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Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

Yen-Yi Lee, Sheng-Lun Lin, Chung-Shin Yuan, Ming-Yeng Lin, Kang-Shin Chen
Atmospheric particles are a major problem that could lead to harmful effects on human health, especially in densely populated urban areas. Chiayi is a typical city with very high population and traffic density, as well as being located at the downwind side of several pollution sources. Multi-contributors for PM2.5 and ultrafine particles cause complicated air quality problems. This study focused on the inhibition of local emission sources by restricting the idling vehicles around a school area and evaluating the changes in surrounding atmospheric PM conditions...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
J R Roscioli, S C Herndon, T I Yacovitch, W Berk Knighton, D Zavala-Araiza, M R Johnson, D R Tyner
Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sands (CHOPS) is a common oil extraction method in the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan that can result in significant methane emissions due to annular venting. Little is known about the magnitude of these emissions, nor their contributions to the regional methane budget. Here we present the results of field measurements of methane emissions from CHOPS wells and compare them to self-reported venting rates. The tracer ratio method was used not only to analyze total site emissions but at one site it was also used to locate primary emission sources and quantify their contributions to the facility-wide emission rate, revealing the annular vent to be a dominant source...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Haowen Li, Baomin Wang, Xingqin Fang, Wei Zhu, Qi Fan, Zhiheng Liao, Jian Liu, Asi Zhang, Shaojia Fan
Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) has a significant impact on the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollutants. In order to gain a better understanding of how ABL affects the variation of air pollutants, atmospheric boundary layer observations were performed at Sanshui in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region over Southern China during the winter of 2013. Two types of typical ABL status which could lead to air pollution were analyzed comparatively: weak vertical diffusion ability type (WVDAT) and weak horizontal transportation ability type (WHTAT)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
G M Hidy
Observations of smog over the Los Angeles Basin (LAB) links high oxidant mixing ratios with poor visibility, sometimes < 5 km. By the 1970s investigators recognized that most of the aerosol affecting visibility was from gaseous oxidation products, sulfate, nitrate and organic carbon. This led to the 1972-1973 the Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACHEX), which included observations at the ground and from aircraft. Part of ACHEX was the measurement of smog by blimp in a Lagrangian-like format. The experiment on September 6, 1973 demonstrated that a blimp could travel with the wind across the LAB, observing ozone (O3) and precursors, and particles of different size ranges...
February 12, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Kristi A Gebhart, Derek E Day, Anthony J Prenni, Bret A Schichtel, J L Hand, Ashley R Evanoski-Cole
Oil and gas activities have occurred in the Bakken region of North Dakota and nearby states and provinces since the 1950s but began increasing rapidly around 2008 due to new extraction methods. Three receptor-based techniques were used to examine the potential impacts of oil and gas extraction activities on airborne particulate concentrations in Class I areas in and around the Bakken. This work was based on long-term measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) monitoring network...
February 12, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Volker Matthias, Jan A Arndt, Armin Aulinger, Johannes Bieser, Hugo Denier Van Der Gon, Richard Kranenburg, Jeroen Kuenen, Daniel Neumann, George Pouliot, Markus Quante
Poor air quality is still a threat for human health in many parts of the world. In order to assess measures for emission reductions and improved air quality, three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry transport modeling systems are used in numerous research institutions and public authorities. These models need accurate emission data in appropriate spatial and temporal resolution as input. This paper reviews the most widely used emission inventories on global and regional scale and looks into the methods used to make the inventory data model ready...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Rita So, Andrew Teakles, Jonathan Baik, Roxanne Vingarzan, Keith Jones
Visibility degradation, one of the most noticeable indicators of poor air quality, can occur despite relatively low levels of particulate matter when the risk to human health is low. The availability of timely and reliable visibility forecasts can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the anticipated air quality conditions to better inform local jurisdictions and the public. This paper describes the development of a visibility forecasting modelling framework, which leverages the existing air quality and meteorological forecasts from Canada's operational Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) for the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Gary K Whitmyre, Muhilan D Pandian
Use of vent-free gas heating appliances for supplemental heating in U.S. homes is increasing. However, there is currently a lack of information on the potential impact of these appliances on indoor air quality for homes constructed according to energy-efficient and green building standards. A probabilistic analysis was conducted to estimate the impact of vent-free gas heating appliances on indoor air concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, and oxygen in "tight" energy-efficient homes in the U...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Judith C Chow, John G Watson, Mark C Green, Xiaoliang Wang, L-W Antony Chen, Dana L Trimble, Paul M Cropper, Steven D Kohl, Steven B Gronstal
The replacement of the DRI Model 2001 with Model 2015 thermal/optical analyzers (TOAs) results in continuity of the long-term organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) data base, and it adds optical information with no additional carbon analysis effort. The value of multiwavelength light attenuation is that light absorption due to black carbon (BC) can be separated from that of brown carbon (BrC), with subsequent attribution to known sources such as biomass burning and secondary organic aerosols. There is evidence of filter loading effects for the 25% of all samples with the highest EC concentrations based on the ratio of light attenuation to EC...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Huy N Q Tran, Seth N Lyman, Marc L Mansfield, Trevor O'Neil, Richard L Bowers, Ann P Smith, Cara Keslar
