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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Taraz G Lee, Daniel E Acuña, Konrad P Kording, Scott T Grafton
The paradoxical harmful effects of motivation and incentives on skilled performance ("choking under pressure") are observed in a wide variety of motor tasks. Two theories of this phenomenon suggest that choking under pressure occurs due to maladaptive attention and top-down control, either through distraction away from the task or interference via an overreliance on controlled processing of a skilled task. A third theory, overmotivation (or overarousal), suggests that under pressure, "instinctive" or Pavlovian approach/withdrawal responses compete with the desired response...
May 18, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Yi-Huang Su
Although music and dance are often experienced simultaneously, it is unclear what modulates their perceptual integration. This study investigated how two factors related to music-dance correspondences influenced audiovisual binding of their rhythms: the metrical match between the music and dance, and the kinematic familiarity of the dance movement. Participants watched a point-light figure dancing synchronously to a triple-meter rhythm that they heard in parallel, whereby the dance communicated a triple (congruent) or a duple (incongruent) visual meter...
May 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Wolf Schwarz, Dennis Reike
When objects are manually lifted to compare their weight, then smaller objects are judged to be heavier than larger objects of the same physical weights: the classical size-weight illusion (Gregory, 2004). It is also well established that increasing numerical magnitude is strongly associated with increasing physical size: the number-size congruency effect e.g., (Besner & Coltheart Neuropsychologia, 17, 467-472 1979); Henik & Tzelgov Memory & Cognition, 10, 389-395 1982). The present study investigates the question suggested by combining these two classical effects: if smaller numbers are associated with smaller size, and objects of smaller size appear heavier, then are numbered objects (balls) of equal weight and size also judged as heavier when they carry smaller numbers? We present two experiments testing this hypothesis for weight comparisons of numbered (1 to 9) balls of equal size and weight, and report results which largely conform to an interpretation in terms of a new "number-weight illusion"...
May 11, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jeffrey N Rouder, John T Wixted, Nicholas J S Christenfeld
Cognitive psychologists are familiar with how their expertise in understanding human perception, memory, and decision-making is applicable to the justice system. They may be less familiar with how their expertise in statistical decision-making and their comfort working in noisy real-world environments is just as applicable. Here we show how this expertise in ideal-observer models may be leveraged to calculate the probability of guilt of Gary Leiterman, a man convicted of murder on the basis of DNA evidence...
May 8, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Martin J Meinhardt, Raoul Bell, Axel Buchner, Jan P Röer
Animate entities are often better remembered than inanimate ones. The proximal mechanisms underlying this animacy effect on recall are unclear. In two experiments, we tested whether the animacy effect is due to emotional arousal. Experiment 1 revealed that translations of the animate words used in the pioneering study of Nairne et al. (Psychological science, 24, 2099-2105, 2013) were perceived as being more arousing than translations of the inanimate words, suggesting that animacy might have been confounded with arousal in previous studies...
May 7, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Madalina Vlasceanu, Rae Drach, Alin Coman
The mind is a prediction machine. In most situations, it has expectations as to what might happen. But when predictions are invalidated by experience (i.e., prediction errors), the memories that generate these predictions are suppressed. Here, we explore the effect of prediction error on listeners' memories following social interaction. We find that listening to a speaker recounting experiences similar to one's own triggers prediction errors on the part of the listener that lead to the suppression of her memories...
May 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Bryan R Burnham
During visual search, both top-down factors and bottom-up properties contribute to the guidance of visual attention, but selection history can influence attention independent of bottom-up and top-down factors. For example, priming of pop-out (PoP) is the finding that search for a singleton target is faster when the target and distractor features repeat than when those features trade roles between trials. Studies have suggested that such priming (selection history) effects on pop-out search manifest either early, by biasing the selection of the preceding target feature, or later in processing, by facilitating response and target retrieval processes...
May 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Matthew T Harrison, Lars Strother
Unlike most objects, letter recognition is closely tied to orientation and mirroring, which in some cases (e.g., b and d), defines letter identity altogether. We combined a divided field paradigm with a negative priming procedure to examine the relationship between mirror generalization, its suppression during letter recognition, and language-related visual processing in the left hemisphere. In our main experiment, observers performed a centrally viewed letter-recognition task, followed by an object-recognition task performed in either the right or the left visual hemifield...
May 1, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Hannah White, Rachel Jubran, Alison Heck, Alyson Chroust, Ramesh S Bhatt
In this study we sought to determine whether infants, like adults, utilize previous experience to guide figure/ground processing. After familiarization to a shape, 5-month-olds preferentially attended to the side of an ambiguous figure/ground test stimulus corresponding to that shape, suggesting that they were viewing that portion as the figure. Infants' failure to exhibit this preference in a control condition in which both sides of the test stimulus were displayed as figures indicated that the results in the experimental condition were not due to a preference between two figure shapes...
April 30, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Yetta Kwailing Wong, Alan C-N Wong
Previous work has shown that line junctions are informative features for visual perception of objects, letters, and words. However, the sources of such sensitivity and their generalizability to other object categories are largely unclear. We addressed these questions by studying perceptual expertise in reading musical notation, a domain in which individuals with different levels of expertise are readily available. We observed that removing line junctions created by the contact between musical notes and staff lines selectively impaired recognition performance in experts and intermediate readers, but not in novices...
