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Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

S J Emmerich, L Wang, A K Persily
There is concern about the hazard of acute residential CO exposures from portable gasoline powered generators which can result in death or serious adverse health effects in exposed individuals. To address this hazard, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission has developed low CO emission prototype generators by adapting off-the-shelf emission control technologies onto commercially-available generators. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the indoor CO concentrations resulting from portable generators operating in the attached garage of a research house under seven different test house/garage configurations...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Azmatullah Khan, Ki-Hyun Kim, Jan E Szulejko, Richard J C Brown, Eui-Chan Jeon, Jong-Min Oh, Yong Soon Shin, Adedeji A Adelodun
Atmospheric concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) was intermittently measured at an air quality monitoring (AQM) station in the Yong-san district of Seoul, Korea between 1987 and 2013. The SO2 level was compared with other important pollutants concurrently measured including methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and particulate matter (PM10). If split into three different periods (period 1 (1987-1988), period 2 (1999-2000), and period 3 (2004-2013)), the respective mean [SO2] values (6...
April 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Michael T Kleinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Miguel Zavala, Jose Ignacio Huertas, Daniel Prato, Aron Jazcilevich, Andrés Aguilar, Marco Balam, Chandan Misra, Luisa T Molina
Off-road vehicles used in construction and agricultural activities can contribute substantially to emissions of gaseous pollutants and can be a major source of submicron carbonaceous particles in many parts of the world. However, there have been relatively few efforts in quantifying the emission factors (EFs) as well as for estimating the potential emission reduction benefits using emission control technologies for these vehicles. This study characterized the black carbon (BC) component of particulate matter and NOx, CO, and CO2 EFs of selected diesel-powered off-road mobile sources in Mexico under real-world operating conditions using on-board portable emissions measurements systems (PEMS)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Cai Jiying, Hao Wenge, Zhang Cong, Yu Jiaqi, Wang Ting
To reveal the formation mechanism of a pulse-jet airflow's cleaning effect in a filter bag, a theoretical model is built by using the theory of gas jet and unitary adiabatic flow according to given specifications and dimensions of the bags and resistance characteristics of the cloth and dust layer. It is about the relationship between cleaning system structure and operating parameters. The model follows the principle that the flow and kinetic energy of jet flow injected into a filter bag should be consistent with the flow of cleaning airflow in the bag and the pressure drop flowing through the filter cloth and dust layer...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Paige Presler-Jur, Prakash Doraiswamy, Oki Hammond, Joann Rice
Black carbon (BC) or elemental carbon (EC) is a by-product of incomplete fuel combustion, and contributes adversely to human health, visibility, and climate impacts. Previous studies have examined non-destructive techniques for particle light attenuation measurements on Teflon(®) filters to estimate BC. The incorporation of an inline Magee Scientific OT21 Transmissometer into the MTL AH-225 robotic weighing system provides the opportunity to perform optical transmission measurements on Teflon(®) filters at the same time as the gravimetric mass measurement...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Susan Collet, Toru Kidokoro, Prakash Karamchandani, Tejas Shah, Jaegun Jung
The relationship between emission reductions and changes in ozone can be studied using photochemical grid models. These models are updated with new information as it becomes available. The primary objective of this study was to update the previous Collet et al. (2014a, and 2014b) studies by using the most up-to-date (at the time the study was done) modeling emission tools, inventories and meteorology available to conduct ozone source attribution and sensitivity studies. Results show future year, 2030, design values for 8?hour ozone concentrations were lower than base year values, 2011...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Yanzhi Ann Xu, Haobing Liu, Michael O Rodgers, Angshuman Guin, Michael Hunter, Adnan Sheikh, Randall L Guensler
Converting a congested High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lane into a High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lane is a viable option for improving travel time reliability for carpools and buses that use the managed lane. However, the emission impacts of HOV-to-HOT-conversions are not well understood. The lack of emissions impact quantification for HOT conversions creates a policy challenge for agencies making transportation funding choices. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the case study before-and-after changes in vehicle emissions for the Atlanta, GA I-85 HOV/HOT lane conversion project, implemented in October, 2011...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
George M Hidy, Peter K Mueller, Samuel L Altshuler, Judith C Chow, John G Watson
It is axiomatic that good measurements are integral to good public policy for environmental protection. The generalized term for "measurements" includes sampling and quantitation, data integrity, documentation, network design, sponsorship and operations, and archiving and accessing for applications. Each of these components has evolved and advanced over the last 200 years as knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and physics has matured. Air quality was first detected by what people could see smoke and smell contaminated air...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Guixia Li, Weizhang Zhong, Rui Wang, Jiaqi Chen, Zaixing Li
Optimum anaerobic conditions of ephalosporin bacterial residues after thermal-alkaline pretreatment were determined by orthogonal experiments. And through biochemical methane potential tests (BMPs) for cephalosporin bacterial residues, the ability for bacterial degradation of cephalosporin was also evaluated. The thermal-alkaline pretreatment with the optimum values of 6% NaOH at 105°C for 15 min significantly improved digestion performance. With the thermal-alkaline pretreatment, the specific methane yield of the pretreated cephalosporin bacterial residue increased by 254...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Qingyu Zhang, Juwang Fan, Weidong Yang, Bixin Chen, Lijuan Zhang, Jiaoyu Liu, Jingling Wang, Chunyao Zhou, Xuan Chen
