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Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

Vivian Feddern, Anildo Cunha Junior, Marina C De Prá, Marcio L Busi da Silva, Rodrigo da S Nicoloso, Martha M Higarashi, Arlei Coldebella, Paulo G de Abreu
Implications Emissions from motor vehicles can contribute considerably to the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The use of biodiesel to replace or augment diesel can not only decrease our dependency on fossil fuels but also help decrease air pollution. Thus, different sources of feedstocks are constantly being explored for affordable biodiesel production. However, the amount of CO, CO2 and/or NOx emissions can vary largely depending on type of feedstock used to produce biodiesel. In this work we demonstrated animal fat feasibility in replacing petrodiesel with less impact regarding greenhouse gas emissions than other sources...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Ron L Petersen, Sergio Guerra, Anthony Bova
This paper documents theoretical and other problems in PRIME along with CFD simulations and wind tunnel observations that support these findings. While AERMOD/PRIME may provide accurate and unbiased estimates (within a factor of two) for some building configurations, a major review and update is needed so that accurate estimates can be obtained for other building configurations where significant overpredictions or underpredictions are common due to downwash effects. This will ensure that regulatory evaluations subject to dispersion modeling requirements can be based on an accurate model...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
M-C Oliver Chang, J Erin Shields
: To reliably measure at the low particulate matter (PM) levels needed to meet California's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV III) 3- and 1- mg/mile particulate matter (PM) standards, various approaches other than gravimetric measurement have been suggested for testing purposes. In this work, a feasibility study of solid particle number (SPN, D50=23nm) and black carbon (BC) as alternatives to gravimetric PM mass was conducted, based on the relationship of these two metrics to gravimetric PM mass as well as the variability of each of these metrics...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Chunyu Xu, Na Li, Yibing Yang, Yunpu Li, Zhe Liu, Qin Wang, Tongzhang Zheng, Anna Civitarese, Dongqun Xu
Failure to consider the differences between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 may contribute to exposure misclassification in epidemiological studies estimating exposure from a central site measurement. This study was conducted in Beijing to investigate residential PM2.5 infiltration factor and to develop a localized predictive model in both non-heating and heating seasons. High variations of PM2.5 infiltration factor between the two seasons and across homes within each season were found, highlighting the importance of including infiltration factor into assessment of exposure to PM2...
December 23, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Steven G Brown, David L Vaughn, Paul T Roberts
: As part of two separate studies aimed to characterize ambient pollutant concentrations at schools in urban areas, we compare black carbon and particle count measurements at Adcock Elementary in Las Vegas, Nevada (April-June 2013), and Hunter High School in the West Valley City area of Greater Salt Lake City, Utah (February 2012). Both schools are in urban environments, but Adcock Elementary is next to the U.S. 95 freeway. Black Carbon (BC) concentrations were 13% higher at Adcock compared to Hunter, while particle count concentrations were 60% higher...
December 23, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Brian Freeman, Bahram Gharabaghi, Jesse Thé, Mohammad Munshed, Shah Faisal, Meshal Abdullah, Athari Al Aseed
This study presents a new method that incorporates modern air dispersion models allowing local terrain and land-sea breeze effects to be considered along with political and natural boundaries for more accurate mapping of air quality zones for coastal urban centers. This method uses local coastal wind patterns and key urban air pollution sources in each zone to more accurately calculate air pollutant concentration statistics. The new approach distributes virtual air pollution sources within each small grid cells of an area of interest and analyzes a puff dispersion model for a full year's worth of one-hour prognostic weather data...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Vijaya Damodara, Daniel H Chen, Helen H Lou, Kader M A Rasel, Peyton Richmond, Anan Wang, Xianchang Li
Emissions from flares constitute unburned hydrocarbons, CO, soot, and other partially burned and altered hydrocarbons along with CO2 and water. Soot or visible smoke is of particular concern for flare operators /regulatory agencies. The goal of the study is to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model capable of predicting flare combustion efficiency (CE) and soot emission. Since detailed combustion mechanisms are too complicated for (CFD) application, a 50-species reduced mechanism, LU 3.0.1, was developed...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Xiaojun Wang, Mingsheng Jia, Xiangyu Lin, Ying Xu, Xin Ye, Chih Ming Kao, Shaohua Chen
Implications Monitoring of GHG emissions at three different cover types in a municipal solid waste landfill during one-year period showed that the working face was the hotspot of N2O, which should draw attention. High CH4 fluxes occurred on the permeable surface covering 1~2-year-old landfill. In contrast, HDPE membrane achieved a high CH4 retention, and therefore is a recommended cover material for GHG control.
December 20, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
George Pouliot, Venkatesh Rao, Jessica L McCarty, Amber Soja
Estimates of crop residue burning emissions and rangeland burning can be improved by using satellite detections. Local information is helpful in distinguishing crop residue and rangeland burning from all other types of fires.
December 14, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Maytat Luangprasert, Chainarin Vasithamrong, Suphasit Pongratananukul, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana, Suree Pumrin, I P D De Silva
It is known that in-vehicle CO2 concentration tends to increase due to occupant exhalation when the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) air is in recirculation mode. Field experiments were conducted to measure CO2 concentration during typical commute in Bangkok, Thailand. The measured concentrations agreed with the concentration predicted using first-order mass balance equation, in both recirculating and outside air modes. The long-term transient decay of the concentration when the vehicle was parked and the HVAC system was turned off was also studied...
