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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Mary Hegarty
Spatial ability tests are often interpreted as measuring facility with imagined spatial transformations of objects. But some spatial ability tests can be solved by analytic strategies as well as imagery transformation strategies. In the present study, participants gave verbal protocols while completing items on the Vandenberg and Kuse (Perceptual & Motor Skills, 4, 599-604, 1978) mental rotation test, and/or reported the strategies they had used on the test. Most participants used both imagery transformation and analytic strategies (i...
August 14, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Mark A Atkinson, Andrew A Simpson, Geoff G Cole
Despite considerable interest in both action perception and social attention over the last 2 decades, there has been surprisingly little investigation concerning how the manual actions of other humans orient visual attention. The present review draws together studies that have measured the orienting of attention, following observation of another's goal-directed action. Our review proposes that, in line with the literature on eye gaze, action is a particularly strong orienting cue for the visual system. However, we additionally suggest that action may orient visual attention using mechanisms, which gaze direction does not (i...
August 14, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
J David Smith, Barbara A Church
Comparative and cognitive psychologists interpret performance in different ways. Animal researchers invoke a dominant construct of associative learning. Human researchers acknowledge humans' capacity for explicit-declarative cognition. This article offers a way to bridge a divide that defeats productive cross-talk. We show that animals often challenge the associative-learning construct, and that it does not work to try to stretch the associative-learning construct to encompass these performances. This approach thins and impoverishes that important construct...
August 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Andrew J Aschenbrenner, Melvin J Yap, David A Balota
There is a growing interest in understanding how aspects of binary decision-making change dynamically at the trial level. For example, in lexical decision, there is a well-established interaction between current and previous trial characteristics (e.g., lexicality and stimulus degradation) that suggests that participants adjust their decision processes based on the relative match in signal strength between the current and previous trial. The present study assessed the generality of this finding by examining the presence of such cross-trial adjustments in two new tasks, syntactic classification, and memory scanning...
August 7, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Maarten Marsman, Tahira Jamil, Alexander Ly, Josine Verhagen, Jonathon Love, Ravi Selker, Quentin F Gronau, Martin Šmíra, Sacha Epskamp, Dora Matzke, Jeffrey N Rouder, Richard D Morey
Bayesian parameter estimation and Bayesian hypothesis testing present attractive alternatives to classical inference using confidence intervals and p values. In part I of this series we outline ten prominent advantages of the Bayesian approach. Many of these advantages translate to concrete opportunities for pragmatic researchers. For instance, Bayesian hypothesis testing allows researchers to quantify evidence and monitor its progression as data come in, without needing to know the intention with which the data were collected...
August 4, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Elizabeth R Schotter, Mallorie Leinenger, Titus von der Malsburg
The phenomenon of forced fixations suggests that readers sometimes fixate a word (due to oculomotor constraints) even though they intended to skip it (due to parafoveal cognitive-linguistic processing). We investigate whether this leads readers to look directly at a word but not pay attention to it. We used a gaze-contingent boundary paradigm to dissociate parafoveal and foveal information (e.g., the word phone changed to scarf once the reader's eyes moved to it) and asked questions about the sentence to determine which one the reader encoded...
August 1, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Seth Chin-Parker, Alexandra Bradner
In this article, we propose a contrastive account of explanation generation. Though researchers have long wrestled with the concepts of explanation and understanding, as well as with the procedures by which we might evaluate explanations, less attention has been paid to the initial generation stages of explanation. Before an explainer can answer a question, he or she must come to some understanding of the explanandum-what the question is asking-and of the explanatory form and content called for by the context...
July 31, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jeffrey J Starns, Qiuli Ma
When people are biased to use one response more often than an alternative response in a decision task, they also make the preferred response more quickly. Sequential sampling models can accommodate this difference in response time (RT) by changing the relative amount of evidence that must accumulate to decide in favor of one versus the other response, but nondecision processes might also play a role, such as the amount of time between selecting and executing a response. We investigated the influence of decision and nondecision processes in two experiments...
July 31, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Yanping Liu, Siyuan Guo, Lei Yu, Erik D Reichle
How does a word's within-sentence predictability influence saccade length during reading? An eye-movement experiment manipulating the predictability of target words indicates that, relative to low-predictability target words, high-predictability targets elicit longer saccades to themselves. Simulations using computational models that respectively instantiate the targeting of saccades to default locations (Yan, Kliegl, Richter, Nuthmann, & Shu in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 705-725, 2010) versus the dynamic adjustment of saccade length (Liu, Reichle, & Li in Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition, 41, 1229-1236, 2015, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 42, 1008-1025, 2016) indicate that the latter model provides a more accurate and parsimonious account of saccade-targeting behavior in Chinese reading...
