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Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239326/characterization-of-food-waste-from-different-sources-in-hong-kong
#1
K S Ho, L M Chu
ood waste from different sources or at different generation stages may have different compositional characteristics and is therefore suitable for recycling into different products. To have a better understanding of their chemical composition, five food waste types were collected, namely household kitchen waste (HH), pre-consumption and post-consumption food waste from a hotel (Hpr and Hpo), wet market food waste (WM) and kitchen waste from a Chinese restaurant (CR), and their compositions were assessed monthly for one year...
September 21, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30235064/assessing-the-impact-of-converting-roundabouts-to-traffic-signals-on-vehicle-emissions-along-an-urban-arterial-corridor-in-qatar
#2
Khaled Shaaban, Hatem Abou-Senna, Dina Mohamed Elnashar, Essam Radwan
The type of control at intersections has a major effect on the operation of any urban corridor. Different pre-defined procedures are available to calculate some of the main operational characteristics, such as capacity, delay, and level of service in order to select the best type of control. However, there are other important factors that affect major arterials operational characteristics, which are not fully addressed, such as the impact of emissions. In this study, a microscopic simulation approach using VISSIM and MOVES was developed to assess the environmental effect of converting four three-lane roundabouts to signalized intersections along a heavily congested urban corridor in Qatar...
September 20, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230977/effect-modification-of-ambient-particle-mortality-by-radon-a-time-series-analysis-in-108-u-s-cities
#3
Annelise J Blomberg, Brent A Coull, Iny Jhun, Carolina L Z Vieira, Antonella Zanobetti, Eric Garshick, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230968/characterization-of-the-incipient-smoke-point-for-steam-air-assisted-and-non-assisted-flares
#4
Daniel H Chen, Arokiaraj Alphones
Flares are important safety devices for pressure relief, in the meantime, flares are a significant point source for soot and Highly Reactive Volatile Organic Compounds (HRVOCs). Currently, simple guidelines for flare operations to maintain high combustion efficiency (CE) remain elusive. This paper fills the gap by investigating the characteristics of the Incipient Smoke Point (ISP), which is widely recognized as the condition for good combustion. This study characterizes the ISP in terms of 100-%CE (combustion inefficiency), % opacity, absorbance, air-assist, steam-assist, air equivalence ratio, steam equivalence ratio, exit velocity, vent gas net heating value, and combustion zone net heating value...
September 19, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215577/experimental-investigation-of-tribological-characteristics-and-emissions-of-non-edible-sunflower-oil-as-a-bio-lubricant
#5
Mohammed Hassan Jabal, Abdulmunem R Abdulmunem, Hussain Saad Abd
Plant oil (vegetable) has been evaluated to substitute the mineral-based lubricants due to its natural and friendly characteristics for environment. Availability of vegetable oil made it a renewable source of bio- oils. Additionally, vegetable oil based lubricants has indicated a potentials for reducing hydrocarbon emission and carbon dioxide while utilizing in the IC engines and industrial operations. In this study, the sunflower oil was investigated to study its lubricant characteristics under different loads using the four-ball tribometer and tested the exhaust emissions using a four stroke single cylinder diesel engine...
September 14, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204539/characteristics-of-particle-emissions-and-their-atmospheric-dilution-during-co-combustion-of-coal-and-wood-pellets-in-a-large-combined-heat-and-power-plant
#6
Fanni Mylläri, Liisa Pirjola, Heikki Lihavainen, Eija Asmi, Erkka Saukko, Tuomas Laurila, Ville Vakkari, Ewan O'Connor, Jani Rautiainen, Anna Häyrinen, Ville Niemelä, Joni Maunula, Risto Hillamo, Jorma Keskinen, Topi Rönkkö
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204538/aerially-guided-leak-detection-and-repair-a-pilot-field-study-for-evaluating-the-potential-of-methane-emission-detection-and-cost-effectiveness
#7
Stefan Schwietzke, Matthew Harrison, Terri Lauderdale, Ken Branson, Stephen Conley, Fiji C George, Doug Jordan, Gilbert R Jersey, Changyong Zhang, Heide L Mairs, Gabrielle Pétron, Russell C Schnell
Novel aerial methane (CH4) detection technologies were used in this study to identify anomalously high-emitting oil and gas (O&G) facilities, and to guide ground-based "Leak Detection and Repair" (LDAR) teams. This approach has the potential to enable a rapid and effective inspection of O&G facilities under voluntary or regulatory LDAR programs to identify and mitigate anomalously large CH4 emissions from a disproportionately small number of facilities. This is the first study of which the authors are aware to deploy, evaluate, and compare the CH4 detection volumes and cost-effectiveness of aerially-guided and purely ground-based LDAR techniques...
