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Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003499/gastrointestinal-manifestations-of-hypereosinophilic-syndromes-and-mast-cell-disorders-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Vivian C Nanagas, Anna Kovalszki
Hypereosinophilic syndrome and mastocytosis are relatively rare proliferative diseases encountered in the general population. However, allergists frequently consider these disorders in the differential of patients presenting with gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, and allergic symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms are some of the most frequent and/or debilitating aspects of both disease states and in many cases lead to poor quality of life and functional limitation for the patient. They are the third most common clinical manifestation in hypereosinophilic syndrome and have been found to be the most distressful aspect of the disorder in those with systemic mastocytosis...
July 12, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968170/enhancing-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-food-allergy-immunotherapy-a-review-of-adjunctive-therapies
#2
REVIEW
Yamini V Virkud, Julie Wang, Wayne G Shreffler
Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved curative therapy. A number of food allergen immunotherapies are being investigated in phase II/III trials; however, these are limited in their ability to restore immune tolerance to food allergens and often result in high rates of allergic side effects, sometimes involving anaphylaxis, that may curtail their impact. A variety of adjunctive therapies have been developed in order to enhance the efficacy and/or improve the safety of food allergen immunotherapy through either shifting the immune response from a Th2 polarized response to a Th1 and regulatory T cell dominated response or by blocking downstream effects of the allergic inflammatory response by targeting IgE or mast cell mediators...
July 2, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951786/photocontact-dermatitis-and-its-clinical-mimics-an-overview-for-the-allergist
#3
REVIEW
Margaret Snyder, Jake E Turrentine, Ponciano D Cruz
Photo-contact dermatitis (PCD) describes the adverse cutaneous reaction that occurs in some patients as a result of simultaneous exposure to a contactant and to light. PCD can be subdivided into photo-allergic and photo-irritant dermatitis depending on whether the contactant respectively invokes an allergic or irritant reaction. Photo-irritant reactions are commonly caused by plants, psoralens, and medications taken internally, whereas photo-allergic reactions are commonly caused by sunscreens and topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications...
June 27, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936683/the-role-of-dust-mites-in-allergy
#4
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Miller
House dust mites are an unsurpassed cause of atopic sensitization and allergic illness throughout the world. The major allergenic dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Euroglyphus maynei, and Blomia tropicalis are eight-legged members of the Arachnid class. Their approximately 3-month lifespan comprises egg, larval, protonymph, tritonymph, and adult stages, with adults, about one fourth to one third of a millimeter in size, being at the threshold of visibility. The geographic and seasonal distributions of dust mites are determined by their need for adequate humidity, while their distribution within substrates is further determined by their avoidance of light...
June 23, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909591/update-on-the-use-of-c1-esterase-inhibitor-replacement-therapy-in-the-acute-and-prophylactic-treatment-of-hereditary-angioedema
#5
REVIEW
H Henry Li, Marc Riedl, Jay Kashkin
In the vast majority of patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE), angioedema attacks are due to the quantitative or functional deficiency of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), which leads to increased vascular permeability and unregulated release of bradykinin. Exogenous administration of C1-INH is a rational way to restore the concentration and functional activity of this protein, regulate the release of bradykinin, and attenuate or prevent subcutaneous and submucosal edema associated with HAE. Recent international guidelines for the management of HAE include C1-INH as an option for acute treatment of HAE...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881951/food-related-contact-dermatitis-contact-urticaria-and-atopy-patch-test-with-food
#6
REVIEW
Alexandra Walter, Marlene Seegräber, Andreas Wollenberg
A wide variety of foods may cause or aggravate skin diseases such as contact dermatitis, contact urticaria, or atopic dermatitis (AD), both in occupational and private settings. The mechanism of action underlying allergic disease to food, food additives, and spices may be immunologic and non-immunologic. The classification and understanding of these reactions is a complex field, and knowledge of the possible reaction patterns and appropriate diagnostic test methods is essential. In addition, certain foods may cause worsening of atopic dermatitis lesions in children...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858750/a-comprehensive-review-of-celiac-disease-gluten-sensitive-enteropathies
#7
REVIEW
Brian P McAllister, Emmanuelle Williams, Kofi Clarke
Celiac disease is a complex immune-mediated gluten-sensitive enteropathy with protean clinical manifestations. It is manifest in genetically predisposed individuals who ingest gluten in varying amounts. In broad terms, it is thought to affect 1% of the population in the USA. More specifically, the prevalence increases drastically from 1:133 in patients not-at-risk, to 1:56 in symptomatic patients, to 1:39 in patients with a second-degree relative with the diagnosis, and to 1:22 in patients with a first-degree relative with the diagnosis...
