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Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307265/epigenetic-control-of-schwann-cells
#1
Ki H Ma, John Svaren
The journey of Schwann cells from their origin in the neural crest to their ensheathment and myelination of peripheral nerves is a remarkable one. Their apparent static function in enabling saltatory conduction of mature nerve is not only vital for long-term health of peripheral nerve but also belies an innate capacity of terminally differentiated Schwann cells to radically alter their differentiation status in the face of nerve injury. The transition from migrating neural crest cells to nerve ensheathment, and then myelination of large diameter axons has been characterized extensively and several of the transcriptional networks have been identified...
January 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283025/polycomb-repressive-complex-2-emerging-roles-in-the-central-nervous-system
#2
Pei-Pei Liu, Ya-Jie Xu, Zhao-Qian Teng, Chang-Mei Liu
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is responsible for catalyzing both di- and trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me2/3). The subunits of PRC2 are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). PRC2 as well as H3K27me2/3, play distinct roles in neuronal identity, proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells, neuronal morphology, and gliogenesis. Mutations or dysregulations of PRC2 subunits often cause neurological diseases. Therefore, PRC2 might represent a common target of different pathological processes that drive neurodegenerative diseases...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276856/cellular-origin-of-18f-fdg-pet-imaging-signals-during-ceftriaxone-stimulated-glutamate-uptake-astrocytes-and-neurons
#3
Gerald A Dienel, Kevin L Behar, Douglas L Rothman
Ceftriaxone stimulates astrocytic uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and it is used to treat glutamatergic excitotoxicity that becomes manifest during many brain diseases. Ceftriaxone-stimulated glutamate transport was reported to drive signals underlying [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomographic ([18F]FDG-PET) metabolic images of brain glucose utilization and interpreted as supportive of the notion of lactate shuttling from astrocytes to neurons. This study draws attention to critical roles of astrocytes in the energetics and imaging of brain activity, but the results are provocative because (1) the method does not have cellular resolution or provide information about downstream pathways of glucose metabolism, (2) neuronal and astrocytic [18F]FDG uptake were not separately measured, and (3) strong evidence against lactate shuttling was not discussed...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271293/are-we-motorically-wired-to-others-high-level-motor-computations-and-their-role-in-autism
#4
Luca Casartelli, Alessandra Federici, Emilia Biffi, Massimo Molteni, Luca Ronconi
High-level motor computations reflect abstract components far apart from the mere motor performance. Neural correlates of these computations have been explored both in nonhuman and human primates, supporting the idea that our brain recruits complex nodes for motor representations. Of note, these computations have exciting implications for social cognition, and they also entail important challenges in the context of autism. Here, we focus on these challenges benefiting from recent studies addressing motor interference, motor resonance, and high-level motor planning...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283026/restoring-motor-functions-after-stroke-multiple-approaches-and-opportunities
#5
Estelle Raffin, Friedhelm C Hummel
More than 1.5 million people suffer a stroke in Europe per year and more than 70% of stroke survivors experience limited functional recovery of their upper limb, resulting in diminished quality of life. Therefore, interventions to address upper-limb impairment are a priority for stroke survivors and clinicians. While a significant body of evidence supports the use of conventional treatments, such as intensive motor training or constraint-induced movement therapy, the limited and heterogeneous improvements they allow are, for most patients, usually not sufficient to return to full autonomy...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283022/cns-injury-posttranslational-modification-of-the-tau-protein-as-a-biomarker
#6
Mitchell T Caprelli, Andrea J Mothe, Charles H Tator
The ideal biomarker for central nervous system (CNS) trauma in patients would be a molecular marker specific for injured nervous tissue that would provide a consistent and reliable assessment of the presence and severity of injury and the prognosis for recovery. One candidate biomarker is the protein tau, a microtubule-associated protein abundant in the axonal compartment of CNS neurons. Following axonal injury, tau becomes modified primarily by hyperphosphorylation of its various amino acid residues and cleavage into smaller fragments...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292671/perspectives-on-neuroscience-and-behavior
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447501/imaging-acute-and-chronic-pain-in-the-human-brainstem-and-spinal-cord
#8
Luke A Henderson, Kevin A Keay
While acute pain serves as a protective mechanism designed to warn an individual of potential or actual damaging stimuli, chronic pain provides no benefit and is now considered a disease in its own right. Since the advent of human brain imaging techniques, many investigations that have explored the central representation of acute and chronic pain have focused on changes in higher order brain regions. In contrast, far fewer have explored brainstem and spinal cord function, mainly due to significant technical difficulties...
