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Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639957/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-induced-by-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#1
Jason Weatherald, Marie-Camille Chaumais, David Montani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the treatment of several neoplastic conditions; however, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has been reported as a complication of TKIs, predominantly with dasatinib. Recent studies have elucidated the potential mechanisms of TKI-induced PAH and have better clarified the long-term outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to the known association between dasatinib and PAH, several other TKIs have recently been reported to cause PAH, including ponatinib, bosutinib and lapatinib...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639956/small-fiber-neuropathy-a-disabling-and-underrecognized-syndrome
#2
Mareye Voortman, Daan Fritz, Oscar J M Vogels, Filip Eftimov, Diederik van de Beek, Matthijs C Brouwer, Marjolein Drent
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss cause, clinical manifestations, diagnostics, and treatment of small fiber neuropathy (SFN). The diagnosis is difficult and can be easily missed. RECENT FINDINGS: SFN causes high morbidity with disabling symptoms and impact on quality of life. Patients may benefit from being diagnosed with SFN, even if no underlying cause is identified and no specific treatment is yet available. Recently, genetic mutations as a possible cause of SFN were identified...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708817/innovating-cystic-fibrosis-clinical-trial-designs-in-an-era-of-successful-standard-of-care-therapies
#3
Donald R VanDevanter, Nicole Mayer-Hamblett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evolving cystic fibrosis 'standards of care' have influenced recent cystic fibrosis clinical trial designs for new therapies; care additions/improvements will require innovative trial designs to maximize feasibility and efficacy detection. RECENT FINDINGS: Three cystic fibrosis therapeutic areas (pulmonary exacerbations, Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections, and reduced cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator [CFTR] protein function) differ with respect to the duration for which recognized 'standards of care' have been available...
July 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661905/genetics-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-the-clinic
#4
Barbara Girerd, Edmund Lau, David Montani, Marc Humbert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance because of mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor-II (BMPR2), activin A receptor type II-like kinase 1, endoglin, caveolin-1, potassium channel subfamily K, member 3, and T-box gene 4 genes. Heritable pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and/or pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PVOD/PCH) is an autosomal recessive disease because of biallelic mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4 gene...
June 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661904/cardiac-sarcoidosis-challenges-in-clinical-practice
#5
Anne L Bakker, Jan C Grutters, Ruth G Keijsers, Martijn C Post
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To address the current recommendations for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac sarcoidosis and the difficulties to put these recommendations into clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of cardiac sarcoidosis appears to be higher than earlier reported, probably because of improved imaging techniques. Late gadolinium enhancement with cardiac MRI (LGE-CMR) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography obtained a central role in the diagnostic algorithm and monitoring of disease activity...
June 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650861/microbiome-in-interstitial-lung-disease-from-pathogenesis-to-treatment-target
#6
Margaret L Salisbury, MeiLan K Han, Robert P Dickson, Philip L Molyneaux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes current knowledge of the role of the lung microbiome in interstitial lung disease and poses considerations of the microbiome as a therapeutic target. RECENT FINDINGS: Although historically considered sterile, bacterial communities have now been well documented in lungs in health and disease. Studies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) suggest that increased bacterial burden and/or abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria may drive disease progression, acute exacerbations, and mortality...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622199/antifibrotic-drugs-as-treatment-of-nonidiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-interstitial-pneumonias-the-time-is-now
#7
Michael Kreuter, Julia Wälscher, Jürgen Behr
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic advances in the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has led to improved outcomes with the use of the antifibrotic agents pirfenidone and nintedanib, with a number of randomized studies demonstrating benefits in slowing disease progression in IPF. However, treatment of other fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (ILD) remains challenging. RECENT FINDINGS: Observational and uncontrolled studies investigating pirfenidone and nintedanib in non-IPF ILDs suggest potential benefits, although the data is weak...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622198/ocular-sarcoidosis-new-diagnostic-modalities-and-treatment
#8
Sung J Yang, Sherveen Salek, James T Rosenbaum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ocular involvement in sarcoidosis is present in up to 80% of patients and is frequently manifested before diagnosis of the underlying systemic disease. Considering the therapeutic consequences, early diagnosis of the underlying disease is advantageous in patients presenting with ocular inflammation. There are several ocular findings suggestive of underlying sarcoidosis, such as granulomatous keratic precipitates, iris nodules, cells in the vitreous humor known as snowballs and snowbanks, and retinal periphlebitis...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598873/cutaneous-sarcoidosis
#9
Megan H Noe, Misha Rosenbach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cutaneous sarcoidosis occurs in up to 30% of patients with sarcoidosis and skin findings are often the initial presenting symptom. Cutaneous sarcoidosis is a rare skin disease and many aspects of the disease presentation and treatment are not well understood. This review will highlight developments in the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous sarcoidosis over the past several years. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological studies from several different populations reaffirm that cutaneous sarcoidosis is more common in women and is often the presenting symptom of systemic sarcoidosis...