Vehicle deterioration and technological change influence emission factors (EFs). In this study, the impacts of vehicle deterioration and emission standards on EFs of regulated pollutants (CO, HC, and NOx) for gasoline light-duty trucks (LDTs) were investigated according to the Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) data using a chassis dynamometer method. Pollutant EFs for LDTs markedly varied with accumulated mileages and emission standards, and the trends of EFs are associated with accumulated mileages. In addition, the study also found that in most cases the median EFs of CO, HC and NOx are higher than those of basic EFs in the IVE model; therefore, the present study provides correction factors for the IVE model relative to the corresponding emission standards and mileages...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Herek L Clack
Among the technologies available for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities is the injection of a powdered sorbent, often some form of activated carbon, into the flue gas upstream of the particulate control device, most commonly an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Detailed measurements of mercury removal within ESPs are lacking due to the hazardous environment they pose, increasing the importance of analysis and numerical simulation in understanding the mechanisms involved. Our previous analyses revealed that mercury adsorption by particles suspended in the gas and by particles collected on internal ESP surfaces are not additive removal mechanisms but rather are competitive...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Christopher E Rushton, James E Tate, Simon P Shepherd, David C Carslaw
Emissions of NOX by vehicles in real driving environments are only partially understood. This has been brought to the attention of the world with recent revelations of the cheating of the type approval tests exposed in the dieselgate scandal. Remote sensing devices offer investigators an opportunity to directly measure in-situ real driving emissions of tens of thousands of vehicles. The availability of remote sensing NO2 measurements are not as widely available as would be desirable. The aim of this study is to improve the ability of investigators to estimate the NO2 emissions and to improve the confidence of the total NOX results calculated from standard RSD measurements...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Yifan Xu, Rong Liu, Fei Ye, Feng Jia, Lingchen Ji
A series of MnOx-CeO2 catalysts supported by Ti-bearing blast furnace slag were prepared by wet impregnation and used for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3. The slag-based catalyst exhibited high deNOx activity and wide effective temperature range. Under the condition of NO=500ppm, NH3=500ppm, O2:7-8vol% and total flow rate=1600 ml/min, the Mn-Ce/Slag catalyst exhibited a NO conversion higher than 95% in the range of 180-260 °C. The activity of Mn/Slag catalysts was greatly enhanced with the addition of CeO2...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Jing Wang, Rongbing Fu, Zhen Xu
In this work, the effects of diatomite with 15% FeSO4•7H2O and 7.5% Ca(OH)2 on sludge stabilization were investigated using batch leaching tests. The influence of cell rupture caused by freezing and thawing on stabilization was also evaluated. The results indicated that the optimal diatomite percentage was 2%. Cell rupture by freezing and thawing reduced heavy metal leachability followed by cell death and decrease of organic groups. The concentration of heavy metals in sludge leachate increased after cell rupture, indicating that the heavy metal leachability was reduced after freezing and thawings...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Shunsuke Suzuki, Shinsuke Mori
Particle matters from a diesel engine including soot and carbon nanomaterials were collected on a sampling holder and their structure was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a result of employing gas oil/ethanol mixing fuel with sulphur and ferrocene/molybdenum as catalyst sources, formation of carbon nanotubes (CNT)-like materials in addition to soot was observed in the exhaust gas from a diesel engine. It was revealed that CNT-like materials were included among soot in our system only when following three conditions were satisfied simultaneously; high ethanol fraction in fuel, high sulphur loading and presence of catalyst sources in fuel...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Y J Leong, N P Sanchez, H W Wallace, B Karakurt Cevik, C S Hernandez, Y Han, J H Flynn, P Massoli, C Floerchinger, E C Fortner, S Herndon, J K Bean, L Hildebrandt Ruiz, W Jeon, Y Choi, B Lefer, R J Griffin
The sources of submicron particulate matter (PM1) remain poorly characterized in the industrialized city of Houston. A mobile sampling approach was used to characterize PM1 composition and concentration across Houston based on high time resolution measurements of non-refractory PM1 and trace gases during the DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013 campaign. Two pollution zones with marked differences in PM1 levels, character, and dynamics were established based on cluster analysis of organic aerosol mass loadings sampled at sixteen sites...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Ranil Dhammapala, Clint Bowman, Jill Schulte
Air quality analyses for permitting new pollution sources often involve modeling dispersion of pollutants using models like AERMOD. Representative background pollutant concentrations must be added to modeled concentrations to determine compliance with air quality standards. Summing 98(th) (or 99(th)) percentiles of two independent distributions that are unpaired in time, overestimates air quality impacts and could needlessly burden sources with restrictive permit conditions. This problem is exacerbated when emissions and background concentrations peak during different seasons...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Hong Zhang, Sheng Zhang, Ping Wang, Yuzhe Qin, Huifeng Wang
PM10 forecasting is difficult because of the uncertainties in describing the emission and meteorological fields. This paper proposed a wavelet-ARMA/ARIMA model to forecast the short-time series of the PM10 concentrations. It was evaluated by experiments using a 10-year dataset of daily PM10 concentrations from 4 stations located in Taiyuan, China. The results indicated the following: 1) PM10 concentrations of Taiyuan had a decreasing trend during 2005 to 2012 but it was increased in 2013. PM10 concentrations had an obvious seasonal fluctuation related with coal fired heating in winter and early spring...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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