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Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387693/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-novel-insights-into-regulation-and-genetic-variation
#1
Michael Notaras, Maarten van den Buuse
Since its discovery, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has spawned a literature that now spans 35 years of research. While all neurotrophins share considerable overlap in sequence homology and their processing, BDNF has become the most widely studied neurotrophin because of its broad roles in brain homeostasis, health, and disease. Although research on BDNF has produced thousands of articles, there remain numerous long-standing questions on aspects of BDNF molecular biology and signaling. Here we provide a comprehensive review, including both a historical narrative and a forward-looking perspective on advances in the actions of BDNF within the brain...
November 2, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387689/low-back-pain-the-potential-contribution-of-supraspinal-motor-control-and-proprioception
#2
Michael Lukas Meier, Andrea Vrana, Petra Schweinhardt
Motor control, which relies on constant communication between motor and sensory systems, is crucial for spine posture, stability and movement. Adaptions of motor control occur in low back pain (LBP) while different motor adaption strategies exist across individuals, probably to reduce LBP and risk of injury. However, in some individuals with LBP, adapted motor control strategies might have long-term consequences, such as increased spinal loading that has been linked with degeneration of intervertebral discs and other tissues, potentially maintaining recurrent or chronic LBP...
November 2, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379121/thinking-outside-the-box-and-arrow-current-themes-in-striatal-dysfunction-in-movement-disorders
#3
Joshua L Plotkin, Joshua A Goldberg
The basal ganglia are an intricately connected assembly of subcortical nuclei, forming the core of an adaptive network connecting cortical and thalamic circuits. For nearly three decades, researchers and medical practitioners have conceptualized how the basal ganglia circuit works, and how its pathology underlies motor disorders such as Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, using what is often referred to as the "box-and-arrow model": a circuit diagram showing the broad strokes of basal ganglia connectivity and the pathological increases and decreases in the weights of specific connections that occur in disease...
October 31, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317911/gabaergic-interneurons-in-seizures-investigating-causality-with-optogenetics
#4
Vincent Magloire, Marion S Mercier, Dimitri M Kullmann, Ivan Pavlov
Seizures are complex pathological network events characterized by excessive and hypersynchronized activity of neurons, including a highly diverse population of GABAergic interneurons. Although the primary function of inhibitory interneurons under normal conditions is to restrain excitation in the brain, this system appears to fail intermittently, allowing runaway excitation. Recent developments in optogenetics, combined with genetic tools and advanced electrophysiological and imaging techniques, allow us for the first time to assess the causal roles of identified cell-types in network dynamics...
October 15, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311838/twitches-blinks-and-fidgets-important-generators-of-ongoing-neural-activity
#5
Patrick J Drew, Aaron T Winder, Qingguang Zhang
Animals and humans continuously engage in small, spontaneous motor actions, such as blinking, whisking, and postural adjustments ("fidgeting"). These movements are accompanied by changes in neural activity in sensory and motor regions of the brain. The frequency of these motions varies in time, is affected by sensory stimuli, arousal levels, and pathology. These fidgeting behaviors can be entrained by sensory stimuli. Fidgeting behaviors will cause distributed, bilateral functional activation in the 0...
October 12, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30280638/region-specific-phenotypes-of-microglia-the-role-of-local-regulatory-cues
#6
Lindsay M De Biase, Antonello Bonci
Microglia are ubiquitous, macrophage like cells within the central nervous system (CNS) that play critical roles in supporting neuronal health and viability. They can also influence neuronal membrane properties and synaptic connectivity, positioning microglia as key cellular players in both physiological and pathological contexts. Microglia have generally been assumed to be equivalent throughout the CNS, but accumulating evidence indicates that their properties vary substantially across distinct CNS regions...
October 3, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264661/functional-and-neuroanatomical-bases-of-developmental-stuttering-current-insights
#7
Soo-Eun Chang, Emily O Garnett, Andrew Etchell, Ho Ming Chow
Affecting 5% of all preschool-aged children and 1% of the general population, developmental stuttering-also called childhood-onset fluency disorder-is a complex, multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by frequent disruption of the fluent flow of speech. Over the past two decades, neuroimaging studies of both children and adults who stutter have begun to provide significant insights into the neurobiological bases of stuttering. This review highlights convergent findings from this body of literature with a focus on functional and structural neuroimaging results that are supported by theoretically driven neurocomputational models of speech production...
September 28, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403160/perspectives-on-neuroscience-and-behavior
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488436/neuroimaging-of-the-injured-pediatric-brain-methods-and-new-lessons
#9
Emily L Dennis, Talin Babikian, Christopher C Giza, Paul M Thompson, Robert F Asarnow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the United States, especially for children and adolescents. Current epidemiological data estimate over 600,000 patients younger than 20 years are treated for TBI in emergency rooms annually. While many patients experience a full recovery, for others there can be long-lasting cognitive, neurological, psychological, and behavioral disruptions. TBI in youth can disrupt ongoing brain development and create added family stress during a formative period...
