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Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

Zhengda Yang, Chenghang Zheng, Qianyun Chang, Yi Wan, Yi Wang, Xiang Gao, Kefa Cen
Implications This work tends to study the particle migration and collection under spraying condition. The performance of a wet ESP is evaluated in terms of the corona discharge characteristics, total particle removal efficiency and fractional particle removal efficiency. The effects of water droplets on particle removal, especially on particle removal with different sizes is investigated. The optimization work was done to determine appropriate water consumption, discharge electrode type and specific collection area, which can provide a basis for wet ESP design and application...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Zhiyun Ji, Xiaohui Fan, Min Gan, Xuling Chen, Wei Lv, Qiang Li, Yang Zhou, Ye Tian, Tao Jiang
The formation of PM2.5 (aerosol particulate matters less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in association with SO2 emission during sintering process has been studied by dividing the whole sintering process into 6 typical sampling stages. A low-pressure cascade impactor was used to collect PM2.5 by automatically segregating particulates into 6 sizes. It was found that strong correlation was existed between the emission properties of PM2.5 and SO2. Wet mixture layer (over-wetted layer and raw mixture layer) had the function to simultaneously capture SO2 and PM2...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Sung Ho Hwang, Gil Bong Lee, Im Soon Kim, Wha Me Park
The aim of this study was to measure the air concentrations of CO2 and formaldehyde (HCHO) in daycare centers to determine relevant influencing factors, including temperature, relative humidity (RH), type of facility, number of children, type of ventilation system, ventilation time, and air cleaning system. We measured HCHO, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity (RH) in the center of classrooms in 289 daycare centers. Spearman's correlation and Mann-Whitney analyses were used to examine the relationships and differences in HCHO and CO2 for varying temperatures, RH values, and categorical indoor environmental factors...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
S Trivikrama Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
T M Thompson, D Shepherd, A Stacy, M G Barna, B A Schichtel
Implications Statement In this research, we use a modeling framework developed for oil and gas evaluation in the Western US to determine the modeled impacts of emissions associated with oil and gas production on air pollution metrics. We show that oil and gas production may have a significant negative impact on air quality and ecosystem health in some National Parks and other Class I areas in the Western US. Our findings are of particular interest to federal land managers as well as regulators in states heavy in oil and gas production as they consider control strategies to reduce the impact of development...
November 7, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Elizabeth Mannshardt, Kristen Benedict, Scott Jenkins, Martha Keating, David Mintz, Susan Stone
Air quality sensors are becoming increasingly available to the general public providing individuals and communities with information on fine-scale, local air quality in increments as short as one minute. Current health studies do not support linking 1-minute exposures to adverse health effects; therefore, the potential health implications of such ambient exposures are unclear. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and Air Quality Index (AQI) on the best science available, which typically uses longer averaging periods (e...
November 3, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Son Dong Lee, Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Byoung Ho Lee
A novel nano-size metallic calcium/iron dispersed reagent was synthesized and tested as coagulant/catalyst in hybrid zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2 oxidation process to treat leachate. Two different types of leachates, one from municipal solid waste (MSW) tipping hall (MSWIL) and second from MSW landfill site (MSWLL) were collected and characterized. The morphology, elemental composition and mineral phases of the nano-Ca/CaO and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO were characterized by SEM-EDS and XRD analysis. The coagulation process with 2...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Viney P Aneja, Priya R Pillai, Aaron Isherwood, Peter Morgan, Saurabh P Aneja
Implications This is the first study that couples ground-based Particulate Matter measurements with satellite retrievals to predict surface air pollution at Roda, Virginia. Roda is representative of the Appalachian communities that are commonly located in narrow valleys, or "hollows", where homes are placed directly along the roads in a region of active mountaintop mining operations. Our study suggests that proximity to heavy coal truck traffic subjects these communities to chronic exposure to coal dust and leads us to conclude that there is an urgent need for new regulations to address the primary sources of this particulate matter...
