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Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801844/brg1-inhibits-e-cadherin-expression-in-lung-epithelial-cells-and-disrupts-epithelial-integrity
#1
Ting Wang, Wenjing Zou, Chao Niu, Fengxia Ding, Yaping Wang, Shuang Cai, Hua Zhu, Daiyin Tian, Jihong Dai, Enmei Liu, Qing Lu, Zhou Fu, Lin Zou
Brahma-related gene-1 (Brg1), a key chromatin remodeling factor, is associated with cell proliferation and migration in kidney and heart cells, but few reports have examined its role in airway epithelial cell. Airway epithelial injury, which is involved in the entire pathological process of asthma, is an important cause of recurrent asthma. Here, we studied the function of Brg1 in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model (lung-specific conditional Brg1 (Brg1(-/-)) knockdown mice) and human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells stably expressing Brg1 shRNA...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791438/vps52-induces-apoptosis-via-cathepsin-d-in-gastric-cancer
#2
Jian Zhang, Ying Lin, Xichun Hu, Zheng Wu, Weijian Guo
Vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes encode a class of proteins involved in vesicular trafficking. Growing evidence suggests that VPS proteins play roles in tumor biology. Vacuolar protein sorting 52 (VPS52) is involved in retrograde transport of endosomes, and its roles in cancers have not been explored. This study investigated the genetic alterations, protein changes, biological role, and molecular mechanism of VPS52 in gastric cancer. Loss of heterozygosity of VPS52 was detected in 52.9% (9/17) of gastric cancer samples...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785870/mechanisms-of-foam-cell-formation-in-atherosclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Andrey V Grechko, Alexander N Orekhov
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol homeostasis in the peripheral blood is maintained by specialized cells, such as macrophages. Macrophages express a variety of scavenger receptors (SR) that interact with lipoproteins, including SR-A1, CD36, and lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). These cells also have several cholesterol transporters, including ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI, that are involved in reverse cholesterol transport. Lipids internalized by phagocytosis are transported to late endosomes/lysosomes, where lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) digests cholesteryl esters releasing free cholesterol...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782084/brain-perivascular-macrophages-characterization-and-functional-roles-in-health-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Giuseppe Faraco, Laibaik Park, Josef Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
Perivascular macrophages (PVM) are a distinct population of resident brain macrophages characterized by a close association with the cerebral vasculature. PVM migrate from the yolk sac into the brain early in development and, like microglia, are likely to be a self-renewing cell population that, in the normal state, is not replenished by circulating monocytes. Increasing evidence implicates PVM in several disease processes, ranging from brain infections and immune activation to regulation of the hypothalamic-adrenal axis and neurovascular-neurocognitive dysfunction in the setting of hypertension, Alzheimer disease pathology, or obesity...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780611/novel-therapeutic-concepts-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-from-bench-to-bedside
#5
EDITORIAL
Viola Neudecker, Sean P Colgan, Holger K Eltzschig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748390/mir-27b-3p-mir-181a-1-3p-and-mir-326-5p-are%C3%A2-involved-in-the-inhibition-of-macrophage-activation-in-chronic-liver-injury
#6
Weiyang Li, Na Chang, Lei Tian, Jingjing Yang, Xiaofang Ji, Jieshi Xie, Lin Yang, Liying Li
Macrophages are central players in inflammation, which leads to liver injury. It has been reported that continuous macrophage activation initiates this process. Our previous data show that the anti-inflammatory factor, 15-deoxy-Δ(12, 14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), inhibits bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophage (BMM) migration and inflammatory cytokine production. However, the underlying mechanism of 15d-PGJ2 inhibited BMM activation is still unclear. Here, we evaluate the role of 15d-PGJ2/PPARγ axis in BMM activation...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726085/micrornas-in-mucosal-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Viola Neudecker, Xiaoyi Yuan, Jessica L Bowser, Holger K Eltzschig
Of the total human body's surface, the majority is internal surface, belonging to the lungs (100 m(2)) and intestinal tract (400 m(2)). In comparison, the external surface area, belonging to the skin, comprises less than 1% (2 m(2)). Continuous exposure of the mucosal surface to external factors (e.g., pathogens, food particles) requires tight regulation to maintain homeostasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have gained noticeable attention as playing important roles in maintaining the steady-state of tissues by modulating immune functions and inflammatory responses...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707083/layered-defense-how-mucus-and-tight-junctions-seal-the-intestinal-barrier
#8
REVIEW
Christopher T Capaldo, Domonica N Powell, Daniel Kalman
