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European Addiction Research

Jürgen Rehm, Charlotte Probst
With the epidemiological transition, causes of death shifted from communicable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and life expectancy increased, as these NCD deaths occurred later in life. However, in the United States, over the past years, life expectancy has been stagnating or decreasing despite decreasing NCD mortality rates. Analyses of the most important underlying causes of death with increasing premature mortality reveal that psychoactive substance use played a crucial role for these increases. Furthermore, it can be shown, that a high proportion of the increased premature mortality and decreased life expectancies happened in lower socio-economic strata...
April 6, 2018: European Addiction Research
Malahat Khalili, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Behrang Shadloo, Ramin Mojtabai, Karl Mann, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili
AIMS: Addiction science has made great progress in the past decades. We conducted a scientometric study in order to quantify the number of publications and the growth rate globally, regionally, and at country levels. METHODS: In October 2015, we searched the Scopus database using the general keywords of addiction or drug-use disorders combined with specific terms regarding 4 groups of illicit drugs - cannabis, opioids, cocaine, and other stimulants or hallucinogens...
April 6, 2018: European Addiction Research
Cleo L Crunelle, Wim van den Brink, Franz Moggi, Maija Konstenius, Johan Franck, Frances R Levin, Geurt van de Glind, Zsolt Demetrovics, Corné Coetzee, Mathias Luderer, Arnt Schellekens, Frieda Matthys
Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occurs with substance use disorders (SUD) and is associated with early onset and more severe development of SUD and with reduced treatment effectiveness. Screening tools allow for a good recognition of possible ADHD in adults with SUD and should be used routinely, followed by an ADHD diagnostic process initiated as soon as possible. Simultaneous and integrated treatment of ADHD and SUD, using a combination of pharmaco- and psychotherapy, is recommended...
2018: European Addiction Research
Stéphane Legleye, Alexandra Rouquette
The Cannabis abuse screening test (CAST) is a short test used for screening those with problematic cannabis use. Recently, its invariance toward age was tested in an Israeli sample of cannabis users, but this study had some sample and methodological limitations: it was conducted in a volunteer sample aged 18-40 and considered the CAST items as continuous variables, although they are based on 5-point Likert scales. We thus tested the CAST invariance toward age (15-24, 25-34, and 35-64 years old) using a French probabilistic sample of 1,351 past-year cannabis users aged 15-64 and using appropriate methods for categorical items and survey weights...
2018: European Addiction Research
Raquel Vázquez-Mourelle, Eduardo Carracedo-Martinez, Adolfo Figueiras
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate two interventions on anabolic-androgenic-steroids (AAS) dispensation in retail pharmacies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in a north-western region of Spain. Data were the AAS supplied by wholesale drug distributors to retail pharmacies over a period of 102 months. It is designed as an ecological time-series study; the dependent variables were daily defined doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day of each drug. The two interventions evaluated were: (1) an inspection program intended for those retail pharmacies where there was an irregular dispensation and (2) a regulation put forth forcing these pharmacies to carry out additional registers...
2018: European Addiction Research
Björn Philips, Peter Wennberg, Per Konradsson, Johan Franck
AIMS: There is a scarcity of clinical trials on psychological treatments for concurrent borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorder (SUD). Mentalization-based treatment (MBT) have shown efficacy in several trials on BPD. The aim of the present study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of MBT for concurrent BPD and SUD. METHODS: Patients (n = 46) with concurrent BPD and SUD were randomized either to MBT in combination with SUD treatment (n = 24) or to SUD treatment alone (n = 22)...
2018: European Addiction Research
Guido Mannaioni, Cecilia Lanzi, Michela Lotti, Valentina Galli, Arianna Totti, Ilaria Pacileo, Maria Sili, Chiara Pracucci, Arianna Dilaghi, Lara Bertieri, Mariarita Quaranta, Francesco Orsini, Brunella Occupati, Assia Michahelles, Riccardo Ciuti, Elisa Bianchini, Giancarlo Fabbro, Annibale Biggeri, Emanuela Masini, Flavio Moroni
AIMS: We aimed to improve the retention in treatment and therapeutic outcome of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients by adjusting the oral methadone dose in order to reach a "target" plasma R-methadone level (80-250 ng/mL). METHODS: A multicenter randomized controlled trial was organized. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat statistical analysis showed that repeated dose adjustments performed in order to obtain therapeutic plasma R-methadone levels did not improve retention in treatment of heroin-dependent patients...
2018: European Addiction Research
Kirsten J Braatveit, Torbjørn Torsheim, Oddbjørn Hove
AIMS: To investigate the direct effect of different childhood difficulties on adult intelligence coefficient (IQ) and their possible indirect effect through the mediating pathways of education and severity substance use. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety in-patients aged 19-64. The participants had abstained from substance use for at least 6 weeks and had different substance use profiles. MEASUREMENTS: Substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric illnesses were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition criteria...
2018: European Addiction Research
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2017: European Addiction Research
Alexander Glahn, Mathias Rhein, Helge Frieling, Rilana Schuster, Alain El Aissami, Stefan Bleich, Thomas Hillemacher, Marc Muschler
BACKGROUND: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is well known in psychiatric disorders to modulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Disturbances of ANP have been described in early abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. This is the first longitudinal investigation on cytosine-phosphatidyl-guanine (CpG)-island promoter methylation of the ANP gene in the blood of tobacco-dependent patients. METHODS: In a longitudinal approach, we investigated whether changes in ANP serum levels correlated to CpG methylation of the respective gene promoters on days 1, 7, and 14 of tobacco withdrawal...
