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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Josje M de Valk, Ewelina Wnuk, John L A Huisman, Asifa Majid
People appear to have systematic associations between odors and colors. Previous research has emphasized the perceptual nature of these associations, but little attention has been paid to what role language might play. It is possible odor-color associations arise through a process of labeling; that is, participants select a descriptor for an odor and then choose a color accordingly (e.g., banana odor → "banana" label → yellow). If correct, this would predict odor-color associations would differ as odor descriptions differ...
October 25, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Laure Spieser, Mathieu Servant, Thierry Hasbroucq, Borís Burle
Both in real life and experimental settings, increasing response speed typically leads to more error-prone actions. Processes underlying such a "speed-accuracy trade-off" (SAT) are usually assumed to be purely decisional: cautiousness would be determined only by the amount of sensory evidence required to select a response. The present data challenges this largely accepted view, by directly showing that motor processes are speeded up under time pressure. In a choice reaction time task where emphasis was put either on response speed or accuracy, motor processes were investigated through the analysis of muscular activity related to response execution...
October 18, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
David R Shanks
Many studies of unconscious processing involve comparing a performance measure (e.g., some assessment of perception or memory) with an awareness measure (such as a verbal report or a forced-choice response) taken either concurrently or separately. Unconscious processing is inferred when above-chance performance is combined with null awareness. Often, however, aggregate awareness is better than chance, and data analysis therefore employs a form of extreme group analysis focusing post hoc on participants, trials, or items where awareness is absent or at chance...
October 17, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Teresa A Treat, Erin K Church, Richard J Viken
Contemporary models of male-initiated sexual aggression toward female acquaintances implicate misperception of women's sexual interest. This study investigated the effects of gender, rape-supportive attitudes and an instructional manipulation on college students' sexual-interest judgments. Two hundred seventy-six women and 220 men judged the cues of momentary sexual interest expressed by photographed women; half received instruction on the differential validity of nonverbal cues of sexual interest for estimation of women's momentary sexual interest...
October 17, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Attila Krajcsi
Numerical distance and size effects (easier number comparisons with large distance or small size) are mostly supposed to reflect a single effect, the ratio effect, which is a consequence of activation of the analog number system (ANS), working according to Weber's law. In an alternative model, symbolic numbers can be processed by a discrete semantic system (DSS), in which the distance and size effects could originate in two independent factors: the distance effect depending on the semantic distance of the units, and the size effect depending on the frequency of the symbols...
October 17, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Thomas R Zentall, Jacob P Case, Jonathan R Berry
Prior commitment has been found to facilitate choice of a larger later reward (e.g., healthy living) and avoid the impulsive choice of the smaller immediate reward (e.g., smoking, drug taking). In this research with pigeons, we investigated the ephemeral choice task in which pigeons are given a choice between two alternatives, A and B, with similar reinforcement provided for each; however, if they choose A, they can also choose B, whereas if they choose B, A is removed. Thus, choosing A gives them two rewards, whereas choosing B gives them only one...
October 14, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Anna Oleszkiewicz, Katarzyna Pisanski, Kinga Lachowicz-Tabaczek, Agnieszka Sorokowska
The study of voice perception in congenitally blind individuals allows researchers rare insight into how a lifetime of visual deprivation affects the development of voice perception. Previous studies have suggested that blind adults outperform their sighted counterparts in low-level auditory tasks testing spatial localization and pitch discrimination, as well as in verbal speech processing; however, blind persons generally show no advantage in nonverbal voice recognition or discrimination tasks. The present study is the first to examine whether visual experience influences the development of social stereotypes that are formed on the basis of nonverbal vocal characteristics (i...
October 13, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Daniel J King, Joanne Hodgekins, Philippe A Chouinard, Virginie-Anne Chouinard, Irene Sperandio
Specific abnormalities of vision in schizophrenia have been observed to affect high-level and some low-level integration mechanisms, suggesting that people with schizophrenia may experience anomalies across different stages in the visual system affecting either early or late processing or both. Here, we review the research into visual illusion perception in schizophrenia and the issues which previous research has faced. One general finding that emerged from the literature is that those with schizophrenia are mostly immune to the effects of high-level illusory displays, but this effect is not consistent across all low-level illusions...
October 11, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
June Kang, Byung-Joo Ham, Christian Wallraven
Empathy is one of the core components of social interaction. Although current models of empathy emphasize the role of attention, few studies have directly examined the relationship between attentional processes and individual differences in empathy. This study hypothesized that empathic people would process emotional expressions more efficiently and automatically compared to less empathic people. Crucially, such a processing advantage should be present only for faces of others compared to one's own face. To test this hypothesis, 100 healthy participants varying in their self-reported empathy levels underwent an attentional blink task that tested preferential attentional processing...
October 11, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Lace M Padilla, Sarah H Creem-Regehr, Jeanine K Stefanucci, Elizabeth A Cashdan
The Morris water maze is a spatial abilities test adapted from the animal spatial cognition literature and has been studied in the context of sex differences in humans. This is because its standard design, which manipulates proximal (close) and distal (far) cues, applies to human navigation. However, virtual Morris water mazes test navigation skills on a scale that is vastly smaller than natural human navigation. Many researchers have argued that navigating in large and small scales is fundamentally different, and small-scale navigation might not simulate natural human navigation...