September 11, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199331/concentrations-of-aliphatic-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-ambient-pm-2-5-and-pm-10-particulates-in-doha-qatar
#8
Wasim Javed, Minas Iakovides, Euripides G Stephanou, Jack M Wolfson, Petros Koutrakis, Bing Guo
Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and ninety organic compounds (36 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 25 n-alkane homologues, 17 hopanes and 12 steranes) were concurrently quantified in atmospheric particulate matter of PM2.5 and PM10 . The 24-hr PM samples were collected using Harvard Impactors at a sub-urban site in Doha, Qatar from May to December 2015. The mass concentrations (mean ± standard deviation) of PM2.5 and PM10 were 40 ± 15 and 145 ± 70 µg m-3 , respectively, exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines...
September 10, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199324/treatment-of-concentrated-leachate-with-low-greenhouse-gas-emission-in-two-stage-membrane-bioreactor-bio-augmented-with-alcaligenes-faecalis-no-4
#9
Nararatchporn Nuansawan, Chart Chiemchaisri, Wilai Chiemchaisri, Makoto Shoda
Methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR) bio-augmented by Alcaligenes faecalis No.4 during municipal solid waste leachate treatment were investigated. The system was operated at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.5 and 1 days in each reactor under the presence and absence of sludge recirculation. A. faecalis No.4 bio-augmentation helped improving organic carbon and nitrogen removals while reducing CH4 and N2 O emissions. CH4 and N2 O emissions were decreased by 46% and 85% when A...
September 10, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148693/carbon-monoxide-emission-rates-from-roasted-whole-bean-and-ground-coffee
#10
Ryan F LeBouf, Michael Aldridge
Carbon monoxide (CO) emitted from roasted coffee is a potential occupational respiratory exposure hazard to workers within the coffee industry. The current study objective was to estimate CO emission factors from commercially-available roasted whole and ground coffee measured in loose-form, not packaged, and to assess the utility of CO monitoring in non-ventilated storage spaces such as within coffee roasting and packaging facilities, transport vessels, and cafés. Determinants affecting CO emissions from coffee were investigated including form (whole vs...
August 27, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148681/a-general-method-for-evaluating-the-effects-of-air-pollutants-on-lung-cancer-prevalence
#11
Yaru Wang, Shihong Yue, Bo Zheng, Zhenhua Hao, Jun Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 27, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142033/critical-review-discussion-trends-in-on-road-transportation-energy-and-emissions
#12
Samuel L Altshuler, Alberto Ayala, Susan Collet, Judith C Chow, H Christopher Frey, Rashid Shaikh, Eric D Stevenson, Michael P Walsh, John G Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118630/correlation-between-meteorological-parameters-and-nitrogen-compounds-present-in-wastewater-in-the-formation-of-n-2-o-in-soils
#13
Martín Bojórquez, Eduardo Florencio Herrera, Carmen Julia Navarro, Gabriela Tapia Padilla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111250/effects-of-advanced-traffic-signal-status-warning-systems-on-vehicle-emission-reductions-at-signalized-intersections
#14
Xiaofei Sun, Xumei Chen, Yi Qi, Bimin Mao, Lei Yu, Peijia Tang
Signalized intersections have been identified as vehicle emission hotspots, where drivers decelerate, idle, and accelerate their vehicles in response to signal changes. Advanced traffic signal status warning systems (ATSSWSs) can be applied to reduce traffic emissions at intersections by mitigating unnecessary braking and acceleration. In this study, two types of ATSSWSs - variable message sign (VMS)-based and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I)-based were designed, and their environmental effectiveness was evaluated through driving simulator-based experiments...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095366/preparation-and-re-activation-of-magnetic-biochar-by-molten-salt-method-relevant-performance-for-chlorine-containing-pesticides-abatement
#15
Shi-Jin Dai, You-Cai Zhao, Dong-Jie Niu, Qiang Li, Yu Chen
