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Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401436/cypress-pollinosis-from-tree-to-clinic
#1
REVIEW
Denis Charpin, Christian Pichot, Jordina Belmonte, Jean-Pierre Sutra, Jarmila Zidkova, Pascal Chanez, Youcef Shahali, Hélène Sénéchal, Pascal Poncet
Cypress (Cupressus sp.pl) is a genus within the Cupressaceae family. This family covers all of the Earth's continents except for Antarctica, and it includes about 160 species. The most important taxa for allergic diseases belong to five different genera: Cupressus, Hesperocyparis, Juniperus, Cryptomeria, and Chamaecyparis. Cupressaceae species share a common pollen type that can even include the genus Taxus (Taxaceae) when this plant is also present. As Juniperus oxycedrus pollinates in October, Cupressus sempervirens in January and February, Hesperocyparis arizonica (prev...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299723/mold-and-human-health-a-reality-check
#2
REVIEW
Andrea T Borchers, Christopher Chang, M Eric Gershwin
There are possibly millions of mold species on earth. The vast majority of these mold spores live in harmony with humans, rarely causing disease. The rare species that does cause disease does so by triggering allergies or asthma, or may be involved in hypersensitivity diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or allergic fungal sinusitis. Other hypersensitivity diseases include those related to occupational or domiciliary exposures to certain mold species, as in the case of Pigeon Breeder's disease, Farmer's lung, or humidifier fever...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251581/chitin-and-its-effects-on-inflammatory-and-immune-responses
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Lokesh Sharma, Charles S Dela Cruz
Chitin, a potential allergy-promoting pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), is a linear polymer composed of N-acetylglucosamine residues which are linked by β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds. Mammalians are potential hosts for chitin-containing protozoa, fungi, arthropods, and nematodes; however, mammalians themselves do not synthetize chitin and thus it is considered as a potential target for recognition by mammalian immune system. Chitin is sensed primarily in the lungs or gut where it activates a variety of innate (eosinophils, macrophages) and adaptive immune cells (IL-4/IL-13 expressing T helper type-2 lymphocytes)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244020/air-travel-circadian-rhythms-hormones-and-autoimmunity
#4
REVIEW
J Torres-Ruiz, A Sulli, M Cutolo, Y Shoenfeld
Biological rhythms are fundamental for homeostasis and have recently been involved in the regulatory processes of various organs and systems. Circadian cycle proteins and hormones have a direct effect on the inflammatory response and have shown pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of autoimmune diseases. The cells of the immune system have their own circadian rhythm, and the light-dark cycle directly influences the inflammatory response. On the other hand, patients with autoimmune diseases characteristically have sleep disorders and fatigue, and in certain disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a frank periodicity in the signs and symptoms is recognized...
February 27, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878451/beyond-genetics-what-causes-type-1-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Zhen Wang, Zhiguo Xie, Qianjin Lu, Christopher Chang, Zhiguang Zhou
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting from T cell-mediated β cell destruction in the pancreas of genetically susceptible individuals. Extensive familial and population genetic studies uncovered the strong linkage and association between HLA gene variants and T1D. Non-HLA genes have also been associated with T1D, such as INS, CTLA4, and PTPN22. T1D is considered as one of the most heritable common diseases. However, evidence that monozygotic twins have incomplete concordance of disease susceptibility provides convincing proof that environmental factors also play important roles in the pathogenesis of the disease...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873163/an-update-on-the-use-of-immunomodulators-in-primary-immunodeficiencies
#6
REVIEW
Pandiarajan Vignesh, Amit Rawat, Surjit Singh
The genomic revolution in the past decade fuelled by breathtaking advances in sequencing technologies has defined several new genetic diseases of the immune system. Many of these newly characterized diseases are a result of defects in genes involved in immune regulation. The discovery of these diseases has opened a vista of new therapeutic possibilities. Immunomodulatory agents, a hitherto unexplored therapeutic option in primary immunodeficiency diseases have been tried in a host of these newly described maladies...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687891/epigenetic-variability-of-cd4-cd25-tregs-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Ye Shu, Qinghua Hu, Hai Long, Christopher Chang, Qianjin Lu, Rong Xiao
Autoimmune diseases are characterized by aberrant immune responses against healthy cells and tissues. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the development of these conditions remain unknown. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of mature T cells which have an important role in maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmune diseases. Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), a member of the fork head transcription factor family, is recognized as a marker of CD4+CD25+ Tregs. The decreased number and/or function of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in peripheral blood and related tissues has been demonstrated in systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and other autoimmune diseases, which are at least partially regulated by epigenetic mechanisms...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368808/review-of-mouse-models-of-graves-disease-and-orbitopathy-novel-treatment-by-induction-of-tolerance
#8
REVIEW
