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Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547523/cutaneous-manifestations-of-medium-and-large-vessel-vasculitis
#1
REVIEW
Francois Chasset, Camille Francès
Dermatologic manifestations are observed in almost all systemic vasculitides, even in large-and medium-vessel vasculitides, although such vessels are not found in the skin. Cutaneous manifestations may be related to a direct skin localization of the systemic vasculitis or a non-specific process associated with the vasculitis. According to the 2012 International Chapel Hill consensus, the two major variants of large-vessel vasculitides are Takayasu arteritis and giant-cell arteritis. In Europe and North America, acute inflammatory nodules or erythema nodosum-like lesions are the most commonly observed skin lesions with Takayasu arteritis...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534160/micrornas-new-therapeutic-targets-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#2
REVIEW
Amir Abbas Momtazi, Maciej Banach, Matteo Pirro, Evan A Stein, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common inherited form of dyslipidemia and a major cause of premature cardiovascular disease. Management of FH mainly relies on the efficiency of treatments that reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been suggested as emerging regulators of plasma LDL-C concentrations. Notably, there is evidence showing that miRs can regulate the post-transcriptional expression of genes involved in the pathogenesis of FH, including LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, and LDLRAP1...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528521/myeloid-populations-in-systemic-autoimmune-diseases
#3
REVIEW
María Morell, Nieves Varela, Concepción Marañón
Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) encompass a wide spectrum of clinical signs as a reflection of their complex physiopathology. A variety of mechanisms related with the innate immune system are in the origin of the loss of self-tolerance in these diseases, and for most of them, the myeloid leukocytes are key actors. Monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils are first-line immune effectors located in the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. They are crucial in the organization of the local and systemic responses to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and determine the intensity, orientation, and duration of the local immune response through the expression of chemokines, costimulatory or protolerogenic factors...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500565/dysregulated-lymphoid-cell-populations-in-mouse-models-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#4
REVIEW
Aurélie De Groof, Patrice Hémon, Olivier Mignen, Jacques-Olivier Pers, Edward K Wakeland, Yves Renaudineau, Bernard R Lauwerys
Biases in the distribution and phenotype of T, B, and antigen-presenting cell populations are strongly connected to mechanisms of disease development in mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we describe longitudinal changes in lymphoid and antigen-presenting cell subsets in bone marrow, blood and spleen from two lupus-prone strains (MRL/lpr and B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 tri-congenic mice), and how they integrate in our present understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. In particular, we focus on (autoreactive) T cell activation patterns in lupus-prone mice...
May 13, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500564/calcium-signaling-from-normal-b-cell-development-to-tolerance-breakdown-and-autoimmunity
#5
REVIEW
Patrice Hemon, Yves Renaudineau, Marjolaine Debant, Nelig Le Goux, Sreya Mukherjee, Wesley Brooks, Olivier Mignen
Maintenance of self-tolerance of auto-reactive lymphocytes is a fundamental mechanism to prevent the onset of autoimmune diseases. Deciphering the mechanisms involved in the deregulations leading to tolerance disruption and autoimmunity is still a major area of interest to identify new therapeutic targets and options. Ca(2+) signaling plays a major role in B cell normal development and is therefore finely tuned by B cell receptor (BCR)-dependent and independent pathways. Developmental changes in the characteristics of BCR-dependent Ca(2+) signals as well as the modulation of basal intracellular concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) contribute strongly to self-tolerance maintaining mechanisms responsible for the physical or functional elimination of autoreactive B cells such as clonal deletion, receptor editing, and anergy...
May 13, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488248/response-to-treatment-with-tnf%C3%AE-inhibitors-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-is-associated-with-high-levels-of-gm-csf-and-gm-csf-t-lymphocytes
#6
Jonas Bystrom, Felix I Clanchy, Taher E Taher, Mohammed M Al-Bogami, Hawzheen A Muhammad, Saba Alzabin, Pamela Mangat, Ali S Jawad, Richard O Williams, Rizgar A Mageed
Biologic TNFα inhibitors are a mainstay treatment option for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refractory to other treatment options. However, many patients either do not respond or relapse after initially responding to these agents. This study was carried out to identify biomarkers that can distinguish responder from non-responder patients before the initiation of treatment. The level of cytokines in plasma and those produced by ex vivo T cells, B cells and monocytes in 97 RA patients treated with biologic TNFα inhibitors was measured before treatment and after 1 and 3 months of treatment by multiplex analyses...
