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Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837409/use-of-a-gc-ms-organic-aerosol-monitor-for-in-field-detection-of-fine-particulate-organic-compounds-in-source-apportionment
#1
Paul M Cropper, Delbert J Eatough, Devon K Overson, Jaron C Hansen, Fern Caka, Robert A Cary
A study was conducted on the Brigham Young University campus during January and February 2015 to identify winter-time sources of fine particulate material in Utah Valley, Utah. Fine particulate mass and components and related gas phase species were all measured on an hourly average basis. Light scattering was also measured during the study. Included in the sampling was the first-time source apportionment application of a new monitoring instrument for the measurement of fine particulate organic marker compounds on an hourly average basis...
August 24, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837396/research-and-proposal-on-scr-reactor-optimization-for-industrial-boiler
#2
Yiming Yang, Jian Li, Hong He
The advanced CFD software STAR-CCM+ was used to simulate a denitrification (De-NOx) project for a boiler in this paper, and the simulation result was verified based on a physical model. Two SCR reactors were developed: reactor #1 was optimized and #2 was developed based on #1. Various indicators including gas flow field, ammonia concentration distribution, temperature distribution, gas incident angle and system pressure drop were analyzed. The analysis indicated Reactor #2 was of outstanding performance and could simplify developing greatly...
August 24, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829721/assessment-of-indoor-levels-of-volatile-organic-compounds-and-carbon-dioxide-in-schools-in-kuwait
#3
Layla Al-Awadi
Indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is a matter of concern because children are most vulnerable and sensitive to pollutant exposure. Conservation of energy at the expense of ventilation in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems adversely affects IAQ. Extensive use of new materials in building, fitting, and refurbishing emit various pollutants such that the indoor environment creates its own discomfort and health risks. Various schools in Kuwait were selected to assess their IAQ. Comprehensive measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) consisting of 72 organic compounds consisting of aliphatic (C3-C6), aromatic (C6-C9), halogenated (C1-C6), and oxygenated (C2-C9) functional groups in indoor air were made for the first time in schools in Kuwait...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829718/development-and-field-validation-of-a-community-engaged-particulate-matter-air-quality-monitoring-network-in-imperial-ca
#4
Graeme N Carvlin, Humberto Lugo, Luis Olmedo, Ester Bejarano, Alexa Wilkie, Dan Meltzer, Michelle Wong, Galatea King, Amanda Northcross, Michael Jerrett, Paul B English, Donald Hammond, Edmund Seto
The Imperial County Community Air Monitoring Network was developed as part of a community-engaged research study to provide real-time particulate matter (PM) air quality information at a high spatial resolution in Imperial County, California. The network augmented the few existing regulatory monitors and increased monitoring near susceptible populations. Monitors were both calibrated and field validated, a key component of evaluating the quality of the data produced by the community-monitoring network. This paper examines the performance of a customized version of the low-cost Dylos optical particle counter used in the community air monitors compared to both PM2...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829690/component-optimization-of-dairy-manure-vermicompost-straw-and-peat-in-seedling-compressed-substrates-using-simplex-centroid-design
#5
Longyuan Yang, Hongliang Cao, Qiaoxia Yuan, Shuai Luo, Zhigang Liu
Vermicomposting is a promising method to disposal dairy manures, and the dairy manure vermicompost (DMV) to replace expensive peat is high-value in the application of seedling compressed substrates. In this research, three main components, DMV, straw, and peat are conducted in the compressed substrates, and the effect of individual component and the corresponding optimal ratio for the seedling production are significant. To address these issues, the simplex-centroid experimental mixture design is employed, and the cucumber seedling experiment is conducted to evaluate the compressed substrates...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829689/theoretical-and-experimental-investigations-of-mercury-adsorption-on-hematite-surfaces
#6
Ji-Eun Jung, Simona Liguori, Adam D Jew, Gordon E Brown, Jennifer Wilcox
One of the biggest environmental concerns caused by coal-fired power plants is the emission of mercury (Hg), which is toxic metal. To control the emission of Hg from coal-derived flue gas, it is important to understand the behavior, speciation of Hg as well as the interaction between Hg and solid materials in the flue gas stream. In this study, atomic-scale theoretical investigations using density functional theory (DFT) were carried out in conjunction with lab-scale experimental studies to investigate the adsorption behavior of Hg on hematite (?-Fe2O3)...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829684/valorization-of-spent-coffee-grounds-recycling-as-a-potential-alternative-fuel-resource-in-turkey-an-experimental-study
#7
