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Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332138/pathophysiology-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#1
REVIEW
Benjamin P Davis
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus associated with an atopic predisposition which appears to be increasing in prevalence over the last few decades. Symptoms stem from fibrosis, swelling, and smooth muscle dysfunction. In the past two decades, the etiology of EoE has been and is continuing to be revealed. This review provides an overview of the effects of genetics, environment, and immune function including discussions that touch on microbiome, the role of diet, food allergy, and aeroallergy...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313221/myeloid-cells-and-chronic-liver-disease-a-comprehensive-review
#2
REVIEW
Min Lian, Carlo Selmi, M Eric Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Myeloid cells play a major role in the sensitization to liver injury, particularly in chronic inflammatory liver diseases with a biliary or hepatocellular origin, and the interplay between myeloid cells and the liver may explain the increased incidence of hepatic osteodystrophy. The myeloid cell-liver axis involves several mature myeloid cells as well as immature or progenitor cells with the complexity of the liver immune microenvironment aggravating the mist of cell differentiation. The unique positioning of the liver at the junction of the peripheral and portal circulation systems underlines the interaction of myeloid cells and hepatic cells and leads to immune tolerance breakdown...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313220/pemphigus-a-comprehensive-review-on-pathogenesis-clinical-presentation-and-novel-therapeutic-approaches
#3
REVIEW
Robert Pollmann, Thomas Schmidt, Rüdiger Eming, Michael Hertl
Pemphigus is a group of rare, potentially devastating autoimmune diseases of the skin and mucous membranes with high morbidity and potentially lethal outcome. The major clinical variant, pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is caused by a loss of intercellular adhesion of epidermal keratinocytes which is induced by IgG autoantibodies against components of desmosomes. Specifically, IgG against the desmosomal adhesion proteins, desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) and desmoglein 1 (Dsg1), preferentially target their ectodomains which are presumably critical for the transinteraction and signalling function of these adhesion molecules...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306980/sex-in-respiratory-and-skin-allergies
#4
REVIEW
Erminia Ridolo, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Irene Martignago, Marco Caminati, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Gianenrico Senna
A bulk of literature demonstrated that respiratory allergy, and especially asthma, is prevalent in males during childhood, while it becomes more frequent in females from adolescence, i.e., after menarche, to adulthood. The mechanisms underlying the difference between females and males are the effects on the immune response of female hormones and in particular the modulation of inflammatory response by estrogens, as well as the result of the activity of various cells, such as dendritic cells, innate lymphoid cells, Th1, Th2, T regulatory (Treg) and B regulatory (Bregs) cells, and a number of proteins and cytokines, which include interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290036/eosinophilic-esophagitis-clinical-manifestations-and-differential-diagnosis
#5
REVIEW
Diana Muñoz-Mendoza, Adrián Chapa-Rodríguez, Sami L Bahna
As a chronic inflammatory disease with eosinophilic infiltrate of the esophagus, eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) causes a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) clinical manifestations. None of the symptoms, endoscopic features, or biopsy findings is pathognomonic of the disease, even with high degrees of esophageal eosinophilia. The pathogenesis has been explored by several studies, yet it still far from being completely understood. Evidence supports a role of allergen-driven Th2 lymphocyte mechanism, though not in every patient...
December 30, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270819/pediatric-eosinophilic-esophagitis-endotypes-are-we-closer-to-predicting-treatment-response
#6
REVIEW
Anna E Ferguson, Vince A Mukkada, Patricia C Fulkerson
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, food antigen-driven gastrointestinal disease that is characterized by esophageal eosinophilia. Currently, there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments for EoE, but the two most commonly prescribed therapies include topical corticosteroids and food elimination diets. Clinical trials have revealed a significant proportion of cases that are resistant to topical corticosteroids, and although we define EoE as a food antigen-driven disease, not all patients with EoE respond to elimination diets or even elemental diets...
December 21, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238902/dietary-therapy-for-eosinophilic-esophagitis-elimination-and-reintroduction
#7
REVIEW
Kara L Kliewer, Alison M Cassin, Carina Venter
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food antigen-mediated disorder of the esophagus characterized by eosinophil predominant inflammation and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Dietary antigen elimination induces clinical and histological remission in patients with EoE. The most restrictive of elimination diets (the elemental diet) removes all possible food antigens while empiric elimination diets remove all (or a subset) of food antigens most commonly reported to cause esophageal eosinophilia and food allergies (milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, or legumes)...
