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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Meike Kroneisen, Raoul Bell
Rating the relevance of words for survival in the grasslands of a foreign land often leads to a memory advantage. However, it is as yet unclear whether the survival processing effect generalizes to source memory. Here, we examined whether people have enhanced source memory for the survival context in which an item has been encountered. Participants were asked to make survival-based or moving-based decisions about items prior to a classical source memory test. A multinomial model was used to measure old-new discrimination, source memory, and guessing biases separately...
February 20, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Gilles Dutilh, Jeffrey Annis, Scott D Brown, Peter Cassey, Nathan J Evans, Raoul P P P Grasman, Guy E Hawkins, Andrew Heathcote, William R Holmes, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Colin N Kupitz, Fábio P Leite, Veronika Lerche, Yi-Shin Lin, Gordon D Logan, Thomas J Palmeri, Jeffrey J Starns, Jennifer S Trueblood, Leendert van Maanen, Don van Ravenzwaaij, Joachim Vandekerckhove, Ingmar Visser, Andreas Voss, Corey N White, Thomas V Wiecki, Jörg Rieskamp, Chris Donkin
Most data analyses rely on models. To complement statistical models, psychologists have developed cognitive models, which translate observed variables into psychologically interesting constructs. Response time models, in particular, assume that response time and accuracy are the observed expression of latent variables including 1) ease of processing, 2) response caution, 3) response bias, and 4) non-decision time. Inferences about these psychological factors hinge upon the validity of the models' parameters...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Muhammad A J Qadri, Kevin Leonard, Robert G Cook, Debbie M Kelly
Clark's nutcrackers exhibit remarkable cache recovery behavior, remembering thousands of seed locations over the winter. No direct laboratory test of their visual memory capacity, however, has yet been performed. Here, two nutcrackers were tested in an operant procedure used to measure different species' visual memory capacities. The nutcrackers were incrementally tested with an ever-expanding pool of pictorial stimuli in a two-alternative discrimination task. Each picture was randomly assigned to either a right or a left choice response, forcing the nutcrackers to memorize each picture-response association...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Christel Devue, Gina M Grimshaw
Individuals show astonishing variability in their face recognition abilities, and the causes and consequences of this heterogeneity are unclear. Special expertise with faces, for example in portraitists, is associated with advantages on face processing tasks, especially those involving perceptual abilities. Do face processing skills improve through practice, or does drawing skill reflect pre-existing individual differences? If the latter, then the association between face processing skills and production of faithful portraits should also exist in people without practice in drawing...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Joachim Vandekerckhove, Jeffrey N Rouder, John K Kruschke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Christina Bejjani, Ziwei Zhang, Tobias Egner
Although cognitive control has traditionally been viewed in opposition to associative learning, recent studies show that people can learn to link particular stimuli with specific cognitive control states (e.g., high attentional selectivity). Here, we tested whether such learned stimulus-control associations can transfer across paired-associates. In the Stimulus-Stimulus (S-S) Association phase, specific face or house images repeatedly preceded the presentation of particular scene stimuli, creating paired face/house-scene associates in memory...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jeffrey N Rouder, Julia M Haaf, Joachim Vandekerckhove
In the psychological literature, there are two seemingly different approaches to inference: that from estimation of posterior intervals and that from Bayes factors. We provide an overview of each method and show that a salient difference is the choice of models. The two approaches as commonly practiced can be unified with a certain model specification, now popular in the statistics literature, called spike-and-slab priors. A spike-and-slab prior is a mixture of a null model, the spike, with an effect model, the slab...
February 13, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Patrick Anselme
Bees tend to avoid or to show indifference to uncertain ("risky") relative to certain ("safe") food rewards, whether in nectar volume or in nectar concentration. The unattractiveness of uncertain food rewards is also sometimes independent of the energy budget of bees. This pattern of responses seems to differ from that observed in mammals and birds, which may exhibit a strong preference for the uncertainty over the certainty of food delivery on a given trial in dual-choice tasks. Upon analysis of the conditions that determine preference and aversion for uncertain food rewards in "higher" vertebrates, I attempt to demonstrate that bees react to uncertainty in a similar way...
February 12, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Pauline van der Wel, Henk van Steenbergen
Pupillometry research has experienced an enormous revival in the last two decades. Here we briefly review the surge of recent studies on task-evoked pupil dilation in the context of cognitive control tasks with the primary aim being to evaluate the feasibility of using pupil dilation as an index of effort exertion, rather than task demand or difficulty. Our review shows that across the three cognitive control domains of updating, switching, and inhibition, increases in task demands typically leads to increases in pupil dilation...
February 12, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
B Hunter Ball, Julie M Bugg
Monitoring the environment for the occurrence of prospective memory (PM) targets is a resource-demanding process that produces cost (e.g., slower responding) to ongoing activities. However, research suggests that individuals are able to monitor strategically by using contextual cues to reduce monitoring in contexts in which PM targets are not expected to occur. In the current study, we investigated the processes supporting context identification (i.e., determining whether or not the context is appropriate for monitoring) by testing the context cue focality hypothesis...