June 2, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766369/nutritional-issues-in-food-allergy
#8
REVIEW
Isabel J Skypala, Rebecca McKenzie
Diet and nutrition play an important role in the development and management of food allergy. The diet of expectant mothers can have an effect on their offspring in terms of allergic outcomes. A host of confounding factors may influence this, with a maternal diet rich in fruits and vegetables, fish, vitamin D-rich foods associated with a lower risk of allergic disease in their children. More surprisingly, the consumption of milk and butter has also been shown to have a protective effect, especially in a farm environment...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766368/systemic-contact-dermatitis
#9
REVIEW
Marcella Aquino, Greg Rosner
Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) traditionally refers to a skin condition where an individual who is cutaneously sensitized to an allergen will subsequently react to that same allergen or a cross reacting allergen via a different route. It occurs to allergens including metals, medications, and foods. The exact pathophysiology underlying this disease remains unknown, although it appears to be mediated by type 4 hypersensitivity reactions and possibly type 3 hypersensitivity reactions. The p-I concept (pharmacologic interaction with immunoreceptors) hypothesized that drugs are able to bind directly to a T cell receptor without first being presented by MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules and without prior metabolism, which would help explain why SCD can be seen on first exposure to medications...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754192/gastrointestinal-disorders-associated-with-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Stella Hartono, Michelina Rosa Ippoliti, Maria Mastroianni, Ricardo Torres, Nicholas L Rider
There are now 354 inborn errors of immunity (primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs)) with 344 distinct molecular etiologies reported according to the International Union of Immunological Sciences (IUIS) (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11: p. 1050-63, 2013, Semin Gastrointest Dis 8: p. 22-32, 1997, J Clin Immunol 38: p. 96-128, 2018). Using the IUIS document as a reference and cross-checking PubMed ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.pubmed.gov ), we found that approximately one third of the 354 diseases of impaired immunity have a gastrointestinal component [J Clin Immunol 38: p...
May 13, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754191/the-unique-molecular-signatures-of-contact-dermatitis-and-implications-for-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Alexandra Leonard, Emma Guttman-Yassky
Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common skin disorders that are characterized by inflammation, oozing, crusting, and pruritus. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by immune and barrier abnormalities and is additionally a risk factor for acquiring ICD and ACD. New work on allergic sensitization to common allergens (e.g., nickel and fragrance) in human skin has shown that different allergens have distinct molecular fingerprinting. For example, nickel promotes strong Th1/Th17 polarization, whereas fragrance allergy causes Th2/Th22 skewing, which is similar to the phenotype of AD...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754190/allergic-and-immunologic-perspectives-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
REVIEW
Kofi Clarke, Jayakrishna Chintanaboina
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory condition primarily involving the gastrointestinal tract. It includes Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and a less common phenotype-indeterminate colitis. It is thought to result from a complex interplay of environmental, microbial, and host factors including genetic factors, although the exact mechanism is not known. Dietary factors have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD and can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota as well as disrupt the immune function in the gut...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730731/the-global-face-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-advocacy-and-research-groups
#13
REVIEW
Christine James, Amal Assa'ad
Although eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been described in the literature for a substantial period, its recognition as a disease entity on the global stage is still relatively new. It has become a major diagnosis of consideration by medical providers when both adult and pediatric patients present with dysphagia, food impaction, and gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms. In addition to the clinical work of specialists such as allergy-immunologists and gastroenterologists, the evolution of research organizations and advocacy groups focused on EoE have greatly assisted in bringing attention to, and raising awareness about, this disease...
May 5, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557054/correction-to-inflammation-atherosclerosis-and-psoriasis
#14
David Siegel, Sridevi Devaraj, Anupam Mitra, Siba P Raychaudhuri, Smriti K Raychaudhuri, Ishwarlal Jialal
Following publication of this article [1] it came to our attention that we neglected to reference an article by Ishwarlal Jialal published in Critical Pathways in Cardiology [2].
