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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Zoya Hirosh, Tamar Degani
Accumulated recent research suggests that prior knowledge of multiple languages leads to advantages in learning additional languages. In the current article, we review studies examining potential differences between monolingual and multilingual speakers in novel language learning in an effort to uncover the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such differences. We examine the multilingual advantage in children and adults, across a wide array of languages and learner populations. The majority of this literature focused on vocabulary learning, but studies that address phonology, grammar, and literacy learning are also discussed to provide a comprehensive picture of the way in which multilingualism affects novel language learning...
May 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Massimo Turatto, Francesca Bonetti, David Pascucci
The fact that we are often immediately attracted by sudden visual onsets provides a clear advantage for our survival. However, how can we resist from being continuously distracted by irrelevant repetitive onsets? Since the seminal work of Sokolov (1963), habituation of the orienting of attention has long been proposed to be a possible filtering mechanism. Here, in two experiments, we provide novel evidence showing that (a) habituation of capture of focused visual attention relies on a stored representation of the distractor onsets in relation to their context, and (b) that once formed such representation endures unchanged for weeks without any further exposure to the distractors...
May 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Cheng-Ta Yang, Mario Fifić, Ting-Yun Chang, Daniel R Little
The other-race effect refers to the difficulty of discriminating between faces from ethnic and racial groups other than one's own. This effect may be caused by a slow, feature-by-feature, analytic process, whereas the discrimination of own-race faces occurs faster and more holistically. However, this distinction has received inconsistent support. To provide a critical test, we employed Systems Factorial Technology (Townsend & Nozawa in Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 39, 321-359, 1995), which is a powerful tool for analyzing the organization of mental networks underlying perceptual processes...
May 24, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Thomas Camus, Bernhard Hommel, Lionel Brunel, Thibaut Brouillet
Ideomotor approaches to action control have provided evidence that the activation of an anticipatory image of previously learned action-effects plays a decisive role in action selection. This study sought for converging evidence by combining three previous experimental paradigms: the response-effect compatibility protocol introduced by Kunde (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(2), 387-394, 2001), the acquisition-test paradigm developed by Elsner and Hommel (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(1), 229, 2001), and the object-action compatibility manipulation of Tucker and Ellis (Visual Cognition, 8(6), 769-800, 2001)...
May 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Daniel Fitousi
Creating and maintaining accurate bindings of elementary features (e.g., color and shape) in visual short-term memory (VSTM) is fundamental for veridical perception. How are low-level features bound in memory? The present work harnessed a multivariate model of perception - the General Recognition Theory (GRT) - to unravel the internal representations underlying feature binding in VSTM. On each trial, preview and target colored shapes were presented in succession, appearing in either repeated or altered spatial locations...
May 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Benjamin D Lester, Shaun P Vecera
Successful goal-directed visual behavior depends on efficient disengagement of attention. Attention must be withdrawn from its current focus before being redeployed to a new object or internal process. Previous research has demonstrated that occupying cognitive processes with a secondary cellular phone conversation impairs attentional functioning and driving behavior. For example, attentional processing is significantly impacted by concurrent cell phone use, resulting in decreased explicit memory for on-road information...
May 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Ashleigh M Maxcey, Hannah Glenn, Elisabeth Stansberry
Recent evidence has shown that practice recognizing certain objects hurts memories of objects from the same category, a phenomenon called recognition-induced forgetting. In all previous studies of this effect, the objects have been related by semantic category (e.g., instances of vases). However, the relationship between objects in many real-world visual situations stresses temporal grouping rather than semantic relations (e.g., a weapon and getaway car at a crime scene), and temporal grouping is thought to cluster items in models of long-term memory...
May 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
C Papadopoulos, B K Hayes
Previous work has demonstrated a "side-effect effect," such that intentionality is more likely to be attributed to agents who bring about negatively valenced as opposed to positively valenced side effects. The rational-scientist model explains this by suggesting that norm-violating side effects are more informative for inferring intentionality than norm-conforming side effects. In the present study we reexamined this account, addressing limitations of previous empirical tests (e.g., Uttich & Lombrozo, Cognition 116: 87-100, 2010)...
May 15, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Christos Bechlivanidis, David A Lagnado, Jeffrey C Zemla, Steven Sloman
A number of philosophers argue for the value of abstraction in explanation. According to these prescriptive theories, an explanation becomes superior when it leaves out details that make no difference to the occurrence of the event one is trying to explain (the explanandum). Abstract explanations are not frugal placeholders for improved, detailed future explanations but are more valuable than their concrete counterparts because they highlight the factors that do the causal work, the factors in the absence of which the explanandum would not occur...
May 11, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Qiliang He, Timothy P McNamara
This study investigated how spatial updating strategies affected the selection of reference frames in path integration. Participants walked an outbound path consisting of three successive waypoints in a featureless environment and then pointed to the first waypoint. We manipulated the alignment of participants' final heading at the end of the outbound path with their initial heading to examine the adopted reference frame. We assumed that the initial heading defined the principal reference direction in an allocentric reference frame...