Molten salt has been regarded as a versatile and environmental-friendly method for the material preparation and waste destruction. In this work, molten FeCl3 was utilized for the generation of magnetic biochar (MBC) derived from simultaneous activation and magnetization of biomass. The sample characterization indicated that MBC had a rough surface with BET surface area of 404 m2/g and total pore volume of 0.35cm3/g. Highly dispersed Fe3O4 and nitrogen could be deposited on the surface, leading to an excellent magnetization property...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095364/integration-of-novel-hybrid-composite-discharge-electrode-with-semi-pilot-novel-cross-flow-electrostatic-precipitator
#16
M Ali, Y T A Al-Majali, M Kennedy, K Alam
Wet electrostatic precipitators (WESPs) are modern-era pollution control systems specifically designed to capture ultrafine particles as well as acid mist, highly resistive and sticky particles; however, this requires the use of expensive corrosion-resistant metal alloys. The work presented here is part of a continuing study at Ohio University aimed at reducing the cost of WESPs by using a novel combination of a polymer collector surfaces with a hybrid composite discharge electrode. In this study, a hybrid composite discharge electrode was tested, for the first time, inside a semi-pilot-scale experimental setup, with collection surfaces consists of a vertical array of strands...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081767/assessment-of-personal-integrated-exposure-to-pm-2-5-of-urban-residents-in-hong-kong
#17
Fenhuan Yang, Chui Fong Lau, Viki Wai Ting Tong, Kiwi Kai Zhang, Dane Westerdahl, Simon Ng, Zhi Ning
Metropolitan residents are concerned about their exposure to airborne pollutants. But establishing these exposures is challenging. A compact personal exposure kit (PEK) was developed to evaluate personal integrated exposure (PIE) from time-resolved data to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) in five microenvironments including office, home, commuting, other indoor activities (other than home and office) and outdoor activities experienced both on weekdays and weekends. The study was conducted in Hong Kong...
August 6, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081751/gas-phase-and-semi-volatile-organic-emissions-from-a-modern-nonroad-diesel-engine-equipped-with-advanced-aftertreatment
#18
Z Gerald Liu, Wayne A Eckerle, Nathan A Ottinger
U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations for nonroad compression ignition engines have led to the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies optimized for nonroad engines and duty cycles. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of state-of-the-art diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite- and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both nonroad transient (NRTC) and steady (8-mode NRSC) cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on gas-phase, semi-volatile, and particle-phase and particle-bound unregulated organic emissions...
August 6, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067463/total-life-cycle-emissions-of-post-panamax-containerships-powered-by-conventional-fuel-or-natural-gas
#19
Jian Hua, Chih-Wen Cheng, Daw-Shang Hwang
This study proposes an easy-to-apply method, Total Life Cycle Emission Model (TLCEM),to calculate the total emissions form shipping and help ship managements assess the impact on emissions caused by their capital investment or operation decisions. Using TLCEM, we present the total emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases(GHGs) during the 25-yr life cycle of ten post-Panamaxcontainerships under slow steaming conditions. The life cycle consists of steel production, shipbuilding, crude oil extraction and transportation,fuel refining, bunkering, andshipoperation...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067459/which-visibility-indicators-best-represent-a-population-s-preference-for-a-level-of-visual-air-quality
#20
William C Malm, Bret Schichtel, John Molenar, Anthony Prenni, Melanie Peters
Several studies have been carried out over the past 20 or so years to assess the level of visual air quality that is judged to be acceptable in urban settings. Groups of individuals were shown slides or computer-projected scenes under a variety of haze conditions and asked to judge whether each image represented acceptable visual air quality. The goal was to assess the level of haziness found to be acceptable for purposes of setting an urban visibility regulatory standard. More recently, similar studies were carried out in Beijing, China, and the more-pristine Grand Canyon National Park and Great Gulf Wilderness...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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