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Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438232/real-life-impact-of-executive-function-impairments-in-adults-who-were-born-very-preterm
#1
Jasmin Kroll, Vyacheslav Karolis, Philip J Brittain, Chieh-En Jane Tseng, Sean Froudist-Walsh, Robin M Murray, Chiara Nosarti
OBJECTIVES: Children and adolescents who were born very preterm (≤32 weeks' gestation) are vulnerable to experiencing cognitive problems, including in executive function. However, it remains to be established whether cognitive deficits are evident in adulthood and whether these exert a significant effect on an individual's real-lifeachievement. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, we tested a range of neurocognitive abilities, with a focus on executive function, in a sample of 122 very preterm individuals and 89 term-born controls born between 1979 and 1984...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434429/association-between-sleep-disordered-breathing-and-nighttime-driving-performance-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Nathan Cross, Zoe Terpening, Shantel L Duffy, Simon J G Lewis, Ron Grunstein, Keith Wong, Sharon L Naismith
OBJECTIVES: The effect of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on driving performance in older adults has not been extensively investigated, especially in those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between severity measures of SDB and a simulated driving task in older adults with and without MCI. METHODS: Nineteen older adults (age ≥50) meeting criteria for MCI and 23 age-matched cognitively intact controls underwent neuropsychological assessment and a driving simulator task in the evening before a diagnostic sleep study...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420456/impaired-comprehension-of-speed-verbs-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Laura J Speed, Wessel O van Dam, Priyantha Hirath, Gabriella Vigliocco, Rutvik H Desai
OBJECTIVES: A wealth of studies provide evidence for action simulation during language comprehension. Recent research suggests such action simulations might be sensitive to fine-grained information, such as speed. Here, we present a crucial test for action simulation of speed in language by assessing speed comprehension in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Based on the patients' motor deficits, we hypothesized that the speed of motion described in language would modulate their performance in semantic tasks...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413999/improving-sensitivity-to-detect-mild-cognitive-impairment-cognitive-load-dual-task-gait-speed-assessment
#4
Rebecca K MacAulay, Mark T Wagner, Dana Szeles, Nicholas J Milano
OBJECTIVES: Longitudinal research indicates that cognitive load dual-task gait assessment is predictive of cognitive decline and thus might provide a sensitive measure to screen for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, research among older adults being clinically evaluated for cognitive concerns, a defining feature of MCI, is lacking. The present study investigated the effect of performing a cognitive task on normal walking speed in patients presenting to a memory clinic with cognitive complaints...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399953/social-behavior-and-impairments-in-social-cognition-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Michelle May, Maarten Milders, Bruce Downey, Maggie Whyte, Vanessa Higgins, Zuzana Wojcik, Sophie Amin, Suzanne O'Rourke
OBJECTIVES: The negative effect of changes in social behavior following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are known, but much less is known about the neuropsychological impairments that may underlie and predict these changes. The current study investigated possible associations between post-injury behavior and neuropsychological competencies of emotion recognition, understanding intentions, and response selection, that have been proposed as important for social functioning. METHODS: Forty participants with TBI and 32 matched healthy participants completed a battery of tests assessing the three functions of interest...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397617/atypical-local-interference-affects-global-processing-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#6
Jonathan M Payne, Melanie A Porter, Samantha Bzishvili, Kathryn N North
OBJECTIVES: To examine hierarchical visuospatial processing in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a single gene disorder associated with visuospatial impairments, attention deficits, and executive dysfunction. METHODS: We used a modified Navon paradigm consisting of a large "global" shape composed of smaller "local" shapes that were either congruent (same) or incongruent (different) to the global shape. Participants were instructed to name either the global or local shape within a block...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367776/mild-cognitive-impairment-subtypes-in-a-cohort-of-elderly-essential-tremor-cases
#7
Kathleen Collins, Brittany Rohl, Sarah Morgan, Edward D Huey, Elan D Louis, Stephanie Cosentino
OBJECTIVES: Individuals with essential tremor (ET) exhibit a range of cognitive deficits generally conceptualized as "dysexecutive" or "fronto-subcortical," and thought to reflect disrupted cortico-cerebellar networks. In light of emerging evidence that ET increases risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is critical to more closely examine the nature of specific cognitive deficits in ET, with particular attention to amnestic deficits that may signal early AD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 128 ET cases (age 80...
