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Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124283/a-critical-evaluation-of-liver-pathology-in-humans-with-danon-disease-and-experimental-correlates-in-a-rat-model-of-lamp-2-deficiency
#1
Lu Wang, Jingbo Wang, Weile Cai, Yongquan Shi, Xinmin Zhou, Guanya Guo, Changcun Guo, Xiaofeng Huang, Zheyi Han, Shuai Zhang, Shuoyi Ma, Xia Zhou, Daiming Fan, M Eric Gershwin, Ying Han
Danon disease is a genetic deficiency in lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2), a highly glycosylated constituent of the lysosomal membrane and characterized by a cardiomyopathy, skeletal muscle myopathy, and cognitive impairment. Patients, however, often manifest hepatic abnormalities, but liver function has not been well evaluated and the syndrome is relatively uncommon. Hence, we have taken advantage of a rat that has been deleted of LAMP-2 to study the relative role of LAMP-2 on liver function...
January 26, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105558/immunology-of-bee-venom
#2
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Farzaneh Shafaghat, Ricardo D Zwiener
Bee venom is a blend of biochemicals ranging from small peptides and enzymes to biogenic amines. It is capable of triggering severe immunologic reactions owing to its allergenic fraction. Venom components are presented to the T cells by antigen-presenting cells within the skin. These Th2 type T cells then release IL-4 and IL-13 which subsequently direct B cells to class switch to production of IgE. Generating venom-specific IgE and crosslinking FcεR1(s) on the surface of mast cells complete the sensitizing stage in allergic individuals who are most likely to experience severe and even fatal allergic reactions after being stung...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054230/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-pregnancy-focus-on-biologics-an-updated-and-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Jaume Alijotas-Reig, Enrique Esteve-Valverde, Raquel Ferrer-Oliveras, Elisa Llurba, Josep Maria Gris
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a central regulator of inflammation, and TNF-α antagonists may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders in which TNF-α plays a major pathogenic role. TNF-α has also been associated with inflammatory mechanisms related to implantation, placentation, and pregnancy outcome. TNF-α is secreted by immune cells and works by binding to TNFR1 and TNFR2 cell receptors. TNF-α is also related to JAK/STAT pathways, which opens up hypothetical new targets for modifying. The accurate balance between Th1 cytokines, mainly TNF-α, Th17, and Th2, particularly IL-10 is essential to achieve good obstetric outcomes...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025778/role-of-mast-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh-Ali-Komi, Yonghao Cao
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammatory demyelination and consequent axonal deterioration. The hallmark of the disease is the demyelinated plaque, a hypocellular area characterized by formation of astrocytic scars and infiltration of mononuclear cells. Recent studies have revealed that both innate and adaptive immune cells contribute to the pathogenesis of MS and its experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model...
December 26, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004375/gorham-stout-disease-a-clinical-case-report-and-immunological-mechanisms-in-bone-erosion
#5
REVIEW
Maria José Franco-Barrera, Maria Guadalupe Zavala-Cerna, Georgina Aguilar-Portillo, Diana Brisa Sánchez-Gomez, Olivia Torres-Bugarin, Miguel Angel Franco-Barrera, Carlos Manuel Roa-Encarnacion
Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare condition of osteolysis with excessive lymphangiogenesis within bone tissue. The etiology of this condition remains unknown but seems to affect mainly children and young adults of both genders all over the world. Unfortunately, there is no standardized method for diagnosis; however, histopathology remains as the gold standard. This condition is often misdiagnosed due to its varying clinical presentations from case-to-case. Here, we report the case of an 8-year-old girl who presented with chronic mandibular pain during mastication and received multiple antibiotic treatment due to infectious origin suspicion...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273086/thymic-germinal-centers-and-corticosteroids-in-myasthenia-gravis-an-immunopathological-study-in-1035-cases-and-a-critical-review
#6
REVIEW
Frédérique Truffault, Vincent de Montpreville, Bruno Eymard, Tarek Sharshar, Rozen Le Panse, Sonia Berrih-Aknin
The most common form of Myasthenia gravis (MG) is due to anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies and is frequently associated with thymic pathology. In this review, we discuss the immunopathological characteristics and molecular mechanisms of thymic follicular hyperplasia, the effects of corticosteroids on this thymic pathology, and the role of thymic epithelial cells (TEC), a key player in the inflammatory thymic mechanisms. This review is based not only on the literature data but also on thymic transcriptome results and analyses of pathological and immunological correlations in a vast cohort of 1035 MG patients without thymoma...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207173/review-on-toll-like-receptor-activation-in-myasthenia-gravis-application-to-the-development-of-new-experimental-models
#7
REVIEW
Marieke Robinet, Solène Maillard, Mélanie A Cron, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Rozen Le Panse
