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Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906858/electronic-cigarettes-as-smoking-cessation-tool-are-we-there
#1
Sohini Ghosh, M Bradley Drummond
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing, with many users reporting trying e-cigarettes as a method to quit combustible cigarettes. This review highlights recently published studies assessing the use of e-cigarettes as a tool for cessation of combustible cigarettes. RECENT FINDINGS: When evaluating data from four randomized controlled trials and multiple cohort studies, differential association between e-cigarette use and cessation rates was seen...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906857/obesity-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-recent-knowledge-and-future-directions
#2
Corrine Hanson, Tricia LeVan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has been shown to have a significant impact on lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this review is to discuss the most recent findings regarding the association between obesity, COPD, and COPD-related outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence indicates that obese patients with COPD may compose a unique disease phenotype who are more susceptible than their lean counterparts to environmental exposures...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906856/radiation-exposure-and-lung-disease-in-today-s-nuclear-world
#3
Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar, Andrew Skabelund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation poses important health risks. The per capita annual dose rate has increased in the United States and there is increasing concern for the risks posed by low-dose occupational exposure among workers in nuclear industries and healthcare. Recent nuclear accidents and concern for terrorism have heightened concern for catastrophic, high-dose ionizing radiation exposure. This review will highlight recent research into the risks to lung health posed by ionizing radiation exposure and into potential treatments...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898452/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-malnutrition-in-developing-countries
#4
Inderpaul S Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Ritesh Agarwal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disorder characterized by progressive, poorly reversible airflow limitation. In addition to its pulmonary manifestations, COPD is also associated with several systemic expressions including anemia, osteoporosis, coronary artery disease, and malnutrition. In COPD, malnutrition is a consequence of reduced nutritional intake and muscle loss, further compounded by systemic inflammation. In the developing world, malnutrition is a significant problem by itself, even without any systemic illness...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875341/occupational-asthma-diagnostic-challenges-and-management-dilemmas
#5
Vrinda Trivedi, Dinesh R Apala, Vivek N Iyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work-related asthma encompasses both sensitizer-induced and irritant-induced occupational asthma as well as work-exacerbated asthma. This review summarizes current diagnostic and management strategies for occupational asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Occupational asthma is the most common occupational lung disease in the industrialized world. Over 400 agents have been described to cause occupational asthma. Specific inhalation challenge is often considered the reference method for diagnosis of occupational asthma but specific inhalation challenge as well as other diagnostic tests all generate false positive or false negative results...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902500/generic-medications-in-precision-medicine-in-asthma
#6
Zuzana Diamant, Nicola A Hanania
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902499/editorial-introductions
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820746/role-of-biologics-targeting-type-2-airway-inflammation-in-asthma-what-have-we-learned-so-far
#8
Amit D Parulekar, Zuzana Diamant, Nicola A Hanania
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome that can be classified into distinct phenotypes and endotypes. In the type 2 (T2)-high endotype, multiple cytokines are produced that lead to eosinophilic inflammation. These cytokines and their receptors are targets for biologic therapies in patients with severe asthma who do not respond well to standard therapy with inhaled corticosteroids. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last decade, an increasing number of biologic therapies have been developed targeting T2 inflammation...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820745/role-of-sputum-biomarkers-in-the-management-of-asthma
#9
Sven F Seys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Airway inflammation is considered to be a cardinal feature of asthma. However, the type of airway inflammation is heterogeneous and airway inflammation may even be absent. Biomarkers may help to identify the inflammatory phenotype or endotype, especially now the time has come that targeted therapies enter daily practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Sputum biomarkers have increased our insights into the different inflammatory asthma phenotypes, their response to treatment and their association with progression of disease...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820744/asthma-and-exercise-induced-respiratory-symptoms-in-the-athlete-new-insights
#10
Louis-Philippe Boulet, Julie Turmel, Andréanne Côté
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are common in the athlete and can interfere with sport performances. In this review, we report recent findings on the prevalence, diagnosis and evaluation of these conditions, in addition to specific issues regarding their treatment and antidoping regulations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies confirmed the high prevalence of exercise-induced respiratory symptoms, asthma and EIB, in athletes and showed that these conditions are still underdiagnosed and undertreated...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820743/anticholinergic-drugs-in-asthma-therapy
#11
Maria D'Amato, Carolina Vitale, Antonio Molino, Maurizia Lanza, Gennaro D'Amato
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current guidelines recommend a stepwise approach for pharmacological therapy aimed to achieve and maintain asthma control. Despite these recommendations, at least 50% of patients continue to be uncontrolled with risk of asthma exacerbations that can often be serious and are associated with deterioration of quality of life. In recent years, the interest in anticholinergic bronchodilators, which have been primarily used in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, has increased patients with uncontrolled asthma...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801711/diagnostic-challenges-of-childhood-asthma