February 12, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Hanna Benoni
A variety of studies tried to examine the fundamental question of whether specific processing is "automatic," that is, occurs without attention, by manipulating attention toward stimuli via the set-size manipulation of perceptual load. The present paper invites re-extermination of this common methodology of altering the perceptual load of a relevant task to manipulate attention toward peripheral stimuli. Four main arguments that propose alternative interpretations to the notion of automaticity in this line of studies are discussed, suggesting that automaticity cannot be verified utilizing manipulation of load, and outlining a plan for moving forward...
February 8, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Sabrina Trapp, Stefan R Schweinberger, William G Hayward, Gyula Kovács
The idea of a "predictive brain"-that is, the interpretation of internal and external information based on prior expectations-has been elaborated intensely over the past decade. Several domains in cognitive neuroscience have embraced this idea, including studies in perception, motor control, language, and affective, social, and clinical neuroscience. Despite the various studies that have used face stimuli to address questions related to predictive processing, there has been surprisingly little connection between this work and established cognitive models of face recognition...
February 8, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Ami Sambai, Max Coltheart, Akira Uno
In English, the size of the regularity effect on word reading-aloud latency decreases across position of irregularity. This has been explained by a sublexical serially operating reading mechanism. It is unclear whether sublexical serial processing occurs in reading two-character kanji words aloud. To investigate this issue, we studied how the position of atypical character-to-sound correspondences influenced reading performance. When participants read inconsistent-atypical words aloud mixed randomly with nonwords, reading latencies of words with an inconsistent-atypical correspondence in the initial position were significantly longer than words with an inconsistent-atypical correspondence in the second position...
February 5, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Benjamin Balas, M Quiridumbay Verdugo
Observers make a range of social evaluations based on facial appearance, including judgments of trustworthiness, warmth, competence, and other aspects of personality. What visual information do people use to make these judgments? While links have been made between perceived social characteristics and other high-level properties of facial appearance (e.g., attractiveness, masculinity), there has been comparatively little effort to link social evaluations to low-level visual features, like spatial frequency and orientation sub-bands, known to be critically important for face processing...
February 5, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
James R Schmidt, Maria Augustinova, Jan De Houwer
In the typical color-word contingency learning paradigm, participants respond to the print color of words where each word is presented most often in one color. Learning is indicated by faster and more accurate responses when a word is presented in its usual color, relative to another color. To eliminate the possibility that this effect is driven exclusively by the familiarity of item-specific word-color pairings, we examine whether contingency learning effects can be observed also when colors are related to categories of words rather than to individual words...
February 5, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Manuel Perea, Ana Marcet, María Fernández-López
Leading neural models of visual word recognition assume that letter rotation slows down the conversion of the visual input to a stable orthographic representation (e.g., local detectors combination model; Dehaene, Cohen, Sigman, & Vinckier, 2005, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 335-341). If this premise is true, briefly presented rotated primes should be less effective at activating word representations than those primes with upright letters. To test this question, we conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment with vertically presented words either rotated 90° or in marquee format (i...
February 1, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Kayleigh E Easey, Jon C Catling, Christopher Kent, Coral Crouch, Sam Jackson, Marcus R Munafò, Angela S Attwood
We used the 7.5% carbon dioxide model of anxiety induction to investigate the effects of state anxiety on simple information processing. In both high- and low-anxious states, participants (n = 36) completed an auditory-visual matching task and a visual binary categorization task. The stimuli were either degraded or clear, so as to investigate whether the effects of anxiety are greater when signal clarity is compromised. Accuracy in the matching task was lower during CO2 inhalation and for degraded stimuli. In the categorization task, response times and indecision (measured using mouse trajectories) were greater during CO2 inhalation and for degraded stimuli...
February 1, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Audrey Bürki
The pronunciation of words is highly variable. This variation provides crucial information about the cognitive architecture of the language production system. This review summarizes key empirical findings about variation phenomena, integrating corpus, acoustic, articulatory, and chronometric data from phonetic and psycholinguistic studies. It examines how these data constrain our current understanding of word production processes and highlights major challenges and open issues that should be addressed in future research...
January 30, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Michael Barlev, Spencer Mermelstein, Tamsin C German
Previous research has shown that in the minds of young adult religious adherents, acquired theology about the extraordinary characteristics of God (e.g., omniscience) coexists with, rather than replaces, an initial concept of God formed by co-option of the person concept. We tested the hypothesis that representational coexistence holds even after extensive experience with Christian theology, as indexed by age. Christian religious adherents ranging in age from 18 to 87 years were asked to evaluate as true or false statements on which core knowledge intuitions about persons and Christian theology about God were consistent (both true or both false) or inconsistent (true on one and false on the other)...
January 25, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Maria Augustinova, David Clarys, Nicolas Spatola, Ludovic Ferrand
Both the locus and processes underlying the age-related differences in Stroop interference are usually inferred from changes in magnitudes of standard (i.e., overall) Stroop interference. Therefore, this study addressed these still-open issues directly. To this end, a sample of younger (18-26 years old) and healthy older (72-97 years old) was administered the semantic Stroop paradigm (that assesses the relative contribution of semantic compared to response conflict both of which contribute to overall Stroop interference) combined with a single-letter coloring and cuing (SLCC) procedure...
January 25, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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