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Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014771/intracellular-ca-2-release-and-synaptic-plasticity-a-tale-of-many-stores
#1
Zahid Padamsey, William J Foster, Nigel J Emptage
Ca2+ is an essential trigger for most forms of synaptic plasticity. Ca2+ signaling occurs not only by Ca2+ entry via plasma membrane channels but also via Ca2+ signals generated by intracellular organelles. These organelles, by dynamically regulating the spatial and temporal extent of Ca2+ elevations within neurons, play a pivotal role in determining the downstream consequences of neural signaling on synaptic function. Here, we review the role of three major intracellular stores: the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and acidic Ca2+ stores, such as lysosomes, in neuronal Ca2+ signaling and plasticity...
July 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985120/emotions-and-the-right-hemisphere-can-new-data-clarify-old-models
#2
Guido Gainotti
Models advanced to explain hemispheric asymmetries in representation of emotions will be discussed following their historical progression. First, the clinical observations that have suggested a general dominance of the right hemisphere for all kinds of emotions will be reviewed. Then the experimental investigations that have led to proposal of a different hemispheric specialization for positive versus negative emotions (valence hypothesis) or, alternatively, for approach versus avoidance tendencies (motivational hypothesis) will be surveyed...
July 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985093/purkinje-cell-representations-of-behavior-diary-of-a-busy-neuron
#3
Laurentiu S Popa, Martha L Streng, Timothy J Ebner
Fundamental for understanding cerebellar function is determining the representations in Purkinje cell activity, the sole output of the cerebellar cortex. Up to the present, the most accurate descriptions of the information encoded by Purkinje cells were obtained in the context of motor behavior and reveal a high degree of heterogeneity of kinematic and performance error signals encoded. The most productive framework for organizing Purkinje cell firing representations is provided by the forward internal model hypothesis...
July 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931997/microglia-astrocyte-crosstalk-an-intimate-molecular-conversation
#4
Mithilesh Kumar Jha, Myungjin Jo, Jae-Hong Kim, Kyoungho Suk
Microglia-astrocyte crosstalk has recently been at the forefront of glial research. Emerging evidence illustrates that microglia- and astrocyte-derived signals are the functional determinants for the fates of astrocytes and microglia, respectively. By releasing diverse signaling molecules, both microglia and astrocytes establish autocrine feedback and their bidirectional conversation for a tight reciprocal modulation during central nervous system (CNS) insult or injury. Microglia, the constant sensors of changes in the CNS microenvironment and restorers of tissue homeostasis, not only serve as the primary immune cells of the CNS but also regulate the innate immune functions of astrocytes...
June 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900803/you-can-observe-a-lot-by-watching-hughlings-jackson-s-underappreciated-and-prescient-ideas-about-brain-control-of-movement
#5
Ari Berkowitz
John Hughlings Jackson, the 19th-century British neurologist, first described what are today called Jacksonian seizures. He is generally associated with somatotopy, the idea that neighboring brain regions control neighboring body parts, as later represented pictorially in Wilder Penfield's "homunculus," or little man in the brain. Jackson's own views, however, were quite different, though this is seldom appreciated. In an 1870 article, Jackson advanced the hypotheses that each region of the cerebrum controls movements of multiple body parts, but to different degrees, and that the "march" of movements that typically occurs during Jacksonian seizures is caused by the downstream connections of the overactive neurons at the seizure focus, rather than a somatotopic organization of the cerebrum...
June 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877135/aging-in-the-brain-new-roles-of-epigenetics-in-cognitive-decline
#6
Jolie D Barter, Thomas C Foster
Gene expression in the aging brain depends on transcription signals generated by senescent physiology, interacting with genetic and epigenetic programs. In turn, environmental factors influence epigenetic mechanisms, such that an epigenetic-environmental link may contribute to the accumulation of cellular damage, susceptibility or resilience to stressors, and variability in the trajectory of age-related cognitive decline. Epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modifications, alter chromatin structure and the accessibility of DNA...