December 14, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Chenguang Lv, Xianfeng Wang, Na Pang, Lanzhong Wang, Yuping Wang, Tengfei Xu, Yu Zhang, Tianran Zhou, Wei Li
This study aims to examine the effect of short-term changes in the concentration of particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤ 10 µm (PM10) on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. It explored confoundings factos of weather, season, and chemical pollutants. Information on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in 2014 was extracted from the database of Jinan Qilu Hospital. The relative risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was assessed using a case-crossover approach, controlling weather variables, day of the week, and seasonality...
December 14, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Christopher Emery, Zhen Liu, Armistead G Russell, M Talat Odman, Greg Yarwood, Naresh Kumar
Photochemical grid models are addressing an increasing variety of air quality related issues, yet procedures and metrics used to evaluate their performance remain inconsistent. This impacts the ability to place results in quantitative context relative to other models and applications, and to inform the user and affected community of model uncertainties and weaknesses. More consistent evaluations can serve to drive improvements in the modeling process as major weaknesses are identified and addressed. The large number of North American photochemical modeling studies published in the peer-reviewed literature over the past decade affords a rich dataset from which to update previously established quantitative performance "benchmarks" for ozone and particulate matter (PM) concentrations...
December 14, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Brian Freeman, Ed McBean, Bahram Gharabaghi, Jesse Thé
Air quality zones are used by regulatory authorities to implement ambient air standards in order to protect human health. Air quality measurements at discrete air monitoring stations are critical tools to determine whether an air quality zone complies with local air quality standards or is non-compliant. This study presents a novel approach for evaluation of air quality zone classification methods by breaking the concentration distribution of a pollutant measured at an air monitoring station into compliance and exceedance Probability Density Functions (PDFs) and then using a Monte Carlo Analysis with the Central Limit Theorem to estimate long term exposure...
December 14, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Zhengda Yang, Chenghang Zheng, Qianyun Chang, Yi Wan, Yi Wang, Xiang Gao, Kefa Cen
Implications This work tends to study the particle migration and collection under spraying condition. The performance of a wet ESP is evaluated in terms of the corona discharge characteristics, total particle removal efficiency and fractional particle removal efficiency. The effects of water droplets on particle removal, especially on particle removal with different sizes is investigated. The optimization work was done to determine appropriate water consumption, discharge electrode type and specific collection area, which can provide a basis for wet ESP design and application...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Zhiyun Ji, Xiaohui Fan, Min Gan, Xuling Chen, Wei Lv, Qiang Li, Yang Zhou, Ye Tian, Tao Jiang
The formation of PM2.5 (aerosol particulate matters less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in association with SO2 emission during sintering process has been studied by dividing the whole sintering process into 6 typical sampling stages. A low-pressure cascade impactor was used to collect PM2.5 by automatically segregating particulates into 6 sizes. It was found that strong correlation was existed between the emission properties of PM2.5 and SO2. Wet mixture layer (over-wetted layer and raw mixture layer) had the function to simultaneously capture SO2 and PM2...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Sung Ho Hwang, Gil Bong Lee, Im Soon Kim, Wha Me Park
The aim of this study was to measure the air concentrations of CO2 and formaldehyde (HCHO) in daycare centers to determine relevant influencing factors, including temperature, relative humidity (RH), type of facility, number of children, type of ventilation system, ventilation time, and air cleaning system. We measured HCHO, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity (RH) in the center of classrooms in 289 daycare centers. Spearman's correlation and Mann-Whitney analyses were used to examine the relationships and differences in HCHO and CO2 for varying temperatures, RH values, and categorical indoor environmental factors...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
T M Thompson, D Shepherd, A Stacy, M G Barna, B A Schichtel
Implications Statement In this research, we use a modeling framework developed for oil and gas evaluation in the Western US to determine the modeled impacts of emissions associated with oil and gas production on air pollution metrics. We show that oil and gas production may have a significant negative impact on air quality and ecosystem health in some National Parks and other Class I areas in the Western US. Our findings are of particular interest to federal land managers as well as regulators in states heavy in oil and gas production as they consider control strategies to reduce the impact of development...
November 7, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Elizabeth Mannshardt, Kristen Benedict, Scott Jenkins, Martha Keating, David Mintz, Susan Stone
Air quality sensors are becoming increasingly available to the general public providing individuals and communities with information on fine-scale, local air quality in increments as short as one minute. Current health studies do not support linking 1-minute exposures to adverse health effects; therefore, the potential health implications of such ambient exposures are unclear. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and Air Quality Index (AQI) on the best science available, which typically uses longer averaging periods (e...
November 3, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Son Dong Lee, Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Byoung Ho Lee
A novel nano-size metallic calcium/iron dispersed reagent was synthesized and tested as coagulant/catalyst in hybrid zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2 oxidation process to treat leachate. Two different types of leachates, one from municipal solid waste (MSW) tipping hall (MSWIL) and second from MSW landfill site (MSWLL) were collected and characterized. The morphology, elemental composition and mineral phases of the nano-Ca/CaO and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO were characterized by SEM-EDS and XRD analysis. The coagulation process with 2...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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February 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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