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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Brian J Meagher, Paulo F Carvalho, Robert L Goldstone, Robert M Nosofsky
The affiliation for Dr. Paulo F. Carvalho is listed incorrectly in this paper, The correct affiliation is Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
July 11, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Rose A Cooper, Jon S Simons
Increasing evidence indicates that the subjective experience of recollection is diminished in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to neurotypical individuals. The neurocognitive basis of this difference in how past events are re-experienced has been debated and various theoretical accounts have been proposed to date. Although each existing theory may capture particular features of memory in ASD, recent research questions whether any of these explanations are alone sufficient or indeed fully supported. This review first briefly considers the cognitive neuroscience of how episodic recollection operates in the neurotypical population, informing predictions about the encoding and retrieval mechanisms that might function atypically in ASD...
July 9, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Robert M Nosofsky, Craig A Sanders, Xiaojin Zhu, Mark A McDaniel
Under the guidance of a formal exemplar model of categorization, we conduct comparisons of natural-science classification learning across four conditions in which the nature of the training examples is manipulated. The specific domain of inquiry is rock classification in the geologic sciences; the goal is to use the model to search for optimal training examples for teaching the rock categories. On the positive side, the model makes a number of successful predictions: Most notably, compared with conditions involving focused training on small sets of training examples, generalization to novel transfer items is significantly enhanced in a condition in which learners experience a broad swath of training examples from each category...
July 9, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Fabienne Chetail, Emeline Boursain
Understanding the front end of visual word recognition requires us to identify the processes by which letters are identified. Since most of the work on letter recognition has been conducted in English, letter perception modeling has been limited to the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet. However, many writing systems include letters with diacritic marks. In the present study, we examined whether diacritic letters are a mere variant of their base letter, and thus share the same abstract representation, or whether they function as separate elements from any other letters, and thus have separate representations...
July 9, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jacqueline R Janowich, James F Cavanagh
The AX-continuous performance task (AX-CPT) and dot pattern expectancy (DPX) are the predominant cognitive paradigms used to assess the relative utilization of proactive versus reactive cognitive control. Experimental parameters vary widely between studies and systematically between different modalities (i.e., fMRI vs. EEG) with unknown consequences for the implementation of control. This meta-analytic review systematically surveyed these bodies of literature (k = 43, 73 data points) to resolve how cue-probe delay knowledge, delay length, and trial set count modulate the preferential use of proactive versus reactive control...
July 6, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Yalçın Akın Duyan, Fuat Balcı
Error monitoring has recently been discovered to have informationally rich foundations in the timing domain. Based on the common properties of magnitude-based representations, we hypothesized that judgments on the direction and the magnitude of errors would also reflect their objective counterparts in the numerosity domain. In two experiments, we presented fast sequences of "beeps" with random interstimulus intervals and asked participants to stop the sequence when they thought the target count (7, 11, or 19) had been reached...
July 6, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Amir Dezfouli, Bernard W Balleine, Richard Nock
Within a rational framework, a decision-maker selects actions based on the reward-maximization principle, which stipulates that they acquire outcomes with the highest value at the lowest cost. Action selection can be divided into two dimensions: selecting an action from various alternatives, and choosing its vigor, i.e., how fast the selected action should be executed. Both of these dimensions depend on the values of outcomes, which are often affected as more outcomes are consumed together with their associated actions...
July 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Stuart T Klapp, Dana Maslovat, Richard J Jagacinski
The Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) effect is a delay in responding that is assumed to be caused by a bottleneck that prevents preparation of a second action until preparation of the previous action has been completed. The bottleneck is usually attributed to a limitation that prevents concurrent selection of two responses. However, evidence reviewed here challenges this selection interpretation. We propose instead that the bottleneck is due to a process that programs the timing of response initiation, and which must be completed immediately prior to responding...
July 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Brendan T Johns, Michael N Jones, D J K Mewhort
To account for natural variability in cognitive processing, it is standard practice to optimize a model's parameters by fitting it to behavioral data. Although most language-related theories acknowledge a large role for experience in language processing, variability reflecting that knowledge is usually ignored when evaluating a model's fit to representative data. We fit language-based behavioral data using experiential optimization, a method that optimizes the materials that a model is given while retaining the learning and processing mechanisms of standard practice...
July 2, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Philip L Smith, Elaine A Corbett
We generalize the circular 2D diffusion model of Smith (Psychological Review, 123, 425-451: 2016) to provide a new model of speeded decision-making in multielement visual displays. We model decision-making in tasks with multielement displays as evidence accumulation by a vector-valued diffusion process in a hypersphere, whose radius represents the decision criterion for the task. We show that the methods used to derive response time and accuracy predictions for the 2D model can be applied, with only minor changes, to predict performance in higher-dimensional spaces as well...