October 6, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Peter A Starreveld, Wido La Heij
The picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm and the Stroop color-word interference task are often assumed to reflect the same underlying processes. On the basis of a PRP study, Dell'Acqua et al. (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14: 717-722, 2007) argued that this assumption is incorrect. In this article, we first discuss the definitions of Stroop- and picture-word interference. Next, we argue that both effects consist of at least four components that correspond to four characteristics of the distractor word: (1) response-set membership, (2) task relevance, (3) semantic relatedness, and (4) lexicality...
October 6, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Amy A Overman, Alison G Richard, Joseph D W Stephens
Self-generation of information during memory encoding has large positive effects on subsequent memory for items, but mixed effects on memory for contextual information associated with items. A processing account of generation effects on context memory (Mulligan in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30(4), 838-855, 2004; Mulligan, Lozito, & Rosner in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32(4), 836-846, 2006) proposes that these effects depend on whether the generation task causes any shift in processing of the type of context features for which memory is being tested...
September 30, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Eric D Johnson, Elisabet Tubau
Presenting natural frequencies facilitates Bayesian inferences relative to using percentages. Nevertheless, many people, including highly educated and skilled reasoners, still fail to provide Bayesian responses to these computationally simple problems. We show that the complexity of relational reasoning (e.g., the structural mapping between the presented and requested relations) can help explain the remaining difficulties. With a non-Bayesian inference that required identical arithmetic but afforded a more direct structural mapping, performance was universally high...
September 27, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Tomás Lejarraga, Ralph Hertwig
Until recently, loss aversion has been inferred exclusively from choice asymmetries in the loss and gain domains. This study examines the impact of the prospect of losses on exploratory search in a situation in which exploration is costly. Taking advantage of the largest available data set of decisions from experience, analyses showed that most people explore payoff distributions more under the threat of a loss than under the promise of a gain. This behavioral regularity thus occurs in both costly search and cost-free search (see Lejarraga, Hertwig, & Gonzalez, Cognition, 124, 334-342, 2012)...
September 12, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Chi-Hsin Chen, Chen Yu
Natural language environments usually provide structured contexts for learning. This study examined the effects of semantically themed contexts-in both learning and retrieval phases-on statistical word learning. Results from 2 experiments consistently showed that participants had higher performance in semantically themed learning contexts. In contrast, themed retrieval contexts did not affect performance. Our work suggests that word learners are sensitive to statistical regularities not just at the level of individual word-object co-occurrences but also at another level containing a whole network of associations among objects and their properties...
September 12, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Sven Hohenstein, Hannes Matuschek, Reinhold Kliegl
The complexity of eye-movement control during reading allows measurement of many dependent variables, the most prominent ones being fixation durations and their locations in words. In current practice, either variable may serve as dependent variable or covariate for the other in linear mixed models (LMMs) featuring also psycholinguistic covariates of word recognition and sentence comprehension. Rather than analyzing fixation location and duration with separate LMMs, we propose linking the two according to their sequential dependency...
September 9, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Yun Wen, Walter J B van Heuven
The masked translation priming paradigm has been widely used in the last 25 years to investigate word processing in bilinguals. Motivated by studies reporting mixed findings, in particular for second language (L2) to first language (L1) translation priming, we conducted, for the first time in the literature, a meta-analysis of 64 masked priming lexical decision experiments across 24 studies to assess the effect sizes of L1-L2 and L2-L1 non-cognate translation priming effects in bilinguals. Our meta-analysis also investigated the influence of potential moderators of translation priming effects...
September 9, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Kaitlyn R Bankieris, Richard N Aslin
Although cross-modal neural connections and genetic underpinnings are prominent in most current theories regarding the development of synesthesia, the potential role of associative learning in the formation of synesthetic associations has recently been revitalized. In this study, we investigated implicit associative learning in synesthetes and nonsynesthetes by recording reaction times to a target whose color was probabilistically correlated with its shape. A continuous measure of target detection at multiple time points during learning revealed that synesthetes and nonsynesthetes learn associations differently...
September 9, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Denis Brouillet, Audrey Milhau, Thibaut Brouillet, Philippe Servajean
It is now well established that motor fluency affects cognitive processes, including memory. In two experiments participants learned a list of words and then performed a recognition task. The original feature of our procedure is that before judging the words they had to perform a fluent gesture (i.e., typing a letter dyad). The dyads comprised letters located on either the right or left side of the keyboard. Participants typed dyads with their right or left index finger; the required movement was either very small (dyad composed of adjacent letters, Experiment 1) or slightly larger (dyad composed of letters separated by one key, experiment 2)...
September 9, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Andrew L Cohen, Sara Sidlowski, Adrian Staub
We examine whether judgments of posterior probabilities in Bayesian reasoning problems are affected by reasoners' beliefs about corresponding real-world probabilities. In an internet-based task, participants were asked to determine the probability that a hypothesis is true (posterior probability, e.g., a person has a disease, given a positive medical test) based on relevant probabilities (e.g., that any person has the disease and the true and false positive rates of the test). We varied whether the correct posterior probability was close to, or far from, independent intuitive estimates of the corresponding 'real-world' probability...
September 7, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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