April 30, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Michael Brusovansky, Moshe Glickman, Marius Usher
Is it possible to carry out complex multi-attribute decisions (which require an estimation of the weighted average) intuitively, without resorting to simplifying heuristics? Over the course of 600 trials, 26 participants had to choose the better-suiting job-candidate, a task requiring comparison of two alternatives over three/four/five dimensions with specified importance weights, with a time constraint forcing intuitive decisions. Participants performed the task fast (mean reaction time (RT) ~ 1.5 s) and with high accuracy (~86%)...
April 27, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Yanping Liu, Erik D Reichle
How is attention allocated during reading? The present eye-movement experiment used a paradigm developed by Liu and Reichle (Psychological Science, 29, 278-287, 2018) to examine object-based attention during reading: Participants were instructed to read one of two spatially overlapping sentences containing colocated target/distractor words of varying frequency. Although target-word frequency modulated fixation-duration measures on the target word, the distractor-word frequency also had a smaller, independent effect...
April 25, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Michael G Cutter, Denis Drieghe, Simon P Liversedge
In the current study we investigated whether readers adjust their preferred saccade length (PSL) during reading on a trial-by-trial basis. The PSL refers to the distance between a saccade launch site and saccade target (i.e., the word center during reading) when participants neither undershoot nor overshoot this target (McConkie, Kerr, Reddix, & Zola in Vision Research, 28, 1107-1118, 1988). The tendency for saccades longer or shorter than the PSL to under or overshoot their target is referred to as the range error...
April 25, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Linmin Zhang, Liina Pylkkänen
Featural information (e.g., color or shape) allows interlocutors to focus their attention on the specific items under discussion from the vast set of possibilities in the environment. Intriguingly, when they are used to modify and restrict nouns, adjectives can either carry featural information themselves (e.g., green car) or retrieve featural information from the context (e.g., somebody points at a car and claims that she has the same car or a different car). Do the processing of same/different car and green car share neural correlates? For the composition of nouns with feature-carrying adjectives, prior work revealed early compositional effects (roughly 200 ms after noun onset) in the left anterior temporal lobe...
April 24, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Alessandra S Souza, Mirko Thalmann, Klaus Oberauer
Attention helps manage the information held in visual working memory (vWM). Perceptual attention selects the stimuli to be represented in vWM, whereas internal attention prioritizes information already in vWM. In the present study we assessed the spatial precision of perceptual and internal attention in vWM. Participants encoded eight colored dots for a local-recognition test. To manipulate attention, a cue indicated the item most likely to be tested (~65% validity). The cue appeared either before the onset of the memory array (precue) or during the retention interval (retrocue)...
April 23, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Svetlana Pinet, Nazbanou Nozari
Despite the obvious linguistic nature of typing, current psychological models of typing are, to a large extent, divorced from models of spoken language production. This gap has left unanswered many questions regarding the cognitive architecture of typing. In this article we advocate the use of a psycholinguistic framework for studying typing, by showing that such a framework could reveal important similarities and differences between spoken and typed production. Specifically, we investigated the interaction between the lexical and postlexical layers by using a phenomenon known in spoken production as the "repeated-phoneme effect...
April 23, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Zhiyuan Wang, Alejandro Lleras, Simona Buetti
Our lab recently found evidence that efficient visual search (with a fixed target) is characterized by logarithmic Reaction Time (RT) × Set Size functions whose steepness is modulated by the similarity between target and distractors. To determine whether this pattern of results was based on low-level visual factors uncontrolled by previous experiments, we minimized the possibility of crowding effects in the display, compensated for the cortical magnification factor by magnifying search items based on their eccentricity, and compared search performance on such displays to performance on displays without magnification compensation...
April 17, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Kristy A Martire, Bethany Growns, Danielle J Navarro
Forensic handwriting examiners currently testify to the origin of questioned handwriting for legal purposes. However, forensic scientists are increasingly being encouraged to assign probabilities to their observations in the form of a likelihood ratio. This study is the first to examine whether handwriting experts are able to estimate the frequency of US handwriting features more accurately than novices. The results indicate that the absolute error for experts was lower than novices, but the size of the effect is modest, and the overall error rate even for experts is large enough as to raise questions about whether their estimates can be sufficiently trustworthy for presentation in courts...
April 17, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Hauke S Meyerhoff, Simon Merz, Christian Frings
Although visual perception traditionally has been considered to be impenetrable by non-visual information, there are a rising number of reports discussing cross-modal influences on visual perception. In two experiments, we investigated how coinciding vibrotactile stimulation affects the perception of two discs that move toward each other, superimpose in the center of the screen, and then move apart. Whereas two discs streaming past each other was the dominant impression when the visual event was presented in isolation, a brief coinciding vibrotactile stimulation at the moment of overlap biased the visual impression toward two discs bouncing off each other (Experiment 1)...
April 16, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Lisa Weller, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
According to the famous physicist Niels Bohr, gunfights at high noon in Western movies not only captivate the cinema audience but also provide an accurate illustration of a psychophysical law. He suggested that willed actions come with slower movement execution than reactions, and therefore that a film's hero is able to get the upper hand even though the villain normally draws first. A corresponding "gunslinger effect" has been substantiated by empirical studies. Because these studies used a markedly competitive setting, however, it is currently unclear whether the gunslinger effect indeed reflects structural differences between willed actions and reactive movements, or whether it is a by-product of the competitive setting...
April 5, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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