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Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

Sara Anvari, Jennifer Miller, Chih-Yin Yeh, Carla M Davis
Food allergies are defined as adverse immune responses to food proteins that result in typical clinical symptoms involving the dermatologic, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and/or neurologic systems. IgE-mediated food-allergic disease differs from non-IgE-mediated disease because the pathophysiology results from activation of the immune system, causing a T helper 2 response which results in IgE binding to Fc ε receptors on effector cells like mast cells and basophils. The activation of these cells causes release of histamine and other preformed mediators, and rapid symptom onset, in contrast with non-IgE-mediated food allergy which is more delayed in onset...
October 29, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Sonia N Bains, Pembroke Nash, Luz Fonacier
Contact dermatitis accounts for 95% of occupational skin disorders. Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is often caused by cumulative exposure to weak irritants, accounting for 80% of all cases of contact dermatitis. ICD can co-exist with atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Patients with AD and ACD may have a lower inflammatory threshold for developing ICD. Therefore, it needs to be distinguished from lesions of AD and ACD. ICD Patients report stinging and burning in excess of pruritus...
October 6, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Paolo Muratori, Marco Lenzi, Luigi Muratori
It is a comment on a recent review published on the Journal.
October 4, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Betty A Uyesugi, Michael P Sheehan
Dermatitis is one of the most common illnesses encountered by healthcare providers and the causes are numerous. Contact dermatitis is the form of dermatitis resulting from contact with the environment, and it may be either irritant or allergic in nature. Patch testing has been the gold standard for diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis since its formal description over 100 years ago by Jadassohn. While this diagnostic tool may seem simple to us today, there are numerous potential points for error that the practitioner must keep in mind...
September 30, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Federico Carbone, Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Sabrina Paolino, Francesco Torre, Franco Dallegri, Fabrizio Montecucco, Maurizio Cutolo
Substantial epidemiological data identified cardiovascular (CV) diseases as a main cause of mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In light of this, RA patients may benefit from additional CV risk screening and more intensive prevention strategies. Nevertheless, current algorithms for CV risk stratification still remain tailored on general population and are burdened by a significant underestimation of CV risk in RA patients. Acute CV events in patients with RA are largely related to an accelerated atherosclerosis...
September 26, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Jenna Borok, Catalina Matiz, Alina Goldenberg, Sharon E Jacob
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) used to be considered a rarity in children, but recently has been estimated to effect 4.4 million children in the USA alone, with a notable rise in investigative research in the field of pediatric ACD. Researchers have shown that patch testing is safe and effective in afflicted children and that those with atopic dermatitis (AD) have similar sensitization rates, although they have a higher sensitization to certain allergens, thought to be related to the inflammatory (IL-4) milieu...
September 17, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Karin A Pacheco
Surgical implants are essential elements of repair procedures to correct worn out joints, damaged spinal components, heart and vascular disease, and chronic pain. However, many of the materials that provide stability, flexibility, and durability to the implants are also immunogenic. Fortunately, allergic responses to surgical implants are infrequent. When they do occur, however, the associated pain, swelling, inflammation, and decreased range of motion can significantly impair the implant function. Given the high numbers of joint replacements performed in the developed world, allergic reactions to orthopedic implants form the largest category of allergic responses...
September 15, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Elizabeth J Hait, Douglas R McDonald
Atopic disorders and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are some of the most common medical conditions treated by primary care physicians and specialists alike. The observation that atopic disorders, like asthma, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis are common comorbidities in patients with GERD raises the question of the nature of the relationship that may exist between GERD and atopic disorders. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of GERD, its effect on the immune system, the effect of acid-blocking medications on allergic responses, as well as several common atopic conditions that have been associated with GERD including asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), allergic rhinitis (AR), atopic dermatitis (AD), contact dermatitis (CD), food allergies, proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE), and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE)...
September 11, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Merin E Kuruvilla, F Eun-Hyung Lee, Gerald B Lee
The model of asthma as a single entity has now been replaced by a much more complex biological network of distinct and interrelating inflammatory pathways. The term asthma is now considered an umbrella diagnosis for several diseases with distinct mechanistic pathways (endotypes) and variable clinical presentations (phenotypes). The precise definition of these endotypes is central to asthma management due to inherent therapeutic and prognostic implications. This review presents the molecular mechanisms behind the heterogeneity of airway inflammation in asthmatic patients...
September 11, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Juan-Manuel Anaya, Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Yhojan Rodríguez, Mónica Rodríguez-Jiménez, Yeny Acosta-Ampudia, Diana M Monsalve, Yovana Pacheco, Carolina Ramírez-Santana, Nicolás Molano-González, Rubén D Mantilla
The coexistence of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) has been documented. However, there is no consensus whether this coexistence should be considered as the same nosological condition or as polyautoimmunity. Thus, in this monocentric retrospective study, patients with SS alone (i.e., primary) were compared with patients with SS and AITD. In addition, a discussion of previous studies including those about genetic and environmental factors influencing the development of both conditions is presented...
