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Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303740/neurotrophins-and-proneurotrophins
#1
Julien Gibon, Philip A Barker
Neurotrophins have been intensively studied and have multiple roles in the brain. Neurotrophins are first synthetized as proneurotrophins and then cleaved intracellularly and extracellularly. Increasing evidences demonstrate that proneurotrophins and mature neurotrophins exerts opposing role in the central nervous system. In the present review, we explore the role of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), and neurotrophin 4 (NT4) and their respective proform in cellular processes related to learning and memory...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299949/postnatal-neural-stem-cells
#2
Vanessa Donega, Olivier Raineteau
There is growing evidence for a tentative cellular repair in the forebrain following perinatal injuries. In this review, we present the evidences and shortcomings in this regenerative attempt. We discuss recent progress in elucidating the origin, diversity, and competence of postnatal neural stem cells/progenitor cells. Finally, we propose new strategies to recruit postnatal progenitors to generate specific subtypes of cortical neurons or oligodendrocytes, thereby allowing the development of tailor-made approaches to treat perinatal brain injuries...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932591/the-cellular-diversity-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-relevance-to-behavior-in-health-and-aspects-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Ilse S Pienaar, Anthony Vernon, Philip Winn
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a rostral brainstem structure that has extensive connections with basal ganglia nuclei and the thalamus. Through these the PPN contributes to neural circuits that effect cortical and hippocampal activity. The PPN also has descending connections to nuclei of the pontine and medullary reticular formations, deep cerebellar nuclei, and the spinal cord. Interest in the PPN has increased dramatically since it was first suggested to be a novel target for treating patients with Parkinson's disease who are refractory to medication...
December 7, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130838/the-kcc2-cotransporter-and-human-epilepsy-getting-excited-about-inhibition
#4
Kristopher T Kahle, Arjun R Khanna, JingJing Duan, Kevin J Staley, Eric Delpire, Annapurna Poduri
The cation-Cl(-) cotransporter KCC2, encoded by SLC12A5, is required for the emergence and maintenance of GABAergic fast synaptic inhibition in organisms across evolution. These findings have suggested that KCC2 deficiency might play a role in the pathogenesis human epilepsy, but this has only recently been substantiated by two lines of genetic evidence. The first is the discovery of heterozygous missense polymorphisms in SLC12A5, causing decreased KCC2-dependent Cl(-) extrusion capacity, in an Australian family with inherited febrile seizures and in a French-Canadian cohort with severe genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE)...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26552866/multiple-roles-for-nogo-receptor-1-in-visual-system-plasticity
#5
REVIEW
Céleste-Élise Stephany, Michael G Frantz, Aaron W McGee
During the developmental critical period for visual plasticity, discordant vision alters the responsiveness of neurons in visual cortex. The subsequent closure of the critical period not only consolidates neural function but also limits recovery of acuity from preceding abnormal visual experience. Despite species-specific differences in circuitry of the visual system, these characteristics are conserved. The nogo-66 receptor 1 (ngr1) is one of only a small number of genes identified thus far that is essential to closing the critical period...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511040/neural-mechanisms-and-children-s-intellectual-development-multiple-impacts-of-environmental-factors
#6
REVIEW
Hikaru Takeuchi, Ryuta Kawashima
Human psychometric intelligence can predict a number of important social and academic outcomes. Substantial parts of the variances of human intelligence and the brain volume supporting those abilities are explained by environmental factors, and during childhood, human brains have higher plasticity and also 60% of variance of intelligence that is explained by environmental factors. Here, we review the representative environmental factors known to affect human intellectual development during each developmental stage...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26463470/building-an-rna-sequencing-transcriptome-of-the-central-nervous-system
#7
REVIEW
Xiaomin Dong, Yanan You, Jia Qian Wu
The composition and function of the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely complex. In addition to hundreds of subtypes of neurons, other cell types, including glia (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia) and vascular cells (endothelial cells and pericytes) also play important roles in CNS function. Such heterogeneity makes the study of gene transcription in CNS challenging. Transcriptomic studies, namely the analyses of the expression levels and structures of all genes, are essential for interpreting the functional elements and understanding the molecular constituents of the CNS...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26338491/doping-the-mind-dopaminergic-modulation-of-prefrontal-cortical-cognition
#8
REVIEW
Ajit Ranganath, Simon N Jacob