December 14, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234969/monoclonal-antibodies-for-treatment-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#8
REVIEW
Mahsa Eskian, MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Amal H Assa'ad, Nima Rezaei
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus affecting both children and adults, with debilitating and progressive symptoms. EoE has shown an explosive epidemiological rise in the past few decades. Many patients experience a poor level of disease control despite maximal use of available guideline-based therapies, which seriously hampers their quality of life. Diet restrictions and systemic and topical corticosteroids are the current mainstays of EoE therapy, but are associated with significant efficacy, treatment compliance, and safety issues such as oral or esophageal candidiasis, growth retardation, osteopenia, osteoporosis, glucose intolerance, and cataract formation...
December 12, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188475/current-perspectives-on-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis
#9
REVIEW
Marianne Lerch, Carlo Mainetti, Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Thomas Harr
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are considered a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to drugs. They represent true medical emergencies and an early recognition and appropriate management is decisive for the survival. SJS/TEN manifest with an "influenza-like" prodromal phase (malaise, fever), followed by painful cutaneous and mucous membrane (ocular, oral, and genital) lesions, and other systemic symptoms. The difference between SJS, SJS/TEN overlap, and TEN is defined by the degree of skin detachment: SJS is defined as skin involvement of < 10%, TEN is defined as skin involvement of > 30%, and SJS/TEN overlap as 10-30% skin involvement...
November 29, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181702/geoepidemiology-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis-lessons-from-switzerland
#10
Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Guido Stirnimann, Andreas Cerny, David Semela, Roxane Hessler, Beat Helbling, Felix Stickel, Carolina Kalid-de Bakker, Florian Bihl, Emiliano Giostra, Magdalena Filipowicz Sinnreich, Carl Oneta, Adriana Baserga, Pietro Invernizzi, Marco Carbone, Joachim Mertens
No data on primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) are available in Switzerland. We established a national patient cohort to obtain information on PBC phenotypes and disease course in Switzerland. Local databases in all university hospitals and in two large secondary centers were searched for case finding. In addition, all primary care physicians, gastroenterologists, rheumatologists, and dermatologists were invited to contribute patients from their own medical records. PBC diagnosis was centrally reviewed. Five hundred one PBC patients were identified, 474 were included in data analysis, and 449 of them were enrolled by tertiary centers...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177692/dermatological-complications-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#11
REVIEW
Luigi Naldi, Anna Venturuzzo, Pietro Invernizzi
Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) are a population at high risk for cutaneous adverse events. Their early recognition and appropriate treatment is an important component of the clinical management of OTRs and should be optimally dealt with by dermatologists working in the context of a transplant dermatology clinic. Skin examination should be a standard procedure before performing organ transplantation to assess conditions which may be difficult to manage after the transplant procedure has been performed or which may represent a contraindication to transplantation, e...
November 25, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256057/the-clinical-significance-of-gp73-in-immunologically-mediated-chronic-liver-diseases-experimental-data-and-literature-review
#12
Mingjie Yao, Leijie Wang, Patrick S C Leung, Yanmei Li, Shuhong Liu, Lu Wang, Xiaodong Guo, Guangde Zhou, Ying Yan, Guiwen Guan, Xiangmei Chen, Christopher L Bowlus, Tianhui Liu, Jidong Jia, M Eric Gershwin, Xiong Ma, Jingmin Zhao, Fengmin Lu
There is significant void in establishing validated non-invasive surrogate biomarkers of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in chronic liver diseases (CLD). Golgi protein 73 (GP73) has been suggested as a potential serum marker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, significant background of cirrhosis could have accounted for the elevation of serum GP73 in HCC. In this study, we have taken advantage of a well-defined extensive cohort of 3044 patients with either compensated cirrhosis (n = 1247), decompensated cirrhosis (n = 841) or pre-cirrhotic CLD (n = 956) and our ability to quantify serum GP73 to define the potential of serum GP73 as a biomarker of liver cirrhosis/fibrosis in CLD...
November 24, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159565/a-comprehensive-review-on-mustard-induced-allergy-and-implications-for-human-health
#13
REVIEW
Akanksha Sharma, Alok K Verma, Rinkesh Kumar Gupta, Neelabh, Premendra D Dwivedi
Mustard is widely used in a variety of foods/food products to enhance the flavor and nutritional value that subsequently raise the risk of hypersensitivity reactions. Mustard allergy has been reported for many years and is increasing gradually especially in the areas where its consumption is comparatively higher, and it may be considered among the most important food allergies. A number of relevant clinical studies focused on mustard-induced allergic manifestations are summarized in the current review. In addition, the knowledge regarding the immunological as well as biochemical characteristics of mustard allergens that have been known till date and their cross-reactivity with other food allergens have also been discussed here...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090371/cutaneous-manifestations-of-dermatomyositis-a-comprehensive-review
#14
REVIEW
Carlo Mainetti, Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Carlo Selmi
Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized by the presence of skin lesions and inflammation of skeletal muscles; however, this feature may be absent in amyopathic DM. DM is a rare disease, occurring at any age, and has two peaks of incidence: one in childhood between 5 and 15 years of age and one in adulthood between 40 and 60 years, with a female preponderance. DM has been associated with malignancy; therefore, every newly diagnosed patient should undergo screening investigations, but evidence-based guidelines on their extension are lacking...