June 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865938/ammon-s-horn-2-ca2-of-the-hippocampus-a-long-known-region-with-a-new-potential-role-in-neurodegeneration
#7
Cindy Chi-Ching Pang, Clemens Kiecker, John T O'Brien, Wendy Noble, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang
The hippocampus has a critical role in cognition and human memory and is one of the most studied structures in the brain. Despite more than 400 years of research, little is known about the Ammon's horn region cornu ammonis 2 (CA2) subfield in comparison to other subfield regions (CA1, CA3, and CA4). Recent findings have shown that CA2 plays a bigger role than previously thought. Here, we review understanding of hippocampus and CA2 ontogenesis, together with basic and clinical findings about the potential role of this region in neurodegenerative disease...
June 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855217/orientation-encoding-and-viewpoint-invariance-in-face-recognition-inferring-neural-properties-from-large-scale-signals
#8
Fernando M Ramírez
Viewpoint-invariant face recognition is thought to be subserved by a distributed network of occipitotemporal face-selective areas that, except for the human anterior temporal lobe, have been shown to also contain face-orientation information. This review begins by highlighting the importance of bilateral symmetry for viewpoint-invariant recognition and face-orientation perception. Then, monkey electrophysiological evidence is surveyed describing key tuning properties of face-selective neurons-including neurons bimodally tuned to mirror-symmetric face-views-followed by studies combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivariate pattern analyses to probe the representation of face-orientation and identity information in humans...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799313/fluid-dynamics-inside-the-brain-barrier-current-concept-of-interstitial-flow-glymphatic-flow-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-circulation-in-the-brain
#9
Tsutomu Nakada, Ingrid L Kwee
The discovery of the water specific channel, aquaporin, and abundant expression of its isoform, aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), on astrocyte endfeet brought about significant advancements in the understanding of brain fluid dynamics. The brain is protected by barriers preventing free access of systemic fluid. The same barrier system, however, also isolates brain interstitial fluid from the hydro-dynamic effect of the systemic circulation. The systolic force of the heart, an essential factor for proper systemic interstitial fluid circulation, cannot be propagated to the interstitial fluid compartment of the brain...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781389/tracking-neuronal-connectivity-from-electric-brain-signals-to-predict-performance
#10
Fabrizio Vecchio, Francesca Miraglia, Paolo Maria Rossini
The human brain is a complex container of interconnected networks. Network neuroscience is a recent venture aiming to explore the connection matrix built from the human brain or human "Connectome." Network-based algorithms provide parameters that define global organization of the brain; when they are applied to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals network, configuration and excitability can be monitored in millisecond time frames, providing remarkable information on their instantaneous efficacy also for a given task's performance via online evaluation of the underlying instantaneous networks before, during, and after the task...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781367/human-stem-cell-derived-models-lessons-for-autoimmune-diseases-of-the-nervous-system
#11
Oliver Harschnitz
Autoimmunity of the peripheral and central nervous system is an important cause of disease and long-term neurological disability. Autoantibodies can target both intracellular and extracellular neuronal epitopes. Autoantibodies that target cell-surface epitopes infer pathogenicity through several distinct mechanisms, while patients often respond to immunotherapy. However, the underlying pathogenesis of these autoantibodies is yet to be fully understood. Human stem cell-based disease modeling, and the rise of induced pluripotent stem cell technology in particular, has revolutionized the fields of disease modeling and therapeutic screening for neurological disorders...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772957/brain-machine-interfaces-powerful-tools-for-clinical-treatment-and-neuroscientific-investigations
#12
Marc W Slutzky
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have exploded in popularity in the past decade. BMIs, also called brain-computer interfaces, provide a direct link between the brain and a computer, usually to control an external device. BMIs have a wide array of potential clinical applications, ranging from restoring communication to people unable to speak due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or a stroke, to restoring movement to people with paralysis from spinal cord injury or motor neuron disease, to restoring memory to people with cognitive impairment...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742958/mitochondrial-zn-2-accumulation-a-potential-trigger-of-hippocampal-ischemic-injury
#13
Sung G Ji, Yuliya V Medvedeva, Hwai-Lee Wang, Hong Z Yin, John H Weiss