May 11, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Zita Oravecz, Chelsea Muth
Growth curve modeling is a popular methodological tool due to its flexibility in simultaneously analyzing both within-person effects (e.g., assessing change over time for one person) and between-person effects (e.g., comparing differences in the change trajectories across people). This paper is a practical exposure to fitting growth curve models in the hierarchical Bayesian framework. First the mathematical formulation of growth curve models is provided. Then we give step-by-step guidelines on how to fit these models in the hierarchical Bayesian framework with corresponding computer scripts (JAGS and R)...
May 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Falk Lieder, Thomas L Griffiths, Quentin J M Huys, Noah D Goodman
Cognitive biases, such as the anchoring bias, pose a serious challenge to rational accounts of human cognition. We investigate whether rational theories can meet this challenge by taking into account the mind's bounded cognitive resources. We asked what reasoning under uncertainty would look like if people made rational use of their finite time and limited cognitive resources. To answer this question, we applied a mathematical theory of bounded rationality to the problem of numerical estimation. Our analysis led to a rational process model that can be interpreted in terms of anchoring-and-adjustment...
May 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Falk Lieder, Thomas L Griffiths, Quentin J M Huys, Noah D Goodman
People's estimates of numerical quantities are systematically biased towards their initial guess. This anchoring bias is usually interpreted as sign of human irrationality, but it has recently been suggested that the anchoring bias instead results from people's rational use of their finite time and limited cognitive resources. If this were true, then adjustment should decrease with the relative cost of time. To test this hypothesis, we designed a new numerical estimation paradigm that controls people's knowledge and varies the cost of time and error independently while allowing people to invest as much or as little time and effort into refining their estimate as they wish...
May 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Vitória Piai, Robert T Knight
According to the competition account of lexical selection in word production, conceptually driven word retrieval involves the activation of a set of candidate words in left temporal cortex and competitive selection of the intended word from this set, regulated by frontal cortical mechanisms. However, the relative contribution of these brain regions to competitive lexical selection is uncertain. In the present study, five patients with left prefrontal cortex lesions (overlapping in ventral and dorsal lateral cortex), eight patients with left lateral temporal cortex lesions (overlapping in middle temporal gyrus), and 13 matched controls performed a picture-word interference task...
May 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Tzvi Ganel, Melvyn A Goodale
It is a common belief that smiling makes people appear younger. Empirical findings, however, suggest that smiling faces are actually perceived as older than neutral faces. Here we show that these two apparently contradictory phenomena can co-exist in the same person. In the first experiment, participants were first asked to estimate the ages of a series of smiling or neutral faces. After that, they were asked to estimate the average age of the set of neutral and smiling faces they had just evaluated. Finally, they were asked what effect smiling has on one's perceived age...
May 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Nico Broers, Mary C Potter, Mark R Nieuwenstein
Long-term recognition memory for some pictures is consistently better than for others (Isola, Xiao, Parikh, Torralba, & Oliva, IEEE Transaction on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), 36(7), 1469-1482, 2014). Here, we investigated whether pictures found to be memorable in a long-term memory test are also perceived more easily when presented in ultra-rapid RSVP. Participants viewed 6 pictures they had never seen before that were presented for 13 to 360 ms per picture in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequence...
May 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Cary Stothart, Andrew Clement, James R Brockmole
People often conduct visual searches in which multiple targets are possible (e.g., medical X-rays can contain multiple abnormalities). In this type of search, observers are more likely to miss a second target after having found a first one (a subsequent search miss). Recent evidence has suggested that this effect may be due to a depletion of cognitive resources from tracking the identities and locations of found targets. Given that tracking moving objects is resource-demanding, would finding a moving target further increase the chances of missing a subsequent one? To address this question, we had participants search for one or more targets hidden among distractors...
May 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Noa Zitron-Emanuel, Tzvi Ganel
The feeling of hunger is an inseparable part of people's daily lives. It has been established that hunger, caused by food deprivation, influences people's physiological and emotional state and their everyday behavior. Yet, it remains unclear whether and in which manner food deprivation affects the way people perceive their environment. In two experiments, we examined the effects of food deprivation on the perceptual resolution of food portion size. We calculated Just Noticeable Differences (JNDs) to measure sensitivity to detect the smallest difference between two stimuli of different sizes...
May 3, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Pieter Moors, Guido Hesselmann
A recent study claimed to have obtained evidence that participants can solve invisible multistep arithmetic equations (Sklar et al., 2012). The authors used a priming paradigm in which reaction times to targets congruent with the equation's solution were responded to faster compared with incongruent ones. We critically reanalyzed the data set of Sklar et al. and show that the claims being made in the article are not fully supported by the alternative analyses that we applied. A Bayesian reanalysis of the data accounting for the random variability of the target stimuli in addition to the subjects shows that the evidence for priming effects is less strong than initially claimed...
May 1, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Vanessa André, Séverine Henry, Alban Lemasson, Martine Hausberger, Virginie Durier
Historically, newborns, and especially premature newborns, were thought to "feel nothing." However, over the past decades, a growing body of evidence has shown that newborns are aware of their environment, but the extent and the onset of some sensory capacities remain largely unknown. The goal of this review is to update our current knowledge concerning newborns' perceptual world and how ready they are to cope with an entirely different sensory environment following birth. We aim to establish not only how and when each sensory ability arises during the pre-/postbirth period but also discuss how senses are studied...
May 1, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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