A E Atabani, S M Mercimek, Sundaram Arvindnarayan, Sutha Shobana, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Mehmet Cadir, Ala'a H Al-Muhatseb
In this study, recycling of spent coffee grounds (SCG) as a potential feedstock for alternative fuels production and compounds of added value in Turkey was assessed. The average oil content was found (≈ 13% w/w). All samples (before and after extraction) were tested for SEM, DSC, TGA, XRD, calorific value, surface analysis and porosity, FT-IR and elemental analysis to assess their potential towards fuel properties. Elemental analysis indicated that carbon represents the highest percentage (49.59% and 46.42% respectively), followed by Nitrogen (16...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829681/future-methane-emissions-from-the-heavy-duty-natural-gas-transportation-sector-for-stasis-high-medium-and-low-scenarios-in-2035
#8
Nigel N Clark, Derek R Johnson, David L McKain, W Scott Wayne, Hailin Li, Joseph Rudek, Ronald A Mongold, Cesar Sandoval, April N Covington, John T Hailer
Today's heavy-duty natural gas fueled fleet is estimated to represent less than two percent of the total fleet. However, over the next couple of decades, predictions are that the percentage could grow to represent as much as 50 percent. While fueling switching to natural gas could provide a climate benefit relative to diesel fuel, the potential for emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas) from natural gas fueled vehicles has been identified as a concern. Since today's heavy-duty natural gas fueled fleet penetration is low, today's total fleet wide emissions will be also be low regardless of per vehicle emissions...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745558/ambient-particulate-matter-may-affect-lung-function-of-motorcycle-taxi-drivers-in-bangkok
#9
Sara Arphorn, Tomohiro Ishimaru, Kunio Hara, Suwisa Mahasandana
PURPOSE: The motorcycle taxi drivers of Bangkok have been heavily exposed to high concentrations of PM10 and the impact of this on their lungs has been neither documented nor studied. This study examines the association between exposure to PM10 and lung function decline among motorcycle taxi drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bangkok between two groups: a subject group of motorcycle taxi drivers and control group of enclosed vehicle taxi drivers...
July 26, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742986/adsorption-of-mesitylene-via-mesoporous-adsorbents
#10
Kai Chun Nien, Feng Tang Chang, Moo Been Chang
Mesitylene (or 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) is a volatile organic compound emitted from various industrial processes, e.g., spray coating. Its emissions have become a critical issue because mesitylene is toxic and cannot be removed using traditional adsorbents, e.g., zeolite (H-ZSM-5; the diameter of mesitylene molecules is greater than the pore size of H-ZSM-5). Hence, an adsorbent with a large pore size, MCM-41, is used in this study to investigate its adsorption capacity for mesitylene and is compared with that of H-ZSM-5...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738173/simulating-the-meteorology-and-pm10-concentrations-in-arizona-dust-storms-with-the-weather-research-and-forecasting-model-with-chemistry-wrf-chem
#11
Peter Hyde, Alex Mahalov, Jialun Li
Nine dust storms in south-central Arizona, USA were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem) at 2-km resolution. The windblown dust emission algorithm was the Air Force Weather Agency model. In comparison with ground-based PM10 observations, the model unevenly reproduces the dust storm events. The model adequately estimates the location and timing of the events, but it is unable to precisely replicate the magnitude and timing of the elevated hourly concentrations of particles 10 microns and smaller ([PM10])...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737970/the-photocatalytic-degradation-of-methylene-blue-by-green-semiconductor-films-that-is-induced-by-irradiation-by-a-light-emitting-diode-and-visible-light
#12
Chih-Chi Yang, Ruey-An Doong, Ku-Fan Chen, Giin-Shan Chen, Yung-Pin Tsai
This study develops a low-energy rotating photocatalytic contactor (LE-RPC) that has Cu-doped TiO2 films coated on stainless steel rotating disks, to experimentally evaluate the efficiency of the degradation and decolourization of methylene blue (MB) under irradiation from different light sources (visible 430 nm, LED 460 nm and LED 525 nm). The production of hydroxyl radicals is also examined. The experimental results show that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 that is doped with Cu(2+)is induced by illumination with visible light and a LED...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718709/bioaerosols-concentrations-in-working-areas-in-biomethanization-facilities
#13
Marie-Eve Dubuis, Hamza M'Bareche, Marc Veillette, Bouchra Bakhiyi, Joseph Zayed, Jacques Lavoie, Caroline Duchaine
This study sought to fill the gap in information about the type and the concentration of bioaerosols present in the air of biomethanization facilities (BF). Evaluation of bioaerosol composition and concentration was achieved in two biomethanization facilities located in Eastern Canada, during summer and winter. In order to have a thorough understanding of the studied environment, the methodology combined culture of bacteria and molds, qPCR for specific microorganisms, endotoxin quantification and NGS for bacterial diversity...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679084/modeling-vehicle-interior-noise-exposure-dose-on-freeways-considering-weaving-segment-designs-and-engine-operation
