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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Andreas Mädebach, Marie-Luise Kieseler, Jörg D Jescheniak
In this study we explored the locus of semantic interference in a novel picture-sound interference task in which participants name pictures while ignoring environmental distractor sounds. In a previous study using this task (Mädebach, Wöhner, Kieseler, & Jescheniak, in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43, 1629-1646, 2017), we showed that semantically related distractor sounds (e.g., BARKINGdog) interfere with a picture-naming response (e.g., "horse") more strongly than unrelated distractor sounds do (e...
October 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Patrice Rusconi, David E Huber
The attentional blink (AB) is a temporary deficit for a second target (T2) when that target appears after a first target (T1). Although sophisticated models have been developed to explain the substantial AB literature in isolation, the current study considers how the AB relates to perceptual dynamics more broadly. We show that the time-course of the AB is closely related to the time course of the transition from positive to negative repetition priming effects in perceptual identification. Many AB tasks involve a switch between a T1 defined in one manner and a T2 defined in a different manner...
October 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Marcos Nadal, Susanna Schiavi, Zaira Cattaneo
Although the neural correlates of the appreciation of aesthetic qualities have been the target of much research in the past decade, few experiments have explored the hemispheric asymmetries in underlying processes. In this study, we used a divided visual field paradigm to test for hemispheric asymmetries in men and women's preference for abstract and representational artworks. Both male and female participants liked representational paintings more when presented in the right visual field, whereas preference for abstract paintings was unaffected by presentation hemifield...
October 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Alodie Rey-Mermet, Miriam Gade
Aging has been assumed to go along with deficient inhibitory processes in cognitive performance. According to this inhibition deficit hypothesis, older adults are less able to suppress or ignore irrelevant thoughts and actions than young adults are. This hypothesis has been investigated in a large number of studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether there is an inhibition deficit in older age and whether this deficit is general or task-specific. We selected 176 studies in which young and older adults were tested on tasks commonly assumed to measure inhibition (i...
October 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Evie Vergauwe, Naomi Langerock, Nelson Cowan
Working memory (WM) keeps information temporarily accessible for ongoing cognition. One proposed mechanism to keep information active in WM is refreshing. This mechanism is assumed to operate by bringing memory items into the focus of attention, thereby serially refreshing the content of WM. We report two experiments in which we examine evidence for the spontaneous occurrence of serial refreshing in verbal WM. Participants had to remember series of red letters, while black probe letters were presented between these memory items, with each probe to be judged present in or absent from the list presented so far, as quickly as possible (i...
October 5, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Timothy J Pleskac, Joseph Cesario, David J Johnson
The biasing role of stereotypes is a central theme in social cognition research. For example, to understand the role of race in police officers' decisions to shoot, participants have been shown images of Black and White males and instructed to shoot only if the target is holding a gun. Findings show that Black targets are shot more frequently and more quickly than Whites. The decision to shoot has typically been modeled and understood as a signal detection process in which a sample of information is compared against a criterion, with the criterion set for Black targets being lower...
October 5, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Michel Failing, Jan Theeuwes
Visual attention enables us to selectively prioritize or suppress information in the environment. Prominent models concerned with the control of visual attention differentiate between goal-directed, top-down and stimulus-driven, bottom-up control, with the former determined by current selection goals and the latter determined by physical salience. In the current review, we discuss recent studies that demonstrate that attentional selection does not need to be the result of top-down or bottom-up processing but, instead, is often driven by lingering biases due to the "history" of former attention deployments...
October 4, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Thorsten Plewan, Gerhard Rinkenauer
A substantial amount of evidence indicates that surprising events capture attention. The present study was primarily intended to investigate whether expectancy discrepant depth information also is able to capture attention immediately and-more specifically-whether cues that are relatively closer or farther differentially modulate behavior. For this purpose, participants had to identify one of two target letters in a search display. Stimulus positions were initially cued by uninformative placeholders. After half of the trials, the cue at the target position was suddenly and unexpectedly (critical trial) displayed closer to or farther from the observer...
October 4, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Gideon Rosenthal, Gidon Levakov, Galia Avidan
It has long been argued that face processing requires disproportionate reliance on holistic processing (HP), relative to that required for nonface object recognition. Nevertheless, whether the holistic nature of face perception is achieved via a unique internal representation or by the employment of an automated attention mechanism is still debated. Previous studies had used the face inversion effect (FIE), a unique face-processing marker, or the face composite task, a gold standard paradigm measuring holistic processing, to examine the validity of these two different hypotheses, with some studies combining the two paradigms...
September 29, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Antoine Barbot, Sirui Liu, Ruth Kimchi, Marisa Carrasco
This paper originally published with graphical errors in Figures 1 and 4; it has been corrected.
