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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Jennifer C Weeks, Lynn Hasher
Older adults show implicit memory for previously seen distraction, an effect attributed to poor attentional control. It is unclear whether this effect results from lack of control over encoding during the distraction task, lack of retrieval constraint during the test task, or both. In the present study, we simulated poor distraction control in young adults using divided attention at encoding, at retrieval, at both times, or not at all. The encoding task was a 1-back task on pictures with distracting superimposed letter strings, some of which were words...
November 29, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Benchi Wang, Chuyao Yan, Zhiguo Wang, Christian N L Olivers, Jan Theeuwes
Visual working memory (VWM) representations can be strengthened by pre-cues presented before, and retro-cues presented after, the memory display, providing evidence that attentional orienting plays a role in memory encoding and maintenance. It is unknown whether attentional orienting to VWM stimuli can also have adverse effects (known as inhibition of return; IOR), as has been found for perceptual-cueing tasks. If so, this would provide further evidence for common attentional orienting mechanisms for mnemonic and perceptual representations...
November 28, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Georgiana Juravle, Gordon Binsted, Charles Spence
Sharing numerous characteristics with suppression in the other senses, tactile suppression is a reliable phenomenon that accompanies movement. By investigating the simplest of movements (e.g., finger flexions), early research tried to explain the origins of the phenomenon in terms of motor command generation together with sensory reafference. Here, we review recent research that has delved into (naturalistic) goal-directed movements. In connection with goal-directed movement, tactile suppression is evident as a decrease in behavioural performance measured shortly prior to, and during, movement execution...
November 28, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Anna Heuer, Anna Schubö
Planning an action primes feature dimensions that are relevant for that particular action, increasing the impact of these dimensions on perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether action planning also affects the short-term maintenance of visual information. In a combined memory and movement task, participants were to memorize items defined by size or color while preparing either a grasping or a pointing movement. Whereas size is a relevant feature dimension for grasping, color can be used to localize the goal object and guide a pointing movement...
November 28, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Nelson Cowan
The topic of working memory (WM) is ubiquitous in research on cognitive psychology and on individual differences. According to one definition, it is a small amount of information kept in a temporary state of heightened accessibility; it is used in most types of communication and problem solving. Short-term storage has been defined as the passive (i.e., non-attention-based, nonstrategic) component of WM or, alternatively, as a passive store separate from an attention-based WM. Here I note that much confusion has been created by the use by various investigators of many, subtly different definitions of WM and short-term storage...
November 28, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jessica K Witt
The action-specific account of spatial perception asserts that a perceiver's ability to perform an action, such as hitting a softball or walking up a hill, impacts the visual perception of the target object. Although much evidence is consistent with this claim, the evidence has been challenged as to whether perception is truly impacted, as opposed to the responses themselves. These challenges have recently been organized as six pitfalls that provide a framework with which to evaluate the empirical evidence...
November 23, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Helen Brown, Elizabeth A Maylor
This study examined the differential effects of aging on consolidation processes that strengthen newly acquired memory traces in veridical form (memory stabilization) versus consolidation processes that are responsible for integrating these memory traces into an existing body of knowledge (item integration). Older adults learned 13 nonwords and were tested on their memory for the nonwords, and on whether these nonwords impacted upon processing of similar-sounding English words immediately and 24 hours later...
November 23, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Ana Marcet, Manuel Perea
For simplicity, contemporary models of written-word recognition and reading have unspecified feature/letter levels-they predict that the visually similar substituted-letter nonword PEQPLE is as effective at activating the word PEOPLE as the visually dissimilar substituted-letter nonword PEYPLE. Previous empirical evidence on the effects of visual similarly across letters during written-word recognition is scarce and nonconclusive. To examine whether visual similarity across letters plays a role early in word processing, we conducted two masked priming lexical decision experiments (stimulus-onset asynchrony = 50 ms)...
November 21, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Michael A Eskenazi, Jocelyn R Folk
The direction and duration of eye movements during reading is predominantly determined by cognitive and linguistic processing, but some low-level oculomotor effects also influence the duration and direction of eye movements. One such effect is inhibition of return (IOR), which results in an increased latency to return attention to a target that has been previously attended (Posner & Cohen, Attention and Performance X: Control of Language Processes, 32, 531-556, 1984). Although this is a low level effect, it has also been found in the complex task of reading (Henderson & Luke, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(6), 1101-1107, 2012; Rayner, Juhasz, Ashby, & Clifton, Vision Research, 43(9), 1027-1034, 2003)...
November 21, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Chad S Rogers
Contextual and sensory information are combined in speech perception. Conflict between the two can lead to false hearing, defined as a high-confidence misidentification of a spoken word. Rogers, Jacoby, and Sommers (Psychology and Aging, 27(1), 33-45, 2012) found that older adults are more susceptible to false hearing than are young adults, using a combination of semantic priming and repetition priming to create context. In this study, the type of context (repetition vs. sematic priming) responsible for false hearing was examined...