July 31, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Igor Douven
The central tendency bias is a robust finding in data from experiments using Likert scales to elicit responses. The present paper offers a Bayesian perspective on this bias, explaining it as a natural outcome of how participants provide point estimates of probability distributions over the items on a Likert scale. Two studies are reported that support this Bayesian explanation.
July 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Arnaud Badets, Arnaud Boutin, Thomas Michelet
This empirical article presents the first evidence of a "safety mechanism" based on an observational-learning paradigm. It is accepted that during observational learning, a person can use different strategies to learn a motor skill, but it is unknown whether the learner is able to circumvent the encoding of an uncompleted observed skill. In this study, participants were tested in a dyadic protocol in which an observer watched a participant practicing two different motor sequences during a learning phase. During this phase, one of the two motor sequences was interrupted by a stop signal that precluded motor learning...
July 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Meike Kroneisen
A popular assumption in evolutionary psychology claims that reciprocal altruism is supported by a cognitive module that helps individuals to detect and remember cheaters. Previous studies found a source memory advantage for faces of cheaters rather than faces of cooperators. The present study examines memory for social-exchange relevant information. More precisely, faces were shown together with behavior descriptions of cheating, trustworthy and neutral behavior either high or low in relevance for a student population...
July 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Cristine H Legare, David M Sobel, Maureen Callanan
Causal learning in childhood is a dynamic and collaborative process of explanation and exploration within complex physical and social environments. Understanding how children learn causal knowledge requires examining how they update beliefs about the world given novel information and studying the processes by which children learn in collaboration with caregivers, educators, and peers. The objective of this article is to review evidence for how children learn causal knowledge by explaining and exploring in collaboration with others...
July 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Nick Chater, Teppo Felin, David C Funder, Gerd Gigerenzer, Jan J Koenderink, Joachim I Krueger, Denis Noble, Samuel A Nordli, Mike Oaksford, Barry Schwartz, Keith E Stanovich, Peter M Todd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
John E Scofield, Erin M Buchanan, Bogdan Kostic
The survival-processing advantage occurs when processing words for their survival value improves later performance on a memory test. Due to the interest in this topic, we conducted a meta-analysis to review the literature regarding the survival-processing advantage, in order to estimate a bias-corrected effect size. Traditional meta-analytic methods were used, as well as the test of excess significance, p-curve, p-uniform, trim and fill, PET-PEESE, and selection models, to reevaluate previous effect sizes while controlling for forms of small-study-size effects...
July 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Rolf A Zwaan, Diane Pecher, Gabriele Paolacci, Samantha Bouwmeester, Peter Verkoeijen, Katinka Dijkstra, René Zeelenberg
Many argue that there is a reproducibility crisis in psychology. We investigated nine well-known effects from the cognitive psychology literature-three each from the domains of perception/action, memory, and language, respectively-and found that they are highly reproducible. Not only can they be reproduced in online environments, but they also can be reproduced with nonnaïve participants with no reduction of effect size. Apparently, some cognitive tasks are so constraining that they encapsulate behavior from external influences, such as testing situation and prior recent experience with the experiment to yield highly robust effects...
July 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Gaurav Malhotra, David S Leslie, Casimir J H Ludwig, Rafal Bogacz
The most widely used account of decision-making proposes that people choose between alternatives by accumulating evidence in favor of each alternative until this evidence reaches a decision boundary. It is frequently assumed that this decision boundary stays constant during a decision, depending on the evidence collected but not on time. Recent experimental and theoretical work has challenged this assumption, showing that constant decision boundaries are, in some circumstances, sub-optimal. We introduce a theoretical model that facilitates identification of the optimal decision boundaries under a wide range of conditions...
July 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
D J K Mewhort, Kevin D Shabahang, D R J Franklin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Renée Baillargeon, Gerald F DeJong
In explanation-based learning (EBL), domain knowledge is leveraged in order to learn general rules from few examples. An explanation is constructed for initial exemplars and is then generalized into a candidate rule that uses only the relevant features specified in the explanation; if the rule proves accurate for a few additional exemplars, it is adopted. EBL is thus highly efficient because it combines both analytic and empirical evidence. EBL has been proposed as one of the mechanisms that help infants acquire and revise their physical rules...
July 11, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Nikita A Salovich, Roger W Remington, Yuhong V Jiang
Extensive research has shown that statistical learning affects perception, attention, and action control; however, few studies have directly linked statistical learning with the formation of habits. Evidence that learning can induce a search habit has come from location probability learning, in which people prioritize locations frequently attended to in the past. Here, using an alternating training-testing procedure, we demonstrated that the initial attentional bias arises from short-term intertrial priming, whereas probability learning takes longer to emerge, first reaching significance in covert orienting (measured by reaction times) after about 48 training trials, and in overt orienting (measured by eye movements) after about 96 training trials...
July 11, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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