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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Elizabeth A Wiemers, Thomas S Redick
Mind-wandering has emerged in the past decade as a popular topic in many areas of psychological research. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential costs and benefits of mind-wandering in relation to ongoing task performance, along with more recent work examining the nature of different types of mind-wandering. A common method of measuring mind-wandering in laboratory research is to embed self-report thought probes at random intervals within an ongoing task. However, a critical issue to determine is whether or not the presence of the thought probes fundamentally alters how an individual typically performs on the task...
September 17, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Eva Commissaire, Jean Audusseau, Séverine Casalis
Previous research has reported that lexical access in bilinguals is language non-selective. In the present study, we explored the extent to which cross-language orthographic neighborhood size (N-size) effects, an index of language non-selectivity, should be dissociated from markedness effects, a sub-lexical orthographic variable referring to the degree of language- shared (unmarked) versus specific (marked) orthography. Two proficiency groups of French/English bilinguals performed an English (L2) lexical decision task with three word and non-word conditions: (1) English words with large French N-size/unmarked orthography (price), (2) small French N-size/unmarked orthography (drive), and (3) small French N-size/marked orthography (write)...
September 5, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Elizabeth J Saccone, Philippe A Chouinard
Research into weight illusions has provided valuable insight into the functioning of the human perceptual system. Associations between the weight of an object and its other features, such as its size, material, density, conceptual information, or identity, influence our expectations and perceptions of weight. Earlier accounts of weight illusions underscored the importance of previous interactions with objects in the formation of these associations. In this review, we propose a theory that the influence of size on weight perception could be driven by innate and phylogenetically older mechanisms, and that it is therefore more deep-seated than the effects of other features that influence our perception of an object's weight...
September 4, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Arne Dietrich
Imagine the impact if we were to understand, and thus could reliably enhance, something - anything - about how creativity works in the brain. The fact that this prospect is not anywhere in sight makes it clear that no reliable progress has been made on the mechanisms underlying creativity over the last half century. Indeed, with the divergent thinking paradigm shown to be theoretically incoherent for neuroscience, there currently is no viable experimental approach to tackle the problem. Given that creativity is a complex and multifaceted concept, the obvious way forward is to parse it into subtypes...
August 20, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Yung-Hao Yang, Su-Ling Yeh
Whether emotional information from facial expressions can be processed unconsciously is still controversial; this debate is partially due to ambiguities in distinguishing the unconscious-conscious boundary and to possible contributions from low-level (rather than emotional) properties. To avoid these possible confounding factors, we adopted an affective-priming paradigm with the continuous flash suppression (CFS) method in order to render an emotional face invisible. After presenting an invisible face (prime) with either positive or negative valence under CFS, a visible word (target) with an emotionally congruent or incongruent valence was presented...
August 20, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Sharon Chen, Kenneth J Malmberg, Melissa Prince, Shantai Peckoo, Amy H Criss
Retrieval from episodic memory has consequences (Malmberg, Lehman, Annis, Criss, & Shiffrin, The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 61; 285-313, 2014). In some cases, the consequences are beneficial, as in the improvement in memory for items that were already retrieved (Izawa, 1970, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83(2, Pt.1), 340-344; Izawa, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 89(1): 10-21, 1971; Roediger & Karpicke, Psychological Science, 17(3), 249-255, 2006). In other cases, the consequences are negative, as in the case of output interference (OI; Wickens, Borne, & Allen, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 2, 440-445, 1963)...
August 17, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Hagit Magen, Tatiana Aloi Emmanouil
The short-term maintenance of precise location information is fundamental in many daily activities. Often, individuals memorize spatial information provided to them, but in many other occasions memory is self-initiated, meaning that individuals memorize locations they selected themselves. While prevalent in everyday behavior, research on self-initiated working memory (WM) is scarce. The current study employed a modified spatial precision memory task in which participants temporarily memorized single locations they themselves selected within a square area that appeared during encoding...
August 13, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Yi-Chuan Chen, Pi-Chun Huang, Andy Woods, Charles Spence
We examined the ability of people to evaluate their confidence when making perceptual judgments concerning a classic crossmodal correspondence, the Bouba/Kiki effect: People typically match the "Bouba" sound to more rounded patterns and match the "Kiki" sound to more angular patterns instead. For each visual pattern, individual participants were more confident about their own matching judgments when they happened to fall in line with the consensual response regarding whether the pattern was rated as "Bouba" or "Kiki"...
August 10, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Kyungmi Kim, Jenne D Johnson, Danielle J Rothschild, Marcia K Johnson
Using the self as a reference point at encoding produces a memory advantage over other types of encoding activities. Even simply co-presenting a target item with self-relevant versus other-relevant information can produce an "incidental" self-memory advantage in the absence of any explicit task demand to evaluate the item's self-relevancy. In the present study, we asked whether an incidental self-memory advantage results from (a) the mere co-presentation of a target item with self-relevant information at encoding or (b) relational processing between a target item and self-relevant information at encoding...
