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Current Oncology

P M Cheon, R Rebello, A Naqvi, S Popovic, M Bonert, A Kapoor
Anastomosing hemangioma (ah) is a rare subtype of primary vascular tumour that can, clinically and radiologically, present similarly to malignant renal tumours such as renal cell carcinoma (rcc) and angiosarcoma. Rarely seen in the genitourinary system, the ah we report here occurred in a 40-year-old male patient diagnosed initially with rcc based on imaging and successfully treated by laparoscopic left radical nephrectomy, with adrenal sparing and perihilar lymph node dissection. The pathologic diagnosis of ah can be challenging on small biopsy specimens; we therefore opine that it is appropriate to excise these lesions to facilitate diagnosis and definitively exclude common renal cancers...
June 2018: Current Oncology
T Schmid, M Buess
We report on a patient with an adenocarcinoma of the lung harbouring a BRAF V600E mutation who benefited from combination therapy with dabrafenib-trametinib after developing resistance to vemurafenib. To our knowledge, our report shows, for the first time, that combination therapy with dabrafenib-trametinib can overcome vemurafenib resistance in a BRAF V600E-mutated adenocarcinoma of the lung.
June 2018: Current Oncology
D N Ionescu, M R Downes, A Christofides, M S Tsao
Checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death 1 protein (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are demonstrating promising efficacy and appear to be well tolerated in a number of tumour types. In non-small-cell lung cancer, head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma, and urothelial carcinoma, outcomes appear particularly favourable in patients with high PD-L1 expression. However, assays for PD-L1 have been developed for individual agents, and they use different antibody clones, immunohistochemistry staining protocols, scoring algorithms, and cut-offs...
June 2018: Current Oncology
D Berger-Richardson, R S Xu, R A Gladdy, J A McCart, A Govindarajan, C J Swallow
Background: Some surgeons change gloves and instruments after the extirpative phase of cancer surgery with the intent of reducing the risk of local and wound recurrence. Although this practice is conceptually appealing, the evidence that gloves or instruments act as vectors of cancer-cell seeding in the clinical setting is weak. To determine the potential effect of further investigation of this question, we surveyed the practices and beliefs of a broad spectrum of surgeons who operate on cancer patients...
June 2018: Current Oncology
K Kohli, R Corns, K Vinnakota, P Steiner, C Elith, D Schellenberg, W Kwan, A Karvat
Malnutrition is a frequent manifestation in patients with head-and-neck cancer undergoing radiation therapy and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Thus, body composition is an important component of an overall evaluation of nutrition in cancer patients. Malnutrition is characterized by weight loss, loss of muscle mass, changes in cell membrane integrity, and alterations in fluid balance. Bioelectrical impedance analysis is a method to analyze body composition and includes parameters such as intracellular water content, extracellular water content, and cell membrane integrity in the form of a phase angle (Φ)...
June 2018: Current Oncology
G Park, G M Johnston, R Urquhart, G Walsh, M McCallum
Background: Cancer-patient navigators who are oncology nurses support and connect patients to resources throughout the cancer care trajectory, including end of life. Although qualitative and cohort studies of navigated patients have been reported, no population-based studies were found. The present population-based study compared demographic, disease, and outcome characteristics for decedents who had been diagnosed with cancer by whether they did or did not see a navigator. Methods: This retrospective study used patient-based administrative data in Nova Scotia (cancer registry, death certificates, navigation visits) to generate descriptive statistics...
June 2018: Current Oncology
C A Heykoop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Oncology
J Tung, C E Politis, J Chadder, J Han, J Niu, S Fung, R Rahal, C C Earle
Colorectal cancer (crc) is the 2nd most common cancer in Canada and the 2nd leading cause of cancer death. That heavy burden can be mitigated given the preventability of crc through lifestyle changes and screening. Here, we describe the extent of the variation in crc incidence rates across Canada and the disparities, by jurisdiction, in the prevalence of modifiable risk factors known to contribute to the crc burden. Findings suggest that there is a north-south and east-west gradient in crc modifiable risk factors, including excess weight, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, with the highest prevalence of risk factors typically found in the territories and Atlantic provinces...
June 2018: Current Oncology
S M Davidson, R G Boldt, A V Louie
Background: Because continued cigarette smoking after a cancer diagnosis is associated with detrimental outcomes, supporting cancer patients with smoking cessation is imperative. We evaluated the effect of the Smoking Cessation Program at the London Regional Cancer Program (lrcp) over a 2-year period. Methods: The Smoking Cessation Program at the lrcp began in March 2014. New patients are screened for tobacco use. Tobacco users are counselled about the benefits of cessation and are offered referral to the program...
