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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730465/time-varying-decision-boundaries-insights-from-optimality-analysis
#1
Gaurav Malhotra, David S Leslie, Casimir J H Ludwig, Rafal Bogacz
The most widely used account of decision-making proposes that people choose between alternatives by accumulating evidence in favor of each alternative until this evidence reaches a decision boundary. It is frequently assumed that this decision boundary stays constant during a decision, depending on the evidence collected but not on time. Recent experimental and theoretical work has challenged this assumption, showing that constant decision boundaries are, in some circumstances, sub-optimal. We introduce a theoretical model that facilitates identification of the optimal decision boundaries under a wide range of conditions...
July 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721676/erratum-to-release-from-pi-an-analysis-and-a-model
#2
D J K Mewhort, Kevin D Shabahang, D R J Franklin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698990/explanation-based-learning-in-infancy
#3
Renée Baillargeon, Gerald F DeJong
In explanation-based learning (EBL), domain knowledge is leveraged in order to learn general rules from few examples. An explanation is constructed for initial exemplars and is then generalized into a candidate rule that uses only the relevant features specified in the explanation; if the rule proves accurate for a few additional exemplars, it is adopted. EBL is thus highly efficient because it combines both analytic and empirical evidence. EBL has been proposed as one of the mechanisms that help infants acquire and revise their physical rules...
July 11, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698989/acquisition-of-habitual-visual-attention-and-transfer-to-related-tasks
#4
Nikita A Salovich, Roger W Remington, Yuhong V Jiang
Extensive research has shown that statistical learning affects perception, attention, and action control; however, few studies have directly linked statistical learning with the formation of habits. Evidence that learning can induce a search habit has come from location probability learning, in which people prioritize locations frequently attended to in the past. Here, using an alternating training-testing procedure, we demonstrated that the initial attentional bias arises from short-term intertrial priming, whereas probability learning takes longer to emerge, first reaching significance in covert orienting (measured by reaction times) after about 48 training trials, and in overt orienting (measured by eye movements) after about 96 training trials...
July 11, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695529/summation-of-visual-attributes-in-auditory-visual-crossmodal-correspondences
#5
Clare Jonas, Mary Jane Spiller, Paul Hibbard
Crossmodal correspondences are a feature of human perception in which two or more sensory dimensions are linked together; for example, high-pitched noises may be more readily linked with small than with large objects. However, no study has yet systematically examined the interaction between different visual-auditory crossmodal correspondences. We investigated how the visual dimensions of luminance, saturation, size, and vertical position can influence decisions when matching particular visual stimuli with high-pitched or low-pitched auditory stimuli...
July 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695528/never-forget-negative-emotional-valence-enhances-recapitulation
#6
Holly J Bowen, Sarah M Kark, Elizabeth A Kensinger
A hallmark feature of episodic memory is that of "mental time travel," whereby an individual feels they have returned to a prior moment in time. Cognitive and behavioral neuroscience methods have revealed a neurobiological counterpart: Successful retrieval often is associated with reactivation of a prior brain state. We review the emerging literature on memory reactivation and recapitulation, and we describe evidence for the effects of emotion on these processes. Based on this review, we propose a new model: Negative Emotional Valence Enhances Recapitulation (NEVER)...
July 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685274/quantifying-the-psychological-value-of-goal-achievement
#7
Timothy Ballard, Simon Farrell, Andrew Neal
It is often assumed that people put forth the least amount of effort necessary to obtain a reward. This assumption is consistent with so-called "rational" economic models of behavior. Yet these models rarely take into account the motivating effects of goals, which may lead to departures from objective reward maximizing behavior. We present an experiment in which people make a series of prioritization decisions whilst pursuing two approach or avoidance goals. Participants were rewarded $10 if they achieved both goals on a randomly selected trial, and either $0, $2...
July 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685273/bayesian-techniques-for-analyzing-group-differences-in-the-iowa-gambling-task-a-case-study-of-intuitive-and-deliberate-decision-makers
#8
REVIEW
Helen Steingroever, Thorsten Pachur, Martin Šmíra, Michael D Lee
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most popular experimental paradigms for comparing complex decision-making across groups. Most commonly, IGT behavior is analyzed using frequentist tests to compare performance across groups, and to compare inferred parameters of cognitive models developed for the IGT. Here, we present a Bayesian alternative based on Bayesian repeated-measures ANOVA for comparing performance, and a suite of three complementary model-based methods for assessing the cognitive processes underlying IGT performance...