August 8, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
I-Hui Hsieh, Jia-Wei Liu
The ear and brain interact in an orchestrated manner to create sensations of phantom tones that are audible to listeners despite lacking physical presence in original sounds. The relative contribution of peripheral sensory cell activity and cortical mechanisms to phantom hearing remains elusive. The current study addressed the question of whether non-linear components of a complex signal exist that are not captured by the linear combination of cosines in a series. To this end, we investigated the source and spectro-temporal dynamics of non-linear components within two-tone complexes related to phantom acoustic perception...
July 31, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Stefanie Schuch, David Dignath, Marco Steinhauser, Markus Janczyk
The idea that conflict detection triggers control adjustments has been considered a basic principle of cognitive control. So far, this "conflict-control loop" has mainly been investigated in the context of response conflicts in single tasks. In this theoretical position paper, we explore whether, and how, this principle might be involved in multitasking performance, as well. We argue that several kinds of conflict-control loops can be identified in multitasking at multiple levels (e.g., the response level and the task level), and we provide a selective review of empirical observations...
July 31, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Kenneth F Valyear, Aoife M Fitzpatrick, Neil M Dundon
Action choices are influenced by recent past and predicted future action states. Here, we demonstrate that recent hand-choice history affects both current hand choices and response times to initiate actions. Participants reach to contact visible targets using one hand. Hand choice is biased in favour of which hand was used recently, in particular, when the biomechanical costs of responding with either hand are similar, and repeated choices lead to reduced response times. These effects are also found to positively correlate...
July 23, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Lu Wang, Pernille Hemmer, Alan M Leslie
A robust empirical finding in theory-of-mind (ToM) reasoning, as measured by standard false-belief tasks, is that children four years old or older succeed whereas three-year-olds typically fail in predicting a person's behavior based on an attributed false belief. Nevertheless, when the child's own belief is undermined by increasing their subjective uncertainty about the truth, as introduced in low-demand false-belief tasks, three-year-olds can better appreciate another person's false belief. Inhibition is believed to play a critical role in such developmental patterns...
July 20, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
R Dawn Finzi, Bradley R Postle, Timothy F Brady, Adam R Aron
The authors are retracting this article (Finzi et al., 2018) because after publication they discovered a mistake in the behavioral analysis.
July 17, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Brian J Meagher, Paulo F Carvalho, Robert L Goldstone, Robert M Nosofsky
The affiliation for Dr. Paulo F. Carvalho is listed incorrectly in this paper, The correct affiliation is Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
July 11, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Rose A Cooper, Jon S Simons
Increasing evidence indicates that the subjective experience of recollection is diminished in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to neurotypical individuals. The neurocognitive basis of this difference in how past events are re-experienced has been debated and various theoretical accounts have been proposed to date. Although each existing theory may capture particular features of memory in ASD, recent research questions whether any of these explanations are alone sufficient or indeed fully supported. This review first briefly considers the cognitive neuroscience of how episodic recollection operates in the neurotypical population, informing predictions about the encoding and retrieval mechanisms that might function atypically in ASD...
July 9, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Robert M Nosofsky, Craig A Sanders, Xiaojin Zhu, Mark A McDaniel
Under the guidance of a formal exemplar model of categorization, we conduct comparisons of natural-science classification learning across four conditions in which the nature of the training examples is manipulated. The specific domain of inquiry is rock classification in the geologic sciences; the goal is to use the model to search for optimal training examples for teaching the rock categories. On the positive side, the model makes a number of successful predictions: Most notably, compared with conditions involving focused training on small sets of training examples, generalization to novel transfer items is significantly enhanced in a condition in which learners experience a broad swath of training examples from each category...
July 9, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Fabienne Chetail, Emeline Boursain
Understanding the front end of visual word recognition requires us to identify the processes by which letters are identified. Since most of the work on letter recognition has been conducted in English, letter perception modeling has been limited to the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet. However, many writing systems include letters with diacritic marks. In the present study, we examined whether diacritic letters are a mere variant of their base letter, and thus share the same abstract representation, or whether they function as separate elements from any other letters, and thus have separate representations...
July 9, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Amir Dezfouli, Bernard W Balleine, Richard Nock
Within a rational framework, a decision-maker selects actions based on the reward-maximization principle, which stipulates that they acquire outcomes with the highest value at the lowest cost. Action selection can be divided into two dimensions: selecting an action from various alternatives, and choosing its vigor, i.e., how fast the selected action should be executed. Both of these dimensions depend on the values of outcomes, which are often affected as more outcomes are consumed together with their associated actions...
July 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Stuart T Klapp, Dana Maslovat, Richard J Jagacinski
The Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) effect is a delay in responding that is assumed to be caused by a bottleneck that prevents preparation of a second action until preparation of the previous action has been completed. The bottleneck is usually attributed to a limitation that prevents concurrent selection of two responses. However, evidence reviewed here challenges this selection interpretation. We propose instead that the bottleneck is due to a process that programs the timing of response initiation, and which must be completed immediately prior to responding...
July 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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