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European Addiction Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618425/electronic-cigarettes-in-germany-patterns-of-use-and-perceived-health-improvement
#1
Kirsten Lehmann, Silke Kuhn, Jens Reimer
AIMS: The aim of the study was to characterize e-cigarette users in terms of their consumption patterns, motives, and the perceived health benefits they experience from using e-cigarettes. DESIGN: The study was a cross-sectional online survey in 2015. A total of 3,320 German e-cigarette users were enrolled. A total of 91.5% were former tobacco smokers, 7.5% used both e-cigarettes and tobacco products, 1.0% were never-smokers. RESULTS: No differences were found between ex-smokers and dual users with regard to sociodemographic and smoking history (mean age 40...
June 16, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618419/addictive-potential-of-internet-applications-and-differential-correlates-of-problematic-use-in-internet-gamers-versus-generalized-internet-users-in-a-representative-sample-of-adolescents
#2
Tabea Rosenkranz, Kai W Müller, Michael Dreier, Manfred E Beutel, Klaus Wölfling
AIMS: This paper examines the addictive potential of 8 different Internet applications, distinguishing male and female users. Moreover, differential correlates of problematic use are investigated in Internet gamers (IG) and generalized Internet users (GIU). METHOD: In a representative sample of 5,667 adolescents aged 12-19 years, use of Internet applications, problematic Internet use, psychopathologic symptoms (emotional problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and psychosomatic complaints), personality (conscientiousness and extraversion), psychosocial correlates (perceived stress and self-efficacy), and coping strategies were assessed...
June 16, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595196/two-year-effects-of-a-classroom-based-smoking-prevention-and-cessation-intervention-program
#3
María Teresa Gonzálvez, José Pedro Espada, Mireia Orgilés, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND: Project EX is a classroom-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention program that has been well evaluated and designed for assessing the prevention and cessation effects among adolescents in Spain. However, its long-term efficacy is still unknown. This study deals with the outcomes of a 2-year follow-up evaluation of Project EX. METHODS: The intervention was tested using a clustered randomized controlled trial involving 1,546 Spanish students from 3 program schools and 3 control schools...
June 9, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595191/comparing-medical-and-recreational-cannabis-users-on-socio-demographic-substance-and-medication-use-and-health-and-disability-characteristics
#4
Sybil Goulet-Stock, Sergio Rueda, Afshin Vafaei, Anca Ialomiteanu, Jakob Manthey, Jürgen Rehm, Benedikt Fischer
BACKGROUND: While recreational cannabis use is common, medical cannabis programs have proliferated across North America, including a federal program in Canada. Few comparisons of medical and recreational cannabis users (RCUs) exist; this study compared these groups on key characteristics. METHODS: Data came from a community-recruited sample of formally approved medical cannabis users (MCUs; n = 53), and a sub-sample of recreational cannabis users (RCUs; n = 169) from a representative adult survey in Ontario (Canada)...
June 9, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511182/cannabis-use-among-people-entering-drug-treatment-in-europe-a-growing-phenomenon
#5
Linda Montanari, Bruno Guarita, Jane Mounteney, Nina Zipfel, Roland Simon
This paper explores European and national trends in specialised drug treatment entry for cannabis-related problems. The analysis is based on data for the years 2003-2014 from 22 European countries. Between 2003 and 2014, the overall number and proportion of primary cannabis-related first-time entrants increased significantly. A joinpoint regression analysis indicates that the overall increase of cannabis treatment entries is continuous, although country-related differences are observed. Possible explanations for the increase and different time trends are discussed including an increase in cannabis prevalence and cannabis-related problems, changes in risk perception, increases in cannabis potency, changes in referral practices and increased availability and accessibility of treatment services...