The colonic mucosa provides a vital defensive barrier separating the body from the microbial populations residing in the intestinal lumen. Indeed, growing evidence shows that loss of this barrier may cause disease or exacerbate disease progression. The loss of barrier integrity increases the translocation of bacterial antigens and stimulates inflammation in the intestinal mucosa, which is the central pathological feature of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This review focuses on how intestinal mucus and intercellular tight junctions (TJs) act together to maintain the integrity of the colonic barrier and how barrier integrity is dysregulated in IBD...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695226/fenretinide-differentially-modulates-the-levels-of-long-and-very-long-chain-ceramides-by-downregulating-cers5-enzyme-evidence-from-bench-to-bedside
#9
Dušan Garić, Juan B De Sanctis, Gabriella Wojewodka, Daniel Houle, Shanon Cupri, Asmahan Abu-Arish, John W Hanrahan, Marian Hajduch, Elias Matouk, Danuta Radzioch
Cystic fibrosis is the most common genetic disease, in which symptoms may be alleviated but not fully eliminated. Ceramides have long been implicated in the inflammatory etiology of cystic fibrosis, with contradicting reports with regards to their role. Recently, significant biological and biophysical differences have been observed between long- and very long-chain ceramides. This work reveals that long-chain ceramides are upregulated whereas very long-chain ceramides are downregulated in cell lines, mouse animal model, and patients with cystic fibrosis, compared with their controls...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689299/4-o-methylhonokiol-protects-from-alcohol-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#10
Eleonora Patsenker, Andrea Chicca, Vanessa Petrucci, Sheida Moghadamrad, Andrea de Gottardi, Jochen Hampe, Jürg Gertsch, Nasser Semmo, Felix Stickel
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, and related mortality. The endocannabinoid system contributes to the development of chronic liver diseases, where cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has been shown to have a protecting role. Thus, here, we investigated how CB2 agonism by 4'-O-methylhonokiol (MHK), a biphenyl from Magnolia grandiflora, affects chronic alcohol-induced liver fibrosis and damage in mice. A combination of alcohol (10% vol/vol) and CCl4 (1 ml/kg) was applied to C57BL/6 mice for 5 weeks...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674855/carnosic-acid-attenuates-rankl-induced-oxidative-stress-and-osteoclastogenesis-via-induction-of-nrf2-and-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-signalling
#11
Dinesh Thummuri, V G M Naidu, Pradip Chaudhari
Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor, which plays an important role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress by induction of anti-oxidant and cytoprotective enzymes. In the current study, we sought to investigate the osteoprotective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic (catecholic) diterpene. It is widely identified for its electrophilic nature under oxidative stress conditions and thus anticipated to counter osteoporosis by facilitation of Nrf2 signalling...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669027/the-impact-of-structural-biology-in-medicine-illustrated-with-four-case-studies
#12
REVIEW
Tiancen Hu, Elizabeth R Sprague, Michelle Fodor, Travis Stams, Kirk L Clark, Sandra W Cowan-Jacob
The contributions of structural biology to drug discovery have expanded over the last 20 years from structure-based ligand optimization to a broad range of clinically relevant topics including the understanding of disease, target discovery, screening for new types of ligands, discovery of new modes of action, addressing clinical challenges such as side effects or resistance, and providing data to support drug registration. This expansion of scope is due to breakthroughs in the technology, which allow structural information to be obtained rapidly and for more complex molecular systems, but also due to the combination of different technologies such as X-ray, NMR, and other biophysical methods, which allows one to get a more complete molecular understanding of disease and ways to treat it...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664215/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-galectin-1-in-a-murine-model-of-atopic-dermatitis
#13
Mab Pereira Corrêa, Frans Eberth Costa Andrade, Alexandre Dantas Gimenes, Cristiane Damas Gil
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is caused by both dysregulated immune responses and an impaired skin barrier. Although beta-galactoside-binding protein galectin-1 (Gal-1) has immunomodulatory effects in several inflammatory disorders, therapeutic strategies based on its anti-inflammatory properties have not been explored in AD. Thus, we evaluate pharmacological treatment with Gal-1 in the progression of an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AD-like skin lesions. The skin of OVA-immunized male BALB/c mice was challenged with drops containing OVA on days 11, 14-18 and 21-24...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660346/adeno-associated-viral-gene-therapy-for-mucopolysaccharidoses-exhibiting-neurodegeneration
#14
REVIEW
Adeline A Lau, Kim M Hemsley
The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a subgroup of lysosomal storage disorders that are caused by mutations in the genes involved in glycosaminoglycan breakdown. Multiple organs and tissues are affected, including the central nervous system. At present, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapies are approved for some of the (non-neurological) MPS. Treatments that effectively ameliorate the neurological aspects of the disease are being assessed in clinical trials. This review will focus on the recent outcomes and planned viral vector-mediated gene therapy clinical trials, and the pre-clinical data that supported these studies, for MPS-I (Hurler/Scheie syndrome), MPS-II (Hunter syndrome), and MPS-IIIA and -IIIB (Sanfilippo syndrome)...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656322/the-remedy-within-will-the-microbiome-fulfill-its-therapeutic-promise