October 31, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081025/the-current-state-of-epicutaneous-immunotherapy-for-food-allergy-a-comprehensive-review
#15
REVIEW
Bruce J Lanser, Donald Y M Leung
The food allergy epidemic of recent years has led to the search for safe and effective methods of immunotherapy for foods. Studies of epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) in mice have shown promising safety and efficacy data. Murine models have also identified probable mechanisms for the development of tolerance to food allergens, including the induction of regulatory T cells. Clinical data is lacking, but relatively small and early studies among peanut and cow's milk allergic subjects suggest that EPIT has an excellent safety profile, particularly compared to other methods of specific allergen immunotherapy...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116459/neonatal-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-syndrome-a-comprehensive-review
#16
REVIEW
Federica Vanoni, Sebastiano A G Lava, Emilio F Fossali, Riccardo Cavalli, Giacomo D Simonetti, Mario G Bianchetti, Marie-Ange Bozzini, Carlo Agostoni, Gregorio P Milani
Neonatal lupus erythematosus is an uncommon syndrome, which is caused by transplacental passage of maternal autoantibodies to Sjögren's syndrome A or B autoantigens. The clinical presentation includes distinctive cutaneous lesions resembling those seen in systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatobiliary disease, and cytopenias, which disappear with the clearance of maternal autoantibodies. The most severe presentation is a total atrioventricular heart block, which begins during the second trimester of gestation and is irreversible...
December 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993983/skin-manifestations-associated-with-autoimmune-liver-diseases-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Pietro Invernizzi, M Eric Gershwin, Carlo Mainetti
Autoimmune liver diseases, which include mainly autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and the variant syndromes, are often associated with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases. However, the association with cutaneous diseases is less well described. In the present article, we provide a systematic literature review on skin manifestations linked to each of these four autoimmune liver diseases, excluding skin manifestations of systemic diseases. The association of autoimmune hepatitis with vitiligo is well known, with a particular striking association with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, a condition occurring almost entirely in children and adolescents, much rarer and more aggressive than type 1 autoimmune hepatitis; probable associations are also identified with alopecia areata, psoriasis, and pyoderma gangrenosum...
December 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752373/skin-manifestations-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-and-spondyloarthritides
#18
REVIEW
Carolyn Jean Chua-Aguilera, Burkhard Möller, Nikhil Yawalkar
Extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and various spondyloarthritides including psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease-associated spondyloarthritis often involve the skin and may occur before or after diagnosis of these rheumatic diseases. Cutaneous manifestations encompass a wide range of reactions that may have a notable negative impact not only on the physical but especially on the emotional and psychosocial well-being of these patients...
December 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712039/cutaneous-manifestations-of-scleroderma-and-scleroderma-like-disorders-a-comprehensive-review
#19
REVIEW
Caterina Ferreli, Giulia Gasparini, Aurora Parodi, Emanuele Cozzani, Franco Rongioletti, Laura Atzori
Scleroderma refers to an autoimmune connective tissue fibrosing disease, including three different subsets: localized scleroderma, limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis, and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis with divergent patterns of organ involvement, autoantibody profiles, management, and prognostic implications. Although systemic sclerosis is considered the disease prototype that causes cutaneous sclerosis, there are many other conditions that can mimic and be confused with SSc. They can be classified into immune-mediated/inflammatory, immune-mediated/inflammatory with abnormal deposit (mucinoses), genetic, drug-induced and toxic, metabolic, panniculitis/vascular, and (para)neoplastic disorders according to clinico-pathological and pathogenetic correlations...
December 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643285/skin-manifestations-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
REVIEW
Thomas Greuter, Alexander Navarini, Stephan R Vavricka
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with its two main subtypes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract. Indeed, so-called extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) are frequent and considerably affect morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of EIMs ranges from 6 to 47%. In up to one quarter of the patients, EIMs can present even before an IBD diagnosis is established. The pathophysiology of EIMs remains elusive, although data from clinical trials demonstrating anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) efficacy suggest a common pathogenic link between intestinal and extraintestinal disease activity...
December 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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