May 9, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477078/memory-b-cells-and-response-to-abatacept-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Pierre Gazeau, Guillermo Carvajal Alegria, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec, Christophe Jamin, Julie Lemerle, Boutahar Bendaoud, Wesley H Brooks, Alain Saraux, Divi Cornec, Yves Renaudineau
Abatacept is a fusion protein (CTLA4-Ig) and therapeutic molecule labeled for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Abatacept acts both by disrupting the CD28-mediated activation of T cells and by interacting with CD80/CD86 molecules present on antigen presenting cells such as monocytes and memory B cells. Accordingly and to evaluate clinical and biological parameters associated with response to abatacept, a retrospective monocentric study was conducted in 43 patients with RA, and the clinical response was evaluated at 6 months according to EULAR response criteria...
May 5, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477077/immunophenotyping-as-a-new-tool-for-classification-and-monitoring-of-systemic-autoimmune-diseases
#8
Yves Renaudineau
The clinical course of systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) varies greatly, even between individuals with the same disease. Understanding of the immune actors is informative and could lead to significant improvements in diagnosis, monitoring, initial treatment decisions and/or follow-up. However, immunological changes in mononuclear cells associated with SADs have been only partially described, and usually are limited to analysis of peripheral blood cells (less than 5% of the total mononuclear pool). Another limitation is technological, related to utilization of flow cytometry, which remains highly variable with regards to sample preparation, reagents, instrument constraints, and data analysis...
May 5, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474288/could-lymphocyte-profiling-be-useful-to-diagnose-systemic-autoimmune-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Guillermo Carvajal Alegria, Pierre Gazeau, Sophie Hillion, Claire I Daïen, Divi Y K Cornec
Considering the implications of B, T, and natural killer (NK) cells in the pathophysiology of systemic autoimmune diseases, the assessment of their distribution in the blood could be helpful for physicians in the complex process of determining a precise diagnosis. In primary Sjögren's syndrome, transitional and active naive B cells are increased and memory B cells are decreased compared to healthy controls and other systemic diseases. However, their utility to improve the accuracy of classification criteria has not been proven...
May 4, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456914/intracellular-b-lymphocyte-signalling-and-the-regulation-of-humoral-immunity-and-autoimmunity
#10
REVIEW
Taher E Taher, Jonas Bystrom, Voon H Ong, David A Isenberg, Yves Renaudineau, David J Abraham, Rizgar A Mageed
B lymphocytes are critical for effective immunity; they produce antibodies and cytokines, present antigens to T lymphocytes and regulate immune responses. However, because of the inherent randomness in the process of generating their vast repertoire of antigen-specific receptors, B cells can also cause diseases through recognizing and reacting to self. Therefore, B lymphocyte selection and responses require tight regulation at multiple levels and at all stages of their development and activation to avoid diseases...
April 29, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401436/cypress-pollinosis-from-tree-to-clinic
#11
REVIEW
Denis Charpin, Christian Pichot, Jordina Belmonte, Jean-Pierre Sutra, Jarmila Zidkova, Pascal Chanez, Youcef Shahali, Hélène Sénéchal, Pascal Poncet
Cypress (Cupressus sp.pl) is a genus within the Cupressaceae family. This family covers all of the Earth's continents except for Antarctica, and it includes about 160 species. The most important taxa for allergic diseases belong to five different genera: Cupressus, Hesperocyparis, Juniperus, Cryptomeria, and Chamaecyparis. Cupressaceae species share a common pollen type that can even include the genus Taxus (Taxaceae) when this plant is also present. As Juniperus oxycedrus pollinates in October, Cupressus sempervirens in January and February, Hesperocyparis arizonica (prev...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299723/mold-and-human-health-a-reality-check
#12
REVIEW
Andrea T Borchers, Christopher Chang, M Eric Gershwin
There are possibly millions of mold species on earth. The vast majority of these mold spores live in harmony with humans, rarely causing disease. The rare species that does cause disease does so by triggering allergies or asthma, or may be involved in hypersensitivity diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or allergic fungal sinusitis. Other hypersensitivity diseases include those related to occupational or domiciliary exposures to certain mold species, as in the case of Pigeon Breeder's disease, Farmer's lung, or humidifier fever...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251581/chitin-and-its-effects-on-inflammatory-and-immune-responses
#13
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Lokesh Sharma, Charles S Dela Cruz
Chitin, a potential allergy-promoting pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), is a linear polymer composed of N-acetylglucosamine residues which are linked by β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds. Mammalians are potential hosts for chitin-containing protozoa, fungi, arthropods, and nematodes; however, mammalians themselves do not synthetize chitin and thus it is considered as a potential target for recognition by mammalian immune system. Chitin is sensed primarily in the lungs or gut where it activates a variety of innate (eosinophils, macrophages) and adaptive immune cells (IL-4/IL-13 expressing T helper type-2 lymphocytes)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484684/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
REVIEW
Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa, Priscila Maria Colavite, Thais Fernanda de Campos Fraga-Silva, Luiza Ayumi Nishiyama Mimura, Thais Graziela Donegá França, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento, Fernanda Chiuso-Minicucci, Larissa Doddi Marcolino, Marcimara Penitenti, Maura Rosane Valerio Ikoma, Alexandrina Sartori
Vitamin D (VitD) is a hormone primarily synthesized in human skin under the stimulation of ultraviolet radiation. Beyond its endocrine role in bone metabolism, VitD is endowed with remarkable immunomodulatory properties. The effects of VitD on the immune system include the enhancement of microbicidal ability of monocytes/macrophages and the down-modulation of inflammatory cytokines produced by T lymphocytes. VitD deficiency is involved in many health problems, including immune-mediated diseases such as autoimmune disorders...