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disabilities worldwide, and it has been long hoped that improved understanding of relevant injury mechanisms would yield targeted neuroprotective therapies. While Ca2+ overload during ischemia-induced glutamate excitotoxicity has been identified as a major contributor, failures of glutamate targeted therapies to achieve desired clinical efficacy have dampened early hopes for the development of new treatments. However, additional studies examining possible contributions of Zn2+ , a highly prevalent cation in the brain, have provided new insights that may help to rekindle the enthusiasm...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001690/perspectives-on-neuroscience-and-behavior
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757119/perspectives-on-neuroscience-and-behavior
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283025/polycomb-repressive-complex-2-emerging-roles-in-the-central-nervous-system
#16
Pei-Pei Liu, Ya-Jie Xu, Zhao-Qian Teng, Chang-Mei Liu
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is responsible for catalyzing both di- and trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me2/3). The subunits of PRC2 are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). PRC2 as well as H3K27me2/3, play distinct roles in neuronal identity, proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells, neuronal morphology, and gliogenesis. Mutations or dysregulations of PRC2 subunits often cause neurological diseases. Therefore, PRC2 might represent a common target of different pathological processes that drive neurodegenerative diseases...
June 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863720/harmonic-brain-modes-a-unifying-framework-for-linking-space-and-time-in-brain-dynamics
#17
Selen Atasoy, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Joel Pearson
A fundamental characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is coherent oscillations covering a wide range of frequencies. Interestingly, these temporal oscillations are highly correlated among spatially distributed cortical areas forming structured correlation patterns known as the resting state networks, although the brain is never truly at "rest." Here, we introduce the concept of harmonic brain modes-fundamental building blocks of complex spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity. We define these elementary harmonic brain modes as harmonic modes of structural connectivity; that is, connectome harmonics, yielding fully synchronous neural activity patterns with different frequency oscillations emerging on and constrained by the particular structure of the brain...
June 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770651/multiple-system-atrophy-many-lessons-from-the-transcriptome
#18
Ashton Curry-Hyde, Bei Jun Chen, Uwe Ueberham, Thomas Arendt, Michael Janitz
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a complex, multifactorial, debilitating neurodegenerative disease that is often misdiagnosed and misunderstood. MSA has two subclasses, MSA-P and MSA-C, defined by the dominance of parkinsonism or cerebellar dysfunction in the earlier stages of disease, coupled with dysautonomia. This distinction between subclasses becomes largely redundant as the disease progresses. Aggregation of α-synuclein is a clinical marker used to confirm MSA diagnoses, which can only be performed postmortem...
June 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737113/micrornas-roles-in-regulating-neuroinflammation
#19
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken, Linda R Watkins, Randy J Nelson, Phillip G Popovich
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that broadly affect cellular and physiological function in all multicellular organisms. Here, the role of miRNAs in neuroinflammation is considered. miRNAs are 21- to 23-oligonucleotide RNAs that regulate translation of specific RNAs by binding to complementary regulatory RNA sequences, thereby causing mRNA degradation or sequestration. More than 5000 miRNAs likely exist in humans, and each miRNA binds an average of 200 RNAs. Specific immunomodulatory miRNAs can regulate a set of RNAs in a coordinated manner, suggesting that effective miRNA-based therapeutic manipulations for neuroinflammatory conditions may be revealed...
June 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691573/plasticity-in-the-working-memory-system-life-span-changes-and-response-to-injury
#20
Sean Froudist-Walsh, Diana López-Barroso, María José Torres-Prioris, Paula L Croxson, Marcelo L Berthier
Working memory acts as a key bridge between perception, long-term memory, and action. The brain regions, connections, and neurotransmitters that underlie working memory undergo dramatic plastic changes during the life span, and in response to injury. Early life reliance on deep gray matter structures fades during adolescence as increasing reliance on prefrontal and parietal cortex accompanies the development of executive aspects of working memory. The rise and fall of working memory capacity and executive functions parallels the development and loss of neurotransmitter function in frontal cortical areas...
June 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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