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European Addiction Research

Daniela Krause, Marc Warnecke, Christian G Schuetz, Michael Soyka, Kirsi M Manz, Lisa Proebstl, Felicia Kamp, Agnieszka I Chrobok, Oliver Pogarell, Gabriele Koller
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical and clinical findings suggest a substantial association of the endogenous opioid system in nicotine dependence. The present study investigates the possible dose-dependent influence of naloxone, an unspecific opioid-receptor-antagonist, combined with cue exposure on the physiological state, locomotor activity, craving and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in nicotine-dependent humans. METHODS: Twenty nicotine-dependent, outpatient participants were deprived of nicotine for over 4 h, before receiving challenges with naloxone (1...
November 13, 2018: European Addiction Research
Reinier L Sluiter, Wietske Kievit, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Aart H Schene, Martina Teichert, Marieke J H Coenen, Arnt Schellekens
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are a major contributor to the global burden of disease, and have huge societal impact. Some studies show that AUD patients carrying the G-allele of the OPRM1 variant c.118A>G respond better to naltrexone, resulting in reduced relapse rates compared to carriers of the AA genotype. Genotype-guided treatment allocation of these patients carrying a G-allele to naltrexone could potentially improve the treatment outcome. However, cost-effectiveness of this strategy should be investigated before considering clinical implementation...
November 1, 2018: European Addiction Research
Laia Miquel, Jakob Manthey, Jürgen Rehm, Emili Vela, Montserrat Bustins, Lidia Segura, Eduard Vieta, Joan Colom, Peter Anderson, Antoni Gual
OBJECTIVE: To examine health services use on the basis of alcohol consumption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on patients visiting the Primary Health Care (PHC) settings in Catalonia during 2011 and 2012; these patients had a history of alcohol consumption. Information about outpatient visits in the PHC setting, hospitalizations, specialists' visits and emergency room visits for the year 2013 was obtained from 2 databases (the Information System for the Development of Research in PHC and the Catalan Health Surveillance System)...
October 3, 2018: European Addiction Research
Michiel Boog, Klaartje M van Hest, Tamar Drescher, Margot J Verschuur, Ingmar H A Franken
Substance use disorders (SUD) and personality disorders co-occur frequently. This relationship might be understood by studying schema modes (a key concept in Schema therapy), which explain the dysfunctions characterizing personality disorder patients. In the present study, we compared the schema modes and personality disorder symptoms between alcohol-dependent patients, cocaine-dependent patients and healthy controls. We found indications that specific schema modes are specific for SUD patients. However, no differences between specific subtypes of SUD patients (alcohol- vs...
October 2, 2018: European Addiction Research
Steffen Moritz, Schaimaa Irshaid, Thies Lüdtke, Ingo Schäfer, Marit Hauschildt, Michael Lipp
OBJECTIVES: It is textbook knowledge that individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) show large neurocognitive deficits. However, these patients display a number of additional impairments (e.g., lack of drive and motivation) that may contribute to poor test results. The impact of these secondary mediators has not been explored systematically. Based on prior findings that low performance motivation, a negative attitude toward cognitive assessment, and momentary symptoms compromise neuropsychological test results in depression, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, we examined the possibility that impaired test results in AUD partially represent an epiphenomenon...
August 28, 2018: European Addiction Research
Jørgen G Bramness, Geert Dom, Antoni Gual, Karl Mann, Friedrich Martin Wurst
AIM: This study was aimed at investigating the availability and prescription of different medicinal variants of cannabis and their status in European countries. METHODS: A -web-based survey was sent to all member societies of the -European Federation of Addiction Societies (EUFAS) in 2 waves during the summer of 2017. All 34 member societies in 19 different European countries were invited to participate. RESULTS: We received 28 responses from 17 European countries...
