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Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319473/precision-medicine-in-asthma-the-role-of-bronchial-thermoplasty
#1
Amber J Oberle, Praveen Mathur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The inflammatory makeup of severe asthma is heterogeneous. Identification of the predominant cellular endotype via biomarkers can aid in the selection of more advanced therapies. This review is clinically focused on how to use these biomarkers to help select between biologic agents and/or bronchial thermoplasty. RECENT FINDINGS: Several Th2 biomarkers exist for the detection of eosinophilic disease; however, the best biomarker for clinical practice is debatable depending upon local resources...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257315/personalized-medicine-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
E F M Wouters, B B R A F Wouters, I M L Augustin, F M E Franssen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes ongoing developments in personalized medicine and precision medicine in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our current approach is far away of personalized management algorithms as current recommendations for COPD are largely based on a reductionist disease description, operationally defined by results of spirometry. RECENT FINDINGS: Besides precision medicine developments, a personalized medicine approach in COPD is described based on a holistic approach of the patient and considering illness as the consequence of dynamic interactions within and between multiple interacting and self-adjusting systems...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257317/pulmonary-infections-in-critical-intensive-care-rapid-diagnosis-and-optimizing-antimicrobial-usage
#3
Ivor S Douglas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diagnosis of pulmonary infection, including hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in the critically ill patient remains a common and therapeutically challenging diagnosis with significant attributable morbidity, mortality, and cost. Current clinical approaches to surveillance, early detection and, conventional culture-based microbiology are inadequate for optimal targeted antibiotic treatment and stewardship. Efforts to enhance diagnosis of HAP and VAP and the impact of these novel approaches on rational antimicrobial selection and stewardship are the focus of recent studies reviewed here...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257316/pleural-diseases
#4
Stefano Gasparini, Martina Bonifazi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Due to the increasing burden of pleural diseases worldwide, a personalized cost-effective management of these conditions is essential to optimize the healthcare sources. The current review is focused on latest evidence in diagnostic work-up and management of pleural diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research highlights the increasing role of thoracic ultrasound in both diagnostic and therapeutic interventions and the potential suitability of cytological sampling from pleural effusions for molecular analysis, essential requirement for a satisfactory test in the era of personalized anticancer therapy...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257314/personalized-medicine-in-influenza-a-bridge-too-far-or-the-near-future
#5
Frank L van de Veerdonk, Mark S Gresnigt, Paul E Verweij, Mihai G Netea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Personalized medicine is based on understanding mechanisms of disease and putting this in the context of an individual patient, which eventually helps to guide tailored diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. In this review we focus on one pulmonary infection that has major impact on society, namely influenza, and highlight the way we think personalized medicine could have an impact on the outcome of this pulmonary infection. RECENT FINDINGS: When a patient's defect is known, one could envision that restoring this defect in addition to the standard treatment regimen might result in a better clinical outcome...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221172/interventional-pulmonology-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Daniela Gompelmann, Nilab Sarmand, Felix J F Herth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are widespread diseases associated with progressive dyspnea because of airflow limitation and hyperinflation. Fundamental therapeutic strategies consist of pulmonary rehabilitation, pharmacotherapy, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive ventilation, and surgical therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last 14 years, endoscopic therapeutic modalities emerged as a substantial part of severe COPD and emphysema treatment...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221171/pathogenesis-of-severe-pneumonia-advances-and-knowledge-gaps
#7
Joseph P Mizgerd
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumonia is a common disease that becomes severe in a subset of patients, dependent on host biology including mechanisms of immune resistance and tissue resilience. This review emphasizes discoveries in pneumonia biology from 2016, highlighting questions and directions that are especially pressing or newly emerging. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel cell-cell interactions mediating innate immune responses against microbes in the lung have been elucidated, between distinct leukocyte subtypes as well as between leukocytes and the structural cells of the lung...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212155/molecular-markers-in-lung-cancer-role-of-ebus
#8
Semra Bilaçeroğlu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As demonstrated by the recent therapeutic advances in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a personalized approach can considerably reduce its mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular tests identifying genetic mutations in NSCLC have led to a shift towards more effective and personalized therapies targeted to these alterations. Adequate tissue is required for diagnosing, subcharacterizing, and genotyping NSCLC by morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular techniques...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212154/optical-coherence-tomography-and-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-in-pulmonary-diseases
#9
Lizzy Wijmans, Julia N S d'Hooghe, Peter I Bonta, Jouke T Annema
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current imaging techniques (X-ray, computed tomography scan, ultrasound) have limitations in the identification and quantification of pulmonary diseases, in particular, on highly detailed level. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of innovative light- and laser-based imaging techniques that might fill this gap. RECENT FINDINGS: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) are high-resolution imaging techniques, which, combined with bronchoscopy, provide 'near histology' detailed imaging of the airway wall, lung parenchyma, mediastinal lymph nodes, and pulmonary vasculature...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212153/new-therapies-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-exacerbations-of-bronchiectasis
