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Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319542/supplemental-oxygen-in-patients-with-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-evidence-from-nocturnal-oxygen-treatment-trial-to-long-term-oxygen-treatment-trial
#1
Umur Hatipoğlu, James K Stoller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oxygen therapy was the first treatment shown to prolong life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has been joined by lung volume reduction surgery in selected patients with emphysema, smoking cessation, and potentially noninvasive ventilation in chronic hypercapneic respiratory failure. Although there is consensus around the survival-enhancing effect of supplemental oxygen (SupplO2) for patients with chronic severe hypoxemia at rest, the impact of SupplO2 for COPD patients with moderate hypoxemia and exertional desaturation had been less clear...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300211/air-pollution-in-india-and-related-adverse-respiratory-health-effects-past-present-and-future-directions
#2
Gopi C Khilnani, Pawan Tiwari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review describes current status of air pollution in India, summarizes recent research on adverse health effects of ambient and household air pollution, and outlines the ongoing efforts and future actions required to improve air quality and reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. RECENT FINDINGS: Global burden of disease data analysis reveals more than one million premature deaths attributable to ambient air pollution in 2015 in India...
January 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278544/self-management-strategies-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-first-step-toward-personalized-medicine
#3
Miriam Barrecheguren, Jean Bourbeau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Self-management has gained increased relevance in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The heterogeneity in self-management interventions has complicated the development of recommendations for clinical practice. In this review, we present the latest findings regarding conceptual definition, effectiveness of self-management interventions and self-management strategies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a first step toward personalized medicine: what, how and to whom? RECENT FINDINGS: Self-management interventions have shown benefits in improving health-related quality of life and reducing hospital admissions...
December 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266011/the-scourge-of-air-pollution-and-topics-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Manish Joshi, Basil Varkey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256906/out-of-proportion-pulmonary-hypertension-in-obstructive-lung-diseases
#5
Kshitij Chatterjee, Ahmad R Tarawneh, Shoaib Alam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary hypertension is common (25-90%) in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs). Severe pulmonary hypertension, however, is quite rare (1-3%). The term 'out of proportion' pulmonary hypertension is still widely used. New guidelines instead propose to use the term 'Severe pulmonary hypertension' if mean pulmonary arterial pressure at least 35 mmHg or cardiac index (CI) is less than 2.0 l/min/m on right heart catheterization (RHC). Why only a minority of COPD patients develop severe pulmonary hypertension is unclear...
December 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251699/artificial-intelligence-in-diagnosis-of-obstructive-lung-disease-current-status-and-future-potential
#6
Nilakash Das, Marko Topalovic, Wim Janssens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The application of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis of obstructive lung diseases is an exciting phenomenon. Artificial intelligence algorithms work by finding patterns in data obtained from diagnostic tests, which can be used to predict clinical outcomes or to detect obstructive phenotypes. The purpose of this review is to describe the latest trends and to discuss the future potential of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis of obstructive lung diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Machine learning has been successfully used in automated interpretation of pulmonary function tests for differential diagnosis of obstructive lung diseases...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232279/association-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#7
Krishna Kakkera, Kalpana P Padala, Maneetha Kodali, Prasad R Padala
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As age expectancy increases, both dementia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have become more prevalent. Dementia and COPD together, however, occur more commonly than would be predicted from the incidence of either alone, suggesting a link between these two common senescent diseases. The purpose of this article is to review the extant literature and report findings in a clinically meaningful manner. We will look at the level of evidence, the risk factors for co-occurrence of the two diseases and the differential effects upon cognitive domains in the population with dementia and COPD...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232278/low-dose-oxygen-therapy-in-copd-patients-are-there-any-radiation-like-risks
#8
Vivek N Iyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Low-dose oxygen (LDO) supplementation is used by millions of COPD patients worldwide. The therapeutic benefits of LDO supplementation are well known. There are also several concerns regarding the potential for cellular harm from LDO in COPD patients. This review summarizes the current arguments and evidence pertaining to this important topic. RECENT FINDINGS: LDO therapy has been used in COPD patients for more than 50 years. Over the years, data from randomized controlled trials has confirmed that LDO provides survival benefit in COPD patients with severe hypoxemia...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227305/lung-transplantation-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-past-present-and-future-directions
#9
Faisal M Siddiqui, Joshua M Diamond
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lung transplantation offers an effective treatment modality for patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The exact determination of when to refer, list, and offer transplant as well as the preferred transplant procedure type remains unclear. Additionally, there are special considerations specific to patients with COPD being considered for lung transplantation, including the implications of single lung transplantation on lung cancer risk, native lung hyperinflation, and overall survival...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206658/lung-function-trajectories-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-current-understanding-and-knowledge-gaps
#10
Jamuna K Krishnan, Fernando J Martinez
PURPOSE OR REVIEW: Population-based studies have shown a significant heterogeneity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), regarding both the attainment of maximal lung function and the subsequent decline over time. This review will highlight recent advances in the understanding of lung function trajectory in COPD, focusing on factors that influence peak adult lung function, markers of accelerated lung function decline and pharmacologic interventions in early phases of the disease...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206657/dual-bronchodilator-therapy-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-evidence-for-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-fixed-dose-combination-treatments-in-the-setting-of-recent-guideline-updates
#11
Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent updates to the GOLD guidelines emphasize the use of combination LABA and LAMA bronchodilators for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with persistent dyspnea despite monotherapy or frequent exacerbations despite LAMA monotherapy. There are several commercially available LABA/LAMA fixed dose combination inhalers, which are likely to become the principle therapy for many patients with COPD. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last 4 years, there have been a number of large clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of combined LAMA and LABA bronchodilators...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210751/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-lung-cancer-inter-relationships
#12
Abhishek Biswas, Hiren J Mehta, Erik E Folch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a well established risk factor for lung cancer. Newer studies reveal a myriad of other mechanisms, some proven and some putative, which may contribute to their association. RECENT FINDINGS: There is an ever-growing bundle of evidence that suggests a close association between persistent chronic inflammation and lung cancer. A few potential targets of genetic susceptibility locus for COPD and lung cancer have been suggested...