Martin Ungerer, Julia Faßbender, Zhongmin Li, Götz Münch, Hans-Peter Holthoff
Various approaches have been used to model human Graves' disease in mice, including transfected fibroblasts, and plasmid or adenoviral immunisations with the extracellular A subunit of the human thyrotropin receptor (TSHR). Some of these models were only observed for a short time period or were self-limiting. A long-term model for human Graves' disease was established in mice using continuing immunisations (4-weekly injections) with recombinant adenovirus expressing TSHR. Generation of TSHR binding cAMP-stimulatory antibodies, thyroid enlargement and alterations, elevated serum thyroxin levels, tachycardia and cardiac hypertrophy were maintained for at least 9 months in all Ad-TSHR-immunised mice...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350273/the-clinical-relevance-of-anti-dfs70-autoantibodies
#9
REVIEW
Karsten Conrad, Nadja Röber, Luis E C Andrade, Michael Mahler
Despite all the progress in the establishment of specific autoantibody assays, screening for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) by indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells for quality-oriented laboratory diagnosis of ANA associated rheumatic diseases (AARD) remains indispensable but is not without limitations. Recent data on the relevance of the dense fine speckled (DFS) pattern and anti-DFS70 antibodies disclosed novel possibilities to optimize the serological stepwise diagnostics of AARD. The DFS pattern on HEp-2 cells is well differentiated from the classic "homogeneous" ANA pattern associated with dsDNA antibodies...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318947/regulatory-t-cells-in-systemic-sclerosis-a-comprehensive-review
#10
REVIEW
Gleb Slobodin, Doron Rimar
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease with complex pathogenesis, based on the sophisticated interplay of injury to the vascular endothelium, exaggerated tissue regeneration and fibrosis, and extensive immune abnormalities. The role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the development of SSc has started being studied during the last decade with new aspects being disclosed continuously, in parallel with the better understanding of Tregs physiology. There is a general agreement in the medical literature regarding the decreased functional capacity of circulating Tregs in SSc...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216430/the-role-of-stat-signaling-pathways-in-the-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#11
REVIEW
Aleš Goropevšek, Marija Holcar, Tadej Avčin
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations and association with multiple immunological abnormalities. Recent research of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway-revealed aberrant STAT signaling in inflammatory conditions and autoimmune diseases including SLE. STAT proteins are major components in interferon (IFN)-dependent gene expression and are responsible for signal transduction of over 50 cytokines, hormones, and growth factors regulating key cellular processes such as survival, proliferation, and differentiation...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216429/cd20-mimotope-peptide-active-immunotherapy-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-a-reappraisal-of-vaccination-strategies-in-rheumatic-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Elvira Favoino, Marcella Prete, Andrea Marzullo, Enrico Millo, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Federico Perosa
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which any organs can be potential targets of autoimmune aggression. Although the pathogenic auto-antibodies have been well characterized, the role of B cells goes far beyond that of antibodies production, and B cell-targeted therapy may be an interesting therapeutic approach. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab has been successfully used to control the most severe form of SLE, and even if two controlled clinical trials failed to demonstrate its superiority compared to conventional immunosuppressants, off-label use of rituximab is still commonly adopted in clinical practice in SLE nephritis resistant to immunosuppressants...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207172/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-autoimmune-disorders-state-of-the-art-and-perspectives-for-systemic-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Alexandre T J Maria, Marie Maumus, Alain Le Quellec, Christian Jorgensen, Danièle Noël, Philippe Guilpain
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) are non-hematopoietic multipotent progenitor cells, first described in bone marrow in the middle of last century. Since then, MSC have been the objects of a myriad of publications, progressively increasing our knowledge on their potentialities and bringing high expectancies for their regenerative properties. During the same period, numerous tissues, such as adipose tissue, placenta, or umbilical cord, have been used as alternative sources of MSC in comparison with bone marrow...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26961386/molecular-and-immunological-basis-of-tubulo-interstitial-injury-in-lupus-nephritis-a-comprehensive-review
#14
REVIEW
Susan Yung, Tak Mao Chan
Lupus nephritis is an important cause of kidney failure in patients of Asian, African, or Hispanic descent. Its etiology and pathogenesis are multifactorial and remain to be elucidated. Accumulating evidence suggests that anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies play a critical role in the pathogenesis, through its direct binding to cross-reactive antigens on resident renal cells or indirect binding through chromatin material to extracellular matrix components, resulting in complement activation, cell activation and proliferation, and induction of inflammatory and fibrotic processes...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004375/gorham-stout-disease-a-clinical-case-report-and-immunological-mechanisms-in-bone-erosion
#15
REVIEW