June 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598872/many-faces-of-neurosarcoidosis-from-chronic-meningitis-to-myelopathy
#10
Daan Fritz, Mareye Voortman, Diederik van de Beek, Marjolein Drent, Matthijs C Brouwer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurosarcoidosis occurs in 5% of patients with sarcoidosis and can be difficult to diagnose. In this review we discuss the most recent advances in our understanding of the disease, describing clinical characteristics, diagnostic process, treatment, and prognosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical presentation is heterogeneous with most patients presenting with cranial nerve palsy, headache, or sensory abnormalities. Patients are classified according to probability of the diagnosis with the Zajicek criteria...
June 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598871/current-concepts-regarding-calcium-metabolism-and-bone-health-in-sarcoidosis
#11
Robert P Baughman, Ilias Papanikolaou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D supplementation is widespread used in the general population. In sarcoidosis, up to 50% of patients, especially postmenopausal women and those taking corticosteroids, show evidence of increased bone fragility. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based rationale on how to treat sarcoidosis patients with bone health issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from observational studies show that decreased 25-hydroxy vitamin D is common in sarcoidosis...
June 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590293/pediatric-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-on-the-eve-of-growing-up
#12
Johannes M Douwes, Rolf M F Berger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) during childhood are expert opinion based, because of lacking pediatric data. In recent years, however, important pediatric data have emerged on PAH. RECENT FINDINGS: PAH in children shows similarities as well as differences compared to adults. Neonates and children know specific clinical presentations and a hemodynamic profile that differs from adults with PAH...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590292/transcriptome-profiles-in-sarcoidosis-and-their-potential-role-in-disease-prediction
#13
Jonas C Schupp, Milica Vukmirovic, Naftali Kaminski, Antje Prasse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease defined by the presence of nonnecrotizing granuloma in the absence of any known cause. Although clinically, the heterogeneity of sarcoidosis is well characterized, the transcriptome of the sarcoidosis and underlying molecular mechanisms are not. The signal of all transcripts, small and long noncoding RNAs, can be detected using microarrays or RNA-Sequencing. Analyzing the transcriptome of tissues that are directly affected by granulomas is of great importance to understand biology of the disease and may be predictive of disease and treatment outcome...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590291/bronchoscopic-modalities-to-diagnose-sarcoidosis
#14
Sadia Benzaquen, Alejandro Adolfo Aragaki-Nakahodo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several studies have investigated different bronchoscopic techniques to obtain tissue diagnosis in patients with suspected sarcoidosis when the diagnosis cannot be based on clinicoradiographic findings alone. In this review, we will describe the most recent and relevant evidence from different bronchoscopic modalities to diagnose sarcoidosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite multiple available bronchoscopic modalities to procure tissue samples to diagnose sarcoidosis, the vast majority of evidence favors endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration to diagnose Scadding stages 1 and 2 sarcoidosis...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582317/acute-exacerbations-of-interstitial-lung-disease-lessons-from-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#15
Paolo Spagnolo, Wim Wuyts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease (ILD), with a focus on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), in the light of the recently revised definition of acute exacerbation-IPF. Strengths and limitations of the current definition of acute exacerbation-IPF are also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinically, acute exacerbation-IPFs are highly relevant events with a mortality rate of approximately 50%...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582316/new-targets-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-going-beyond-the-currently-targeted-three-pathways
#16
Alice Huertas, Ly Tu, Christophe Guignabert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a hemodynamic state defined by a resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure at or above 25 mmHg with a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, ultimately leading to right heart failure and premature death. Although considerable progress has been made in the development of drug therapies for PAH targeting abnormalities found in the three main pathobiologic pathways (nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and endothelin-1), there is no drug available to specifically stop the progressive cellular accumulation into the pulmonary artery vessel wall...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590339/improving-adherence-to-asthma-medications-current-knowledge-and-future-perspectives-erratum
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590338/surgery-as-part-of-radical-treatment-for-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#18
David A Waller, Sara Tenconi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the latest developments in surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma both in patient selection, surgical technique, and strategy. RECENT FINDINGS: The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer mesothelioma staging project has produced data to inform the 8th tumour node metastasis revision. The difficulty in clinical N staging and clinical T staging are highlighted and the importance of tumour volume is recognized. New imaging techniques can be utilized to assess tumour volume...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590337/spontaneous-pneumothorax-in-diffuse-cystic-lung-diseases
#19
Joseph Cooley, Yun Chor Gary Lee, Nishant Gupta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diffuse cystic lung diseases (DCLDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders with varying pathophysiologic mechanisms that are characterized by the presence of air-filled lung cysts. These cysts are prone to rupture, leading to the development of recurrent spontaneous pneumothoraces. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, and management DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax, with a focus on lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463856/multiple-pulmonary-nodules-in-malignancy
#20
Apurwa Karki, Rakesh Shah, Alan Fein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple pulmonary nodules are a common finding especially with the implementation of lung cancer screening. Available guidelines address the management of solitary pulmonary nodules. The management of the multiple pulmonary nodules would differ based on the characteristic of the nodules, their distribution, and the history of the patients as well. RECENT FINDINGS: Most of the recent publications on multiple pulmonary nodules consist of individual case reports or case series...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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