October 12, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Michael T Kleinman, Gary R Mueller, Eric Stevenson, Ramón Alvarez, Anthony J Marchese, David Allen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Franco Matías Francisca, Marcos Alexis Montoro, Daniel Alejandro Glatstein
Landfill gas (LFG) management is one of the most important tasks for landfill operation and closure because of its impact in potential global warming. The aim of this work is to present a case history evaluating an LFG capture and treatment system for the present landfill facility in Cordoba, Argentina. The results may be relevant for many developing countries around the world where landfill gas is not being properly managed. The LFG generation is evaluated by modeling gas production applying the zero order model, Landfill Gas Generation Model (LandGEM - EPA), Scholl Canyon model and triangular model...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Yousheng Zeng, Jon Morris, Albert Sanders, Srikanth Mutyala, Cory Zeng
Implication Statement Infrared imager is an efficient tool for detecting gas leaks from process equipment and has been used in the Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) programs for control of fugitive emissions. However, the information regarding which chemical compounds can be imaged and how sensitive a given infrared imager is for various compounds is limited. A theoretical method is presented in this paper that can answer these questions without conducting resource-intensive experiment. The results of this theoretical method has good agreement with experimental data...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Derek Johnson, Robert Heltzel, Andrew Nix, Rebekah Barrow
Implications Development of representative, engine dynamometer test-cycles, from in-use activity data, is crucial in understanding fuel efficiency and emissions for engine operating modes that are different from cycles mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations. Representative cycles were created for the prime movers of unconventional well development - OTR trucks, drilling and hydraulic fracturing engines. The representative cycles are implemented on scaled engines to reduce fuel consumption during research and development of new technologies in controlled laboratory environments...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Suad Jaffer Al-Lawati, Mushtaque Ahmed, Malik Al-Wardy, Ahmed Al-Busaidi, B S Choudri
It is well recognized that management of wastewater and sludge is a critical environmental issue in many countries. Wastewater treatment and the sludge production take place under different technical, economic and social contexts, thus requiring different approaches and involving different solutions. In most of cases, a regular and environmentally safe wastewater treatment and associated sludge management requires the development of realistic and enforceable regulations as well as treatment systems appropriate to local circumstances...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Lucas R F Henneman, Cong Liu, James A Mulholland, Armistead G Russell
: Assessments of past environmental policies-termed accountability studies-contribute important information to the decision-making process used to review the efficacy of past policies, and subsequently aid in the development of effective new policies. These studies have used a variety of methods that have achieved varying levels of success at linking improvements in air quality and/or health to regulations. The Health Effects Institute defines the air pollution accountability framework as a chain of events that includes the regulation of interest, air quality, exposure/dose, and health outcomes, and suggests that accountability research should address impacts for each of these linkages...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Ashraf Ramadan
IMPLICATIONS Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) concentrations around a power plant in Kuwait during the peak season showed halogenated compounds to be the dominant group. The calculated indoor concentrations were lower than that reported in a residential area about 12 km away.
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Shahir Masri, Eric Garshick, Jaime Hart, Walid Bouhamra, Petros Koutrakis
Implication Statement This study demonstrates the ability to use airport visibility to estimate PM2.5 concentrations in Southwest Asian and Afghanistan. This supports the use of historical and ongoing visibility data to estimate PM2.5 exposure in this region of the world, where PM exposure information is otherwise scarce. This is of high utility to epidemiologists investigating the relationship between chronic exposure to PM2.5 and respiratory diseases among deployed military personnel stationed at various military bases throughout the region...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Noha A El Essawy, Abdelaziz H Konsowa, Mohamed Elnouby, Hassan A Farag
Nowadays our planet suffers from the accumulation of the plastic products which have a potential to cause a great harm to the environment in the form of air, water and land pollution. Plastic water bottles have become a great problem in the environment because of the mass numbers consumed throughout the world. Certain types of plastic bottles can be recycled but most of them are not. This paper describes an economical solvent free process that converts polyethyleneterephtalate (PET) bottles waste into carbon nanostructure materials via thermal dissociation in a closed system under autogenic pressure together with additives and/or catalyst which can act as cluster nuclei for carbon nanostructure materials as fullerenes and carbon nanotube...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Yukihiro Ikeda
A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the current status of home medical care (HMC) waste collection by nurses for individual items and whether the collection rate differs with city size. The questionnaire was mailed to 1,022 nursing offices, of which 645 offices provided valid responses. Offices were classified into three groups according to the local population size. Responses indicated that used syringes and needles except for pen-type self-injection needles, was collected by >50% of HMC nurses...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Inkyu Han, Elaine Symanski, Thomas H Stock
Implications The performance of a low-cost PM sensor was evaluated in an urban residential area. Both PM2.5 and coarse PM (PM10-2.5) mass concentrations were estimated using a DC1700 PM sensor. The calculated PM mass concentrations from the number concentrations of DC 1700 were close to those measured with the Grimm 11-R when relative humidity was less than 60% for both PM2.5 and coarse PM. Particle size distribution was more important for the association of coarse PM between the DC 1700 and Grimm 11-R than it was for PM2...
September 30, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Ha T Trinh, Katsuma Imanishi, Tazuko Morikawa, Hiroyuki Hagino, Norimichi Takenaka
Implication Statement Photolysis of HONO is a dominant source of morning OH radicals. Conventional traffic-induced HONO/NOx ratio of 0.8 % has possibly linked to under-estimation of the total HONO budget and consequently under-estimation of OH radical budget. Recently reported HONO/NOx ratio of c.a. 1.6 % was used to stimulate HONO emission, which resulted in increased HONO concentrations during morning peak hours and its impact to 14 % OH increment in the morning. However, the results were still lower than the measured concentrations...
September 30, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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