July 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685272/bayesian-inference-for-psychology-part-ii-example-applications-with-jasp
#9
Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Jonathon Love, Maarten Marsman, Tahira Jamil, Alexander Ly, Josine Verhagen, Ravi Selker, Quentin F Gronau, Damian Dropmann, Bruno Boutin, Frans Meerhoff, Patrick Knight, Akash Raj, Erik-Jan van Kesteren, Johnny van Doorn, Martin Šmíra, Sacha Epskamp, Alexander Etz, Dora Matzke, Tim de Jong, Don van den Bergh, Alexandra Sarafoglou, Helen Steingroever, Koen Derks, Jeffrey N Rouder, Richard D Morey
Bayesian hypothesis testing presents an attractive alternative to p value hypothesis testing. Part I of this series outlined several advantages of Bayesian hypothesis testing, including the ability to quantify evidence and the ability to monitor and update this evidence as data come in, without the need to know the intention with which the data were collected. Despite these and other practical advantages, Bayesian hypothesis tests are still reported relatively rarely. An important impediment to the widespread adoption of Bayesian tests is arguably the lack of user-friendly software for the run-of-the-mill statistical problems that confront psychologists for the analysis of almost every experiment: the t-test, ANOVA, correlation, regression, and contingency tables...
July 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685271/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-age-on-interoceptive-accuracy-and-awareness-across-the-adult-lifespan
#10
Jennifer Murphy, Hayley Geary, Edward Millgate, Caroline Catmur, Geoffrey Bird
Various aspects of physical and mental health have been linked to an individual's ability to perceive the physical condition of their body ('interoception'). In addition, numerous studies have demonstrated a role for interoception in higher-order cognitive abilities such as decision-making and emotion processing. The importance of interoception for health and typical cognitive functioning has prompted interest in how interoception varies over the lifespan. However, few studies have investigated interoception into older adulthood, and no studies account for the set of physiological changes that may influence task performance...
July 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660424/how-to-become-a-bayesian-in-eight-easy-steps-an-annotated-reading-list
#11
Alexander Etz, Quentin F Gronau, Fabian Dablander, Peter A Edelsbrunner, Beth Baribault
In this guide, we present a reading list to serve as a concise introduction to Bayesian data analysis. The introduction is geared toward reviewers, editors, and interested researchers who are new to Bayesian statistics. We provide commentary for eight recommended sources, which together cover the theoretical and practical cornerstones of Bayesian statistics in psychology and related sciences. The resources are presented in an incremental order, starting with theoretical foundations and moving on to applied issues...
June 28, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646270/release-from-pi-an-analysis-and-a-model
#12
D J K Mewhort, Kevin D Shabahang, D R J Franklin
Recall decreases across a series of subspan immediate-recall trials but rebounds if the semantic category of the words is changed, an example of release from proactive interference (RPI). The size of the rebound depends on the semantic categories used and ranges from 0% to 95%. We used a corpus of novels to create vectors representing the meaning of about 40,000 words using the BEAGLE algorithm. The distance between categories and spread within categories jointly predicted the size of the RPI. We used a holographic model for recall equipped with a lexicon of BEAGLE vectors representing the meaning of words...
June 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646269/the-role-of-visual-experience-in-the-production-of-emotional-facial-expressions-by-blind-people-a-review
#13
Dannyelle Valente, Anne Theurel, Edouard Gentaz
Facial expressions of emotion are nonverbal behaviors that allow us to interact efficiently in social life and respond to events affecting our welfare. This article reviews 21 studies, published between 1932 and 2015, examining the production of facial expressions of emotion by blind people. It particularly discusses the impact of visual experience on the development of this behavior from birth to adulthood. After a discussion of three methodological considerations, the review of studies reveals that blind subjects demonstrate differing capacities for producing spontaneous expressions and voluntarily posed expressions...
June 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634784/attentional-weights-in-vision-as-products-of-spatial-and-nonspatial-components
#14
Maria Nordfang, Camilla Staugaard, Claus Bundesen
The relationship between visual attentional selection of items in particular spatial locations and selection by nonspatial criteria was investigated in a partial report experiment with report of letters (as many as possible) from brief postmasked exposures of circular arrays of letters and digits. The data were fitted by mathematical models based on Bundesen's (Psychological Review, 97, 523-547, 1990) theory of visual attention (TVA). Both attentional weights of targets (letters) and attentional weights of distractors (digits) showed strong variations across the eight possible target locations, but for each of the ten participants, the ratio of the weight of a distractor at a given location to the weight of a target at the same location was approximately constant...
