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European Addiction Research

Ian P Albery, Jessica Lowry, Dan Frings, Henry Lee Johnson, Cassandra Hogan, Antony C Moss
BACKGROUND/AIMS: If sexual compulsivity and other addictive behaviours share common aetiology, contemporary proposals about the role of attentional processes in understanding addictive behaviours are relevant. METHODS: To examine attentional biases for sex-related words among sexually active individuals and the relationship between sexual compulsivity and sexual behavioural engagement with attentional bias, 55 sexually active individuals completed a modified Stroop task and the sexual compulsivity scale...
October 1, 2016: European Addiction Research
Thomas Schwitzer, Matthieu P Robert, Anne Giersch, Karine Angioi-Duprez, Isabelle Ingster-Moati, Amandine Pon-Monnier, Raymund Schwan, Vincent Laprevote
Although cannabis is very widespread worldwide, the impact of cannabis on visual function remains poorly understood. This is partly due to numerous difficulties met in developing clinical studies in cannabis users. Here, we report the first documented case of neuroretinal dysfunction after acute cannabis smoking. This observation was favored by the need of an annual ophthalmic evaluation in the context of a chloroquine intake for a systemic lupus erythematosus in a 47-year-old heavy cannabis user. A complete ophthalmic evaluation including visual acuity tests, intraocular pressure, fundoscopic examination, automated 10° central visual field, full-field electroretinogram (ERG) and multifocal ERG was performed twice - 30 min and 5 h after cannabis smoking...
July 5, 2016: European Addiction Research
Louise Penzenstadler, Anne Chatton, Mathias Van Singer, Yasser Khazaal
BACKGROUND: Apps for smartphones are opening an important range of opportunities for improving the care of people with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the quality of English language apps for AUDs and to compare paid and free apps. The keywords 'alcohol', 'alcohol addiction', 'alcohol help' and 'stop drinking' were entered into the iTunes Store search engine. Apps were evaluated using a standardized assessment designed to rate the quality of apps in terms of accountability, interactivity, self-help score and evidence-based content...
2016: European Addiction Research
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: European Addiction Research
Markus Bleckwenn, Lara Heister, Moritz Weckbecker, Klaus Weckbecker, Martin Mücke
BACKGROUND: The reasons for, and the extent of, misuse of prescribed substitution medication as well as parallel consumption of other drugs during substitution-based therapy have still not been adequately researched in Germany. METHODS: This study examines the use of substitution medication in German substitution clinics utilizing a nationwide survey with anonymised questionnaires. RESULTS: The analysis of the 605 questionnaires showed a 30-day consumption prevalence of 8...
2016: European Addiction Research
Jørgen G Bramness, Karl Mann, Friedrich M Wurst
BACKGROUND: Acamprosate, disulfiram (DIS), naltrexone and nalmefene can be used in treating alcohol use disorders. The drugs are, however, underutilized. METHODS: In this survey of marketing status and perceived efficacy, member societies of the European federation for addiction societies were asked to report on the status of these drugs in their country. Results were obtained from 20 European countries showing that the drugs were registered in most countries. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The drugs were mentioned in guidelines in approximately half and were partially or fully reimbursed in half to two-thirds countries...
2016: European Addiction Research
Sebastian Wolff, Julia Holl, Malte Stopsack, Elisabeth A Arens, Anja Höcker, Katharina A Staben, Philipp Hiller, Michael Klein, Ingo Schäfer, Sven Barnow
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Maltreatment in childhood and adolescence is a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adulthood. This association has rarely been investigated in the light of emotion dysregulation. To fill this gap, this study examines emotion dysregulation and SUDs among adults with a history of early maltreatment. METHODS: Comparison of emotion dysregulation in adults with a history of early abuse and neglect who developed either an SUD (n = 105) or no mental disorder (n = 54)...
2016: European Addiction Research
Kamni Sharma Haase, Nikolaj Kunøe, Arild Opheim, Zhanna Gaulen, Anne-Lill Mjølhus Njå, Zill-E-Huma Latif, Kristin Klemmetsby Solli, Lars Tanum
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Treatment for addiction to illicit opioids has, thus far, been limited to 2 main approaches: maintaining physical dependence by administering opioids medically and medication-free abstinence with psychosocial support. Assisted abstinence by taking daily tablets with the opioid antagonist naltrexone is rarely practiced, but it is unclear whether this is due to the limited efficacy of this method or because of user opposition to antagonist medication. Therefore, we wanted to investigate opioid users' interest in antagonist treatment with naltrexone, administered as extended release injection, which supports abstinence by blocking illicit opioids for 4-5 weeks per administration...
2016: European Addiction Research
Anette Søgaard Nielsen, Bent Nielsen, Kjeld Andersen, Kirsten Kaya Roessler, Gerhard Bühringer, Michael Bogenschutz, Claus Thorn Ekstrøm, Jes Søgaard
Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most important lifestyle factors affecting the disease burden in the Western world. The results of treatment in daily practice are modest at best. The aim of the RESCueH programme is to develop and evaluate methods, which are as practice-near as possible, and therefore can be implemented quickly and easily in everyday clinical practice. It is the first clinical alcohol programme to be transatlantic in scope, with implementation in treatment centers located in Denmark, Germany and the US...
2016: European Addiction Research
Marlous Tuithof, Margreet Ten Have, Wim van den Brink, Wilma Vollebergh, Ron de Graaf
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study examines whether it is harmful that subjects with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) in the general population rarely seek treatment. METHODS: Baseline and 3-year follow-up data from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 were used. Treatment utilization covered a 4-year period. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 assessed AUD and other psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Of 154 subjects with baseline 12-month DSM-5 AUD, 35...