September 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Vivian I Schneider, Alice F Healy, James A Kole, Immanuel Barshi
The present study addresses the issue of whether spatial information impacts immediate verbatim recall of verbal navigation instructions. Subjects heard messages instructing them to move within a two-dimensional depiction of a three-dimensional space consisting of four stacked grids displayed on a computer screen. They repeated the instructions orally and then followed them manually by clicking with a mouse on the grids. Two groups with identical instructions were compared; they differed only in whether the starting position was indicated before or after the instructions were given and repeated, with no differences in the manual movements to be made...
September 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Andrei Cimpian, Frank Keil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
William G Matchin
It is clear that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) contributes in some fashion to sentence processing. While neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence support a domain-general working memory function, recent neuroimaging data show that particular subregions of the LIFG, particularly the pars triangularis (pTri), show selective activation for sentences relative to verbal working memory and cognitive control tasks. These data suggest a language-specific function rather than a domain-general one. To resolve this apparent conflict, I propose separating claims of domain-generality and specificity independently for computations and representations-a given brain region may respond to a specific representation while performing a general computation over that representation, one shared with other systems...
September 22, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Mathieu Declerck, Joshua Snell, Jonathan Grainger
According to some bilingual language comprehension models (e.g., BIA), language membership information has a direct influence on word processing. However, this idea is not shared by all models (e.g., BIA+). To investigate this matter, we manipulated the language membership of irrelevant flanking words while French-English bilinguals performed a lexical decision task on centrally located target words and nonwords. The target words were either French or English words, flanked by words that were either in the same language as the target (language congruent) or in the other language (language incongruent)...
September 21, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
David Saltzman, Emily Myers
Perceptual learning serves as a mechanism for listenexrs to adapt to novel phonetic information. Distributional tracking theories posit that this adaptation occurs as a result of listeners accumulating talker-specific distributional information about the phonetic category in question (Kleinschmidt & Jaeger, 2015, Psychological Review, 122). What is not known is how listeners build these talker-specific distributions; that is, if they aggregate all information received over a certain time period, or if they rely more heavily upon the most recent information received and down-weight older, consolidated information...
September 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Elizaveta Konovalova, Gae L Le Mens
A key function of categories is to help predictions about unobserved features of objects. At the same time, humans are often in situations where the categories of the objects they perceive are uncertain. In an influential paper, Anderson (Psychological Review, 98(3), 409-429, 1991) proposed a rational model for feature inferences with uncertain categorization. A crucial feature of this model is the conditional independence assumption-it assumes that the within category feature correlation is zero. In prior research, this model has been found to provide a poor fit to participants' inferences...
September 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Judith Holler, Kobin H Kendrick, Stephen C Levinson
The home of human language use is face-to-face interaction, a context in which communicative exchanges are characterised not only by bodily signals accompanying what is being said but also by a pattern of alternating turns at talk. This transition between turns is astonishingly fast-typically a mere 200-ms elapse between a current and a next speaker's contribution-meaning that comprehending, producing, and coordinating conversational contributions in time is a significant challenge. This begs the question of whether the additional information carried by bodily signals facilitates or hinders language processing in this time-pressured environment...
September 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
James M Yearsley, Jennifer S Trueblood
Are our everyday judgments about the world around us normative? Decades of research in the judgment and decision-making literature suggest the answer is no. If people's judgments do not follow normative rules, then what rules if any do they follow? Quantum probability theory is a promising new approach to modeling human behavior that is at odds with normative, classical rules. One key advantage of using quantum theory is that it explains multiple types of judgment errors using the same basic machinery, unifying what have previously been thought of as disparate phenomena...
September 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Nina Kazanina, Jeffrey S Bowers, William Idsardi
Phonemes play a central role in traditional theories as units of speech perception and access codes to lexical representations. Phonemes have two essential properties: they are 'segment-sized' (the size of a consonant or vowel) and abstract (a single phoneme may be have different acoustic realisations). Nevertheless, there is a long history of challenging the phoneme hypothesis, with some theorists arguing for differently sized phonological units (e.g. features or syllables) and others rejecting abstract codes in favour of representations that encode detailed acoustic properties of the stimulus...
September 5, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
D Landy, B Guay, T Marghetis
When it comes to knowledge of demographic facts, misinformation appears to be the norm. Americans massively overestimate the proportions of their fellow citizens who are immigrants, Muslim, LGBTQ, and Latino, but underestimate those who are White or Christian. Previous explanations of these estimation errors have invoked topic-specific mechanisms such as xenophobia or media bias. We reconsidered this pattern of errors in the light of more than 30 years of research on the psychological processes involved in proportion estimation and decision-making under uncertainty...
August 31, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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