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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

FĂ©lice van 't Wout
Hick's law describes the increase in choice reaction time (RT) with the number of stimulus-response (S-R) mappings. However, in choice RT experiments, set-size is typically confounded with stimulus recency and frequency: With a smaller set-size, each stimulus occurs on average more frequently and more recently than with a larger set-size. To determine to what extent stimulus recency and frequency contribute to the set-size effect, stimulus set-size was manipulated independently of stimulus recency and frequency, by keeping recency and frequency constant for a subset of the stimuli...
December 5, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Carolin Dudschig, Ian Grant Mackenzie, Hartmut Leuthold, Barbara Kaup
Human information processing is incredibly fast and flexible. In order to survive, the human brain has to integrate information from various sources and to derive a coherent interpretation, ideally leading to adequate behavior. In experimental setups, such integration phenomena are often investigated in terms of cross-modal association effects. Interestingly, to date, most of these cross-modal association effects using linguistic stimuli have shown that single words can influence the processing of non-linguistic stimuli, and vice versa...
December 1, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Alexis D J Makin
In prediction-motion (PM) tasks, people judge the current position of an occluded moving object. People can also judge the current number on an occluded digital counter or the current colour of an occluded colour-change display. These abilities imply that we can run mental simulations at a chosen speed, even without feedback from the senses. There is increasing evidence that the brain has a common rate control module for pacing all such dynamic mental simulations. The common rate control account of PM has more explanatory power than alternative accounts which emphasise the role of mental imagery or the oculomotor system...
December 1, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Brian A Anderson
Cognitive psychologists often distinguish between voluntary and involuntary/automatic processes in attention and cognitive control. Dedicated experimental paradigms have been developed to isolate involuntary information processing, but these paradigms tend to assume a rigid and inflexible process that is either stimulus-driven or built up through simple repetition. In contrast, voluntary information processing is often assumed when processing is in line with arbitrarily defined task-specific goals. Here I review evidence from multiple cases suggesting that ostensibly goal-directed cognitive processes may not be so voluntary and controlled...
November 29, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Thomas R Zentall, Jacob P Case, Danielle M Andrews
Procrastination is the tendency to put off initiation or completion of a task. Although people are typically known to procrastinate, recent research suggests that they sometimes "pre-crastinate" by initiating a task sooner than they need to (Rosenbaum et al. in Psychological Science, 25(7), 1487-1496, 2014). A similar finding of precrastination was reported by Wasserman and Brzykcy (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 1130-1134, 2015) with pigeons using a somewhat different procedure. In the present experiment, we used a procedure with pigeons that was more similar to the procedure used by Rosenbaum et al...
November 29, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Mariel Roberts, Brandon K Ashinoff, F Xavier Castellanos, Marisa Carrasco
Is covert visuospatial attention-selective processing of information in the absence of eye movements-preserved in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Previous findings are inconclusive due to inconsistent terminology and suboptimal methodology. To settle this question, we used well-established spatial cueing protocols to investigate the perceptual effects of voluntary and involuntary attention on an orientation discrimination task for a group of adults with ADHD and their neurotypical age-matched and gender-matched controls...
November 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Abigail L Kleinsmith, W Trammell Neill
People easily recognize a familiar melody in a previously unheard key, but they also retain some key-specific information. Does the recognition of a transposed melody depend on either pitch distance or harmonic distance from the initially learned instances? Previous research has shown a stronger effect of pitch closeness than of harmonic similarity, but did not directly test for an additional effect of the latter variable. In the present experiment, we familiarized participants with a simple eight-note melody in two different keys (C and D) and then tested their ability to discriminate the target melody from foils in other keys...
November 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Anna Shafer-Skelton, Julie D Golomb
To interact successfully with objects, we must maintain stable representations of their locations in the world. However, their images on the retina may be displaced several times per second by large, rapid eye movements. A number of studies have demonstrated that visual processing is heavily influenced by gaze-centered (retinotopic) information, including a recent finding that memory for an object's location is more accurate and precise in gaze-centered (retinotopic) than world-centered (spatiotopic) coordinates (Golomb & Kanwisher, 2012b)...
November 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Timothy J Vickery, Su Hyoun Park, Jayesh Gupta, Marian E Berryhill
Visual statistical learning (VSL), the unsupervised learning of statistical contingencies across time and space, may play a key role in efficient and predictive encoding of the perceptual world. How VSL capabilities vary as a function of ongoing task demands is still poorly understood. VSL is modulated by selective attention and faces interference from some secondary tasks, but there is little evidence that the types of contingencies learned in VSL are sensitive to task demands. We found a powerful effect of task on what is learned in VSL...
November 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Sarah-Elizabeth Byosiere, Philippe A Chouinard, Tiffani J Howell, Pauleen C Bennett
Over the last 20 years, a large amount of research has been conducted in an attempt to uncover the cognitive abilities of the domestic dog. While substantial advancements have been made, progress has been impeded by the fact that little is known about how dogs visually perceive their external environment. It is imperative that future research determines more precisely canine visual processing capabilities, particularly considering the increasing number of studies assessing cognition via paradigms requiring vision...