June 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929455/role-of-mast-cells-in-regulation-of-t-cell-responses-in-experimental-and-clinical-settings
#15
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Korneel Grauwet
Mast cells secrete a wide spectrum of stored or newly synthesized pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and/or immunosuppressive mediators and express several costimulatory and inhibitory surface molecules. Mast cells finely tune activities of T cells, B cells, and regulatory cells and effectively contribute to the development of different T cell-associated responses by influencing their recruitment, activation, proliferation, and differentiation. The interaction between mast cells and T cells, with regard to cellular functionality and immune responses, can be assessed in both activating and inhibitory regulations...
June 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725969/mastocytosis-from-a-molecular-point-of-view
#16
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Todd Rambasek, Stefan Wöhrl
Mast cells (MCs) are physiologically activated by binding of stem cell factor (SCF) to the extracellular domains of the Kit receptor. This binding increases the proliferation and prolongs the survival of normal mature MCs, as well as intensifies the release of mediators. In mastocytosis, somatic mutations of the coding Kit gene cause autocrine dysregulation and lead to constitutive KIT activation even in the absence of its ligand SCF. Clinical symptoms are caused by MC-mediator release and/or infiltration of MCs into tissues...
June 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578473/geoepidemiology-and-immunologic-features-of-autoinflammatory-diseases-a-comprehensive-review
#17
REVIEW
Yvan Jamilloux, Alexandre Belot, Flora Magnotti, Sarah Benezech, Mathieu Gerfaud-Valentin, Emilie Bourdonnay, Thierry Walzer, Pascal Sève, Thomas Henry
The knowledge on systemic autoinflammatory disorders (SAID) is expanding rapidly and new signalling pathways are being decrypted. The concept of autoinflammation has been proposed since 1999, to define a group of diseases with abnormal innate immunity activation. Since then, more than 30 monogenic SAID have been described. In this review, we first describe inflammasomopathies and SAID related to the interleukin-1 pathway. Recent insights into the pathogenesis of familial Mediterranean fever and the function of Pyrin are detailed...
June 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105558/immunology-of-bee-venom
#18
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Farzaneh Shafaghat, Ricardo D Zwiener
Bee venom is a blend of biochemicals ranging from small peptides and enzymes to biogenic amines. It is capable of triggering severe immunologic reactions owing to its allergenic fraction. Venom components are presented to the T cells by antigen-presenting cells within the skin. These Th2 type T cells then release IL-4 and IL-13 which subsequently direct B cells to class switch to production of IgE. Generating venom-specific IgE and crosslinking FcεR1(s) on the surface of mast cells complete the sensitizing stage in allergic individuals who are most likely to experience severe and even fatal allergic reactions after being stung...
June 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677501/diagnostic-potential-of-extracellular-microrna-in-respiratory-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Dhamotharan Pattarayan, Rajesh K Thimmulappa, Vilwanathan Ravikumar, Subbiah Rajasekaran
Lack of markers of subclinical disease state and clinical phenotype other than pulmonary function test has made the diagnosis and interventions of environmental respiratory diseases a major challenge. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding single stranded RNAs, have emerged as potential disease-modifier in various environmental respiratory diseases. They can also be found in various body fluids and are remarkably stable. Because of their high stability, disease-specific expression, and the ease to detect and quantify them have raised the potential of miRNAs in body fluids to be useful clinical diagnostic biomarkers for lung disease phenotyping...
June 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672078/efficacy-of-treatment-of-non-hereditary-angioedema
#20
REVIEW
Mignon van den Elzen, M F C L Go, A C Knulst, M A Blankestijn, H van Os-Medendorp, H G Otten
Non-hereditary angioedema (AE) with normal C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) can be presumably bradykinin- or mast cell-mediated, or of unknown cause. In this systematic review, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus to provide an overview of the efficacy of different treatment options for the abovementioned subtypes of refractory non-hereditary AE with or without wheals and with normal C1INH. After study selection and risk of bias assessment, 61 articles were included for data extraction and analysis. Therapies were described for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced AE (ACEi-AE), for idiopathic AE, and for AE with wheals...
June 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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