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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Roberta L Klatzky, William B Thompson, Jeanine K Stefanucci, Devin Gill, D Kevin McGee
"Vast" is a word often applied to environmental terrain that is perceived to have large spatial extent. This judgment is made even at viewing distances where traditional metric depth cues are not useful. This paper explores the perceptual basis of vast experience, including reliability and visual precursors. Experiment 1 demonstrated strong agreement in ratings of the spatial extent of two-dimensional (2D) scene images by participants in two countries under very different viewing conditions. Image categories labeled "vast" often exemplified scene attributes of ruggedness and openness (Oliva & Torralba, 2001)...
March 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Peter E Morris, Catherine O Fritz
The Psychonomic Society (PS) adopted New Statistical Guidelines for Journals of the Psychonomic Society in November 2012. To evaluate changes in statistical reporting within and outside PS journals, we examined all empirical papers published in PS journals and in the Experimental Psychology Society journal, The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (QJEP), in 2013 and 2015, to describe these populations before and after effects of the Guidelines. Comparisons of the 2013 and 2015 PS papers reveal differences associated with the Guidelines, and QJEP provides a baseline of papers to reflect changes in reporting that are not directly influenced by the Guidelines...
March 17, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Ana P Gantman, Marieke A Adriaanse, Peter M Gollwitzer, Gabriele Oettingen
We review the latest research investigating how people explain their own actions when they have been activated nonconsciously. We will discuss evidence that when nonconsciously activated behavior is unexpected (e.g., norm- violating, against self -standards), negative affect arises and triggers confabulations aimed to explain the behavior. Nonconsciously activated behaviors may provide a window into everyday confabulation of (erroneous) explanations for behavior, which may also affect self-knowledge. Implications for self-concept formation and intentionality are discussed...
March 17, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jie Sui, Glyn W Humphreys
We measured changes in self and friend biases in perceptual matching in young and older participants. Participants learned associations between neutral geometric shapes and three personal labels (You, Friend, or Stranger), representing themselves, their named best friend, and a stranger not corresponding to anyone they knew. They then responded whether the shapes and labels matched or mismatched. In addition, participants reported the perceived personal distance between themselves, their best friend, and a stranger...
March 17, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Timm Rosburg, Axel Mecklinger
In event-related potential (ERP) studies, the left-parietal old/new effect is commonly considered as a neural correlate of recollection. In memory exclusion tasks, the effect is usually observed when the targeted information is identified, but it is not necessarily present when studied items are rejected as nontargets. Interestingly, both the presence and the absence of such old/new effects to nontargets have been regarded as indicator for strategic retrieval. We reviewed previous ERP studies using memory exclusion tasks to analyze the reaction time (RT) pattern in such studies, as well as the influence of task difficulty on the occurrence of nontarget retrieval...
March 15, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Wouter Voorspoels, Isa Rutten, Annelies Bartlema, Francis Tuerlinckx, Wolf Vanpaemel
We present a case study of hierarchical Bayesian explanatory cognitive psychometrics, examining information processing characteristics of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). On the basis of previously published data, we compare the classification behavior of a group of children with HFASD with that of typically developing (TD) controls using a computational model of categorization. The parameters in the model reflect characteristics of information processing that are theoretically related to HFASD...
March 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Tessa Mapala, Lara Warmelink, Sally A Linkenauger
Most theories of lie detection assume that lying increases cognitive load, resulting in longer response latencies during questioning. However, the studies supporting this theory are typically laboratory-based, in settings with no specific validity in security contexts. Consequently, using virtual reality (VR), we investigated how response latencies were influenced in an ecologically valid environment of interest to security professionals. In a highly realistic airport security terminal presented in VR, a security officer asked participants yes/no questions about their belongings...
March 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
J Toby Mordkoff
Hick/Hyman Law is the linear relationship between average uncertainty and mean response time across entire blocks of trials. While unequal trial-type frequencies within blocks can be used to manipulate average uncertainty, the current version of the law does not apply to or account for the differences in mean response time across the different trial types contained in a block. Other simple predictors of the effects of trial-type frequency also fail to produce satisfactory fits. In an attempt to resolve this limitation, the present work takes a hierarchical approach, first fitting the block-level data using average uncertainty (i...
March 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Brandon M Turner, Juan Gao, Scott Koenig, Dylan Palfy, James L McClelland
We combine extant theories of evidence accumulation and multi-modal integration to develop an integrated framework for modeling multimodal integration as a process that unfolds in real time. Many studies have formulated sensory processing as a dynamic process where noisy samples of evidence are accumulated until a decision is made. However, these studies are often limited to a single sensory modality. Studies of multimodal stimulus integration have focused on how best to combine different sources of information to elicit a judgment...
March 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jeffrey C Zemla, Steven Sloman, Christos Bechlivanidis, David A Lagnado
People frequently rely on explanations provided by others to understand complex phenomena. A fair amount of attention has been devoted to the study of scientific explanation, and less on understanding how people evaluate naturalistic, everyday explanations. Using a corpus of diverse explanations from Reddit's "Explain Like I'm Five" and other online sources, we assessed how well a variety of explanatory criteria predict judgments of explanation quality. We find that while some criteria previously identified as explanatory virtues do predict explanation quality in naturalistic settings, other criteria, such as simplicity, do not...