#10
Hani Abo-Leyah, James D Chalmers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exacerbations of bronchiectasis have a major impact on quality of life, healthcare costs, and long-term risk of complications. Preventing exacerbations is one of the major goals of treatment. Bronchiectasis is increasingly recognized and the impact of bronchiectasis exacerbations on daily clinical practice is also increasing. RECENT FINDINGS: Preventing bronchiectasis exacerbations are dependent on appropriate risk assessment, identifying the patients at highest risk to rationally target preventive therapies...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198728/personalized-medicine-in-interstitial-lung-diseases
#11
Paolo Spagnolo, Justin M Oldham, Mark G Jones, Joyce S Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A number of recent studies have explored the possibility to apply personalized medicine to interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), particularly idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most common and deadly of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. In our review, we summarize and discuss the most recent literature on personalized medicine in IPF as well as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and sarcoidosis, with emphasis on patient subgroups for which a personalized approach to disease prognostication and management may become a reality in the near future...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198727/new-guidelines-for-nosocomial-pneumonia
#12
Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these entities were released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society in 2016. This review summarizes the recommendations contained within these guidelines and their supporting rationale. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to diagnosis of HAP and VAP, the guidelines suggest using semiquantitative cultures of noninvasively obtained respiratory samples instead of quantitative cultures of invasively obtained samples...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198726/community-acquired-pneumonia-requiring-hospitalization-rational-decision-making-and-interpretation-of-guidelines
#13
Douwe F Postma, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the evidence base for guideline recommendations on the diagnosis, the optimal choice, timing and duration of empirical antibiotic therapy, and the use of microbiological tests for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): issues for which guidelines are frequently used as a quick reference. Furthermore, we will discuss possibilities for future research in these topics. RECENT FINDINGS: Many national and international guideline recommendations, even on critical elements of CAP management, are based on low-to-moderate quality evidence...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198725/adult-pneumococcal-vaccination-advances-impact-and-unmet-needs
#14
Ricardo J José, Jeremy S Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preventing pneumonia in the elderly and study participants individuals with comorbidities is an unmet clinical need. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest bacterial cause of pneumonia, and we summarize recent findings regarding current S. pneumoniae vaccines, and debate their efficacy and cost-effectiveness in risk groups. We also discuss potential future vaccine strategies such as protein antigen vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: Current vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine does not prevent S...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141667/editorial-introductions
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079615/neuromuscular-weakness-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-chest-wall-diaphragm-and-peripheral-muscle-contributions
#16
Adam Alter, Loutfi S Aboussouan, Eduardo Mireles-Cabodevila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive lung disease affects the lung parenchyma and airways leading to well described effects in respiratory function. This review describes the current knowledge and advances regarding neuromuscular function and chest wall mechanics, which are affected in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). RECENT FINDINGS: In COPD, progressive lung hyperinflation becomes constrained by a chest wall with decreasing capacity to expand, resulting in respiratory muscle inefficiency...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079614/the-role-of-gene-environment-interplay-in-occupational-and-environmental-diseases-current-concepts-and-knowledge-gaps
#17
Elizabeth Kwo, David Christiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The interplay between genetic susceptibilities and environmental exposures in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases is an area of increased scientific, epidemiologic, and social interest. Given the variation in methodologies used in the field, this review aims to create a framework to help understand occupational exposures as they currently exist and provide a foundation for future inquiries into the biological mechanisms of the gene-environment interactions. Understanding of this complex interplay will be important in the context of occupational health, given the public health concerns surrounding a variety of occupational exposures...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030372/does-increased-traffic-flow-around-unconventional-resource-development-activities-represent-the-major-respiratory-hazard-to-neighboring-communities-knowns-and-unknowns
#18
Michael A McCawley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to demonstrate that the focus on air emissions causing respiratory effects and associated with gas development may be misplaced by attributing those exposures mainly to well pad activities. RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent publications on the health effects of hydraulic fracturing operations seem to parallel findings from studies of diesel particulate exposure near roadways and the health effects associated with those exposures...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009645/obstructive-and-environmental-respiratory-diseases-updates-and-new-facets
#19
Basil Varkey, Manish Joshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009644/imaging-of-nontraumatic-thoracic-emergencies
#20
Lauran Stöger, Cornelia Schaefer-Prokop, Bram H J Geurts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute chest symptoms form an important incentive for imaging in the emergency setting. This review discusses the radiologic features of various vascular and pulmonary diseases leading to acute respiratory distress and recent developments on important emergency radiologic examinations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, triple-rule-out computed tomography protocol was introduced in diagnosis of chest pain, and advancing computed tomography technology and knowledge have led to discussion on treatment of pulmonary embolism...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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