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Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745558/ambient-particulate-matter-may-affect-lung-function-of-motorcycle-taxi-drivers-in-bangkok
#1
Sara Arphorn, Tomohiro Ishimaru, Kunio Hara, Suwisa Mahasandana
PURPOSE: The motorcycle taxi drivers of Bangkok have been heavily exposed to high concentrations of PM10 and the impact of this on their lungs has been neither documented nor studied. This study examines the association between exposure to PM10 and lung function decline among motorcycle taxi drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bangkok between two groups: a subject group of motorcycle taxi drivers and control group of enclosed vehicle taxi drivers...
July 26, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742986/adsorption-of-mesitylene-via-mesoporous-adsorbents
#2
Kai Chun Nien, Feng Tang Chang, Moo Been Chang
Mesitylene (or 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) is a volatile organic compound emitted from various industrial processes, e.g., spray coating. Its emissions have become a critical issue because mesitylene is toxic and cannot be removed using traditional adsorbents, e.g., zeolite (H-ZSM-5; the diameter of mesitylene molecules is greater than the pore size of H-ZSM-5). Hence, an adsorbent with a large pore size, MCM-41, is used in this study to investigate its adsorption capacity for mesitylene and is compared with that of H-ZSM-5...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738173/simulating-the-meteorology-and-pm10-concentrations-in-arizona-dust-storms-with-the-weather-research-and-forecasting-model-with-chemistry-wrf-chem
#3
Peter Hyde, Alex Mahalov, Jialun Li
Nine dust storms in south-central Arizona, USA were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem) at 2-km resolution. The windblown dust emission algorithm was the Air Force Weather Agency model. In comparison with ground-based PM10 observations, the model unevenly reproduces the dust storm events. The model adequately estimates the location and timing of the events, but it is unable to precisely replicate the magnitude and timing of the elevated hourly concentrations of particles 10 microns and smaller ([PM10])...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737970/the-photocatalytic-degradation-of-methylene-blue-by-green-semiconductor-films-that-is-induced-by-irradiation-by-a-light-emitting-diode-and-visible-light
#4
Chih-Chi Yang, Ruey-An Doong, Ku-Fan Chen, Giin-Shan Chen, Yung-Pin Tsai
This study develops a low-energy rotating photocatalytic contactor (LE-RPC) that has Cu-doped TiO2 films coated on stainless steel rotating disks, to experimentally evaluate the efficiency of the degradation and decolourization of methylene blue (MB) under irradiation from different light sources (visible 430 nm, LED 460 nm and LED 525 nm). The production of hydroxyl radicals is also examined. The experimental results show that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 that is doped with Cu(2+)is induced by illumination with visible light and a LED...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722541/nox-emission-calculations-for-bulk-carriers-by-using-engine-power-probabilities-as-weighting-factors
#5
Chih-Wen Cheng, Jian Hua, Daw-Shang Hwang
An important marine pollution issue identified by the International Maritime Organization is NOx emissions; however, the stipulated method for determining the NOx certification value does not reflect the actual high emission factors of slow-speed two-stroke diesel engines over long-term slow steaming. In this study, an accurate method is presented for calculating the NOx emission factors and total amount of NOx emissions by using the actual power probabilities of the diesel engines in four types of bulk carriers...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718709/bioaerosols-concentrations-in-working-areas-in-biomethanization-facilities
#6
Marie-Eve Dubuis, Hamza M'Bareche, Marc Veillette, Bouchra Bakhiyi, Joseph Zayed, Jacques Lavoie, Caroline Duchaine
This study sought to fill the gap in information about the type and the concentration of bioaerosols present in the air of biomethanization facilities (BF). Evaluation of bioaerosol composition and concentration was achieved in two biomethanization facilities located in Eastern Canada, during summer and winter. In order to have a thorough understanding of the studied environment, the methodology combined culture of bacteria and molds, qPCR for specific microorganisms, endotoxin quantification and NGS for bacterial diversity...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679084/modeling-vehicle-interior-noise-exposure-dose-on-freeways-considering-weaving-segment-designs-and-engine-operation
#7
Qing Li, Fengxiang Qiao, Lei Yu, Junqing Shi
Vehicle interior noise functions at the dominant frequencies of 500 Hz below and around 800 Hz, which fall into the bands that may impair hearing. Recent studies demonstrated that freeway commuters are chronically exposed to vehicle interior noise, bearing the risk of hearing impairment. The interior noise evaluation process is mostly conducted in a lab environment. The test results and the developed noise models may underestimate or ignore the noise effects from dynamic traffic, road conditions and configuration...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679072/long-term-associations-of-morbidity-with-air-pollution-a-catalogue-and-synthesis