November 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210750/insights-about-the-economic-impact-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-readmissions-post-implementation-of-the-hospital-readmission-reduction-program
#13
Valerie G Press, R Tamara Konetzka, Steven R White
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects over 12 million adults in the United States and is the third leading cause of 30-day readmissions. COPD is costly with almost $50 billion in direct costs annually. Total COPD costs can be up to double the identified direct costs because of comorbid disease and numerous indirect costs such as absenteeism. Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are responsible for up to 70% of COPD-related healthcare costs; hospital readmissions alone account for over $15 billion annually...
November 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210749/pulmonary-rehabilitation-for-patients-with-acute-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbations-is-the-evidence-strengthening
#14
Lissa Spencer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This manuscript aims to review the most recent evidence about the benefits of early pulmonary rehabilitation commenced during an acute exacerbation in people with COPD (AECOPD). RECENT FINDINGS: A number of RCTs and an observational study, published between 2015 and 2017, have used different exercise interventions compared with usual medical care in people with moderate-to-severe COPD during an AECOPD. The results show short-term improvement in walking distance, muscle strength, quality of life and anxiety and depression...
November 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084018/assessing-patient-reported-outcomes-in-asthma-and-copd-patients-which-can-be-recommended-in-clinical-practice
#15
Janwillem W H Kocks, Sven F Seys, Titia S van Duin, Zuzana Diamant, Ioanna G Tsiligianni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a clear need for simple and reliable patient-reported outcome measures for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma in daily practice. The purpose of this review is to facilitate the choice for clinicians of patient-reported outcomes which they can use in their daily practice. RECENT FINDINGS: More than 50 patient-reported outcome measures for asthma and COPD exist and clinicians are often left confused on which to use...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084017/antialarmins-for-treatment-of-asthma-future-perspectives
#16
Dhuha Al-Sajee, John-Paul Oliveria, Roma Sehmi, Gail M Gauvreau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies have highlighted the role of alarmins in asthma pathophysiology and tested the roles of these cytokines in asthmatic patients. This review will discuss the recent advances in the role of alarmins in asthma and the potential of future targeted therapies in asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Epithelial-derived cytokines can be released upon exposure to external stimuli, causing damage to the epithelial barrier and resulting in tissue inflammation...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076829/comparative-effectiveness-trials-in-asthma-how-will-i-recognize-one
#17
Sharmilee M Nyenhuis, Andrea J Apter, Michael Schatz, Jerry A Krishnan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Comparative efficacy trials are designed to evaluate the harms and benefits of health care in a research environment. There is increasing interest in the results of comparative effectiveness trials, which are intended to fill gaps in evidence to inform decision-making in real-life clinical environments. The objective of this report is to review various tools to classify trials along the efficacy to effectiveness continuum. RECENT FINDINGS: Three tools [Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS), PRECIS-2, and PRAgmatic Clinical Trial Assessment Scale (PRACTAS)] are available that use a star diagram to illustrate where each element of a clinical trial design falls along the efficacy to effectiveness continuum (e...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176481/the-asthma-obesity-relationship-underlying-mechanisms-and-treatment-implications
#18
Orestes A Carpaij, Maarten van den Berge
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with a prevalence that has tripled in the last two decades. Worldwide, more than 1.5 billion adults are overweight and more than 500 million obese. Obesity has been suggested to be a risk factor for the development of more difficult-to-control asthma. Although the mechanisms underlying the asthma-obesity relationship are not fully understood, several possible explanations have been put forward. These will be reviewed in this manuscript as well as the implications for the treatment of overweight and obese asthma patients...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076828/airway-remodeling-in-asthma-update-on-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-approaches
#19
Louis-Philippe Boulet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'airway remodeling' reflects changes in the type, quantity, and nature of airway wall components and their organization. The purpose of this review is to look at recent publications on airway remodeling in asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal models and in-vitro studies have confirmed the involvement of airway epithelium, airway smooth muscle (ASM), and extracellular matrix components in asthma-related airway remodeling. They report influences on proliferation of ASM cells, and how their orientation or morphology, in addition to the heterogeneity of ASM mass at different levels of airways could influence their effects...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059087/controversies-and-opportunities-in-severe-asthma
#20
Marc Humbert, William Busse, Nicola A Hanania
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite currently available treatments, many asthma patients remain inadequately controlled, but identifying distinct patient populations (phenotypes/endotypes) may optimize their management. This review discusses some of the controversies and opportunities for improved disease control in severe asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently approved anti-immunoglobulin E and anti-interleukin 5 biologics, which target specific pathways instead of using a 'one size fits all' strategy, are efficacious and well tolerated therapies for severe asthma...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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