March 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Kimron L Shapiro, Simon Hanslmayr, James T Enns, Alejandro Lleras
Extant theories of the attentional blink propose that the most critical factor in determining second target accuracy is the time that elapses between the first and second targets. We report that this conclusion has overlooked an equally important determinant, namely, the frequency of the entraining stream in which these targets are embedded. Specifically, we show in two experiments that the signature of the attentional blink-second target accuracy that increases with intertarget lag-is significantly larger for entraining streams that are in the alpha-beta frequency range, relative to streams that are slower (theta) or faster (gamma)...
March 7, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Thorsten Pachur, Benjamin Scheibehenne
People often indicate a higher price for an object when they own it (i.e., as sellers) than when they do not (i.e., as buyers)-a phenomenon known as the endowment effect. We develop a cognitive modeling approach to formalize, disentangle, and compare alternative psychological accounts (e.g., loss aversion, loss attention, strategic misrepresentation) of such buyer-seller differences in pricing decisions of monetary lotteries. To also be able to test possible buyer-seller differences in memory and learning, we study pricing decisions from experience, obtained with the sampling paradigm, where people learn about a lottery's payoff distribution from sequential sampling...
March 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Stefania Pighin, Katya Tentori, Vittorio Girotto
Disagreement on the "probability status" of chances casts doubt on Girotto and Gonzalez's (2001) conclusion that the human mind can make sound Bayesian inferences involving single-event probabilities. The main objection raised has been that chances are de facto natural frequencies disguised as probabilities. In the present study, we empirically demonstrated that numbers of chances are perceived as being distinct from natural frequencies and that they have a facilitatory effect on Bayesian inference tasks that is completely independent from their (minor) frequentist readings...
March 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Gabriel Tillman, Adam F Osth, Don van Ravenzwaaij, Andrew Heathcote
The lexical-decision task is among the most commonly used paradigms in psycholinguistics. In both the signal-detection theory and Diffusion Decision Model (DDM; Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, Psychological Review, 111, 159-182, 2004) frameworks, lexical-decisions are based on a continuous source of word-likeness evidence for both words and non-words. The Retrieving Effectively from Memory model of Lexical-Decision (REM-LD; Wagenmakers et al., Cognitive Psychology, 48(3), 332-367, 2004) provides a comprehensive explanation of lexical-decision data and makes the prediction that word-likeness evidence is more variable for words than non-words and that higher frequency words are more variable than lower frequency words...
March 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Felix D Schönbrodt, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers
A sizeable literature exists on the use of frequentist power analysis in the null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) paradigm to facilitate the design of informative experiments. In contrast, there is almost no literature that discusses the design of experiments when Bayes factors (BFs) are used as a measure of evidence. Here we explore Bayes Factor Design Analysis (BFDA) as a useful tool to design studies for maximum efficiency and informativeness. We elaborate on three possible BF designs, (a) a fixed-n design, (b) an open-ended Sequential Bayes Factor (SBF) design, where researchers can test after each participant and can stop data collection whenever there is strong evidence for either [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text], and (c) a modified SBF design that defines a maximal sample size where data collection is stopped regardless of the current state of evidence...
March 1, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Pedro R Montoro, Cristina Villalba-García, Dolores Luna, José A Hinojosa
The competition between perceptual grouping factors is a relatively ignored topic, especially in the case of extrinsic grouping cues (e.g., common region or connectedness). Recent studies have examined the integration of extrinsic cues using tasks that induce selective attention to groups based on different grouping cues. However, this procedure could generate alternative strategies for task performance, which are non-related to the perceptual grouping operations. In the current work, we used an indirect task, i...
March 1, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Peter Dixon
The SNARC effect is the finding that left-hand responses are faster to small digits and right-hand responses are faster to large digits. I tested an episodic-retrieval account of the SNARC effect in which it is assumed that the response time varies as a function of the prior trial episodes available in working memory. Blocks of trials were constructed in which two digits were repeated 75% of the time; presumably, these two "focus" digits would be readily available in working memory. Under such circumstances, there was no overall SNARC effect...
February 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Paul Seli, Brandon C W Ralph, Evan F Risko, Jonathan W Schooler, Daniel L Schacter, Daniel Smilek
Researchers have recently demonstrated that mind-wandering episodes can vary on numerous dimensions, and it has been suggested that assessing these dimensions will play an important role in our understanding of mind wandering. One dimension that has received considerable attention in recent work is the intentionality of mind wandering. Although it has been claimed that indexing the intentionality of mind wandering will be necessary if researchers are to obtain a coherent understanding of the wandering mind, one concern is that this dimension might be redundant with another, longstanding, dimension: namely, meta-awareness...
February 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Brian J Meagher, Paulo F Carvalho, Robert L Goldstone, Robert M Nosofsky
Subjects learned to classify images of rocks into the categories igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. In accord with the real-world structure of these categories, the to-be-classified rocks in the experiments had a dispersed similarity structure. Our central hypothesis was that learning of these complex categories would be improved through observational study of organized, simultaneous displays of the multiple rock tokens. In support of this hypothesis, a technique that included the presentation of the simultaneous displays during phases of the learning process yielded improved acquisition (Experiment 1) and generalization (Experiment 2) compared to methods that relied solely on sequential forms of study and testing...
February 24, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Marina C Wimmer, Steven Stirk, Peter J B Hancock
This study examined the effects of ego depletion on ambiguous figure perception. Adults (N = 315) received an ego depletion task and were subsequently tested on their inhibitory control abilities that were indexed by the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and their ability to perceive both interpretations of ambiguous figures that was indexed by reversal (Experiment 2). Ego depletion had a very small effect on reducing inhibitory control (Cohen's d = .15) (Experiment 1). Ego-depleted participants had a tendency to take longer to respond in Stroop trials...
February 22, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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