2018: European Addiction Research
Darko Roviš, Maša Černelič Bizjak, Vanja Vasiljev Marchesi, Ana Petelin, Tina Jenuš, Suzana Vidic, Gorazd Drevenšek, Zala Jenko Pražnikar
BACKGROUND: This study has examined the relationships and interactions between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and self-reported risk-taking behaviour in individuals with a history of heroin use undergoing outpatient treatment in comparison to healthy individuals. METHODS: We enrolled 167 heroin users and 86 healthy subjects and examined serum BDNF levels, Val66Met polymorphism, and personal characteristics using Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, Risk-taking (RT) propensity questionnaire, and Personality Assessment Inventory...
2018: European Addiction Research
Jeanette Østergaard, Margaretha Järvinen, Asger Graa Andreasen
Based on longitudinal survey data (2005, 2008, 2015), this paper investigates binge drinking among young people in Denmark. We analyse the relationship between parental alcohol rules in 2005 and the development of their children's heavy episodic drinking from age 15 to 25/26 using a multilevel approach to repeated measures. Two hypotheses are tested. The first is that young people from families with "strict" alcohol rules have a lower level of binge drinking than young people from families with lenient rules...
2018: European Addiction Research
Lucio Boglione, Amedeo De Nicolò, Simone Mornese Pinna, Jessica Cusato, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
Backround: The effect of methadone (MET) during therapy with novel direct-acting antiviral agents is still not fully understood. Currently, no data are available about the influence of MET on daclatasvir (DCV) plasma levels in patients affected by chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The aim of this study was to assess the DCV plasma concentrations in patients treated with sofosbuvir (SOF) plus DCV, with or without ribavirin (RBV) and with or without MET. METHODS: In this analysis, 47 patients were included, treated consecutively with SOF + DCV ± RBV for 24 weeks, from May to October 2015; 22 (46...
2018: European Addiction Research
Carlos Nordt, Lucas Wiessing, Wil Kuijpers, Jeroen Wisselink, Albert Espelt, M Teresa Brugal, Viktor Mravčik, Blanka Nechanská, Erich Seifritz, Marcus Herdener
Heroin users in opioid agonist treatment (OAT) show markedly reduced heroin consumption, less crime and a lower mortality rate. However, the extent of long-term OAT participation over subsequent treatment episodes remains unclear. We analysed the annual proportion of patients in treatment (at least 1 day) since the start of first OAT in 4 European regions: Barcelona (BA) 1996-2012: 8,602 patients; Czech -Republic (CZ) 2000-2014: 4,377 patients; Netherlands (NL) 1994-2014: 33,235 patients, Zurich (ZU) 1992-2015: 11,795...
2018: European Addiction Research
Francesco Oliva, Gabriele Nibbio, Paola Vizzuso, Alessandro Jaretti Sodano, Luca Ostacoli, Sara Carletto, Rocco Luigi Picci
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this prospective study was to estimate gender differences in anxiety, depression, and alcohol use severity among patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) before and after detoxification program and within 12 months after discharge. METHODS: AUD severity, state and trait anxiety, and depression were assessed in 187 patients entering an inpatient alcohol detoxification program. Follow-up assessments were performed at 6 and 12 months after discharge...
2018: European Addiction Research
Marco Cavicchioli, Mariagrazia Movalli, Cesare Maffei
INTRODUCTION: The current study aims to evaluate if and to what extent mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) could promote an incremental effectiveness compared to interventions usually provided in clinical practice to treat Alcohol and Drugs Use Disorders. In line with this aim, we accomplished a meta-analytic review of randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, considering primary and secondary outcomes that comprehensively operationalize treatment efficacy. METHODS: We conducted the online research up to August 31st 2017...
2018: European Addiction Research
Severine Lannoy, Pierre Maurage, Fabien D'Hondt, Joel Billieux, Valerie Dormal
This study evaluated inhibition and performance-monitoring abilities through the explicit processing of alcohol cues. Twenty-two binge drinkers (BD) and 22 control participants performed a speeded Go/No-Go task using pictures of alcohol and soft cans as Go and No-Go targets. This task measures inhibitory control and performance monitoring (i.e., task adjustment through errors and feedback processing) during the explicit processing of alcohol cues. Groups did not significantly differ regarding inhibition abilities...