July 2, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Tobias Schoeberl, Florian Goller, Ulrich Ansorge
In the present study, we investigated in a novel version of the peripheral-cueing paradigm whether object salience influences attentional selection at early stages of visual processing. In each trial, participants searched for targets of one of two possible colors. In the most important condition, the cueing displays consisted of a singleton cue having one target color and three additional nonsingletons of another target color. Hence, all objects in these all-relevant cueing displays had a target color. If singletons initially capture attention in a stimulus-driven way, regular cueing effects (faster responses to targets at the cued location than to targets away from the cue) should be found in these conditions...
June 29, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Dries Trippas, David Kellen, Henrik Singmann, Gordon Pennycook, Derek J Koehler, Jonathan A Fugelsang, Chad Dubé
The belief-bias effect is one of the most-studied biases in reasoning. A recent study of the phenomenon using the signal detection theory (SDT) model called into question all theoretical accounts of belief bias by demonstrating that belief-based differences in the ability to discriminate between valid and invalid syllogisms may be an artifact stemming from the use of inappropriate linear measurement models such as analysis of variance (Dube et al., Psychological Review, 117(3), 831-863, 2010). The discrepancy between Dube et al...
June 25, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Nadine Lavan, A Mike Burton, Sophie K Scott, Carolyn McGettigan
Human voices are extremely variable: The same person can sound very different depending on whether they are speaking, laughing, shouting or whispering. In order to successfully recognise someone from their voice, a listener needs to be able to generalize across these different vocal signals ('telling people together'). However, in most studies of voice-identity processing to date, the substantial within-person variability has been eliminated through the use of highly controlled stimuli, thus focussing on how we tell people apart...
June 25, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Francesco Ceccarini, Umberto Castiello
For human beings, monitoring others' errors is essential for efficient goal-directed behavior. Indeed, the mere observation of other individuals' errors provides a rich source of information that can be used to avoid potential errors and improve our performance without direct experience. Recent studies have outlined that vicarious experience of errors influences the observer's overt behavior. This observational posterror slowing (oPES) is supposed to reflect a strategic increase in control aimed at reducing the probability of an error...
June 22, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jana Scharfen, Katrin Jansen, Heinz Holling
The repeated administration of working memory capacity tests is common in clinical and research settings. For cognitive ability tests and different neuropsychological tests, meta-analyses have shown that they are prone to retest effects, which have to be accounted for when interpreting retest scores. Using a multilevel approach, this meta-analysis aims at showing the reproducibility of retest effects in working memory capacity tests for up to seven test administrations, and examines the impact of the length of the test-retest interval, test modality, equivalence of test forms and participant age on the size of retest effects...
June 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Francesca Capozzi, Andrew P Bayliss, Jelena Ristic
Research shows that humans spontaneously follow another individual's gaze. However, little remains known on how they respond when multiple gaze cues diverge across members of a social group. To address this question, we presented participants with displays depicting three (Experiment 1) or five (Experiment 2) agents showing diverging social cues. In a three-person group, one individual looking at the target (33% of the group) was sufficient to elicit gaze-facilitated target responses. With a five-person group, however, three individuals looking at the target (60% of the group) were necessary to produce the same effect...
June 14, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Adam W Qureshi, Rebecca L Monk
Previous research has suggested that the calculation of another's perspective is cognitively efficient, whereas perspective selection (selection of a particular perspective, self or other) is associated with executive function, particularly inhibitory control. However, research has not previously tested how perspective calculation and selection may be associated with another key executive function, working memory. In the present study (N = 54 adult participants), we administered a Level-1 visual perspective task in a dual-task paradigm in which the secondary task required working memory...
June 12, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jeffrey D Wammes, Brady R T Roberts, Myra A Fernandes
Creating a visual representation of an item through drawing affords that item a substantive memory benefit, relative to several control tasks. Recent findings demonstrate the robustness of this drawing effect across several stimulus classes, irrespective of encoding time, setting, age group, or memory measure. The advantage for drawn information has been attributed to the integrated contributions of at least three components of visual production through drawing, which can independently facilitate memory: elaborative, motoric, and pictorial...
June 5, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Matthias K Franken, Daniel J Acheson, James M McQueen, Peter Hagoort, Frank Eisner
When talking, speakers continuously monitor and use the auditory feedback of their own voice to control and inform speech production processes. When speakers are provided with auditory feedback that is perturbed in real time, most of them compensate for this by opposing the feedback perturbation. But some responses follow the perturbation. In the present study, we investigated whether the state of the speech production system at perturbation onset may determine what type of response (opposing or following) is made...
June 4, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Adrian Staub, Sophia Dodge, Andrew L Cohen
We tested whether failure to notice repetitions of function words during reading (e.g., Amanda jumped off the the swing and landed on her feet.) is due to the eyes' tendency to skip one of the instances of the word. Eye movements were recorded during reading of sentences with repetitions of the word the or repetitions of a noun, after which readers were asked whether an error was present. A repeated the was detected on 46% of trials overall. On trials on which both instances of the were fixated, detection was still only 66%...
June 4, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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