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Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644770/the-impact-of-photovoltaic-pv-installations-on-downwind-particulate-matter-concentrations-results-from-field-observations-at-a-550-mwac-utility-scale-pv-plant
#1
Dwarakanath Ravikumar, Parikhit Sinha
With utility-scale photovoltaic(PV) projects increasingly developed in dry and dust-prone geographies with high solar insolation, there is a critical need to analyze the impacts of PV installations on the resulting particulate-matter(PM) concentrations which have environmental and health impacts. This study is the first to quantify the impact of a utility-scale PV plant on PM concentrations downwind of the project site. Background, construction and post-construction PM2.5 and PM10 concentration data are collected from four beta attenuation monitor(BAM) stations over 3 years...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636497/size-segregated-particulate-matter-and-its-association-with-respiratory-deposition-doses-among-outdoor-exercisers-in-dhanbad-city-india
#2
Sunil Kumar Gupta, Suresh Pandian Elumalai
Regular exercise improves physiological processes and yields positive health outcomes. However, it is relatively less known that PM exposure during outdoor exercises may increase several respiratory health problems depending on PM levels. In this study, the respiratory deposition doses (RDDs) in head airway (HD), tracheobronchial (TB) and alveolar (AL) regions of various PM size fractions (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were estimated in healthy males and females exercisers in urban outdoor and within house premise. The highest RDDs were found for PM during morning hour in winter compared to remaining periods...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636482/impact-of-freeway-weaving-segment-design-on-light-duty-vehicle-exhaust-emissions
#3
Qing Li, Fengxiang Qiao, Lei Yu, Shuyan Chen, Tiezhu Li
In United States, 26% of greenhouse gas emissions is emitted from the transportation sector, which meanwhile accompanies with enormous toxic emissions to humans, such as CO, NOx, and HC, approximately 2.5% and 2.44% of a total exhaust emission for a petrol and diesel engine, respectively. These exhaust emissions are typically subject to vehicles' intermittent operations, such as hard acceleration and hard braking. In practice, drivers are inclined to operate intermittently while driving through a weaving segment, due to complex vehicle maneuvering for weaving...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635552/temporal-variation-of-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-sources-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#4
Chris C Lim, George D Thurston, Magdy Shamy, Mansour Alghamdi, Mamdouh Khoder, Abdullah M Mohorjy, Abdulrahman K Alkhalaf, Jason Brocato, Lung Chi Chen, Max Costa
This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the seasonal variations and weekday/weekend differences in fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate matter mass concentrations, elemental constituents, and potential source origins in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Air quality samples were collected over one year, from June 2011 to May 2012 at a frequency of three times per week, and analyzed. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 (21.9 μg/m(3)) and PM10 (107.8 μg/m(3)) during the sampling period exceeded the recommended annual average levels by the World Health Organization (WHO) for PM2...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633004/field-evaluations-of-newly-available-interference-free-monitors-for-nitrogen-dioxide-no2-and-ozone-o3-at-near-road-and-conventional-naaqs-compliance-sites
#5
Alan R Leston, Will M Ollison
Long standing measurement techniques for determining ground-level ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are known to be biased by interfering compounds that result in overestimates of high O3 and NO2 ambient concentrations under conducive conditions. An increasing near-ground O3 gradient (NGOG) with increasing height above ground level is also known to exist. Both the interference bias and NGOG were investigated by comparing data from a conventional Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) O3 photometer and an identical monitor upgraded with an "interference-free" nitric oxide O3 scrubber which alternatively sampled at 2 meter and 6...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614044/validation-of-odour-concentration-from-mbt-piles-using-static-chamber-and-wind-tunnel-with-the-different-wind-speed-values
#6
Mirosław Szyłak-Szydłowski
The basic principle of odour sampling from surface sources is based primarily on the amount of air obtained from a specific area of the ground, which acts as a source of malodourous compounds. Wind tunnels and flux chambers are often the only available, direct method of evaluating the odour fluxes from small area sources. There are currently no widely accepted chamber-based methods, thus there is still a need for standardization of them to ensure accuracy and comparability. Previous research has established that there is a significant difference between the odour concentration values obtained using the Lindvall chamber and those obtained by a dynamic flow chamber...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614040/statistical-analysis-of-winter-ozone-exceedances-in-the-uintah-basin-utah-usa
#7
Marc L Mansfield