May 17, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402978/telecommunications-network-measurements-of-online-gambling-behavior-in-switzerland-a-feasibility-study
#6
Raoul Bitar, Carlos Nordt, Martin Grosshans, Marcus Herdener, Erich Seifritz, Jochen Mutschler
BACKGROUND: Methodological shortcomings of gambling studies relying on self-report or on data sets derived from gambling operators tend to result in biased conclusions. The aim of this study was to analyze online gambling behavior using a novel network database approach. METHODS: From October 13 to October 26, 2014, telecommunications network data from a major telecommunications provider in Switzerland were analyzed. Netflows between mobile devices and a poker operator were quantified to measure the gambling duration and session number...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376505/six-year-outcome-of-opioid-maintenance-treatment-in-heroin-dependent-patients-results-from-a-naturalistic-study-in-a-nationally-representative-sample
#7
Michael Soyka, Jens Strehle, Jürgen Rehm, Gerhard Bühringer, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
BACKGROUND: In many countries, the opioid agonists, buprenorphine and methadone, are licensed for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. Many short-term studies have been performed, but little is known about long-term effects. Therefore, this study described over 6 years (1) mortality, retention and abstinence rates and (2) changes in concomitant drug use and somatic and mental health. METHODS: A prevalence sample of n = 2,694 maintenance patients, recruited from a nationally representative sample of n = 223 substitution doctors, was evaluated in a 6-year prospective-longitudinal naturalistic study...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351029/cytopathological-changes-induced-by-the-crack-use-in-oral-mucosa
#8
Milena Binhame Albini, Ingra Taís Malacarne, Thiago Beltrami Dias Batista, Antônio Adilson Soares de Lima, Maria Angela Naval Machado, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues Johann, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro Rosa, Luciana Reis Azevedo-Alanis
AIMS: To evaluate cytological alterations, inflammation, and microbial charge of the oral mucosa epithelium in crack users in in terms of the amount and duration of use. METHODS: Two hundred thirty four crack users (case group) and 120 non-users (control group) participated in this study. Clinically healthy epithelial cells were collected from the posterior mouth floor, using the conventional exfoliative cytology. Some of the aspects evaluated were as follows: Papanicolaou classification, nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratio (NA/CA), inflammation, microbial charge, keratinization, enucleated superficial cells, and binucleation...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351023/effect-of-door-locking-policy-on-inpatient-treatment-of-substance-use-and-dual-disorders
#9
Regine Steinauer, Christian G Huber, Sylvie Petitjean, Gerhard A Wiesbeck, Kenneth M Dürsteler, Undine E Lang, Christian Seifert, Katja Andreeff, Michael Krausz, Marc Walter, Marc Vogel
OBJECTIVE: Substance use treatment is often performed inside locked wards. We investigate the effects of adopting a policy of open-door treatment for a substance use treatment and dual diagnosis ward. METHODS: This is a prospective open-label study investigating 3-month study periods before opening (P1), immediately after (P2), and 1 year after the first period (P3). Data on committed patients, coercion (seclusion, forced medication, absconding events with subsequent police search), violence, and substance use was collected daily...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268221/cross-cultural-validity-in-self-reported-alcohol-use
#10
Sharon R Sznitman, Shiran Bord, Wafa Elias, Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Yoram Shiftan, Orna Baron-Epel
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Little evidence is available on whether respondents from divergent sociocultural populations report alcohol consumption in systematically similar ways. Therefore, this study examined whether the validity of self-reported alcohol use differed between Arab and Jewish Israeli pub patrons. METHODS: The analytical sample consisted of 227 Arab and 900 Jewish Israeli pub patrons who were approached as they left pubs and asked to record their Breath Alcohol Content (BrAC) value and complete a questionnaire that probed into their alcohol use...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268215/randomised-comparison-of-a-novel-buprenorphine-oral-lyophilisate-versus-existing-buprenorphine-sublingual-tablets-in-opioid-dependent-patients-a-first-in-patient-phase-ii-randomised-open-label-safety-study
#11
John Strang, Kylie Reed, Karolina Bogdanowicz, James Bell, Rob van der Waal, Jenny Keen, Pete Beavan, Shelagh Baillie, Alastair Knight
AIMS: To test the safety of new buprenorphine oral lyophilisate wafer ("bup-lyo") versus standard sub-lingual buprenorphine ("bup-SL"). DESIGN: Randomised (2:1) open-label study; opioid-dependent subjects; subsequent partial cross-over. SETTINGS: Specialised clinical trials facility and addictions treatment facility. PARTICIPANTS: Opioid-dependent subjects (n = 36) commencing buprenorphine maintenance (personalised dose-titration) including patients co-using alcohol, cocaine and benzodiazepines (below thresholds)...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178695/german-guidelines-on-screening-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorders
#12
Karl Mann, Anil Batra, Mira Fauth-Bühler, Eva Hoch
Evidence-based strategies for screening, diagnosing and treating alcohol use disorders (AUD) are instrumental in the early and better management of individuals at risk for or suffering from AUD. However, existing guidelines vary and may be biased by conflicts of interests. Unbiased recommendations can be achieved only if sufficient detail is provided on the composition and representativeness of author groups, methodological rigor, handling of potential conflicts of interest and financing. This paper presents the first evidence-based guidelines for AUD from German-speaking countries...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960169/orbitofrontal-cortex-volume-and-effortful-control-as-prospective-risk-factors-for-substance-use-disorder-in-adolescence