The prefrontal cortex is the center of cognitive control. Processing in prefrontal cortical circuits enables us to direct attention to behaviorally relevant events; to memorize, structure, and categorize information; and to learn new concepts. The prefrontal cortex receives strong projections from midbrain neurons that use dopamine as a transmitter. In this article, we review the crucial role dopamine plays as a modulator of prefrontal cognitive functions, in the primate brain in particular. Following a summary of the anatomy and physiology of the midbrain dopamine system, we focus on recent studies that investigated dopaminergic effects in prefrontal cortex at the cellular level...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26290447/cortical-maps
#9
REVIEW
James A Bednar, Stuart P Wilson
In this article, we review functional organization in sensory cortical regions-how the cortex represents the world. We consider four interrelated aspects of cortical organization: (1) the set of receptive fields of individual cortical sensory neurons, (2) how lateral interaction between cortical neurons reflects the similarity of their receptive fields, (3) the spatial distribution of receptive-field properties across the horizontal extent of the cortical tissue, and (4) how the spatial distributions of different receptive-field properties interact with one another...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26290446/the-insula-a-hub-of-activity-in-migraine
#10
REVIEW
David Borsook, Rosanna Veggeberg, Nathalie Erpelding, Ronald Borra, Clas Linnman, Rami Burstein, Lino Becerra
The insula, a "cortical hub" buried within the lateral sulcus, is involved in a number of processes including goal-directed cognition, conscious awareness, autonomic regulation, interoception, and somatosensation. While some of these processes are well known in the clinical presentation of migraine (i.e., autonomic and somatosensory alterations), other more complex behaviors in migraine, such as conscious awareness and error detection, are less well described. Since the insula processes and relays afferent inputs from brain areas involved in these functions to areas involved in higher cortical function such as frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, it may be implicated as a brain region that translates the signals of altered internal milieu in migraine, along with other chronic pain conditions, through the insula into complex behaviors...
December 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872341/amygdala-circuits-for-fear-memory-a-key-role-for-dopamine-regulation
#11
REVIEW
Joo Han Lee, Seungho Lee, Joung-Hun Kim
In addition to modulating a number of cognitive functions including reward, punishment, motivation, and salience, dopamine (DA) plays a pivotal role in regulating threat-related emotional memory. Changes in neural circuits of the amygdala nuclei are also critically involved in the acquisition and expression of emotional memory. In this review, we summarize the regulation of amygdala circuits by DA. Specifically, we describe DA signaling in the amygdala, and DA regulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity of the amygdala neurons...
November 20, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837180/neurogenesis-regulation-by-alternative-splicing-and-related-posttranscriptional-processes
#12
REVIEW
Enrique Lara-Pezzi, Manuel Desco, Alberto Gatto, María Victoria Gómez-Gaviro
The complexity of the mammalian brain requires highly specialized protein function and diversity. As neurons differentiate and the neuronal circuitry is established, several mRNAs undergo alternative splicing and other posttranscriptional changes that expand the variety of protein isoforms produced. Recent advances are beginning to shed light on the molecular mechanisms that regulate isoform switching during neurogenesis and the role played by specific RNA binding proteins in this process. Neurogenesis and neuronal wiring were recently shown to also be regulated by RNA degradation through nonsense-mediated decay...
November 10, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784761/dynamic-networks-in-the-emotional-brain
#13
REVIEW
Luiz Pessoa, Brenton McMenamin
Research on the emotional brain has often focused on a few structures thought to be central to this type of processing-hypothalamus, amygdala, insula, and so on. Conceptual thinking about emotion has viewed this mental faculty as linked to broader brain circuits, too, including early ideas by Papez and others. In this article, we discuss research that embraces a distributed view of emotion circuits and efforts to unravel the impact on emotional manipulations on the processing of several large-scale brain networks that are chiefly important for mental operations traditionally labeled with terms such as "perception," "action," and "cognition...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777337/blindsight-and-unconscious-vision-what-they-teach-us-about-the-human-visual-system
#14
REVIEW
Sara Ajina, Holly Bridge
Damage to the primary visual cortex removes the major input from the eyes to the brain, causing significant visual loss as patients are unable to perceive the side of the world contralateral to the damage. Some patients, however, retain the ability to detect visual information within this blind region; this is known as blindsight. By studying the visual pathways that underlie this residual vision in patients, we can uncover additional aspects of the human visual system that likely contribute to normal visual function but cannot be revealed under physiological conditions...