In this study, we apply two different dispersion models to evaluate flux chamber measurements of emissions of 58 organic compounds, including C2-C11 hydrocarbons and methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol from oil and gas produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin. Field measurement campaigns using the flux chamber technique were performed at a limited number of produced water ponds in the Basin throughout 2013-2016. Inverse modeling results showed significantly higher emissions than were measured by the flux chamber...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Shihua Pu, Zuohua Liu, Feiyun Yang, Dingbiao Long, Wen Liu, Hao Wang, Kaipei Huang, Xiu Huang
To improve the removal efficiency on hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a biofilter was developed and was made of PVC pipes. The effects of three different packings (i.e., packing A, packing B, and packing C), containing different proportions of activated carbon, sawdust, wormcast, perlite, and pig manure compost, based on different biofilter parameters on H2S removal efficiency were investigated. With the extension of running time, the H2S removal rate of packing A reached up to 90.12%, that of packing B reached a peak at 92...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Julia Gerharz, Michael H K Bendels, Markus Braun, Doris Klingelhöfer, David A Groneberg, Ruth Mueller
Inhaling particulate matter (PM) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) endangers the health of non-smokers. Menthol, an additive in cigarettes, attenuates respiratory irritation of tobacco smoke. It reduces perceptibility of smoke and therefore passive smokers may inhale ETS unnoticed. To investigate a possible effect of menthol on PM concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) ETS of four mentholated cigarette brands (Elixyr Menthol, Winston Menthol, Reyno Classic and Pall Mall Menthol Blast) with varying menthol content were analyzed...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
A C Rohr
A wealth of literature exists regarding the pulmonary effects of ozone, a photochemical pollutant produced by the reaction of nitrogen oxide and volatile organic precursors in the presence of sunlight. This paper focuses on epidemiological panel studies and human clinical studies of ozone exposure, and discusses issues specific to this pollutant that may influence study design and interpretation as well as other, broader considerations relevant to ozone-health research. The issues are discussed using examples drawn from the wider literature...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Claire Richardson, Shannon Rutherford, Igor Agranovski
Given the significance of mining as a source of particulates, accurate characterisation of emissions is important for the development of appropriate emissions estimation techniques for use in modelling predictions and to inform regulatory decisions. The currently available emission estimation methods for Australian open cut coal mines relate primarily to total suspended particulates and PM10, and limited data is available relating to the PM2.5 size fraction. To provide an initial analysis of the appropriateness of the currently available emission estimation techniques, this paper presents results of sampling completed at three open cut coal mines in Australia...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Isha Khanna, Mukesh Khare, Prashant Gargava, Anwar Ali Khan
PM2.5 sampling was conducted at a kerbside location in Delhi city for summer and winter seasons, to evaluate the effect of PM2.5 and its chemical components on the visibility impairment. The PM2.5 concentrations were observed to be higher than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) indicating poor air quality. The chemical constituents of PM2.5 (water-soluble ionic species - SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+ and carbonaceous species - organic carbon, elemental carbon) were analyzed to study their impact on visibility impairment by reconstructing the light extinction coefficient, bext...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Brett Gantt, Melinda Beaver, Brian Timin, Phil Lorang
For many Class I areas (national parks and wilderness areas with special air quality protections) in the western U.S., wildfire smoke and dust events can have a large impact on visibility. Currently, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 1999 Regional Haze Rule uses the 20% haziest days to track visibility changes over time even if they are dominated by smoke or dust. Visibility on the 20% haziest days has remained constant or degraded over the last 16 years at some Class I areas despite widespread emission reductions from anthropogenic sources...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Fu-Jen Chuang, Ming-Shean Chou, Hsiao-Yu Chang
This study compares the performances of fern and plastic chips as packing media for the biofiltration of a styrene-laden waste gas stream emitted in a plant for the manufacture of plastic door plates. Fern chips (with a specific surface area of 1,090 m2 m-3) and plastic chips (with a specific surface area of 610 m2 m-3) were packed into a pilot-scale with a total media volume of 50 L for the performance test. Field waste gas with styrene concentrations in the range of 161-2390 mg Am-3 (@28-30oC) was introduced to the bed and a fixed EBRT (empty bed retention time) of 21 s, a volumetric gas flow rate of 8...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
S Trivikrama Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Layla Al-Awadi
Indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is a matter of concern because children are most vulnerable and sensitive to pollutant exposure. Conservation of energy at the expense of ventilation in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems adversely affects IAQ. Extensive use of new materials in building, fitting, and refurbishing emit various pollutants such that the indoor environment creates its own discomfort and health risks. Various schools in Kuwait were selected to assess their IAQ. Comprehensive measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) consisting of 72 organic compounds consisting of aliphatic (C3 -C6 ), aromatic (C6 -C9 ), halogenated (C1 -C7 ), and oxygenated (C2 -C9 ) functional groups in indoor air were made for the first time in schools in Kuwait...
January 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Ji-Eun Jung, Simona Liguori, Adam D Jew, Gordon E Brown, Jennifer Wilcox
One of the biggest environmental concerns caused by coal-fired power plants is the emission of mercury (Hg), which is toxic metal. To control the emission of Hg from coal-derived flue gas, it is important to understand the behavior and speciation of Hg as well as the interaction between Hg and solid materials in the flue gas stream. In this study, atomic-scale theoretical investigations using density functional theory (DFT) were carried out in conjunction with laboratory-scale experimental studies to investigate the adsorption behavior of Hg on hematite (α-Fe2 O3 )...
January 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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