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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

L Elizabeth Crawford, Jonathan C Corbin, David Landy
People quickly form summary representations that capture the statistical structure in a set of simultaneously-presented objects. We present evidence that such ensemble encoding is informed not only by the presented set of objects, but also by a meta-ensemble, or prototype, that captures the structure of previously viewed stimuli. Participants viewed four objects (shaded squares in Experiment 1; emotional expressions in Experiment 2) and estimated their average by adjusting a response object. Estimates were biased toward the central value of previous stimuli, consistent with Bayesian models of how people combine hierarchical sources of information...
November 16, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Nathan J Evans, Aimée J Bennett, Scott D Brown
Decision-making involves a tradeoff between pressures for caution and urgency. Previous research has investigated how well humans optimize this tradeoff, and mostly concluded that people adopt a sub-optimal strategy that over-emphasizes caution. This emphasis reduces how many decisions can be made in a fixed time, which reduces the "reward rate". However, the strategy that is optimal depends critically on the timing properties of the experiment design: the slower the rate of decision opportunities, the more cautious the optimal strategy...
November 8, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Ryan P M Hackländer, Steve M J Janssen, Christina Bermeitinger
Over the past nearly 35 years, there has been sporadic interest in what has commonly come to be known as the Proust phenomenon, whereby autobiographical memories are retrieved and experienced differently when evoked by odors as compared with other types of cues, such as words, images or sounds. The purpose of this review is threefold. First, we provide a detailed analysis of the methods used to investigate Proust effects. Second, we review and analyze the various findings from the literature and determine what we feel to be the most important and stable findings...
November 7, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Christian Büsel, Ulrich Pomper, Ulrich Ansorge
We investigated the origin of attention capture in the contingent-capture protocol during a search for two colors. When searching for the target color, cues similar to the target capture attention but cues dissimilar to the target do not capture attention. The results are typically explained by top-down contingent capture, a form of proactive control where participants set up attentional control settings (ACSs) for the target and cues matching the ACSs capture attention. However, based on recent research, we hypothesized that the situation could be more complicated during search for several features...
November 6, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Stephen C Van Hedger, Howard C Nusbaum, Luke Clohisy, Susanne M Jaeggi, Martin Buschkuehl, Marc G Berman
Attention restoration theory (ART) posits that stimuli found in nature may restore directed attention functioning by reducing demands on the endogenous attention system. In the present experiment, we assessed whether nature-related cognitive benefits extended to auditory presentations of nature, a topic that has been understudied. To assess directed attention, we created a composite measure consisting of a backward digit span task and a dual n-back task. Participants completed these cognitive measures and an affective questionnaire before and after listening to and aesthetically judging either natural or urban soundscapes (between-participants)...
October 26, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Heidi A Rued, Clayton J Hilmert, Anna M Strahm, Laura E Thomas
During stress, attentional capture by threatening stimuli may be particularly adaptive. Individuals are more efficient at identifying threatening faces in a crowd than identifying nonthreatening faces (e.g., Öhman et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130(3): 466-478, 2001a, Öhman et al., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(3): 381-396, 2001b). However, under conditions of stress, when attention to threat may be most critical, cognitive processes are generally disrupted. The present study explored the attentional advantage of threatening stimuli under stressful conditions...
October 23, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Clara Colombatto, Benjamin van Buren, Brian J Scholl
Of all the visual stimuli you can perceive, perhaps the most important are other people's eyes. And this is especially true when those eyes are looking at you: direct gaze has profound influences, even at the level of basic cognitive processes such as working memory. For example, memory for the properties of simple geometric shapes is disrupted by the presence of other eyes gazing at you. But are such effects really specific to direct gaze per se? Seeing eyes is undoubtedly important, but presumably only because of what it tells us about the "mind behind the eyes" - i...
October 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jeffrey R Stevens, Juan F Duque
Though citations are critical for communicating science and evaluating scholarly success, properties unrelated to the quality of the work-such as cognitive biases-can influence citation decisions. The primacy effect, in particular, is relevant to lists, which for in-text citations could result in citations earlier in the list receiving more attention than those later in the list. Therefore, how citations are ordered could influence which citations receive the most attention. Using a sample of 150,000 articles, we tested whether alphabetizing in-text citations biases readers into citing more often articles with first authors whose surnames begin with letters early in the alphabet...
October 4, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Karen Davranche, Laurence Carbonnell, Clément Belletier, Franck Vidal, Pascal Huguet, Thibault Gajdos, Thierry Hasbroucq
The present study was conducted to decipher whether a spatial correspondence effect can emerge in Go/No-Go tasks (cSE, in reference to Donders' type c task) performed in isolation (participant alone in the cubicle). To this aim, a single participant was centrally positioned in front of a device and was required to respond by a hand key-press to the color of the stimulus. Half the participants were seated in front of a table equipped with only one response key and the other half in front of a table equipped with two response keys (one active and the other one useless)...