October 23, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707995/glycogen-multiple-roles-in-the-cns
#15
REVIEW
Laura Rich, Angus M Brown
The historically neurocentric view of astrocytes as Styrofoam cushioning that rigidly clad neurons within the brain parenchyma has been superseded in the past 30 years by an increasing appreciation of the myriad roles astrocytes contribute to supporting physiological brain function. It is widely recognized that the continuous support provided by astrocytes, from prenatal development to maturity, is vital for neuronal function. Indeed, the numerous and diverse roles furnished by astrocytes contrasts with the vital but restricted transmission of action potentials that is the neuron's primary role...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281409/hipsc-disease-modeling-of-rare-hereditary-cerebellar-ataxias
#16
Dunja Lukovic, Victoria Moreno-Manzano, Francisco Javier Rodriguez-Jimenez, Angel Vilches, Eva Sykova, Pavla Jendelova, Miodrag Stojkovic, Slaven Erceg
Cerebellar ataxias are clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases affecting primary cerebellar cells. The lack of availability of affected tissue from cerebellar ataxias patients is the main obstacle in investigating the pathogenicity of these diseases. The landmark discovery of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) has permitted the derivation of patient-specific cells with an unlimited self-renewing capacity. Additionally, their potential to differentiate into virtually any cell type of the human organism allows for large amounts of affected cells to be generated in culture, converting this hiPSC technology into a revolutionary tool in the study of the mechanisms of disease, drug discovery, and gene correction...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621368/the-effects-of-extended-pain-on-behavior-recent-progress
#17
REVIEW
Ted B Usdin, Eugene L Dimitrov
Chronic pain is frequently associated with anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunction. This review discusses recent work in rodents that contributes to the understanding of their neurobiological links. Brain regions that contain circuits that mediate persistent changes in behavior that are caused by nerve injury or joint inflammation include the rostral anterior cingulate and other parts of the medial prefrontal cortex, the basolateral and central nucleus of the amygdala, and the nucleus accumbens. Functional changes, including increases in the activity within specific neuronal pathways and in the levels of specific synaptic components, that are associated with the behavior changes, or are in some cases necessary for them, have recently been identified...
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511041/roles-of-calcium-stores-and-store-operated-channels-in-plasticity-of-dendritic-spines
#18
REVIEW
Menahem Segal, Eduard Korkotian
Calcium stores in the endoplasmic reticulum play important roles in a variety of mammalian cellular functions. However, the multitude of calcium-handling machineries in neurons, including voltage- and ligand-gated channels, calcium-binding proteins, pumps, and transporters, as well as the rapid mobility of calcium ions among different cellular compartments hampered the singling out of calcium stores as a pivotal player in synaptic plasticity. Despite these methodological obstacles, novel molecular and imaging tools afforded a rapid progress in deciphering the role of specific calcium stores in neuronal functions...
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26450593/epigenetic-basis-of-mental-illness
#19
Eric J Nestler, Catherine J Peña, Marija Kundakovic, Amanda Mitchell, Schahram Akbarian
Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function as well as likely abnormalities in glial cells. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of most mental disorders, the relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins, particularly for depression and other stress-related syndromes, clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses...
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26396150/the-multifarious-hippocampal-functions-of-microrna-137
#20
Aron Kos, Armaz Aschrafi, Nael Nadif Kasri
MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as a powerful class of endogenous noncoding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene expression regulation. miR-137 has repeatedly been associated with schizophrenia and intellectual disability. Recent studies describe the mechanisms of miR-137 in mediating basic synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus. A picture is emerging in which miR-137 acts as a potent player in regulating glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus by controlling the translation of functionally critical genes at spatially opposite ends of the synapse, contributing to the pathogenesis of cognitive impairments as seen in neurodevelopmental disorders...
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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