Maria José Franco-Barrera, Maria Guadalupe Zavala-Cerna, Georgina Aguilar-Portillo, Diana Brisa Sánchez-Gomez, Olivia Torres-Bugarin, Miguel Angel Franco-Barrera, Carlos Manuel Roa-Encarnacion
Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare condition of osteolysis with excessive lymphangiogenesis within bone tissue. The etiology of this condition remains unknown but seems to affect mainly children and young adults of both genders all over the world. Unfortunately, there is no standardized method for diagnosis; however, histopathology remains as the gold standard. This condition is often misdiagnosed due to its varying clinical presentations from case-to-case. Here, we report the case of an 8-year-old girl who presented with chronic mandibular pain during mastication and received multiple antibiotic treatment due to infectious origin suspicion...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273086/thymic-germinal-centers-and-corticosteroids-in-myasthenia-gravis-an-immunopathological-study-in-1035-cases-and-a-critical-review
#16
REVIEW
Frédérique Truffault, Vincent de Montpreville, Bruno Eymard, Tarek Sharshar, Rozen Le Panse, Sonia Berrih-Aknin
The most common form of Myasthenia gravis (MG) is due to anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies and is frequently associated with thymic pathology. In this review, we discuss the immunopathological characteristics and molecular mechanisms of thymic follicular hyperplasia, the effects of corticosteroids on this thymic pathology, and the role of thymic epithelial cells (TEC), a key player in the inflammatory thymic mechanisms. This review is based not only on the literature data but also on thymic transcriptome results and analyses of pathological and immunological correlations in a vast cohort of 1035 MG patients without thymoma...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207173/review-on-toll-like-receptor-activation-in-myasthenia-gravis-application-to-the-development-of-new-experimental-models
#17
REVIEW
Marieke Robinet, Solène Maillard, Mélanie A Cron, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Rozen Le Panse
Abnormal toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and uncontrolled resolution of inflammation are suspected to play a key role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) is an invalidating neuromuscular disease leading to muscle weaknesses. MG is mainly mediated by anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) autoantibodies, and thymic hyperplasia characterized by ectopic germinal centers is a common feature in MG. An abnormal expression of certain TLRs is observed in the thymus of MG patients associated with the overexpression of interferon (IFN)-β, the orchestrator of thymic changes in MG...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26782036/serum-jo-1-autoantibody-and-isolated-arthritis-in-the-antisynthetase-syndrome-review-of-the-literature-and-report-of-the-experience-of-aeneas-collaborative-group
#18
REVIEW
Lorenzo Cavagna, Laura Nuño, Carlo Alberto Scirè, Marcello Govoni, Francisco Javier Lopez Longo, Franco Franceschini, Rossella Neri, Santos Castañeda, Walter Alberto Sifuentes Giraldo, Roberto Caporali, Florenzo Iannone, Enrico Fusaro, Giuseppe Paolazzi, Raffaele Pellerito, Andreas Schwarting, Lesley Ann Saketkoo, Norberto Ortego-Centeno, Luca Quartuccio, Elena Bartoloni, Christof Specker, Trinitario Pina Murcia, Renato La Corte, Federica Furini, Valentina Foschi, Javier Bachiller Corral, Paolo Airò, Ilaria Cavazzana, Julia Martínez-Barrio, Michelle Hinojosa, Margherita Giannini, Simone Barsotti, Julia Menke, Kostantinos Triantafyllias, Rosetta Vitetta, Alessandra Russo, Laura Bogliolo, Gianluigi Bajocchi, Elena Bravi, Giovanni Barausse, Roberto Bortolotti, Carlo Selmi, Simone Parisi, Fausto Salaffi, Carlomaurizio Montecucco, Miguel Angel González-Gay
Anti-Jo-1 is the most frequently detectable antibody in the antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD), an autoimmune disease characterized by the occurrence of arthritis, myositis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Recently, we organized an international collaborative group called American and European NEtwork of Antisynthetase Syndrome (AENEAS) for the study of this rare and fascinating disease. The group collected and published one of the largest series of ASSD patients ever described and with one of the longer follow-up ever reported...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780034/the-immune-response-and-the-pathogenesis-of-idiopathic-inflammatory-myositis-a-critical-review
#19
REVIEW
Angela Ceribelli, Maria De Santis, Natasa Isailovic, M Eric Gershwin, Carlo Selmi
The pathogenesis of idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIMs, including polymyositis and dermatomyositis) remains largely enigmatic, despite advances in the study of the role played by innate immunity, adaptive immunity, genetic predisposition, and environmental factors in an orchestrated response. Several factors are involved in the inflammatory state that characterizes the different forms of IIMs which share features and mechanisms but are clearly different with respect to the involved sites and characteristics of the inflammation...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26767526/modern-therapies-for-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies-iims-role-of-biologics
#20
REVIEW
Siamak Moghadam-Kia, Chester V Oddis, Rohit Aggarwal
Despite the lack of placebo-controlled trials, glucocorticoids are considered the mainstay of initial treatment for idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIMs) and myositis-associated ILD (MA-ILD). Glucocorticoid-sparing agents are often given concomitantly with other immunosuppressive agents, particularly in patients with moderate or severe disease. As treatment of refractory cases of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies has been challenging, there is growing interest in evaluating newer therapies including biologics that target various pathways involved in the pathogenesis of IIMs...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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