Abnormal toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and uncontrolled resolution of inflammation are suspected to play a key role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) is an invalidating neuromuscular disease leading to muscle weaknesses. MG is mainly mediated by anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) autoantibodies, and thymic hyperplasia characterized by ectopic germinal centers is a common feature in MG. An abnormal expression of certain TLRs is observed in the thymus of MG patients associated with the overexpression of interferon (IFN)-β, the orchestrator of thymic changes in MG...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26782036/serum-jo-1-autoantibody-and-isolated-arthritis-in-the-antisynthetase-syndrome-review-of-the-literature-and-report-of-the-experience-of-aeneas-collaborative-group
#8
REVIEW
Lorenzo Cavagna, Laura Nuño, Carlo Alberto Scirè, Marcello Govoni, Francisco Javier Lopez Longo, Franco Franceschini, Rossella Neri, Santos Castañeda, Walter Alberto Sifuentes Giraldo, Roberto Caporali, Florenzo Iannone, Enrico Fusaro, Giuseppe Paolazzi, Raffaele Pellerito, Andreas Schwarting, Lesley Ann Saketkoo, Norberto Ortego-Centeno, Luca Quartuccio, Elena Bartoloni, Christof Specker, Trinitario Pina Murcia, Renato La Corte, Federica Furini, Valentina Foschi, Javier Bachiller Corral, Paolo Airò, Ilaria Cavazzana, Julia Martínez-Barrio, Michelle Hinojosa, Margherita Giannini, Simone Barsotti, Julia Menke, Kostantinos Triantafyllias, Rosetta Vitetta, Alessandra Russo, Laura Bogliolo, Gianluigi Bajocchi, Elena Bravi, Giovanni Barausse, Roberto Bortolotti, Carlo Selmi, Simone Parisi, Fausto Salaffi, Carlomaurizio Montecucco, Miguel Angel González-Gay
Anti-Jo-1 is the most frequently detectable antibody in the antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD), an autoimmune disease characterized by the occurrence of arthritis, myositis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Recently, we organized an international collaborative group called American and European NEtwork of Antisynthetase Syndrome (AENEAS) for the study of this rare and fascinating disease. The group collected and published one of the largest series of ASSD patients ever described and with one of the longer follow-up ever reported...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780034/the-immune-response-and-the-pathogenesis-of-idiopathic-inflammatory-myositis-a-critical-review
#9
REVIEW
Angela Ceribelli, Maria De Santis, Natasa Isailovic, M Eric Gershwin, Carlo Selmi
The pathogenesis of idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIMs, including polymyositis and dermatomyositis) remains largely enigmatic, despite advances in the study of the role played by innate immunity, adaptive immunity, genetic predisposition, and environmental factors in an orchestrated response. Several factors are involved in the inflammatory state that characterizes the different forms of IIMs which share features and mechanisms but are clearly different with respect to the involved sites and characteristics of the inflammation...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26767526/modern-therapies-for-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies-iims-role-of-biologics
#10
REVIEW
Siamak Moghadam-Kia, Chester V Oddis, Rohit Aggarwal
Despite the lack of placebo-controlled trials, glucocorticoids are considered the mainstay of initial treatment for idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIMs) and myositis-associated ILD (MA-ILD). Glucocorticoid-sparing agents are often given concomitantly with other immunosuppressive agents, particularly in patients with moderate or severe disease. As treatment of refractory cases of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies has been challenging, there is growing interest in evaluating newer therapies including biologics that target various pathways involved in the pathogenesis of IIMs...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26590948/renal-involvement-in-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies
#11
REVIEW
David Cucchiari, Claudio Angelini
Renal involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies is not as uncommon as was previously thought, as it develops in about one fifth of patients. Clinical presentation includes either acute kidney injury or chronic glomerulonephritis. The former usually develops abruptly during acute phases of rhabdomyolysis: in this case, kidney injury is caused by the toxic effects that myoglobinuria has on the kidney tubules, including cast formation and iron-induced oxidative stress and the development of a third space into the injured muscles...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26514357/the-clinical-and-histological-spectrum-of-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies
#12
REVIEW
Ilaria Cavazzana, Micaela Fredi, Carlo Selmi, Angela Tincani, Franco Franceschini
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of myositis, characterised by chronic muscle weakness, cutaneous features, different extra-muscular manifestations and circulating autoantibodies. IIMs included classical polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM) and other different types of myositis with a wide range of muscle involvement. A complete autoantibody profile and a muscle biopsy are mandatory to correctly diagnose different clinical entities and to define their different prognosis...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26453338/the-clinical-features-of-myositis-associated-autoantibodies-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Harsha Gunawardena
The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a group of autoimmune diseases traditionally defined by clinical manifestations including skeletal muscle weakness, skin rashes, elevated skeletal muscle enzymes, and neurophysiological and/or histological evidence of muscle inflammation. Patients with myositis overlap can develop other features including parenchymal lung disease, inflammatory arthritis, gastrointestinal manifestations and marked constitutional symptoms. Although patients may be diagnosed as having polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM) under the IIM spectrum, it is quite clear that disease course between subgroups of patients is different...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26429707/idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies-an-update-on-classification-and-treatment-with-special-focus-on-juvenile-forms
