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Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30122106/oligodendrocyte-bioenergetics-in-health-and-disease
#1
Lauren Rosko, Victoria N Smith, Reiji Yamazaki, Jeffrey K Huang
The human brain weighs approximately 2% of the body; however, it consumes about 20% of a person's total energy intake. Cellular bioenergetics in the central nervous system involves a delicate balance between biochemical processes engaged in energy conversion and those responsible for respiration. Neurons have high energy demands, which rely on metabolic coupling with glia, such as with oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. It has been well established that astrocytes recycle and transport glutamine to neurons to make the essential neurotransmitters, glutamate and GABA, as well as shuttle lactate to support energy synthesis in neurons...
August 20, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117356/tgf%C3%AE-1-friend-or-foe-during-recovery-in-encephalopathy
#2
Brian H Kim, Steven W Levison
The cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is highly induced after encephalopathic brain injury, with data showing that it can both contribute to the pathophysiology and aid in disease resolution. In the immature brain, sustained TGFβ-signaling after injury may prolong inflammation to both exacerbate acute stage damage and perturb the normal course of development. Yet in adult encephalopathy, elevated TGFβ1 may promote a reparative state. In this review, we highlight the context-dependent actions of TGFβ-signaling in the brain during resolution of encephalopathy and focus on neuronal survival mechanisms that are affected by TGFβ1 ...
August 17, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051750/amyloid-plaques-of-alzheimer-s-disease-as-hotspots-of-glutamatergic-activity
#3
Saak V Ovsepian, Valerie B O'Leary, Laszlo Zaborszky, Vasilis Ntziachristos, J Oliver Dolly
Deposition of amyloid plaques in limbic and associative cortices is amongst the most recognized histopathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Despite decades of research, there is a lack of consensus over the impact of plaques on neuronal function, with their role in cognitive decline and memory loss undecided. Evidence has emerged suggesting complex and localized axonal pathology around amyloid plaques, with a significant fraction of swellings and dystrophies becoming enriched with putative synaptic vesicles and presynaptic proteins normally colocalized at hotspots of transmitter release...
July 27, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047288/new-insights-into-the-neurobiology-of-restless-legs-syndrome
#4
Sergi Ferré, Diego García-Borreguero, Richard P Allen, Christopher J Earley
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor disorder, whose basic components include a sensory experience, akathisia, and a sleep-related motor sign, periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), both associated with an enhancement of the individual's arousal state. The present review attempts to integrate the major clinical and experimental neurobiological findings into a heuristic pathogenetic model. The model also integrates the recent findings on RLS genetics indicating that RLS has aspects of a genetically moderated neurodevelopmental disorder involving mainly the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits...
July 26, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033796/the-national-undergraduate-neuroanatomy-competition-lessons-learned-from-partnering-with-students-to-innovate-undergraduate-neuroanatomy-education
#5
Kate Geoghegan, December R Payne, Matthew A Myers, Samuel Hall, Ahmad Elmansouri, William J C Parton, Charlotte H Harrison, Jonny Stephens, Rob Parker, Shivani Rae, Wassim Merzougui, Eva Nagy, Prarthana Venkatesh, Rachel Parrott, Scott Border
Undergraduates often perceive neuroscience to be a challenging discipline. As the scope of neuroscience continues to expand, it is important to provide undergraduates with sufficient opportunities to develop their knowledge and skills with the aim of encouraging the future generation of basic and clinical neuroscientists. Through our experience of developing the National Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Competition (NUNC), we have accrued an extensive volume of performance data and subjective insight into the delivery of undergraduate neuroanatomy education, which has the potential to inform how to better engage students within this field...