2018: European Addiction Research
Margit G Proescholdt, Sandra E Müller, Marc Vogel, Undine Lang, Gerhard A Wiesbeck, Wilhelm Breit, Andreas Linde, Marc Walter, Michael Odenwald
AIMS: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant comorbidity in substance use disorders (SUDs). While most studies have addressed trauma/PTSD in abstinent patients, little is known about trauma/PTSD in early detoxification treatment. The current study therefore addresses the systematic evaluation of trauma/PTSD in early inpatient detoxification. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was accomplished in three German-speaking clinics (n = 134) specialized in inpatient detoxification and motivation treatment...
2018: European Addiction Research
Cristina Casajuana, Hugo López-Pelayo, Laia Miquel, María Mercedes Balcells-Oliveró, Joan Colom, Antoni Gual
INTRODUCTION: The Standard Joint Unit (1 SJU = 7 mg of 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol) simplifies the exploration of risky patterns of cannabis use. This study proposes a preliminary quantitative cutoff criterion to screen for cannabis use disorder (CUD). METHODOLOGY: Socio-demographical data and information on cannabis quantities, frequency of use, and risk for CUD (measured with the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) of cannabis users recruited in Barcelona (from February 2015 to June 2016) were collected...
2018: European Addiction Research
Falk Kiefer, Michael Krausz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: European Addiction Research
Shih-Hsien Lin, Po See Chen, Lan-Ting Lee, Sheng-Yu Lee, Hsin Chun Tsai, Wei Tseng Chen, Kao Chin Chen, I Hui Lee, Ru-Band Lu, Yen Kuang Yang
BACKGROUND: Animal studies have demonstrated that oxytocin can influence addiction behaviors and might interact with the dopaminergic system, which is a key component of addiction behaviors. However, related evidence from clinical studies is scarce. The aim of our study was to explore the relationship between plasma oxytocin level and heroin craving among patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment, and to ascertain whether this relationship is moderated by novelty-seeking. METHODS: The study was conducted in a methadone maintenance therapy clinic of a medical center in Taiwan...
2018: European Addiction Research
Maria Neumann, Gerhard Bühringer, Michael Höfler, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Eva Hoch
BACKGROUND: Polysubstance use (PSU) is common among patients with cannabis use (CU) and is related to more severe CU problems. However, it is unclear how PSU predicts CU treatment outcomes beyond CU patterns. We examined the frequency, amount, and class of additionally used substances as predictors for primary and secondary outcomes. METHODS: We conducted crude and adjusted regression analyses for PSU variables as predictors of remission, abstinence, -reduction, and secondary outcomes in 166 help-seeking -patients from a randomized clinical trial of CANDIS, a -cognitive behavioral treatment program...
2018: European Addiction Research
Stefan Dhein, Katrin Schmelmer, Julika Guenther, Aida Salameh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Drug abuse is an increasing problem among young adults in European countries. We wanted to assess the prevalence of methamphetamine and cannabis use in young people and to ask for their socioeconomic, parental and emotional background. METHODS: All pupils (n = 1,087) in the final class of 3 school types (-general school [in Germany: Hauptschule/Regelschule mit Hauptschulabschluss] class 9, regular school [in Germany: Regelschule] class 10, high school [in Germany: Gymnasium] class 10) and the first 2 classes of the vocational school (in Germany: Berufsschule) in the entire rural district of Altenburger Land, a Thuringian county in Germany with a total of 92,344 inhabitants were asked to fill out a 2-page questionnaire...
2018: European Addiction Research
Flavio Moroni, Guido Mannaioni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: European Addiction Research
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