December 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30156141/perspectives-on-neuroscience-and-behavior
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900803/you-can-observe-a-lot-by-watching-hughlings-jackson-s-underappreciated-and-prescient-ideas-about-brain-control-of-movement
#11
Ari Berkowitz
John Hughlings Jackson, the 19th-century British neurologist, first described what are today called Jacksonian seizures. He is generally associated with somatotopy, the idea that neighboring brain regions control neighboring body parts, as later represented pictorially in Wilder Penfield's "homunculus," or little man in the brain. Jackson's own views, however, were quite different, though this is seldom appreciated. In an 1870 article, Jackson advanced the hypotheses that each region of the cerebrum controls movements of multiple body parts, but to different degrees, and that the "march" of movements that typically occurs during Jacksonian seizures is caused by the downstream connections of the overactive neurons at the seizure focus, rather than a somatotopic organization of the cerebrum...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877135/aging-in-the-brain-new-roles-of-epigenetics-in-cognitive-decline
#12
Jolie D Barter, Thomas C Foster
Gene expression in the aging brain depends on transcription signals generated by senescent physiology, interacting with genetic and epigenetic programs. In turn, environmental factors influence epigenetic mechanisms, such that an epigenetic-environmental link may contribute to the accumulation of cellular damage, susceptibility or resilience to stressors, and variability in the trajectory of age-related cognitive decline. Epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modifications, alter chromatin structure and the accessibility of DNA...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482447/epigenome-interactions-with-patterned-neuronal-activity
#13
Jillian Belgrad, R Douglas Fields
The temporal coding of action potential activity is fundamental to nervous system function. Here we consider how gene expression in neurons is regulated by specific patterns of action potential firing, with an emphasis on new information on epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Patterned action potential activity activates intracellular signaling networks selectively in accordance with the kinetics of activation and inactivation of second messengers, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein kinases, and cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium dynamics, which differentially activate specific transcription factors...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400127/glucocerebrosidase-and-parkinson-disease-molecular-clinical-and-therapeutic-implications
#14
Roberta Balestrino, Anthony H V Schapira
Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease characterised by multiple motor and non-motor symptoms. In the last 20 years, more than 20 genes have been identified as causes of parkinsonism. Following the observation of higher risk of PD in patients affected by Gaucher disease, a lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene, it was discovered that mutations in this gene constitute the single largest risk factor for development of idiopathic PD. Patients with PD and GBA mutations are clinically indistinguishable from patients with idiopathic PD, although some characteristics emerge depending on the specific mutation, such as slightly earlier onset...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385885/lrrk2-phosphorylation-behind-the-scenes
#15
Tina De Wit, Veerle Baekelandt, Evy Lobbestael
Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are known today as the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a large protein that is hypothesized to regulate other proteins as a scaffold in downstream signaling pathways. This is supported by the multiple domain composition of LRRK2 with several protein-protein interaction domains combined with kinase and GTPase activity. LRRK2 is highly phosphorylated at sites that are strictly controlled by upstream regulators, including its own kinase domain...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283020/gaba-from-inhibition-to-cognition-emerging-concepts
#16
T Schmidt-Wilcke, E Fuchs, K Funke, A Vlachos, F Müller-Dahlhaus, N A J Puts, R E Harris, R A E Edden
Neural functioning and plasticity can be studied on different levels of organization and complexity ranging from the molecular and synaptic level to neural circuitry of whole brain networks. Across neuroscience different methods are being applied to better understand the role of various neurotransmitter systems in the evolution of perception and cognition. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult mammalian brain and, depending on the brain region, up to 25% of the total number of cortical neurons are GABAergic interneurons...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283016/pericytes-make-spinal-cord-breathless-after-injury
#17
Viviani M Almeida, Ana E Paiva, Isadora F G Sena, Akiva Mintz, Luiz Alexandre V Magno, Alexander Birbrair
Traumatic spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that leads to significant neurological deficits and reduced quality of life. Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord lesions are designed to address multiple aspects of the secondary damage. However, the lack of detailed knowledge about the cellular and molecular changes that occur after spinal cord injury restricts the design of effective treatments. Li and colleagues using a rat model of spinal cord injury and in vivo microscopy reveal that pericytes play a key role in the regulation of capillary tone and blood flow in the spinal cord below the site of the lesion...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283014/versatility-and-flexibility-of-cortical-circuits
#18
Melissa S Haley, Arianna Maffei
Cortical circuits are known to be plastic and adaptable, as shown by an impressive body of evidence demonstrating the ability of cortical circuits to adapt to changes in environmental stimuli, development, learning, and insults. In this review, we will discuss some of the features of cortical circuits that are thought to facilitate cortical circuit versatility and flexibility. Throughout life, cortical circuits can be extensively shaped and refined by experience while preserving their overall organization, suggesting that mechanisms are in place to favor change but also to stabilize some aspects of the circuit...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874078/behavioral-manipulation-by-optogenetics-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#19
Chunshan Deng, Hong Yuan, Ji Dai
Given their neuroanatomical similarities to humans and their ability to perform complex behaviors, the nonhuman primate has been an important model for understanding complex systems such as sensory processing, motor control, social interaction, and nervous system disorders. Optogenetics offers cell-type specific neural control with millisecond precision, making it a powerful neural modulation technique. Combining optogenetics with the nonhuman primate model promises to lead to significant advances in both basic and applied research...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612649/a-brain-on-a-roller-coaster-can-the-dopamine-reward-system-act-as-a-protagonist-to-subdue-the-ups-and-downs-of-bipolar-disorder
#20
Shokouh Arjmand, Mina Behzadi, Gary J Stephens, Sara Ezzatabadipour, Rostam Seifaddini, Shahrad Arjmand, Mohammad Shabani
One of the most interesting but tenebrous parts of the bipolar disorder (BD) story is the switch between (hypo)mania and depression, which can give bipolar patients a thrilling, but somewhat perilous, 'ride'. Numerous studies have pointed out that there are some recognizable differences (either state-dependent or state-independent) in several brain regions of people with BD, including components of the brain's reward system. Understanding the underpinning mechanisms of high and low mood statuses in BD has potential, not only for the development of highly specific and selective pharmaceutical agents, but also for better treatment approaches and psychological interventions to manage BD and, thus, give patients a safer ride...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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