Because of the confluence of several factors (persistent multi-day inversions, petroleum production, and snow cover) the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, USA exhibits high concentrations of winter ozone. A regression analysis is presented that successfully predicts daily ozone concentration with a standard error of about 11 ppb. It also predicts with 90% accuracy whether any given day will exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, 70 ppb. An analysis is introduced for calculating a "pseudo-lapse rate," a determination of inversion intensity in the absence of sounding data...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613998/marginal-abatement-cost-curve-for-nox-incorporating-controls-renewable-electricity-energy-efficiency-and-fuel-switching
#8
Daniel H Loughlin, Alexander J Macpherson, Katherine R Kaufman, Brian N Keaveny
A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs are typically developed by sorting control technologies by their relative cost-effectiveness. Other potentially important abatement measures such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) are often not incorporated into MACCs as it is difficult to quantify their costs and abatement potential...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609195/determination-of-secondhand-smoke-leakage-from-the-smoking-room-of-an-internet-caf%C3%A3
#9
Hyejin Kim, Kiyoung Lee, Jaehoon An, Sungho Won
Although internet cafes have been designated as non-smoking areas in Korea, smoke-free legislation has allowed the installation of indoor smoking rooms. The purposes of this study were to determine secondhand smoke (SHS) leakage from an internet café smoking room and to identify factors associated with SHS leakage. PM2.5 mass concentrations were measured simultaneously both inside and outside the door to the smoking room. During each measurement, a field technician observed how long the smoking room door was opened and closed, the direction of door opening and the number of smokers...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574796/introduction-to-a-special-grouping-of-papers-from-the-2016-a-wma-specialty-conference-guideline-on-air-quality-models-the-new-path
#10
Gale F Hoffnagle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574753/diurnal-and-seasonal-variations-of-odor-and-gas-emissions-from-a-naturally-ventilated-free-stall-dairy-barn-on-the-canadian-prairies
#11
Dandan Huang, Huiqing Guo
This study characterized the seasonal concentration (C) and emission (E) patterns of odor, ammonia (NH3), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) over the course of a whole year and their diurnal patterns in cold, warm, and mild seasons for a naturally ventilated free-stall dairy barn. It was found that seasonal odor, NH3, and H2S emissions varied greatly: from 17.2 to 84.4 OU s(-1) AU(-1) (Animal Unit, 500 kg of animal body mass), from 0.27 to 0.92 mg s(-1) AU(-1), and from 3 to 105 μg s(-1) AU(-1), respectively. The overall concentrations of odor and NH3 were higher in the winter, whereas the emissions were higher in the mild and warm seasons...
June 2, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569606/spatial-surrogate-for-domestic-combustion-s-air-emissions-a-case-study-from-silesian-metropolis-poland
#12
Damian Zasina, Jaroslaw Zawadzki
The aim of presented study is improving currently applied methodology for spatial disaggregation as well as mapping of air emission inventories by taking into account the auxiliary, spatial data on population density. District heating infrastructure occurring in more populated areas changes distinctly the spatial distribution of estimated air emission, however, does not change the initial estimate. That means the total, disaggregated value is constant. Considered sources of domestic combustion are located in the central part of~Silesian Metropolis, southern part of Poland...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548907/evaluation-of-thermal-optical-analysis-method-of-elemental-carbon-for-marine-fuel-exhaust
#13
Maija K Lappi, Jyrki P Ristimäki
The awareness of black carbon (BC) as the second largest anthropogenic contributor in global warming and an ice melting enhancer has increased. Due to prospected increase in shipping especially in the Arctic reliability of BC emissions and their invented amounts from ships is gaining more attention. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is actively working towards estimation of quantities and effects of BC especially in the Arctic. IMO has launched work towards constituting a definition for BC and agreeing appropriate methods for its determination from shipping emission sources...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541833/novel-hybrid-composite-discharge-electrode-for-electrostatic-precipitator
#14
M Ali, K Alam, Y T A Al-Majali, M Kennedy
Over the last few decades, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) have emerged as effective air pollution control devices for treating Coal-fired power plant exhausts. Among the components of the ESP, the discharge electrodes are extremely important in determining the collection efficiency of the ESP. Typically, in wet electrostatic precipitators, the discharge electrodes used must be made of corrosion resistant alloys, which makes them extremely expensive and heavy. Hybrid composite discharge electrodes have the potential to be lightweight and corrosion resistant substitute for traditional metal alloy electrodes used in wet electrostatic precipitators (WESP)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541823/emission-factors-of-fine-particulate-matter-organic-and-elemental-carbon-carbon-monoxide-and-carbon-dioxide-for-four-solid-fuels-commonly-used-in-residential-heating-by-the-navajo-nation