July 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014771/intracellular-ca-2-release-and-synaptic-plasticity-a-tale-of-many-stores
#6
Zahid Padamsey, William J Foster, Nigel J Emptage
Ca2+ is an essential trigger for most forms of synaptic plasticity. Ca2+ signaling occurs not only by Ca2+ entry via plasma membrane channels but also via Ca2+ signals generated by intracellular organelles. These organelles, by dynamically regulating the spatial and temporal extent of Ca2+ elevations within neurons, play a pivotal role in determining the downstream consequences of neural signaling on synaptic function. Here, we review the role of three major intracellular stores: the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and acidic Ca2+ stores, such as lysosomes, in neuronal Ca2+ signaling and plasticity...
July 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985120/emotions-and-the-right-hemisphere-can-new-data-clarify-old-models
#7
Guido Gainotti
Models advanced to explain hemispheric asymmetries in representation of emotions will be discussed following their historical progression. First, the clinical observations that have suggested a general dominance of the right hemisphere for all kinds of emotions will be reviewed. Then the experimental investigations that have led to proposal of a different hemispheric specialization for positive versus negative emotions (valence hypothesis) or, alternatively, for approach versus avoidance tendencies (motivational hypothesis) will be surveyed...
July 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985093/purkinje-cell-representations-of-behavior-diary-of-a-busy-neuron
#8
Laurentiu S Popa, Martha L Streng, Timothy J Ebner
Fundamental for understanding cerebellar function is determining the representations in Purkinje cell activity, the sole output of the cerebellar cortex. Up to the present, the most accurate descriptions of the information encoded by Purkinje cells were obtained in the context of motor behavior and reveal a high degree of heterogeneity of kinematic and performance error signals encoded. The most productive framework for organizing Purkinje cell firing representations is provided by the forward internal model hypothesis...
July 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30156141/perspectives-on-neuroscience-and-behavior
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900803/you-can-observe-a-lot-by-watching-hughlings-jackson-s-underappreciated-and-prescient-ideas-about-brain-control-of-movement
#10
Ari Berkowitz
John Hughlings Jackson, the 19th-century British neurologist, first described what are today called Jacksonian seizures. He is generally associated with somatotopy, the idea that neighboring brain regions control neighboring body parts, as later represented pictorially in Wilder Penfield's "homunculus," or little man in the brain. Jackson's own views, however, were quite different, though this is seldom appreciated. In an 1870 article, Jackson advanced the hypotheses that each region of the cerebrum controls movements of multiple body parts, but to different degrees, and that the "march" of movements that typically occurs during Jacksonian seizures is caused by the downstream connections of the overactive neurons at the seizure focus, rather than a somatotopic organization of the cerebrum...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877135/aging-in-the-brain-new-roles-of-epigenetics-in-cognitive-decline
#11
Jolie D Barter, Thomas C Foster
Gene expression in the aging brain depends on transcription signals generated by senescent physiology, interacting with genetic and epigenetic programs. In turn, environmental factors influence epigenetic mechanisms, such that an epigenetic-environmental link may contribute to the accumulation of cellular damage, susceptibility or resilience to stressors, and variability in the trajectory of age-related cognitive decline. Epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modifications, alter chromatin structure and the accessibility of DNA...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482447/epigenome-interactions-with-patterned-neuronal-activity
#12
Jillian Belgrad, R Douglas Fields
The temporal coding of action potential activity is fundamental to nervous system function. Here we consider how gene expression in neurons is regulated by specific patterns of action potential firing, with an emphasis on new information on epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Patterned action potential activity activates intracellular signaling networks selectively in accordance with the kinetics of activation and inactivation of second messengers, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein kinases, and cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium dynamics, which differentially activate specific transcription factors...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400127/glucocerebrosidase-and-parkinson-disease-molecular-clinical-and-therapeutic-implications
#13
Roberta Balestrino, Anthony H V Schapira
Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease characterised by multiple motor and non-motor symptoms. In the last 20 years, more than 20 genes have been identified as causes of parkinsonism. Following the observation of higher risk of PD in patients affected by Gaucher disease, a lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene, it was discovered that mutations in this gene constitute the single largest risk factor for development of idiopathic PD. Patients with PD and GBA mutations are clinically indistinguishable from patients with idiopathic PD, although some characteristics emerge depending on the specific mutation, such as slightly earlier onset...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385885/lrrk2-phosphorylation-behind-the-scenes
#14
Tina De Wit, Veerle Baekelandt, Evy Lobbestael
Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are known today as the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a large protein that is hypothesized to regulate other proteins as a scaffold in downstream signaling pathways. This is supported by the multiple domain composition of LRRK2 with several protein-protein interaction domains combined with kinase and GTPase activity. LRRK2 is highly phosphorylated at sites that are strictly controlled by upstream regulators, including its own kinase domain...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283020/gaba-from-inhibition-to-cognition-emerging-concepts
#15
T Schmidt-Wilcke, E Fuchs, K Funke, A Vlachos, F Müller-Dahlhaus, N A J Puts, R E Harris, R A E Edden
Neural functioning and plasticity can be studied on different levels of organization and complexity ranging from the molecular and synaptic level to neural circuitry of whole brain networks. Across neuroscience different methods are being applied to better understand the role of various neurotransmitter systems in the evolution of perception and cognition. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult mammalian brain and, depending on the brain region, up to 25% of the total number of cortical neurons are GABAergic interneurons...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283016/pericytes-make-spinal-cord-breathless-after-injury
#16
Viviani M Almeida, Ana E Paiva, Isadora F G Sena, Akiva Mintz, Luiz Alexandre V Magno, Alexander Birbrair
Traumatic spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that leads to significant neurological deficits and reduced quality of life. Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord lesions are designed to address multiple aspects of the secondary damage. However, the lack of detailed knowledge about the cellular and molecular changes that occur after spinal cord injury restricts the design of effective treatments. Li and colleagues using a rat model of spinal cord injury and in vivo microscopy reveal that pericytes play a key role in the regulation of capillary tone and blood flow in the spinal cord below the site of the lesion...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283014/versatility-and-flexibility-of-cortical-circuits
#17
Melissa S Haley, Arianna Maffei
Cortical circuits are known to be plastic and adaptable, as shown by an impressive body of evidence demonstrating the ability of cortical circuits to adapt to changes in environmental stimuli, development, learning, and insults. In this review, we will discuss some of the features of cortical circuits that are thought to facilitate cortical circuit versatility and flexibility. Throughout life, cortical circuits can be extensively shaped and refined by experience while preserving their overall organization, suggesting that mechanisms are in place to favor change but also to stabilize some aspects of the circuit...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874078/behavioral-manipulation-by-optogenetics-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#18
Chunshan Deng, Hong Yuan, Ji Dai
Given their neuroanatomical similarities to humans and their ability to perform complex behaviors, the nonhuman primate has been an important model for understanding complex systems such as sensory processing, motor control, social interaction, and nervous system disorders. Optogenetics offers cell-type specific neural control with millisecond precision, making it a powerful neural modulation technique. Combining optogenetics with the nonhuman primate model promises to lead to significant advances in both basic and applied research...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612649/a-brain-on-a-roller-coaster-can-the-dopamine-reward-system-act-as-a-protagonist-to-subdue-the-ups-and-downs-of-bipolar-disorder
#19
Shokouh Arjmand, Mina Behzadi, Gary J Stephens, Sara Ezzatabadipour, Rostam Seifaddini, Shahrad Arjmand, Mohammad Shabani
One of the most interesting but tenebrous parts of the bipolar disorder (BD) story is the switch between (hypo)mania and depression, which can give bipolar patients a thrilling, but somewhat perilous, 'ride'. Numerous studies have pointed out that there are some recognizable differences (either state-dependent or state-independent) in several brain regions of people with BD, including components of the brain's reward system. Understanding the underpinning mechanisms of high and low mood statuses in BD has potential, not only for the development of highly specific and selective pharmaceutical agents, but also for better treatment approaches and psychological interventions to manage BD and, thus, give patients a safer ride...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001690/perspectives-on-neuroscience-and-behavior
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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