June 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616858/intensity-dependence-in-high-level-facial-expression-adaptation-aftereffect
#15
Sang Wook Hong, K Lira Yoon
Perception of a facial expression can be altered or biased by a prolonged viewing of other facial expressions, known as the facial expression adaptation aftereffect (FEAA). Recent studies using antiexpressions have demonstrated a monotonic relation between the magnitude of the FEAA and adaptor extremity, suggesting that facial expressions are opponent coded and represented continuously from one expression to its antiexpression. However, it is unclear whether the opponent-coding scheme can account for the FEAA between two facial expressions...
June 14, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608004/effector-system-specific-sequential-modulations-of-congruency-effects
#16
Markus Janczyk, Hartmut Leuthold
Congruency effects in conflict tasks are reliably reduced after experiencing conflict, that is, following incongruent trials. Such sequential modulations (sometimes referred to as the Gratton effect) indicate the operation of conflict adaptation mechanisms. The influential conflict monitoring hypothesis suggested that after conflict the processing of relevant stimulus dimensions is increased. Alternatively, it was suggested that the influence of automatic response activation is suppressed following conflict...
June 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600719/can-a-single-model-account-for-both-risky-choices-and-inter-temporal-choices-testing-the-assumptions-underlying-models-of-risky-inter-temporal-choice
#17
Ashley Luckman, Chris Donkin, Ben R Newell
There is growing interest in modelling how people make choices that involve both risks and delays, i.e., risky inter-temporal choices. We investigated an untested assumption underlying several proposed risky inter-temporal choice models: that pure risky choices and pure inter-temporal choices are special cases of risky inter-temporal choice. We tested this assumption by presenting a single group of participants with risky choices and inter-temporal choices. We then compared the performance of a model that is fit to both choice types simultaneously, with the performance of separate models fit to the risky choice and inter-temporal choice data...
June 9, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600718/-compacted-procedures-for-adults-simple-addition-a-review-and-critique-of-the-evidence
#18
Yalin Chen, Jamie I D Campbell
We review recent empirical findings and arguments proffered as evidence that educated adults solve elementary addition problems (3 + 2, 4 + 1) using so-called compacted procedures (e.g., unconscious, automatic counting); a conclusion that could have significant pedagogical implications. We begin with the large-sample experiment reported by Uittenhove, Thevenot and Barrouillet (2016, Cognition, 146, 289-303), which tested 90 adults on the 81 single-digit addition problems from 1 + 1 to 9 + 9. They identified the 12 very-small addition problems with different operands both ≤ 4 (e...
June 9, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600717/reading-and-lexical-decision-tasks-generate-different-patterns-of-individual-variability-as-a-function-of-condition-difficulty
#19
Pierluigi Zoccolotti, Maria De Luca, Gloria Di Filippo, Chiara Valeria Marinelli, Donatella Spinelli
We reanalyzed previous experiments based on lexical-decision and reading-aloud tasks in children with dyslexia and control children and tested the prediction of the difference engine model (DEM) that mean condition reaction times (RTs) and standard deviations (SDs) would be linearly related (Myerson et al., 2003). Then we evaluated the slope and the intercept with the x-axis of these linear functions in comparison with previously reported values (i.e., slope of about 0.30 and intercept of about 300 ms). In the case of lexical decision, the parameters were close to these values; by contrast, in the case of reading aloud, a much steeper slope (0...
June 9, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600716/dissociating-the-time-courses-of-the-cross-modal-semantic-priming-effects-elicited-by-naturalistic-sounds-and-spoken-words
#20
Yi-Chuan Chen, Charles Spence
The present study compared the time courses of the cross-modal semantic priming effects elicited by naturalistic sounds and spoken words on visual picture processing. Following an auditory prime, a picture (or blank frame) was briefly presented and then immediately masked. The participants had to judge whether or not a picture had been presented. Naturalistic sounds consistently elicited a cross-modal semantic priming effect on visual sensitivity (d') for pictures (higher d' in the congruent than in the incongruent condition) at the 350-ms rather than at the 1,000-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA)...
June 9, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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