October 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Peter Q Pfordresher, Karen Chow
We report an experiment that tested the flexibility of sensorimotor learning in sequence production. Nonpianists and pianists learned simple melodies by ear under one of two auditory feedback conditions: one with normal pitch mapping (higher pitches to the right) and one with an inverted (reversed) mapping. After learning, both groups played melodies from memory while experiencing each feedback condition. Both groups exhibited sensorimotor learning and produced fewer errors at test while hearing the feedback used during training as opposed to the alternate feedback condition...
October 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Blaire Dube, Alanna Lumsden, Naseem Al-Aidroos
The effective use of our capacity-limited visual working memory (VWM) requires mechanisms that govern how it represents information. Validly cueing an item in VWM after encoding, for instance, enhances memory performance for that item and biases its state in VWM, bringing its representation to an active state such that attentional selection is biased towards perceptually similar inputs. Critically, when the retro-cue is less than 100% valid (i.e., probabilistic rather than deterministic), the effect of the cue on memory performance varies...
October 1, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Andrea M Cataldo, Andrew L Cohen
Context effects are changes in preference that occur when alternatives are added to a choice set. Models that account for context effects typically assume a within-dimension comparison process; however, the presentation format of a choice set can influence comparison strategies. The present study jointly tests the influence of presentation format on the attraction, compromise, and similarity effects in a within-subjects design. Participants completed a series of choices designed to elicit each of the three context effects, with either a by-alternative or by-dimension format...
September 27, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Chloe Rhianne Newbury, Padraic Monaghan
It is widely accepted that sleep aids in the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes involved in memory processing; however, the conditions under which sleep influences memory may be substantially constrained. In a meta-analysis, we examined the effects that sleep has on both veridical (accurate) and false memory consolidation, in studies using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm for memory of thematically related words. The meta-analysis revealed that, whereas there was no overall effect of sleep on either accurate or false memories, the effect of sleep on overall memories was moderated by two constraints...
September 27, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jan de Ruiter
Benjamin et al. (Nature Human Behaviour 2, 6-10, 2017) proposed improving the reproducibility of findings in psychological research by lowering the alpha level of our conventional null hypothesis significance tests from .05 to .005, because findings with p-values close to .05 represent insufficient empirical evidence. They argued that findings with a p-value between 0.005 and 0.05 should still be published, but not called "significant" anymore. This proposal was criticized and rejected in a response by Lakens et al...
September 27, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Julia M Haaf, Jeffrey N Rouder
A prevailing notion in experimental psychology is that individuals' performance in a task varies gradually in a continuous fashion. In a Stroop task, for example, the true average effect may be 50 ms with a standard deviation of say 30 ms. In this case, some individuals will have greater effects than 50 ms, some will have smaller, and some are forecasted to have negative effects in sign-they respond faster to incongruent items than to congruent ones! But are there people who have a true negative effect in Stroop or any other task? We highlight three qualitatively different effects: negative effects, null effects, and positive effects...
September 24, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Michael S Pratte
In typical visual working memory tasks, participants report the color of a previously studied item at some probed location. Alternatively, in some recent studies, a color is probed and participants must report the item's location. There is a surprising difference between these tasks: in location reports participants almost never guess randomly as they do when reporting color, but often incorrectly report the locations of non-probed items. This finding has been taken as evidence for feature binding errors in memory, and evidence against discrete capacity models, which predict that pure guessing should occur...
September 21, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Lei Yuan, Steve Haroz, Steven Franconeri
Across science, education, and business, we process and communicate data visually. One bedrock finding in data visualization research is a hierarchy of precision for perceptual encodings of data (e.g., that encoding data with Cartesian positions allows more precise comparisons than encoding with sizes). But this hierarchy has only been tested for single-value comparisons, under the assumption that those lessons would extrapolate to multivalue comparisons. We show that when comparing averages across multiple data points, even for pairs of data points, these differences vanish...
September 20, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Ashley S Bangert, Christopher A Kurby, Jeffrey M Zacks
We conducted two experiments to investigate how the eventfulness of everyday experiences influences people's prospective timing ability. Specifically, we investigated whether events contained within movies of everyday activities serve as markers of time, as predicted by Event Segmentation Theory, or whether events pull attention away from the primary timing task, as predicted by the Attentional Gate theory. In the two experiments reported here, we asked participants to reproduce a previously learned 30-s target duration while watching a movie that contained eventful and uneventful intervals...
September 20, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jess Rowland, Anna Kasdan, David Poeppel
While many techniques are known to music creators, the technique of repetition is one of the most commonly deployed. The mechanism by which repetition is effective as a music-making tool, however, is unknown. Building on the speech-to-song illusion (Deutsch, Henthorn, & Lapidis in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 129(4), 2245-2252, 2011), we explore a phenomenon in which perception of musical attributes are elicited from repeated, or "looped," auditory material usually perceived as nonmusical such as speech and environmental sounds...
September 20, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Elizabeth S Collier, Rebecca Lawson
Can higher level cognition directly influence visual spatial perception? Many recent studies have claimed so, on the basis that manipulating cognitive factors (e.g., morality, emotion, action capacity) seems to directly affect perception. However, Firestone and Scholl (Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, 1-77, 2016) argued that such studies often fall prey to at least one of six pitfalls. They further argued that if an effect could be accounted for by any of these pitfalls, it is not a true demonstration of a top-down influence of cognition on perception...
September 20, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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