April 3, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357975/feasibility-and-efficacy-of-brief-computerized-training-to-improve-emotion-recognition-in-premanifest-and-early-symptomatic-huntington-s-disease
#8
Clare L Kempnich, Dana Wong, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVES: Deficits in the recognition of negative emotions emerge before clinical diagnosis in Huntington's disease (HD). To address emotion recognition deficits, which have been shown in schizophrenia to be improved by computerized training, we conducted a study of the feasibility and efficacy of computerized training of emotion recognition in HD. METHODS: We randomly assigned 22 individuals with premanifest or early symptomatic HD to the training or control group...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343465/academic-outcomes-in-individuals-with-childhood-onset-epilepsy-mediating-effects-of-working-memory
#9
Ashley N Danguecan, Mary Lou Smith
OBJECTIVES: Academic difficulties are common in children with epilepsy, although little is known about the effect of various seizure-related and cognitive variables. Given that persistent seizures may negatively impact academics, and that working memory is predictive of academic abilities, we examined the effects of recent seizures and working memory on word reading, spelling, and arithmetic in pediatric epilepsy. We hypothesized that persistent seizures would be associated with lower working memory ability, which would in turn result in poorer academic performance...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343463/prospective-head-to-head-study-of-three-computerized-neurocognitive-assessment-tools-part-2-utility-for-assessment-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-emergency-department-patients
#10
Lindsay D Nelson, Robyn E Furger, Peter Gikas, E Brooke Lerner, William B Barr, Thomas A Hammeke, Christopher Randolph, Kevin Guskiewicz, Michael A McCrea
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of three computerized neurocognitive assessment tools (CNTs; i.e., ANAM, DANA, and ImPACT) for assessing mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in patients recruited through a level I trauma center emergency department (ED). METHODS: mTBI (n=94) and matched trauma control (n=80) subjects recruited from a level I trauma center emergency department completed symptom and neurocognitive assessments within 72 hr of injury and at 15 and 45 days post-injury...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287061/expressive-suppression-depletes-executive-functioning-in-older-adulthood
#11
E I Franchow, Yana Suchy
OBJECTIVES: Accurate detection of executive dysfunction in neuropsychological assessments is complicated by the fact that executive functioning (EF) is vulnerable to temporary disruption (i.e., lapses), with more frequent lapses in older adulthood. Effortful regulation of affect (i.e., expressive suppression) is a well-known source of executive lapses in younger adults, but the generalizability of this depleting effect to older adults is unknown. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine whether EF is subject to depletion via expressive suppression and (2) to examine whether this effect is unique to EF, or whether it also applies to lower-order component processes in older adults...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287057/verbal-learning-and-memory-enhancement-strategies-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-controlled-investigation
#12
Matthew M Kurtz, Christi L Trask, Rachel Rosengard, Simone Hyman, Lisa Kremen, Shyle Mehta, Rachel Olfson, Sam Rispaud, Sofia Zaidman, Jimmy Choi
OBJECTIVES: Verbal episodic memory is a key domain of impairment in people with schizophrenia with close ties to a variety of aspects of functioning and therapeutic treatment response. A randomized, blinded trial of two mnemonic strategies for verbal episodic memory deficits for people with schizophrenia was conducted. METHODS: Sixty-one people with schizophrenia were assigned to one of three experimental conditions: training in a mnemonic strategy that included both visualization and narrative structure (Story Method), a condition in which participants were trained to visualize words interacting with one another (Imagery), or a non-trained control condition in which participants received equivalent exposure to training word lists and other verbal memory assessments administered in the other two conditions, but without provision of any compensatory mnemonic strategy...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215191/is-computerized-cognitive-testing-useful-in-children-and-adolescents-with-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Vickie Plourde, Brian L Brooks
OBJECTIVES: Children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) present with short and long-term neuropsychological deficits following their injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of a brief computerized test battery for evaluating cognitive functioning sub-acutely following a TBI. METHODS: Participants (n=33) sustained a moderate-to-severe TBI, were between 8 and 18 years old, and were assessed using CNS Vital Signs (CNSVS) within 6 months post-injury (median=0...