#15
Wyatt M Champion, Lea Connors, Lupita D Montoya
Most homes in the Navajo Nation use wood as their primary heating fuel, often in combination with locally-mined coal. Previous studies observed health effects linked to this solid-fuel use in several Navajo communities. Emission factors (EF) for common fuels used by the Navajo have not been reported using a relevant stove type. In this study, two softwoods (Ponderosa Pine and Utah Juniper) and two high-volatile bituminous coals (Black Mesa and Fruitland) were tested with an in-use residential conventional wood stove (homestove) using a modified ASTM/EPA protocol...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541795/near-roadway-monitoring-of-vehicle-emissions-as-a-function-of-mode-of-operation-for-ldvs
#16
Dongqi Wen, Wenjuan Zhai, Sheng Xiang, Zhice Hu, Tongchuan Wei, Kenneth E Noll
Determination of the effect of vehicles emissions on air quality near roadways is important because vehicles are a major source of air pollution. A near roadway monitoring program was undertaken in Chicago between August 4 and October 30 2014 to measure ultrafine particles, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, traffic volume and speed, and wind direction and speed. The objective of this study was to develop a method to relate short term changes in traffic mode of operation to air quality near roadways using data averaged over 5 minute intervals to provide a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution concentrations near roadways...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541772/fungal-levels-in-houses-in-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-evacuation-zone-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquake
#17
Naohide Shinohara, Masahiro Tokumura, Kazuhiro Hashimoto, Katsuyoshi Asano, Yuji Kawakami
Residences located within 20 km of the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant were evacuated shortly after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The levels of airborne and surface fungi were measured in six houses in the evacuation zone in August 2012 and February 2013. Airborne fungal levels in all of the houses in the summer were higher than the environmental standard levels for residential houses published in Architectural Institute of Japan (>1,000 CFU/m(3)). In two houses whose residents rarely returned to visit, fungal levels were extremely high (> 52,000 CFU/m(3))...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510489/urban-heat-island-uhi-influence-on-secondary-pollutant-formation-at-a-tropical-humid-environment
#18
Gsnvksn Swamy, S M Shiva Nagendra, Uwe Shlink
The combined action of urbanization (change in land use) and increase in vehicular emissions intensify the urban heat island (UHI) effect in many cities in the developed countries. The urban warming (UHI) enhances heat stress related diseases and ozone (O3) levels due to a photochemical reaction. Even though UHI intensity depends on wind speed, wind direction and solar flux, the thermodynamic properties of surface materials can accelerate the temperature profiles at the local scale. This mechanism modifies the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) structure and mixing height in urban regions...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498787/spatial-and-temporal-variability-of-atmospheric-mercury-concentrations-emitted-from-a-coal-fired-power-plant-in-mexico
#19
Gilberto Fuentes, Bravo A Humberto, Sosa E Rodolfo, Rosas A Sergio, Magaña R Víctor, Caetano D Ernesto, Vázquez C Gustavo
Atmospheric mercury in the environment as a result of the consumption of fossil fuels, such as coal used in electricity generation, has gained increased attention worldwide because of its toxicity, atmospheric persistence, and bioaccumulation. Determining or predicting the concentration of this pollutant in ambient air is essential for determining sensitive areas requiring health protection. This study investigated the spatiotemporal variability of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations and its dry deposition surrounding the Presidente Plutarco Elías Calles, (CETEPEC) coal-fired power plant, located on Mexico's Pacific coast...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498778/seasonal-ambient-particulate-matter-and-population-health-outcomes-among-communities-impacted-by-road-dust-in-british-columbia-canada
#20
Kris Y Hong, Gavin H King, Arvind Saraswat, Sarah B Henderson
In recent years, many air quality monitoring programs have favoured measurement of particles less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) over particles less than 10 microns (PM10) in light of evidence that health impacts are mostly from the fine fraction. However, the coarse fraction (PM10-2.5) may have independent health impacts that support continued measurement of PM10 in some areas, such as those affected by road dust. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between different measures of daily PM exposure and two daily indicators of population health in seven communities in British Columbia, Canada, where road dust is an ongoing concern...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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