantz, Aaron W McGee
During the developmental critical period for visual plasticity, discordant vision alters the responsiveness of neurons in visual cortex. The subsequent closure of the critical period not only consolidates neural function but also limits recovery of acuity from preceding abnormal visual experience. Despite species-specific differences in circuitry of the visual system, these characteristics are conserved. The nogo-66 receptor 1 (ngr1) is one of only a small number of genes identified thus far that is essential to closing the critical period...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511040/neural-mechanisms-and-children-s-intellectual-development-multiple-impacts-of-environmental-factors
#20
REVIEW
Hikaru Takeuchi, Ryuta Kawashima
Human psychometric intelligence can predict a number of important social and academic outcomes. Substantial parts of the variances of human intelligence and the brain volume supporting those abilities are explained by environmental factors, and during childhood, human brains have higher plasticity and also 60% of variance of intelligence that is explained by environmental factors. Here, we review the representative environmental factors known to affect human intellectual development during each developmental stage...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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