February 20, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162137/are-parkinson-s-patients-more-vulnerable-to-the-effects-of-cardiovascular-risk-a-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-study
#14
Jacob D Jones, Jared J Tanner, Michael Okun, Catherine C Price, Dawn Bowers
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at increased vulnerability for vascular-related cognitive impairment relative to controls. The underlying assumption behind this hypothesis relates to brain reserve and that both PD and vascular risk factors impair similar fronto-executive cognitive systems. METHODS: The sample included 67 PD patients and 61 older controls (total N=128). Participants completed neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, processing speed, verbal delayed recall/memory, language, and auditory attention...
February 6, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153058/configural-and-featural-face-processing-influences-on-emotion-recognition-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#15
Tamsyn E Van Rheenen, Nicole Joshua, David J Castle, Susan L Rossell
OBJECTIVES: Emotion recognition impairments have been demonstrated in schizophrenia (Sz), but are less consistent and lesser in magnitude in bipolar disorder (BD). This may be related to the extent to which different face processing strategies are engaged during emotion recognition in each of these disorders. We recently showed that Sz patients had impairments in the use of both featural and configural face processing strategies, whereas BD patients were impaired only in the use of the latter...
February 3, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143627/neurocognitive-functions-in-3-to-15-year-old-children-an-international-comparison
#16
Johanna Rosenqvist, Pekka Lahti-Nuuttila, Cosimo Urgesi, James Holdnack, Sally L Kemp, Marja Laasonen
OBJECTIVES: Performance on neurocognitive tasks develops with age, but it is still unknown whether this performance differs between children from different cultures. We compared cross-sectionally the development of neurocognitive functions in 3- to 15-year-old children from three countries: Finland, Italy, and the United States (N=2745). METHODS: Language, face memory, emotion recognition, theory of mind, and visuospatial processing subtests from the NEPSY-II standardizations in Finland, Italy, and the United States were used to evaluate if children and adolescents from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds differ in performance on these measures...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382899/organizational-learning-strategies-and-verbal-memory-deficits-in-bipolar-disorder
#17
George C Nitzburg, Armando Cuesta-Diaz, Luz H Ospina, Manuela Russo, Megan Shanahan, Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Emmett Larsen, Sandra Mulaimovic, Katherine E Burdick
BACKGROUND: Verbal memory (VM) impairment is prominent in bipolar disorder (BD) and is linked to functional outcomes. However, the intricacies of VM impairment have not yet been studied in a large sample of BD patients. Moreover, some have proposed VM deficits that may be mediated by organizational strategies, such as semantic or serial clustering. Thus, the exact nature of VM break-down in BD patients is not well understood, limiting remediation efforts. We investigated the intricacies of VM deficits in BD patients versus healthy controls (HCs) and examined whether verbal learning differences were mediated by use of clustering strategies...
April 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067192/effect-of-retrieval-practice-on-short-term-and-long-term-retention-in-hiv-individuals
#18
Gunes Avci, Steven P Woods, Marizela Verduzco, David P Sheppard, James F Sumowski, Nancy D Chiaravalloti, John DeLuca
OBJECTIVES: Episodic memory deficits are both common and impactful among persons infected with HIV; however, we know little about how to improve such deficits in the laboratory or in real life. Retrieval practice, by which retrieval of newly learned material improves subsequent recall more than simple restudy, is a robust memory boosting strategy that is effective in both healthy and clinical populations. In this study, we investigated the benefits of retrieval practice in 52 people living with HIV and 21 seronegatives...
March 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205500/primary-motor-cortex-excitability-is-modulated-during-the-mental-simulation-of-hand-movement
#19
Christian Hyde, Ian Fuelscher, Jarrad A G Lum, Jacqueline Williams, Jason He, Peter G Enticott
OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether the primary motor cortex (PMC) is involved in the mental simulation of movement [i.e., motor imagery (MI)]. The present study aimed to clarify PMC involvement using a highly novel adaptation of the hand laterality task (HLT). METHODS: Participants were administered single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the hand area of the left PMC (hPMC) at either 50 ms, 400 ms, or 650 ms post stimulus presentation. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous via electromyography...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205499/motor-adaptation-deficits-in-ideomotor-apraxia
#20
Pratik K Mutha, Lee H Stapp, Robert L Sainburg, Kathleen Y Haaland
OBJECTIVES: The cardinal motor deficits seen in ideomotor limb apraxia are thought to arise from damage to internal representations for actions developed through learning and experience. However, whether apraxic patients learn to develop new representations with training is not well understood. We studied the capacity of apraxic patients for motor adaptation, a process associated with the development of a new internal representation of the relationship between movements and their sensory effects...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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