#14
Qing Li, Fengxiang Qiao, Lei Yu, Junqing Shi
Vehicle interior noise functions at the dominant frequencies of 500 Hz below and around 800 Hz, which fall into the bands that may impair hearing. Recent studies demonstrated that freeway commuters are chronically exposed to vehicle interior noise, bearing the risk of hearing impairment. The interior noise evaluation process is mostly conducted in a lab environment. The test results and the developed noise models may underestimate or ignore the noise effects from dynamic traffic, road conditions and configuration...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679072/long-term-associations-of-morbidity-with-air-pollution-a-catalogue-and-synthesis
#15
Frederick W Lipfert
I searched the NIH Medline database through January 2017 for long-term studies of morbidity and air pollution and cataloged them with respect to cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer, diabetes, hospitalization, neurological, and pregnancy-birth endpoints. The catalogue is presented as an online appendix. Associations with PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were evaluated most frequently among the 417 ambient air quality studies identified. Associations with TSP, carbon, ozone, sulfur, vehicular traffic, radon, and indoor air quality were also reported...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837416/evaluation-of-alternative-filter-media-for-particulate-matter-emission-testing-of-residential-wood-heating-devices
#16
George Allen, Lisa Rector, Thomas Butcher, Rebecca Trojanowski
The performance of Teflon-coated glass fiber filter media (Pallflex Emfab TX40) is evaluated for particulate matter (PM) sampling of residential wood heating devices in a dilution tunnel. Thirty samples of varying duration and PM loading and concentration were collected from an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 28 dilution tunnel using dual Method 5G sample trains with untreated glass fiber and Emfab filters. Filters were weighed soon after the end of sampling and again the next day after equilibration at 35% relative humidity (RH)...
October 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722541/nox-emission-calculations-for-bulk-carriers-by-using-engine-power-probabilities-as-weighting-factors
#17
Chih-Wen Cheng, Jian Hua, Daw-Shang Hwang
An important marine pollution issue identified by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is NOx emissions; however, the stipulated method for determining the NOx certification value does not reflect the actual high emission factors of slow-speed two-stroke diesel engines over long-term slow steaming. In this study, an accurate method is presented for calculating the NOx emission factors and total amount of NOx emissions by using the actual power probabilities of the diesel engines in four types of bulk carriers...
October 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644770/the-impact-of-photovoltaic-pv-installations-on-downwind-particulate-matter-concentrations-results-from-field-observations-at-a-550-mwac-utility-scale-pv-plant
#18
Dwarakanath Ravikumar, Parikhit Sinha
With utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) projects increasingly developed in dry and dust-prone geographies with high solar insolation, there is a critical need to analyze the impacts of PV installations on the resulting particulate matter (PM) concentrations, which have environmental and health impacts. This study is the first to quantify the impact of a utility-scale PV plant on PM concentrations downwind of the project site. Background, construction, and post-construction PM2.5 and PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters <2...
October 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636497/size-segregated-particulate-matter-and-its-association-with-respiratory-deposition-doses-among-outdoor-exercisers-in-dhanbad-city-india
#19
Sunil Kumar Gupta, Suresh Pandian Elumalai
Regular exercise improves physiological processes and yields positive health outcomes. However, it is relatively less known that particulate matter (PM) exposure during outdoor exercises may increase several respiratory health problems depending on PM levels. In this study, the respiratory deposition doses (RDDs) in head airway (HD), tracheobronchial (TB), and alveolar (AL) regions of various PM size fractions (<10, <2.5, and <1 μm; PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) were estimated in healthy male and female exercisers in urban outdoors and within house premises...
October 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613998/marginal-abatement-cost-curve-for-nitrogen-oxides-incorporating-controls-renewable-electricity-energy-efficiency-and-fuel-switching
#20
Daniel H Loughlin, Alexander J Macpherson, Katherine R Kaufman, Brian N Keaveny
A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs are typically developed by sorting control technologies by their relative cost-effectiveness. Other potentially important abatement measures such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) are often not incorporated into MACCs, as it is difficult to quantify their costs and abatement potential...
October 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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