#13
Ali Cheetham, Nicholas B Allen, Sarah Whittle, Julian Simmons, Murat Yücel, Dan I Lubman
BACKGROUND: Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction has been proposed to increase the risk for developing a substance use disorder (SUD) during adolescence. In this study, we suggest that a reduction in OFC volumes might underlie temperament-based risk factors for SUD, and examined whether smaller OFC volumes during early adolescence could predict later development of SUD. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Adolescents (n = 107; 58 male, 49 female) underwent structural MRI and completed a self-report measure of temperamental effortful control at age 12...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898427/cocaine-withdrawal-reduces-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-ergic-transmission-and-gephyrin-expression-at-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference-rats-which-shows-increased-cocaine-seeking
#14
Wenqiong Yang, Hongsheng He, Yan Pan, Falan Duan, Dan Zhao, Bo Hu, Qingzhen Zhou, Wanhong Liu
AIMS: Chronic cocaine abuse decreases the inhibitory synaptic transmission via unknown mechanisms, while pharmacologically augmenting gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) transmission attenuates cocaine craving. Here, we propose that prolonged cocaine withdrawal downregulates GABAergic transmission and its important regulator gephyrin in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in cocaine-conditioned place-preference (CPP) rats. METHODS: CPP test, patch clamp, and Western blot analysis are engaged to test this proposal...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832645/contextual-factors-and-mental-distress-as-possible-predictors-of-hazardous-drinking-in-norwegian-medical-doctors-a-15-year-longitudinal-nationwide-study
#15
Javed Iqbal Mahmood, Kjersti Støen Grotmol, Martin Tesli, Per Vaglum, Reidar Tyssen
BACKGROUND: We have previously identified long-term individual predictors of hazardous drinking in doctors, but longitudinal studies on contextual factors (work and life stress) and mental distress being independently linked to hazardous drinking over the first 15 years of a medical career are lacking. METHODS: Two nationwide cohorts of Norwegian doctors (n = 1,052) from all 4 Norwegian universities were surveyed in their final year of medical school (1993/1994 and 1999) (T1), and 4 (T2), 10 (T3), and 15 (T4) years later...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794567/budgetary-impact-analysis-of-reimbursement-varenicline-for-the-smoking-cessation-treatment-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-or-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-national-health-system-perspective
#16
Sergio Cedillo, Antoni Sicras-Mainar, Carlos A Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime Fernández de Bobadilla, Javier Rejas-Gutiérrez
AIMS: The study aimed to assess the budgetary impact (BI) of reimbursing varenicline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), type-2 diabetes mellitus (t2-DM) or cardiovascular diseases (CVD). METHODS: The BI was estimated comparing the current non-reimbursed scenario versus a projected reimbursed scenario using the Spanish National Health System (SNHS) perspective. A hybrid model was developed using epidemiological data and Markov chains to estimate smoking cessation rates with varenicline during a 5-year horizon...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694756/exploring-the-relationship-between-sexual-compulsivity-and-attentional-bias-to-sex-related-words-in-a-cohort-of-sexually-active-individuals
#17
Ian P Albery, Jessica Lowry, Dan Frings, Henry Lee Johnson, Cassandra Hogan, Antony C Moss
BACKGROUND/AIMS: If sexual compulsivity and other addictive behaviours share common aetiology, contemporary proposals about the role of attentional processes in understanding addictive behaviours are relevant. METHODS: To examine attentional biases for sex-related words among sexually active individuals and the relationship between sexual compulsivity and sexual behavioural engagement with attentional bias, 55 sexually active individuals completed a modified Stroop task and the sexual compulsivity scale...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598779/quality-of-smartphone-apps-related-to-alcohol-use-disorder
#18
Louise Penzenstadler, Anne Chatton, Mathias Van Singer, Yasser Khazaal
BACKGROUND: Apps for smartphones are opening an important range of opportunities for improving the care of people with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the quality of English language apps for AUDs and to compare paid and free apps. The keywords 'alcohol', 'alcohol addiction', 'alcohol help' and 'stop drinking' were entered into the iTunes Store search engine. Apps were evaluated using a standardized assessment designed to rate the quality of apps in terms of accountability, interactivity, self-help score and evidence-based content...
2016: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513759/erratum
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504977/misuse-of-substitution-drugs-in-the-substitution-based-therapy
#20
Markus Bleckwenn, Lara Heister, Moritz Weckbecker, Klaus Weckbecker, Martin Mücke
BACKGROUND: The reasons for, and the extent of, misuse of prescribed substitution medication as well as parallel consumption of other drugs during substitution-based therapy have still not been adequately researched in Germany. METHODS: This study examines the use of substitution medication in German substitution clinics utilizing a nationwide survey with anonymised questionnaires. RESULTS: The analysis of the 605 questionnaires showed a 30-day consumption prevalence of 8...
2016: European Addiction Research
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