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Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

Rita So, Andrew Teakles, Jonathan Baik, Roxanne Vingarzan, Keith Jones
Visibility degradation, one of the most noticeable indicators of poor air quality, can occur despite relatively low levels of particulate matter when the risk to human health is low. The availability of timely and reliable visibility forecasts can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the anticipated air quality conditions to better inform local jurisdictions and the public. This paper describes the development of a visibility forecasting modelling framework, which leverages the existing air quality and meteorological forecasts from Canada's operational Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) for the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Gary K Whitmyre, Muhilan D Pandian
Use of vent-free gas heating appliances for supplemental heating in U.S. homes is increasing. However, there is currently a lack of information on the potential impact of these appliances on indoor air quality for homes constructed according to energy-efficient and green building standards. A probabilistic analysis was conducted to estimate the impact of vent-free gas heating appliances on indoor air concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, and oxygen in "tight" energy-efficient homes in the U...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Judith C Chow, John G Watson, Mark C Green, Xiaoliang Wang, L-W Antony Chen, Dana L Trimble, Paul M Cropper, Steven D Kohl, Steven B Gronstal
The replacement of the DRI Model 2001 with Model 2015 thermal/optical analyzers (TOAs) results in continuity of the long-term organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) data base, and it adds optical information with no additional carbon analysis effort. The value of multiwavelength light attenuation is that light absorption due to black carbon (BC) can be separated from that of brown carbon (BrC), with subsequent attribution to known sources such as biomass burning and secondary organic aerosols. There is evidence of filter loading effects for the 25% of all samples with the highest EC concentrations based on the ratio of light attenuation to EC...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Huy N Q Tran, Seth N Lyman, Marc L Mansfield, Trevor O'Neil, Richard L Bowers, Ann P Smith, Cara Keslar
In this study, we apply two different dispersion models to evaluate flux chamber measurements of emissions of 58 organic compounds, including C2-C11 hydrocarbons and methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol from oil and gas produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin. Field measurement campaigns using the flux chamber technique were performed at a limited number of produced water ponds in the Basin throughout 2013-2016. Inverse modeling results showed significantly higher emissions than were measured by the flux chamber...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Shihua Pu, Zuohua Liu, Feiyun Yang, Dingbiao Long, Wen Liu, Hao Wang, Kaipei Huang, Xiu Huang
To improve the removal efficiency on hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a biofilter was developed and was made of PVC pipes. The effects of three different packings (i.e., packing A, packing B, and packing C), containing different proportions of activated carbon, sawdust, wormcast, perlite, and pig manure compost, based on different biofilter parameters on H2S removal efficiency were investigated. With the extension of running time, the H2S removal rate of packing A reached up to 90.12%, that of packing B reached a peak at 92...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Julia Gerharz, Michael H K Bendels, Markus Braun, Doris Klingelhöfer, David A Groneberg, Ruth Mueller
Inhaling particulate matter (PM) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) endangers the health of non-smokers. Menthol, an additive in cigarettes, attenuates respiratory irritation of tobacco smoke. It reduces perceptibility of smoke and therefore passive smokers may inhale ETS unnoticed. To investigate a possible effect of menthol on PM concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) ETS of four mentholated cigarette brands (Elixyr Menthol, Winston Menthol, Reyno Classic and Pall Mall Menthol Blast) with varying menthol content were analyzed...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
A C Rohr
A wealth of literature exists regarding the pulmonary effects of ozone, a photochemical pollutant produced by the reaction of nitrogen oxide and volatile organic precursors in the presence of sunlight. This paper focuses on epidemiological panel studies and human clinical studies of ozone exposure, and discusses issues specific to this pollutant that may influence study design and interpretation as well as other, broader considerations relevant to ozone-health research. The issues are discussed using examples drawn from the wider literature...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Claire Richardson, Shannon Rutherford, Igor Agranovski
Given the significance of mining as a source of particulates, accurate characterisation of emissions is important for the development of appropriate emissions estimation techniques for use in modelling predictions and to inform regulatory decisions. The currently available emission estimation methods for Australian open cut coal mines relate primarily to total suspended particulates and PM10, and limited data is available relating to the PM2.5 size fraction. To provide an initial analysis of the appropriateness of the currently available emission estimation techniques, this paper presents results of sampling completed at three open cut coal mines in Australia...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Isha Khanna, Mukesh Khare, Prashant Gargava, Anwar Ali Khan
PM2.5 sampling was conducted at a kerbside location in Delhi city for summer and winter seasons, to evaluate the effect of PM2.5 and its chemical components on the visibility impairment. The PM2.5 concentrations were observed to be higher than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) indicating poor air quality. The chemical constituents of PM2.5 (water-soluble ionic species - SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+ and carbonaceous species - organic carbon, elemental carbon) were analyzed to study their impact on visibility impairment by reconstructing the light extinction coefficient, bext...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Brett Gantt, Melinda Beaver, Brian Timin, Phil Lorang
For many Class I areas (national parks and wilderness areas with special air quality protections) in the western U.S., wildfire smoke and dust events can have a large impact on visibility. Currently, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 1999 Regional Haze Rule uses the 20% haziest days to track visibility changes over time even if they are dominated by smoke or dust. Visibility on the 20% haziest days has remained constant or degraded over the last 16 years at some Class I areas despite widespread emission reductions from anthropogenic sources...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Fu-Jen Chuang, Ming-Shean Chou, Hsiao-Yu Chang