#15
REVIEW
Christoph A Thaiss, Eran Elinav
The last decade of research has witnessed a tremendous upsurge in our understanding of the intestinal microbiome and its role in a large range of human diseases, which has incited hopes for a rapid clinical utilization of the new insights for the development of microbiome-based therapies. Nonetheless, only a single microbiome-targeted therapy has so far found its way into clinical routine: fecal microbiota transplantation for patients suffering from recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. Herein, we discuss the current hopes, advances, challenges, and obstacles for translating basic microbiome research into therapeutic applications for a larger number of diseases and provide an outline of how such clinical applications might emerge...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643003/recent-developments-in-solution-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-nmr-based-molecular-biology
#16
REVIEW
Joshua J Ziarek, Diego Baptista, Gerhard Wagner
Visualizing post-translational modifications, conformations, and interaction surfaces of protein structures at atomic resolution underpins the development of novel therapeutics to combat disease. As computational resources expand, in silico calculations coupled with experimentally derived structures and functional assays have led to an explosion in structure-based drug design (SBDD) with several compounds in clinical trials. It is increasingly clear that "hidden" transition-state structures along activation trajectories can be harnessed to develop novel classes of allosteric inhibitors...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623379/cathelicidin-deficient-mice-exhibit-increased-survival-and-upregulation-of-key-inflammatory-response-genes-following-cecal-ligation-and-puncture
#17
Patricia Severino, Suely Kubo Ariga, Hermes Vieira Barbeiro, Thais Martins de Lima, Elisangela de Paula Silva, Denise Frediani Barbeiro, Marcel Cerqueira César Machado, Victor Nizet, Fabiano Pinheiro da Silva
Antimicrobial peptides possess a myriad of molecular properties including bacterial killing and the regulation of many aspects of innate immunity. Cathelicidins are a group of antimicrobial peptides widely investigated by the scientific community. Many studies have focused on the bactericidal and pro-inflammatory roles of cathelicidins. Because the role of endogenous cathelicidin expression remains obscure in deep-seated systemic infections, we induced sepsis in cathelicidin knockout and wild-type (WT) mice by cecal ligation and puncture, performing transcriptome screening by DNA microarray in conjunction with other immunologic assays...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620703/epidemiology-and-biology-of-physical-activity-and-cancer-recurrence
#18
REVIEW
Christine M Friedenreich, Eileen Shaw, Heather K Neilson, Darren R Brenner
Physical activity is emerging from epidemiologic research as a lifestyle factor that may improve survival from colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers. However, there is considerably less evidence relating physical activity to cancer recurrence and the biologic mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Cancer patients are surviving longer than ever before, and fear of cancer recurrence is an important concern. Herein, we provide an overview of the current epidemiologic evidence relating physical activity to cancer recurrence...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597070/the-kiss1-metastasis-suppressor-appears-to-reverse-the-warburg-effect-by-shifting-from-glycolysis-to-mitochondrial-beta-oxidation
#19
Sharon J Manley, Wen Liu, Danny R Welch
The shift by cancer cells toward aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) confers selective advantages by utilizing nutrients (e.g., lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides) to build biomass. Lipogenesis is generally enhanced, and its inhibition diminishes proliferation and survival. Re-expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1 in human melanoma cells results in greater mitochondrial biogenesis, inhibition of glycolysis, utilization of beta-oxidation to provide energy, elevated oxidation of exogenous fatty acids, and increased expression of early-phase lipogenesis genes at both mRNA and protein levels...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593577/mir-125a-regulates-mitochondrial-homeostasis-through-targeting-mitofusin-1-to-control-hypoxic-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling
#20
Cui Ma, Chen Zhang, Mingfei Ma, Lixin Zhang, Linlin Zhang, Fengying Zhang, Yingli Chen, Fangyuan Cao, Minghui Li, Guangtian Wang, Tingting Shen, Hongmin Yao, Yumei Liu, Zhenwei Pan, Shasha Song, Daling Zhu
Abnormal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation is an important pathological process in hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Mitochondrial dynamics and quality control have a central role in the maintenance of the cell proliferation-apoptosis balance. However, the molecular mechanism is still unknown. We used hypoxic animal models, cell biology, and molecular biology to determine the effect of mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) on hypoxia-mediated PASMCs mitochondrial homeostasis. We found that Mfn1 expression was increased in hypoxia, which was crucial for hypoxia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and smooth muscle cell proliferation as well as hypoxia-stimulated cell-cycle transition from the G0/G1 phase to S phase...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
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