June 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878451/beyond-genetics-what-causes-type-1-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Zhen Wang, Zhiguo Xie, Qianjin Lu, Christopher Chang, Zhiguang Zhou
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting from T cell-mediated β cell destruction in the pancreas of genetically susceptible individuals. Extensive familial and population genetic studies uncovered the strong linkage and association between HLA gene variants and T1D. Non-HLA genes have also been associated with T1D, such as INS, CTLA4, and PTPN22. T1D is considered as one of the most heritable common diseases. However, evidence that monozygotic twins have incomplete concordance of disease susceptibility provides convincing proof that environmental factors also play important roles in the pathogenesis of the disease...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873163/an-update-on-the-use-of-immunomodulators-in-primary-immunodeficiencies
#16
REVIEW
Pandiarajan Vignesh, Amit Rawat, Surjit Singh
The genomic revolution in the past decade fuelled by breathtaking advances in sequencing technologies has defined several new genetic diseases of the immune system. Many of these newly characterized diseases are a result of defects in genes involved in immune regulation. The discovery of these diseases has opened a vista of new therapeutic possibilities. Immunomodulatory agents, a hitherto unexplored therapeutic option in primary immunodeficiency diseases have been tried in a host of these newly described maladies...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687891/epigenetic-variability-of-cd4-cd25-tregs-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Ye Shu, Qinghua Hu, Hai Long, Christopher Chang, Qianjin Lu, Rong Xiao
Autoimmune diseases are characterized by aberrant immune responses against healthy cells and tissues. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the development of these conditions remain unknown. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of mature T cells which have an important role in maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmune diseases. Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), a member of the fork head transcription factor family, is recognized as a marker of CD4+CD25+ Tregs. The decreased number and/or function of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in peripheral blood and related tissues has been demonstrated in systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and other autoimmune diseases, which are at least partially regulated by epigenetic mechanisms...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368808/review-of-mouse-models-of-graves-disease-and-orbitopathy-novel-treatment-by-induction-of-tolerance
#18
REVIEW
Martin Ungerer, Julia Faßbender, Zhongmin Li, Götz Münch, Hans-Peter Holthoff
Various approaches have been used to model human Graves' disease in mice, including transfected fibroblasts, and plasmid or adenoviral immunisations with the extracellular A subunit of the human thyrotropin receptor (TSHR). Some of these models were only observed for a short time period or were self-limiting. A long-term model for human Graves' disease was established in mice using continuing immunisations (4-weekly injections) with recombinant adenovirus expressing TSHR. Generation of TSHR binding cAMP-stimulatory antibodies, thyroid enlargement and alterations, elevated serum thyroxin levels, tachycardia and cardiac hypertrophy were maintained for at least 9 months in all Ad-TSHR-immunised mice...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350273/the-clinical-relevance-of-anti-dfs70-autoantibodies
#19
REVIEW
Karsten Conrad, Nadja Röber, Luis E C Andrade, Michael Mahler
Despite all the progress in the establishment of specific autoantibody assays, screening for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) by indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells for quality-oriented laboratory diagnosis of ANA associated rheumatic diseases (AARD) remains indispensable but is not without limitations. Recent data on the relevance of the dense fine speckled (DFS) pattern and anti-DFS70 antibodies disclosed novel possibilities to optimize the serological stepwise diagnostics of AARD. The DFS pattern on HEp-2 cells is well differentiated from the classic "homogeneous" ANA pattern associated with dsDNA antibodies...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318947/regulatory-t-cells-in-systemic-sclerosis-a-comprehensive-review
#20
REVIEW
Gleb Slobodin, Doron Rimar
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease with complex pathogenesis, based on the sophisticated interplay of injury to the vascular endothelium, exaggerated tissue regeneration and fibrosis, and extensive immune abnormalities. The role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the development of SSc has started being studied during the last decade with new aspects being disclosed continuously, in parallel with the better understanding of Tregs physiology. There is a general agreement in the medical literature regarding the decreased functional capacity of circulating Tregs in SSc...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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