November 14, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
John Protzko
Targeted cognitive training, such as n-back or speed of processing training, in the hopes of raising intelligence is of great theoretical and practical importance. The most important theoretical contribution, however, is not about the malleability of intelligence. Instead, I argue the most important and novel theoretical contribution is understanding the causal structure of intelligence. The structure of intelligence, most often taken as a hierarchical factor structure, necessarily prohibits transfer from subfactors back up to intelligence...
November 14, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Paula Rubio-Fernández
Over two decades, the director task has increasingly been employed as a test of the use of Theory of Mind in communication, first in psycholinguistics and more recently in social cognition research. A new version of this task was designed to test two independent hypotheses. First, optimal performance in the director task, as established by the standard metrics of interference, is possible by using selective attention alone, and not necessarily Theory of Mind. Second, pragmatic measures of Theory-of-Mind use can reveal that people actively represent the director's mental states, contrary to recent claims that they only use domain-general cognitive processes to perform this task...
November 7, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Monika Undorf, Thea Zander
The idea that two distinct modes of thought affect human cognition and behavior has received considerable attention in psychology. In the domain of metacognition, it is assumed that metacognitive judgments are based on both nonanalytic, experience-based processes and analytic, theory-based processes. This study examined whether the experience-based process of intuition underlies people's predictions of their future memory performance (judgments of learning; JOLs). In four experiments, people made JOLs and took a test on compound remote associates, that is, groups of 3 words that were either remote associates of a single solution word (coherent triads) or had no common associate (incoherent triads)...
November 4, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Yue Du, Jane E Clark
Implicit sequence learning is ubiquitous in our daily life. However, it is unclear whether the initial acquisition of sequences results from learning to chunk items (i.e., chunk learning) or learning the underlying statistical regularities (i.e., statistical learning). By grouping responses with or without a distinct chunk or statistical structure into segments and comparing these responses, previous studies have demonstrated both chunk and statistical learning. However, few studies have considered the response sequence as a whole and examined the temporal dependency of the entire sequence, where the temporal dependencies could disclose the internal representations of chunk and statistical learning...
November 3, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Chiara Zanini, Silvia Benavides-Varela, Riccardina Lorusso, Francesca Franzon
Is the mass-count distinction merely a linguistic issue, or is it coded in representations other than language? We hypothesized that a difference between mass and count properties should be observed even in absence of linguistic distinctions driven by the morphosyntactic context. We tested 5-6-year-old children's ability to judge sentences with mass nouns (sand), count nouns (ring), and neutral nouns (i.e., those that appear in mass and count contexts with similar frequency; cake). Children refused neutral nouns embedded in uncountable morphosyntactic contexts, showing a preference for a count interpretation...
November 3, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Derek Besner, Michael Reynolds
A widely accepted belief across a range of subfields in psychology is that print activates semantics "automatically" in some sense. One such sense is that activating semantics does not require capacity. This view is assessed here in the context of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm because it provides a way of determining whether semantic activation requires a form of capacity. Task 1 was tone classification. Task 2 was Stroop color naming. The distractors consisted of color words on some trials (e...
November 3, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jan P Röer, Ulrike Körner, Axel Buchner, Raoul Bell
To-be-ignored, task-irrelevant speech disrupts serial recall performance relative to a quiet control condition. In most studies, the content of the auditory distractors had no effect on their disruptive potential, one's own name being one of the few exceptions. There are two possible explanations of this pattern: (1) Semantic features of the irrelevant speech are usually not processed, except for highly relevant auditory distractors, or (2) semantic processing of the irrelevant speech always occurs, but usually does not affect serial recall performance...
October 31, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Ronald A Rensink
For scatterplots with gaussian distributions of dots, the perception of Pearson correlation r can be described by two simple laws: a linear one for discrimination, and a logarithmic one for perceived magnitude (Rensink & Baldridge, 2010). The underlying perceptual mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. To cast light on these, four different distributions of datapoints were examined. The first had 100 points with equal variance in both dimensions. Consistent with earlier results, just noticeable difference (JND) was a linear function of the distance away from r = 1, and the magnitude of perceived correlation a logarithmic function of this quantity...
October 26, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Hua-Chen Wang, Greg Savage, M Gareth Gaskell, Tamara Paulin, Serje Robidoux, Anne Castles
Lexical competition processes are widely viewed as the hallmark of visual word recognition, but little is known about the factors that promote their emergence. This study examined for the first time whether sleep may play a role in inducing these effects. A group of 27 participants learned novel written words, such as banara, at 8 am and were tested on their learning at 8 pm the same day (AM group), while 29 participants learned the words at 8 pm and were tested at 8 am the following day (PM group). Both groups were retested after 24 hours...
October 26, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Merryn D Constable, John de Grosbois, Tiffany Lung, Luc Tremblay, Jay Pratt, Timothy N Welsh
When a person executes a movement, the movement is more errorful while observing another person's actions that are incongruent rather than congruent with the executed action. This effect is known as "motor contagion". Accounts of this effect are often grounded in simulation mechanisms: increased movement error emerges because the motor codes associated with observed actions compete with motor codes of the goal action. It is also possible, however, that the increased movement error is linked to eye movements that are executed simultaneously with the hand movement because oculomotor and manual-motor systems are highly interconnected...
October 26, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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