#8
Frederick W Lipfert
I searched the NIH Medline database through January 2017 for long-term studies of morbidity and air pollution and cataloged them with respect to cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer, diabetes, hospitalization, neurological, and pregnancy-birth endpoints. The catalogue is presented as an online appendix. Associations with PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were evaluated most frequently among the 417 ambient air quality studies identified. Associations with TSP, carbon, ozone, sulfur, vehicular traffic, radon, and indoor air quality were also reported...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644770/the-impact-of-photovoltaic-pv-installations-on-downwind-particulate-matter-concentrations-results-from-field-observations-at-a-550-mwac-utility-scale-pv-plant
#9
Dwarakanath Ravikumar, Parikhit Sinha
With utility-scale photovoltaic(PV) projects increasingly developed in dry and dust-prone geographies with high solar insolation, there is a critical need to analyze the impacts of PV installations on the resulting particulate-matter(PM) concentrations which have environmental and health impacts. This study is the first to quantify the impact of a utility-scale PV plant on PM concentrations downwind of the project site. Background, construction and post-construction PM2.5 and PM10 concentration data are collected from four beta attenuation monitor(BAM) stations over 3 years...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636497/size-segregated-particulate-matter-and-its-association-with-respiratory-deposition-doses-among-outdoor-exercisers-in-dhanbad-city-india
#10
Sunil Kumar Gupta, Suresh Pandian Elumalai
Regular exercise improves physiological processes and yields positive health outcomes. However, it is relatively less known that PM exposure during outdoor exercises may increase several respiratory health problems depending on PM levels. In this study, the respiratory deposition doses (RDDs) in head airway (HD), tracheobronchial (TB) and alveolar (AL) regions of various PM size fractions (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were estimated in healthy males and females exercisers in urban outdoor and within house premise. The highest RDDs were found for PM during morning hour in winter compared to remaining periods...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636482/impact-of-freeway-weaving-segment-design-on-light-duty-vehicle-exhaust-emissions
#11
Qing Li, Fengxiang Qiao, Lei Yu, Shuyan Chen, Tiezhu Li
In United States, 26% of greenhouse gas emissions is emitted from the transportation sector, which meanwhile accompanies with enormous toxic emissions to humans, such as CO, NOx, and HC, approximately 2.5% and 2.44% of a total exhaust emission for a petrol and diesel engine, respectively. These exhaust emissions are typically subject to vehicles' intermittent operations, such as hard acceleration and hard braking. In practice, drivers are inclined to operate intermittently while driving through a weaving segment, due to complex vehicle maneuvering for weaving...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635552/temporal-variation-of-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-sources-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#12
Chris C Lim, George D Thurston, Magdy Shamy, Mansour Alghamdi, Mamdouh Khoder, Abdullah M Mohorjy, Abdulrahman K Alkhalaf, Jason Brocato, Lung Chi Chen, Max Costa
This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the seasonal variations and weekday/weekend differences in fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate matter mass concentrations, elemental constituents, and potential source origins in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Air quality samples were collected over one year, from June 2011 to May 2012 at a frequency of three times per week, and analyzed. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 (21.9 μg/m(3)) and PM10 (107.8 μg/m(3)) during the sampling period exceeded the recommended annual average levels by the World Health Organization (WHO) for PM2...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633004/field-evaluations-of-newly-available-interference-free-monitors-for-nitrogen-dioxide-no2-and-ozone-o3-at-near-road-and-conventional-naaqs-compliance-sites
#13
Alan R Leston, Will M Ollison
Long standing measurement techniques for determining ground-level ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are known to be biased by interfering compounds that result in overestimates of high O3 and NO2 ambient concentrations under conducive conditions. An increasing near-ground O3 gradient (NGOG) with increasing height above ground level is also known to exist. Both the interference bias and NGOG were investigated by comparing data from a conventional Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) O3 photometer and an identical monitor upgraded with an "interference-free" nitric oxide O3 scrubber which alternatively sampled at 2 meter and 6...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614040/statistical-analysis-of-winter-ozone-exceedances-in-the-uintah-basin-utah-usa
#14
Marc L Mansfield