February 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283028/cxcl12-cxcr4-cxcr7-chemokine-axis-in-the-central-nervous-system-therapeutic-targets-for-remyelination-in-demyelinating-diseases
#9
Tianci Chu, Lisa B E Shields, Yi Ping Zhang, Shi-Qing Feng, Christopher B Shields, Jun Cai
The chemokine CXCL12 plays a vital role in regulating the development of the central nervous system (CNS) by binding to its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7. Recent studies reported that the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis regulates both embryonic and adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in their proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The changes in the expression and distribution of CXCL12 and its receptors are tightly associated with the pathological process of demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that modulating the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis may benefit myelin repair by enhancing OPC recruitment and differentiation...
December 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283042/rethinking-the-role-of-the-angular-gyrus-in-remembering-the-past-and-imagining-the-future-the-contextual-integration-model
#10
Siddharth Ramanan, Olivier Piguet, Muireann Irish
Despite consistent activation on tasks of episodic memory, the precise contribution of the left angular gyrus (AG) to mnemonic functions remains vigorously debated. Mounting evidence suggests that AG activity scales with subjective ratings of vividness and confidence in recollection, with further evidence pointing to its involvement during construction of detailed and coherent future simulations. Lesion studies, however, indicate that damage to the AG does not render patients amnesic on standard source and associative memory paradigms...
October 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283023/neuroinflammation-mast-cells-and-glia-dangerous-liaisons
#11
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
The perspective of neuroinflammation as an epiphenomenon following neuron damage is being replaced by the awareness of glia and their importance in neural functions and disorders. Systemic inflammation generates signals that communicate with the brain and leads to changes in metabolism and behavior, with microglia assuming a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Identification of potential peripheral-to-central cellular links is thus a critical step in designing effective therapeutics. Mast cells may fulfill such a role...
October 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283020/gaba-from-inhibition-to-cognition-emerging-concepts
#12
T Schmidt-Wilcke, E Fuchs, K Funke, A Vlachos, F Müller-Dahlhaus, N A J Puts, R E Harris, R A E Edden
Neural functioning and plasticity can be studied on different levels of organization and complexity ranging from the molecular and synaptic level to neural circuitry of whole brain networks. Across neuroscience different methods are being applied to better understand the role of various neurotransmitter systems in the evolution of perception and cognition. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult mammalian brain and, depending on the brain region, up to 25% of the total number of cortical neurons are GABAergic interneurons...
October 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283017/tinnitus-prospects-for-pharmacological-interventions-with-a-seesaw-model
#13
Hannah Tetteh, Minseok Lee, C Geoffrey Lau, Sunggu Yang, Sungchil Yang
Chronic tinnitus, the perception of lifelong constant ringing in ear, is one capital cause of disability in modern society. It is often present with various comorbid factors that severely affect quality of life, including insomnia, deficits in attention, anxiety, and depression. Currently, there are limited therapeutic treatments for alleviation of tinnitus. Tinnitus can involve a shift in neuronal excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance, which is largely modulated by ion channels and receptors. Thus, ongoing research is geared toward pharmaceutical approaches that modulate the function of ion channels and receptors...