This study compares the performances of fern and plastic chips as packing media for the biofiltration of a styrene-laden waste gas stream emitted in a plant for the manufacture of plastic door plates. Fern chips (with a specific surface area of 1,090 m2 m-3) and plastic chips (with a specific surface area of 610 m2 m-3) were packed into a pilot-scale with a total media volume of 50 L for the performance test. Field waste gas with styrene concentrations in the range of 161-2390 mg Am-3 (@28-30oC) was introduced to the bed and a fixed EBRT (empty bed retention time) of 21 s, a volumetric gas flow rate of 8...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Shaibal Mukerjee, Luther A Smith, Motria P Caudill, Karen D Oliver, Wayne Whipple, Donald A Whitaker, Tamira A Cousett
Select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air were measured at four fenceline sites at a petroleum refinery in Whiting, Indiana, USA using modified EPA Method 325 A/B with passive tubes and EPA Compendium Method TO-15 with canister samplers. One-week, time-integrated samplers were deployed for eight weeks with tubes and canister samplers deployed in duplicate. Good precision was obtained from the duplicate tubes (< 7%) and duplicate canisters (≤ 10%) for BTEX, perchloroethylene, and styrene. The tubes yielded statistically significantly higher concentrations than canisters for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m,p-xylene...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Gabriel Maltais-Landry, Katarina Neufeld, David Poon, Nicholas Grant, Zoran Nesic, Sean Smukler
Manure-based soil amendments (herein "amendments") are important fertility sources but differences among amendment types and management can significantly affect their nutrient value and environmental impacts. We conducted a six-month in situ decomposition experiment to determine how protection from wintertime rainfall affected nutrient losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in poultry (chicken broiler and turkey) and horse amendments. We measured changes in total nutrient concentration - nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) - every three months, changes in ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentration every month, and GHG emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) every 7-14 days...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Elisa Facchini, Eleni Iacovidou, Jan Gronow, Nikolaos Voulvoulis
The increasing amount of food waste generated as a direct consequence of its excessive production, mismanagement and wasteful behaviours, represents a real challenge in promoting resource efficiency. In the UK, the lack of robust mass flow data hinders both the ability to understand and address food waste challenges, and to devise long-term sustainable prevention strategies. In recognition of these challenges, this paper seeks to: i) provide insights into the UK's annual estimates of food mass flows, including imports, exports, distribution, consumption, surplus food production, and final disposal, and ii) scrutinise the uptake and surplus food redistribution as a potential food waste prevention strategy...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Zihan Qi, Tingjia Chen, Jiang Chen, Xiaofei Qi
In the recent decades, China has experienced rapid economic development accompanied by increasing concentrations of ambient PM2.5, particulate matter of less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter. PM2.5 is now believed to be a carcinogen, causing higher lung cancer risks and generating losses to the economy and the society. This meta-analysis evaluates the losses generated by ambient PM2.5 in Suzhou from 2014-2016, and predicts losses at different concentrations. Estimations of total losses in Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Dalian, and Xiamen are also presented, with a total national loss in 2015...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Fan Zeng, Xiaofeng Liao, Hui Hu, Li Liao
Series sludge-straw based activated carbons were prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw with potassium hydroxide activation, and the desulfurization performance of activated carbons were studied. To obtain the best desulfurization performance, the optimum ratio between the raw materials and the activator was investigated. The results showed that as the mass ratio of sewage sludge, corn straw and potassium hydroxide was 3:7:2, the activated carbon obtained the best breakthrough and saturation sulfur sorption capacity, which were 12...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Chih-Wen Cheng, Jian Hua, Daw-Shang Hwang
In this study, the NOx emission factor and total NOx emissions of two groups of post-Panamax container ships operating on a long-term slow steaming basis along Euro-Asian routes were calculated using both the probability density function of engine power levels and the NOx emission function. The main engines of the five sister ships in Group I satisfied the Tier I emission limit stipulated in MARPOL Annex VI, and those in Group II satisfied the Tier II limit. The calculated NOx emission factors of the Group I and Group II ships were 14...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Maryam Delavarrafiee, H Christopher Frey
Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFVs) typically operate on gasoline or E85, an 85%/15% volume blend of ethanol and gasoline, E85. Differences in FFV fuel use and tailpipe emission rates are quantified for E85 versus gasoline based on real-world measurements of five FFVs with a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS), supplemented chassis dynamometer data and estimates from the MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model. Because of inter-vehicle variability, an individual FFV may have higher nitrogen oxides (NOx) or carbon monoxide (CO) emission rates on E85 versus gasoline, even though average rates are lower...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Jyothi S Menon, S M Shiva Nagendra
In the present study, personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in an urban hotspot (CBD: central business district) was investigated. The PM monitoring campaigns were carried out at an urban hotspot from June to October 2015. The personal exposure monitoring was performed during three different time periods, i.e. morning (8AM -9AM), afternoon (12.30PM-1.30PM) and evening (4PM-5PM), to cover both the peak and lean hour activities of the CBD. The median PM2.5 concentrations were 38...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Oluwasinaayomi Faith Kasim, Muluneh Woldetisadik Abshare, Samuel Babatunde Agbola
Ambient air quality was monitored and analysed to develop air quality index and its implications for liveability and climate change in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. Using survey research design, 16 geo-referenced locations, representing different land uses, were randomly selected and assessed for sulphur dioxide (SO2) nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO),Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) and meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity). The study found mean concentrations across all land uses for SO2 of 0...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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