#14
REVIEW
Ilaria Pagnini, Antonio Vitale, Carlo Selmi, Rolando Cimaz, Luca Cantarini
Juvenile inflammatory myopathies represent a heterogeneous group of rare and potentially fatal disorders of unknown aetiology, characterised by inflammation and proximal and symmetric muscle weakness. Beyond many similarities, specific clinical, laboratoristic and histopathologic features underlie different subsets with distinguishing demographic, prognostic and therapeutic peculiarities. Over time, several forms of inflammatory idiopathic myopathies have been described, including macrophagic myofascitis, immune-mediated necrozing myopathy and the spectrum of amyopathic dermatomyositis that include hypomyopathic dermatomyositis, inclusion body myositis and cancer-associated myositis occurring almost exclusively in adults...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26429706/idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies-and-malignancy-a-comprehensive-review
#15
REVIEW
Eleni Tiniakou, Andrew L Mammen
The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of autoimmune diseases (collectively known as myositis) affecting the skeletal muscles as well as other organ systems such as skin, lungs, and joints. The primary forms of myositis include polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (PM), and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM). Patients with these diseases experience progressive proximal muscle weakness, have characteristic muscle biopsy findings, and produce autoantibodies that are associated with unique clinical features...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26424665/a-comprehensive-overview-on-myositis-specific-antibodies-new-and-old-biomarkers-in-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathy
#16
REVIEW
Minoru Satoh, Shin Tanaka, Angela Ceribelli, S John Calise, Edward K L Chan
Autoantibodies specific for idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs)) are clinically useful biomarkers to help the diagnosis of polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM). Many of these are also associated with a unique clinical subset of PM/DM, making them useful in predicting and monitoring certain clinical manifestations. Classic MSAs known for over 30 years include antibodies to Jo-1 (histidyl transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetase) and other aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARS), anti-Mi-2, and anti-signal recognition particle (SRP)...
February 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377298/bacterial-and-viral-infections-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-comprehensive-review
#17
REVIEW
Peck Y Ong, Donald Y M Leung
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common allergic skin disease in the general population. It is a chronic inflammatory skin disease complicated by recurrent bacterial and viral infections that, when left untreated, can lead to significant complications. The current article will review immunologic and molecular mechanisms underlying the propensity of AD patients to microbial infections. These infections include Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) skin infections, eczema herpeticum, eczema vaccinatum, and eczema coxsackium...
December 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277132/atopy-and-specific-cancer-sites-a-review-of-epidemiological-studies
#18
REVIEW
Yubao Cui, Andrew W Hill
Mounting evidence appears to link asthma and atopy to cancer susceptibility. This review presents and discusses published epidemiological studies on the association between site-specific cancers and atopy. PubMed was searched electronically for publications between 1995 and 2015, and cited references were researched manually. Quantitative studies relating to atopy, allergy, or asthma and cancer were identified and tabulated. Despite many exposure-related limitations, patterns in the studies were observed. Asthma, specifically, has been observed to be a risk factor for lung cancer...
December 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236440/zika-virus-infection-current-concerns-and-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Mari Kannan Maharajan, Aruna Ranjan, Jian Feng Chu, Wei Lim Foo, Zhi Xin Chai, Eileen YinYien Lau, Heuy Mien Ye, Xi Jin Theam, Yen Ling Lok
The Zika virus outbreaks highlight the growing importance need for a reliable, specific and rapid diagnostic device to detect Zika virus, as it is often recognized as a mild disease without being identified. Many Zika virus infection cases have been misdiagnosed or underreported because of the non-specific clinical presentation. The aim of this review was to provide a critical and comprehensive overview of the published peer-reviewed evidence related to clinical presentations, various diagnostic methods and modes of transmission of Zika virus infection, as well as potential therapeutic targets to combat microcephaly...
December 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122022/the-basis-of-structure-function-claims-of-nutraceuticals
#20
REVIEW
Andrea T Borchers, Carl L Keen, M Eric Gershwin
In the United States, as in most of the world, there are large numbers of nutraceuticals that are sold and which people take to boost their immune response. There are, in addition, almost an equal number of products sold to reduce allergies. However, very few consumers, and indeed physicians, are aware of what a structure/function claim is. Structure/function claims are labeling claims that can be used to describe the potential effects of a dietary ingredient or similar substance on the structure or function of the human body...
December 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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