2017: European Addiction Research
Kristine Fiksdal Abel, Edle Ravndal, Thomas Clausen, Jørgen G Bramness
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among patients in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is important for treatment optimization and yet limited. We investigated the prevalence of ADHD symptoms, and factors associated with high ADHD symptom burden in a group of Norwegian OMT patients. METHODS: We interviewed individuals entering OMT across Norway in 2 steps between 2012 and 2016. ADHD symptoms were measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS; n = 175)...
2017: European Addiction Research
Ansgar Rougemont-Bücking, Veronique S Grazioli, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, Gerhard Gmel, Joseph Studer
Intense stress increases substance use (SU). However, little is known about the extent to which distinctive forms of stress should be weighted with regard to their effects on SU. This study aimed to determine whether family-related stress factors (FSF) influenced SU in a different way than external stress factors (ESF). Data was drawn from a Swiss cohort study on SU risk factors (C-SURF), involving 5,308 young adult men. Twelve month use of alcohol and of illicit substances was assessed. FSF and ESF for the time period preceding SU were measured...
2017: European Addiction Research
Peggy Schmidt, Annina Haberthür, Michael Soyka
This study is an evaluation of cognitive functioning in formerly opioid-dependent adults after at least 1 year of abstinence. Participants (45 formerly opioid-dependent patients, referred to as abstainers, and 45 matched healthy controls) completed a structured screening and subsequent cognitive test battery covering intelligence, learning and memory, attention, and executive functions. Many cognitive functions were comparable between long-term abstainers and healthy controls, and we found few relevant differences...
2017: European Addiction Research
Daniel Feingold, Nehama Goldberger, Ziona Haklai, Shaul Lev-Ran
AIMS: To explore previously unreported rates and trends in opioid-related mortality in Israel, 2005-2014. METHODS: Data was obtained from the national database on causes of death. Drug poisoning deaths were divided into opioid-related deaths and deaths related to other drugs according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code of underlying cause, and included drug poisoning of accidental, intentional or undetermined intent. Age-adjusted rates were calculated per 100,000 population...
2017: European Addiction Research
Adrian Groh, Kirsten Jahn, Alexandra Burkert, Alexandra Neyazi, Laura Schares, Eva Janke, Marie Rehme, Rilana Schuster, Thomas Hillemacher, Stefan Bleich, Helge Frieling, Annemarie Heberlein
AIMS: The nerve growth factor (NGF) and the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) may be of importance for psychiatric diseases including substance use disorders. The aim of the study was to identify differences in the regulation of both neuropeptides via the DNA-methylation status of the promotor regions of NGF and VEGF-A in different forms of maintenance therapy for opioid dependence and the related stress regulation via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. METHODS: We compared methylation levels of opioid-dependent patients receiving treatment with diamorphine (n = 28) or levomethadone (n = 54) and similar levels in a healthy control group (n = 72)...
2017: European Addiction Research
Ilse N Beaufort, Gerdien H De Weert-Van Oene, Victor A J Buwalda, J Rob J de Leeuw, Anna E Goudriaan
Depression is a common co-morbid disorder in substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Hence, valid instruments are needed to screen for depression in this subpopulation. In this study, the predictive validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) for the presence of a depressive disorder was investigated in SUD inpatients. Furthermore, differences between DASS-21 scores at intake and those recorded one week after inpatient detoxification were assessed in order to determine the measurement point of the assessment of the DASS-21 leading to the best predictive validity...
2017: European Addiction Research
Lisa Strada, Gabriele Helga Franke, Bernd Schulte, Jens Reimer, Uwe Verthein
BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QOL) of patients in opioid substitution treatment (OST) is increasingly being addressed in research. However, no disease- or treatment-specific instrument is available to assess the QOL of this target population. The purpose of this project was to develop the first QOL instrument for OST patients. METHODS: Focus groups with 60 OST patients were analyzed using thematic analysis to elicit key QOL themes as perceived by patients. Identified themes were developed into items and refined through pilot testing and cognitive debriefing...
2017: European Addiction Research
Janne Härkönen, Mauri Aalto, Jaana Suvisaari, Tomi Lintonen, Tomi Mäki-Opas, Sebastian Peña, Pia Mäkelä
AIM: To examine the long-term predictors of persistence of risky drinking in a baseline group of risky drinkers in whom alcohol use disorder had not been diagnosed. METHODS: The data was derived from a representative sample of the Finnish adult population aged 30 years or more, surveyed at 2 time points in the years 2000 (n = 5,726) and 2011 (n = 3,848, 67.2% of the baseline sample). Risky drinking was defined using BSQF-measurement (for men, 21 standard UK drinks or more per week; for women 14+ drinks) and not having alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence...
2017: European Addiction Research
Karl Mann, Henri-Jean Aubin, Katie Witkiewitz
Abstinence from alcohol has been the prevailing treatment goal for individuals with alcohol dependence (AD) within the context of specialty alcohol treatment. Yet, alcohol use has been conceptualized as existing on a continuum. Importantly, most people who meet criteria for AD and could benefit from treatment never receive treatment. About half of these individuals do not seek treatment because they report a desire to continue drinking. To increase acceptability of treatment, reductions in alcohol consumption have been examined as alternative outcomes in treatment trials for AD...
2017: European Addiction Research
Hannah Sychla, Gerhard Gründer, Sarah Edith Lammertz
BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective study was to compare the effectivity and tolerability of diazepam and clomethiazole in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in a large clinical sample. METHODS: The data of 566 patients admitted to an intensive care psychiatric unit in Germany (2010-2014) were evaluated. The course of withdrawal was analyzed on a matched sample (n = 152) consisting of a diazepam group (n = 76) and a clomethiazole group (n = 76)...
2017: European Addiction Research
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