Because of the confluence of several factors (persistent multi-day inversions, petroleum production, and snow cover) the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, USA exhibits high concentrations of winter ozone. A regression analysis is presented that successfully predicts daily ozone concentration with a standard error of about 11 ppb. It also predicts with 90% accuracy whether any given day will exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, 70 ppb. An analysis is introduced for calculating a "pseudo-lapse rate," a determination of inversion intensity in the absence of sounding data...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613998/marginal-abatement-cost-curve-for-nox-incorporating-controls-renewable-electricity-energy-efficiency-and-fuel-switching
#15
Daniel H Loughlin, Alexander J Macpherson, Katherine R Kaufman, Brian N Keaveny
A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs are typically developed by sorting control technologies by their relative cost-effectiveness. Other potentially important abatement measures such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) are often not incorporated into MACCs as it is difficult to quantify their costs and abatement potential...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609195/determination-of-secondhand-smoke-leakage-from-the-smoking-room-of-an-internet-caf%C3%A3
#16
Hyejin Kim, Kiyoung Lee, Jaehoon An, Sungho Won
Although internet cafes have been designated as non-smoking areas in Korea, smoke-free legislation has allowed the installation of indoor smoking rooms. The purposes of this study were to determine secondhand smoke (SHS) leakage from an internet café smoking room and to identify factors associated with SHS leakage. PM2.5 mass concentrations were measured simultaneously both inside and outside the door to the smoking room. During each measurement, a field technician observed how long the smoking room door was opened and closed, the direction of door opening and the number of smokers...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574753/diurnal-and-seasonal-variations-of-odor-and-gas-emissions-from-a-naturally-ventilated-free-stall-dairy-barn-on-the-canadian-prairies
#17
Dandan Huang, Huiqing Guo
This study characterized the seasonal concentration (C) and emission (E) patterns of odor, ammonia (NH3), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) over the course of a whole year and their diurnal patterns in cold, warm, and mild seasons for a naturally ventilated free-stall dairy barn. It was found that seasonal odor and NH3 and H2S emissions varied greatly: from 17.2 to 84.4 odor units (OU) sec(-1) AU(-1) (AU: animal unit, 500 kg of animal body mass), from 0.27 to 0.92 mg sec(-1) AU(-1), and from 3 to 105 μg sec(-1) AU(-1), respectively...
June 2, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548907/evaluation-of-thermal-optical-analysis-method-of-elemental-carbon-for-marine-fuel-exhaust
#18
Maija K Lappi, Jyrki P Ristimäki
The awareness of black carbon (BC) as the second largest anthropogenic contributor in global warming and an ice melting enhancer has increased. Due to prospected increase in shipping especially in the Arctic reliability of BC emissions and their invented amounts from ships is gaining more attention. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is actively working towards estimation of quantities and effects of BC especially in the Arctic. IMO has launched work towards constituting a definition for BC and agreeing appropriate methods for its determination from shipping emission sources...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541795/near-roadway-monitoring-of-vehicle-emissions-as-a-function-of-mode-of-operation-for-ldvs
#19
Dongqi Wen, Wenjuan Zhai, Sheng Xiang, Zhice Hu, Tongchuan Wei, Kenneth E Noll
Determination of the effect of vehicles emissions on air quality near roadways is important because vehicles are a major source of air pollution. A near roadway monitoring program was undertaken in Chicago between August 4 and October 30 2014 to measure ultrafine particles, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, traffic volume and speed, and wind direction and speed. The objective of this study was to develop a method to relate short term changes in traffic mode of operation to air quality near roadways using data averaged over 5 minute intervals to provide a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution concentrations near roadways...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541772/fungal-levels-in-houses-in-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-evacuation-zone-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquake
#20
Naohide Shinohara, Masahiro Tokumura, Kazuhiro Hashimoto, Katsuyoshi Asano, Yuji Kawakami
Residences located within 20 km of the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant were evacuated shortly after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The levels of airborne and surface fungi were measured in six houses in the evacuation zone in August 2012 and February 2013. Airborne fungal levels in all of the houses in the summer were higher than the environmental standard levels for residential houses published in Architectural Institute of Japan (>1,000 CFU/m(3)). In two houses whose residents rarely returned to visit, fungal levels were extremely high (> 52,000 CFU/m(3))...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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