June 2018: Current Oncology
K Martell, A Fairchild, B LeGerrier, R Sinha, S Baker, H Liu, A Ghose, I A Olivotto, M Kerba
Background: A comprehensive assessment of cannabis use by patients with cancer has not previously been reported. In this study, we aimed to characterize patient perspectives about cannabis and its use. Methods: An anonymous survey about cannabis use was offered to patients 18 years of age and older attending 2 comprehensive and 2 community cancer centres, comprising an entire provincial health care jurisdiction in Canada (ethics id: hreba-17011). Results: Of 3138 surveys distributed, 2040 surveys were returned (65%), with 1987 being sufficiently complete for analysis (response rate: 63%)...
June 2018: Current Oncology
N A Nixon, H Lim, C Elser, Y J Ko, R Lee-Ying, V C Tam
Background: Despite the high incidence and burden of cancer in Canadians, medical oncology (mo) rotations are not mandatory in most Canadian internal medicine (im) residency training programs. Methods: All im residents scheduled for a mo rotation at 4 Canadian teaching cancer centres between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 were invited to complete an online survey before and after their rotation. The survey was designed to evaluate perceptions of oncology, comfort in managing cancer patients, and basic oncology knowledge...
June 2018: Current Oncology
A Fundytus, W M Hopman, N Hammad, J J Biagi, R Sullivan, V Vanderpuye, B Seruga, G Lopes, M Sengar, M D Brundage, C M Booth
Background: In 2000, a Canadian task force recommended that medical oncologists (mos) meet a target of 160-175 new patient consultations per year. Here, we report the Canadian results of a global survey of mo workload compared with mo workload in other high-income countries (hics). Methods: Using a snowball method, an online survey was distributed by national oncology societies to chemotherapy-prescribing physicians in 22 hics (World Bank criteria). The survey was distributed within Canada to all members of the Canadian Association of Medical Oncologists...
June 2018: Current Oncology
M Luctkar-Flude, A Aiken, M A McColl, J Tranmer
Purpose: As cancer centres move forward with earlier discharge of stable survivors of early-stage breast cancer (bca) to primary care follow-up, it is important to address known knowledge and practice gaps among primary care providers (pcps). In the present qualitative descriptive study, we examined the practice context that influences implementation of existing clinical practice guidelines for providing such care. The purpose was to determine the challenges, strengths, and opportunities related to implementing comprehensive evidence-based bca survivorship care guidelines by pcps in southeastern Ontario...
June 2018: Current Oncology
G Chaput
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Oncology
A M Rosenblum, M Chasen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Oncology
T Younis, B Colwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Oncology
N A Nixon, M B Hannouf, S Verma
Cancer therapy has evolved significantly with increased adoption of biologic agents ("biologics"). That evolution is especially true for her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2)-positive breast cancer with the introduction of trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against the her2 receptor, which, in combination with chemotherapy, significantly improves survival in both metastatic and early disease. Although the efficacy of biologics is undeniable, their expense is a significant contributor to the increasing cost of cancer care...
June 2018: Current Oncology
J Lemieux, S Audet
Background: Life expectancy for women with metastatic breast cancer has improved since the early 2000s, in part because of the introduction of novel therapies, including chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted agents. However, those treatments can come at a cost for the patient (short- and long-term toxicities from treatment) and at a financial cost for the health care system. Given the increase in the number of costly anticancer agents being introduced into the clinical setting, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (asco) and the European Society for Medical Oncology (esmo) have developed a system to quantify the value of new cancer treatments in terms of benefit, toxicities, and costs...
June 2018: Current Oncology
N Kumar Tyagi, S Dhesy-Thind
Background: A number of clinical practice guidelines (cpgs) concerning breast cancer (bca) screening and management are available. Here, we review the strengths and weaknesses of cpgs from various professional organizations and consensus groups with respect to their methodologic quality, recommendations, and implementability. Methods: Guidelines from four groups were reviewed with respect to two clinical scenarios: adjuvant ovarian function suppression (ofs) in premenopausal women with early-stage estrogen receptor-positive bca, and use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (slnb) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nac) for locally advanced bca...
June 2018: Current Oncology
J M Lebert, R Lester, E Powell, M Seal, J McCarthy
Triple-negative breast cancer constitutes a heterogeneous group of malignancies that are often aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis. Molecular characterization, while not a standard of care, can further subtype triple-negative breast cancer and provide insight into prognostication and behaviour. Optimal chemotherapy regimens have yet to be established; however, there have been advances in the systemic treatment of triple-negative breast cancer in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and metastatic settings...
June 2018: Current Oncology
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