2016: European Addiction Research
Tobias Rüther, Amelie Ruderer, Christina Wirth, Veronika Schuler, Verena Lang, Andrea Linhardt, Christoph B Kröger, Oliver Pogarell
AIMS: The present study investigated the feasibility, acceptance and efficacy of a newly developed cognitive behavioral program for smoking cessation/reduction ('Rethink your Smoking' program, RSP) in inpatients with substance use disorder (SUD). METHOD: One hundred ninety-nine inpatients with SUD were randomly assigned to either the RSP (n = 101) or a minimal intervention (MI) program (n = 98). In addition, participants were offered optional nicotine replacement therapy...
2016: European Addiction Research
Gudrun D Bjarnadottir, Andres Magnusson, Bjarni O Rafnar, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Steinn Steingrimsson, Magnus Johannsson, Helena Bragadottir, H Magnus Haraldsson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Methylphenidate (MPH) has been the most commonly used intravenous (i.v.) substance in Iceland in recent years. In Iceland, MPH is available in 3 forms: immediate-release (IR) tablets (MPH IR, short-acting), sustainable-release (SR) capsules (MPH SR, long-acting) and osmotic-release (OROS) tablets (MPH OROS, long-acting). The aims of the study were to compare the pattern and subjective effects of i.v. MPH use to other i.v. psychostimulants and examine whether the pattern of use differs among MPH preparations...
2016: European Addiction Research
Christian Tjagvad, Svetlana Skurtveit, Kristian Linnet, Ljubica Vukelic Andersen, Dorte J Christoffersen, Thomas Clausen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increasing rates of overdose deaths involving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) medications and particularly methadone have been observed concurrently with the implementation of liberal OMT strategies (i.e. minimum of control and high doses prescribed). This study examined methadone-related overdose deaths in a liberal OMT programme. METHODS: Drug-overdose deaths (n = 130) with detection of methadone in Copenhagen, Aarhus, and Odense Municipality, Denmark, during the period 2008-2011 were identified from a registry...
2016: European Addiction Research
Pablo Barrio, Lidia Teixidor, Naira Rico, Pol Bruguera, Lluisa Ortega, José Luis Bedini, Antoni Gual
AIMS: To test the screening performance of urinary ethyl glucuronide (EtG) under routine clinical conditions in a sample of alcohol-dependent outpatients, comparing it against urinary ethanol, self reports and clinical judgment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study under routine conditions was conducted in February 2015, where 613 consecutive urinary samples, provided by 188 outpatients with alcohol use disorders, were analyzed for ethanol and EtG (cut-off level = 500 ng/ml)...
2016: European Addiction Research
Kirsten Lochbuehler, Kathrin Schuck, Roy Otten, Linda Ringlever, Marieke Hiemstra
AIMS: We summarized and discussed the empirical evidence for an association between parental smoking and smoking-related cognitions among youth and for the mediating role of smoking-related cognitions in the relation between parental and youth smoking behaviour. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of articles published between 1980 and February 2015 using the databases PsychInfo and PubMed. RESULTS: The systematic search resulted in 41 eligible studies...
2016: European Addiction Research
Eva Hoch, Ulrich W Preuss, Marica Ferri, Roland Simon
BACKGROUND: Existing cannabis treatment programs reach only a very limited proportion of people with cannabis-related problems. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of digital interventions applied outside the health care system in reducing problematic cannabis use. METHODS: We systematically searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2015), PubMed (2009-2015), Medline (2009-2015), Google Scholar (2015) and article reference lists for potentially eligible studies...
2016: European Addiction Research
Tzu-Yun Wang, Sheng-Yu Lee, Yi-Lun Chung, Shiou-Lan Chen, Chia-Ling Li, Yun-Hsuan Chang, Liang-Jen Wang, Po See Chen, Shih-Heng Chen, Chun-Hsien Chu, San-Yuan Huang, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Tsai-Hsin Hsieh, I Hui Lee, Kao Chin Chen, Yen Kuang Yang, Jau-Shyong Hong, Ru-Band Lu
BACKGROUND: Different drug dependencies may have unique genetic vulnerabilities. Changes in serotonin availability and function have been linked to addiction. We investigated whether 2 serotonergic polymorphisms, TPH1 A218C (rs1800532) and 5-HTT-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) (rs25531), are differently associated with alcohol or opiate dependence. METHODS: Alcohol-dependent patients (n = 292), opiate-dependent patients (n = 309), and healthy controls (n = 301) were recruited from the Han Chinese population in Taiwan...
2016: European Addiction Research
Jan Klimas, Evan Wood, Paul Nguyen, Huiru Dong, Michael John Milloy, Thomas Kerr, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: There is equivocal evidence regarding whether people who use heroin substitute heroin for alcohol upon entry to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). We aimed to examine the impact of MMT enrolment on the onset of heavy drinking among people who use heroin. METHODS: We derived data from prospective, community-based cohorts of people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada, between December 1, 2005, and May 31, 2014. Multivariable extended Cox regression analysis examined the effect of MMT enrolment on the onset of heavy drinking among people who used heroin at baseline...
2016: European Addiction Research
Chiao-Yun Chen, Ju-Yu Yen, Peng-Wei Wang, Gin-Chung Liu, Cheng-Fang Yen, Chih-Hung Ko
AIMS: A possible addiction mechanism has been represented by altered functional connectivity (FC) in the resting state. The aim of this study was to evaluate the FCs of the insula and nucleus accumbens among subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). METHODS: We recruited 30 males with IGD and 30 controls and evaluated their FC using functional magnetic imaging scanning under resting, a state with relaxation, closed eyes, with inducement to think of nothing systematically, become motionless, and instructed not to fall asleep...
2016: European Addiction Research
Falk Kiefer, Wim van den Brink, Antoni Gual, Karl Mann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: European Addiction Research
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