#12
Arzu Bakirtas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diagnosis of asthma in childhood is challenging. Both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of asthma are important issues. The present review gives information about challenging factors for an accurate diagnosis of childhood asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Although underdiagnosis of asthma in childhood has always been the most important diagnostic problem, overdiagnosis of asthma has also been increasingly recognized. This is probably due to diagnosis of asthma based on symptoms and signs alone...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801710/glucocortiosteroid-subsensitivity-and-asthma-severity
#13
Manali Mukherjee, Sarah Svenningsen, Parameswaran Nair
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucocorticosteroids (GCSs) remain the cornerstone of therapy for treating the inflammatory component of asthma. Clinical response to GCS is heterogeneous, varying both within asthma 'endotypes', as well as the same individual. Different factors and micro-environment can alter the canonical GCS-induced signalling pathways leading to reduced efficacy, collectively termed as GCS subsensitivity, which includes the entire spectrum of steroid insensitivity and steroid resistance...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798419/novel-targets-of-omalizumab-in-asthma
#14
Caroline Sattler, Gilles Garcia, Marc Humbert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody approved in the US for moderate to severe persistent allergic asthma (severe persistent asthma in the European Union), uncontrolled despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2 agonists. It reduces asthma exacerbations, symptoms, oral corticosteroid doses, and improves quality of life. RECENT FINDINGS: Omalizumab may have an antiviral effect when used as a preventive therapy for fall exacerbations in children and teenagers...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798418/t2-low-asthma-current-approach-to-diagnosis-and-therapy
#15
Konstantinos Samitas, Eleftherios Zervas, Mina Gaga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease not only on a clinical but also on a mechanistic level. For a long time, the molecular mechanisms of asthma were considered to be driven by type 2 helper T cells (Th2) and eosinophilic airway inflammation; however, extensive research has revealed that T2-low subtypes that differ from the dominant T2 paradigm are also common. RECENT FINDINGS: Research into asthma pathways has led to the recognition that some asthma phenotypes show absence of T2 inflammation or alternate between T2 and non-T2 responses...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775932/the-role-of-imaging-in-the-assessment-of-severe-asthma
#16
Samuel Y Ash, Alejandro A Diaz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to summarize the most recent evidence related to imaging and severe asthma, both with regard to advances in imaging research and to their current and potential clinical implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work in imaging in severe asthma has principally been using computed tomography (CT) and MRI, as well as the integration of the two. Some of the most notable findings include the use of CT imaging biomarkers to create unique clusters of asthmatics, and the use of co-registration to link CT images of airways with regional variation in ventilation in MRI...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764000/pharmacogenetics-of-asthma-toward-precision-medicine
#17
Elin T G Kersten, Gerard H Koppelman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although currently available drugs to treat asthma are effective in most patients, a proportion of patients do not respond or experience side-effects; which is partly genetically determined. Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genetic variations influence drug response. In this review, we summarize prior results and recent studies in pharmacogenetics to determine if we can use genetic profiles for personalized treatment of asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: The field of pharmacogenetics has moved from candidate gene studies in single populations toward genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis of multiple studies...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763999/electronic-health-e-health-emerging-role-in-asthma
#18
Matteo Bonini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease and represents a relevant socioeconomic burden. e-Health has the potential to improve disease control and adherence to treatment in asthmatic patients. Available data are, however, scarce and inconsistent limiting the use of e-health in clinical practice. This article aims to provide a systematic review of the literature published in the last year regarding the real place and impact of e-health in the management of asthma...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755161/role-of-microbiome-in-the-pathophysiology-and-disease-course-of-asthma
#19
Aran Singanayagam, Andrew I Ritchie, Sebastian L Johnston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The emergence of next-generation 16S rRNA sequencing techniques has facilitated a more detailed study of the body's microbiota and led to renewed interest in the association between microbial exposure and asthma inception. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that the respiratory tract and intestinal microbiota contribute to asthma pathogenesis and progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Human studies have revealed associations between the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract in early life and subsequent risk of allergic sensitization and asthma...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755160/improving-adherence-to-asthma-medications-current-knowledge-and-future-perspectives
#20
Kathryn V Blake
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poor adherence to asthma controller medications, particularly inhaled corticosteroids, has been well known for decades and is a major cause of uncontrolled asthma and increased healthcare utilization. This review presents recent evidence on factors leading to nonadherence in specific age groups, parents of young children, adolescents and young adults, adults, and the elderly. Novel management strategies including electronic sensors with associated smart phone applications for adherence improvement are discussed...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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