October 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283016/pericytes-make-spinal-cord-breathless-after-injury
#14
Viviani M Almeida, Ana E Paiva, Isadora F G Sena, Akiva Mintz, Luiz Alexandre V Magno, Alexander Birbrair
Traumatic spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that leads to significant neurological deficits and reduced quality of life. Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord lesions are designed to address multiple aspects of the secondary damage. However, the lack of detailed knowledge about the cellular and molecular changes that occur after spinal cord injury restricts the design of effective treatments. Li and colleagues using a rat model of spinal cord injury and in vivo microscopy reveal that pericytes play a key role in the regulation of capillary tone and blood flow in the spinal cord below the site of the lesion...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283014/versatility-and-flexibility-of-cortical-circuits
#15
Melissa S Haley, Arianna Maffei
Cortical circuits are known to be plastic and adaptable, as shown by an impressive body of evidence demonstrating the ability of cortical circuits to adapt to changes in environmental stimuli, development, learning, and insults. In this review, we will discuss some of the features of cortical circuits that are thought to facilitate cortical circuit versatility and flexibility. Throughout life, cortical circuits can be extensively shaped and refined by experience while preserving their overall organization, suggesting that mechanisms are in place to favor change but also to stabilize some aspects of the circuit...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283013/interneuron-cooperativity-in-cortical-circuits
#16
Mahesh M Karnani, Jesse Jackson
Neocortical neurons tend to be coactive in groups called ensembles. However, sometimes, individual neurons also spike alone, independent of the ensemble. What processes regulate the transition between individual and cooperative action? Inspired by classical work in biochemistry, we apply the concept of neuronal cooperativity to explore this question. With a focus on neocortical inhibitory interneurons, we offer a working definition of neuronal cooperativity, review its recorded incidences and proposed mechanisms, and describe experimental approaches that will demonstrate and further describe this action...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874078/behavioral-manipulation-by-optogenetics-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#17
Chunshan Deng, Hong Yuan, Ji Dai
Given their neuroanatomical similarities to humans and their ability to perform complex behaviors, the nonhuman primate has been an important model for understanding complex systems such as sensory processing, motor control, social interaction, and nervous system disorders. Optogenetics offers cell-type specific neural control with millisecond precision, making it a powerful neural modulation technique. Combining optogenetics with the nonhuman primate model promises to lead to significant advances in both basic and applied research...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863720/harmonic-brain-modes-a-unifying-framework-for-linking-space-and-time-in-brain-dynamics
#18
Selen Atasoy, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Joel Pearson
A fundamental characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is coherent oscillations covering a wide range of frequencies. Interestingly, these temporal oscillations are highly correlated among spatially distributed cortical areas forming structured correlation patterns known as the resting state networks, although the brain is never truly at "rest." Here, we introduce the concept of harmonic brain modes-fundamental building blocks of complex spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity. We define these elementary harmonic brain modes as harmonic modes of structural connectivity; that is, connectome harmonics, yielding fully synchronous neural activity patterns with different frequency oscillations emerging on and constrained by the particular structure of the brain...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770651/multiple-system-atrophy-many-lessons-from-the-transcriptome
#19
Ashton Curry-Hyde, Bei Jun Chen, Uwe Ueberham, Thomas Arendt, Michael Janitz
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a complex, multifactorial, debilitating neurodegenerative disease that is often misdiagnosed and misunderstood. MSA has two subclasses, MSA-P and MSA-C, defined by the dominance of parkinsonism or cerebellar dysfunction in the earlier stages of disease, coupled with dysautonomia. This distinction between subclasses becomes largely redundant as the disease progresses. Aggregation of α-synuclein is a clinical marker used to confirm MSA diagnoses, which can only be performed postmortem...
August 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737113/micrornas-roles-in-regulating-neuroinflammation
#20
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken, Linda R Watkins, Randy J Nelson, Phillip G Popovich
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that broadly affect cellular and physiological function in all multicellular organisms. Here, the role of miRNAs in neuroinflammation is considered. miRNAs are 21- to 23-oligonucleotide RNAs that regulate translation of specific RNAs by binding to complementary regulatory RNA sequences, thereby causing mRNA degradation or sequestration. More than 5000 miRNAs likely exist in humans, and each miRNA binds an average of 200 RNAs. Specific immunomodulatory miRNAs can regulate a set of RNAs in a coordinated manner, suggesting that effective miRNA-based therapeutic manipulations for neuroinflammatory conditions may be revealed...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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