November 15, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Bruno Sauce, Christopher Wass, Michael Lewis, Louis D Matzel
The typical practice of averaging group performance during extinction gives the impression that responding declines gradually and homogeneously. However, previous studies of extinction in human infants have shown that some individuals persist in responding, whereas others abruptly cease responding. As predicted by theories of control, the infants who quickly resign typically display signs of sadness and despair when the expected reward is omitted. Using genetically diverse mice, here we observed a similar pattern of individual differences and the associated phenotypes...
November 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Dora Matzke, Udo Boehm, Joachim Vandekerckhove
We demonstrate the use of three popular Bayesian software packages that enable researchers to estimate parameters in a broad class of models that are commonly used in psychological research. We focus on WinBUGS, JAGS, and Stan, and show how they can be interfaced from R and MATLAB. We illustrate the use of the packages through two fully worked examples; the examples involve a simple univariate linear regression and fitting a multinomial processing tree model to data from a classic false-memory experiment. We conclude with a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the packages...
November 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Halely Balaban, Trafton Drew, Roy Luria
The visual working memory (VWM) resetting process is triggered when the mapping between an object in the environment and its corresponding VWM representation becomes irrelevant. Resetting involves discarding the no longer relevant representations, and encoding novel representations and mappings. We examined how resetting operates on VWM's contents. Specifically, we tested whether losing only part of the encoded mappings led to resetting all of the VWM representations. Subjects monitored moving polygons for an abrupt shape-change...
November 9, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Ana Pesquita, Robert L Whitwell, James T Enns
Research in a number of related fields has recently begun to focus on the perceptual, cognitive, and motor workings of cooperative behavior. There appears to be enough coherence in these efforts to refer to the study of the mechanisms underlying human cooperative behavior as the field of joint-action (Knoblich, Butterfill, & Sebanz, 2011; Sebanz, Bekkering, & Knoblich, 2006). Yet, the development of theory in this field has not kept pace with the proliferation of research findings. We propose a hierarchical predictive framework for the study of joint-action that we call the predictive joint-action model (PJAM)...
November 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jeffrey R Stevens, Leen-Kiat Soh
Similarity models of intertemporal choice are heuristics that choose based on similarity judgments of the reward amounts and time delays. Yet, we do not know how these judgments are made. Here, we use machine-learning algorithms to assess what factors predict similarity judgments and whether decision trees capture the judgment outcomes and process. We find that combining small and large values into numerical differences and ratios and arranging them in tree-like structures can predict both similarity judgments and response times...
November 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Moran M Israel, Pierre Jolicoeur, Asher Cohen
It is well established that processes of perception and action interact. A key question concerns the role of attention in the interaction between perception-action processes. We tested the hypothesis that spatial attention is shared by perception and action. We created a dual-task paradigm: In one task, spatial information is relevant for perception (spatial-input task) but not for action, and in a second task, spatial information is relevant for action (spatial-output task) but not for perception. We used endogenous pre-cueing, with two between-subjects conditions: In one condition the cue was predictive only for the target location in the spatial-input task; in a second condition the cue was predictive only for the location of the response in the spatial-output task...
November 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Andrew M Colman, Natalie Gold
In many everyday activities, individuals have a common interest in coordinating their actions. Orthodox game theory cannot explain such intuitively obvious forms of coordination as the selection of an outcome that is best for all in a common-interest game. Theories of team reasoning provide a convincing solution by proposing that people are sometimes motivated to maximize the collective payoff of a group and that they adopt a distinctive mode of reasoning from preferences to decisions. This also offers a compelling explanation of cooperation in social dilemmas...
November 3, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Mathieu Servant, Thibault Gajdos, Karen Davranche
Response capture is a widespread and extensively studied phenomenon, in particular in decision tasks involving response conflict. Its intensity is routinely quantified by conditional accuracy function (CAF). We argue that this method might be misleading, and propose an alternative approach, the error location function (ELF). While CAF provides the error rate by bins of reaction time (RT), ELF represents the share of total errors below each quantile of RT. We derive from ELF an index of response capture, the error location index (ELI), which represents the area below the ELF...
November 3, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Annie J Olmstead, Navin Viswanathan
Nonnative phonetic learning is an area of great interest for language researchers, learners, and educators alike. In two studies, we examined whether nonnative phonetic discrimination of Hindi dental and retroflex stops can be improved by exposure to lexical items bearing the critical nonnative stops. We extend the lexical retuning paradigm of Norris, McQueen, and Cutler (Cognitive Psychology, 47, 204-238, 2003) by having naive American English (AE)-speaking participants perform a pretest-training-posttest procedure...
October 30, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Christoph W Korn, Juliane Ries, Lennart Schalk, Yulia Oganian, Henrik Saalbach
How can apparent decision biases, such as the framing effect, be reduced? Intriguing findings within recent years indicate that foreign language settings reduce framing effects, which has been explained in terms of deeper cognitive processing. Because hard-to-read fonts have been argued to trigger deeper cognitive processing, so-called cognitive disfluency, we tested whether hard-to-read fonts reduce framing effects. We found no reliable evidence for an effect of hard-to-read fonts on four framing scenarios in a laboratory (final N = 158) and an online study (N = 271)...
October 30, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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