September 5, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Charles Feng, Jea-Hyoun Kim
Over the past few years, the rates of food allergies have dramatically increased. As a result, the lives of patients and their caregivers have been dramatically altered. While most attention surrounding food allergies has focused on treatment, less consideration has been given to the mental health ramifications of living with this condition, among them depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, being bullied, and an overall poorer quality of life. At the same time, patients' family lives are often disrupted...
September 1, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Heather P Lampel, Helen B Powell
Occupational skin disease is common. It affects workers more often than reported. Contact dermatitis, both irritant and allergic, accounts for the majority of occupational skin diagnoses. Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) frequently affects the hands and may have a profound impact on an employee's ability to perform a job. Severe OCD can affect a worker's activities of daily living and can even lead to job loss. Numerous irritants have been described in the workplace, from the common (wet work) to the more obscure (warm, dry air)...
August 31, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Jodi Shroba, Niharika Rath, Charles Barnes
The development of food allergies is thought to involve multiple factors, and it is unclear which conveys the most risk regarding this process. Since food allergy is a chronic disease without a cure at this time, understanding its development could provide an avenue for preventive practices and development of a curative treatment. Both historical and current data implicate maternal factors, genetics, and environmental exposures as major risk factors in the development of food allergy. An immature gut of the infant has been hypothesized as a possible route of sensitization...
August 29, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Henry L Nguyen, James A Yiannias
Consumer products and topical medications today contain many allergens that can cause a reaction on the skin known as allergic contact dermatitis. This review looks at various allergens in these products and reports current allergic contact dermatitis incidence and trends in North America, Europe, and Asia. First, medication contact allergy to corticosteroids will be discussed along with its five structural classes (A, B, C, D1, D2) and their steroid test compounds (tixocortol-21-pivalate, triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, clobetasol-17-propionate, hydrocortisone-17-butyrate)...
August 25, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Andrew Blauvelt, Andrea Chiricozzi
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease that is pathogenically driven by proinflammatory cytokines. This article reviews the immunologic role of interleukin (IL)-17, the major effector cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriatic disease, along with the rationale for targeting the IL-17 cytokine family (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17 receptor A) in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Emerging evidence indicates that major sources of IL-17A in patients with psoriatic disease are mast cells, γδ T cells, αβ T cells, and innate lymphoid cells in lesional skin and synovial fluid...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Carlo Selmi
The number of peer-reviewed articles published during the 2017 solar year and retrieved using the "autoimmunity" key word increased significantly compared to 2016 while maintaining a stable share within the immunology field, following years with alternated fortunes. A detailed arbitrary analysis of the published articles in leading immunology and autoimmunity journals provides a privileged viewpoint on the current trends of research from both basic and clinical studies. Indeed, we are observing that major steps forward are found for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis, among others...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Marta Cossu, Lorenzo Beretta, Petra Mosterman, Maria J H de Hair, Timothy R D J Radstake
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a highly heterogeneous disease caused by a complex molecular circuitry. For decades, clinical and molecular research focused on understanding the primary process of fibrosis. More recently, the inflammatory, immunological and vascular components that precede the actual onset of fibrosis, have become a matter of increasing scientific scrutiny. As a consequence, the field has started to realize that the early identification of this syndrome is crucial for optimal clinical care as well as for understanding its pathology...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Jyoti Bakshi, Beatriz Tejera Segura, Christopher Wincup, Anisur Rahman
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune rheumatic disease with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 1000. Over the last 30 years, advances in treatment such as use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants have improved life expectancy and quality of life for patients with lupus and the key unmet needs have therefore changed. With the reduced mortality from disease activity, development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become an increasingly important cause of death in patients with SLE. The increased CVD risk in these patients is partly, but not fully explained by standard risk factors, and abnormalities in the immune response to lipids may play a role...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Pieter Hindryckx, Debby Laukens, Ferdinando D'Amico, Silvio Danese
Fatigue is a highly prevalent but relatively ignored problem in IBD patients. It is one of the most burdensome symptoms to the patient with an important impact on the quality of life. Therefore, fatigue is a highly relevant patient-reported outcome that should be included not only in disease activity measurement but also in the endpoints of clinical trials in IBD. However, most of the currently available scoring systems to quantify fatigue are not specifically designed for patients with IBD and none of them has undergone a complete validation process for IBD-related fatigue...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Junmin Song, Ana Lleo, Guo Xiang Yang, Weici Zhang, Christopher L Bowlus, M Eric Gershwin, Patrick S C Leung
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary B-cell immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by remarkable hypogammaglobulinemia. The disease can develop at any age without gender predominance. The prevalence of CVID varies widely worldwide. The underlying causes of CVID remain largely unknown; primary B-cell dysfunctions, defects in T cells and antigen-presenting cells are involved. Although some monogenetic defects have been identified in some CVID patients, it is likely that CVID is polygenic. Patients with CVID develop recurrent and chronic infections (e...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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