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Health and Human Rights

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781017/corruption-proportionality-and-their-challenges
#1
Michael Kirby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781016/medical-hostages-detention-of-women-and-babies-in-hospitals
#2
Delan Devakumar, Rob Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781015/human-rights-based-approaches-to-mental-health-a-review-of-programs
#3
Sebastian Porsdam Mann, Valerie J Bradley, Barbara J Sahakian
The incidence of human rights violations in mental health care across nations has been described as a "global emergency" and an "unresolved global crisis." The relationship between mental health and human rights is complex and bidirectional. Human rights violations can negatively impact mental health. Conversely, respecting human rights can improve mental health. This article reviews cases where an explicitly human rights-based approach was used in mental health care settings. Although the included studies did not exhibit a high level of methodological rigor, the qualitative information obtained was considered useful and informative for future studies...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781014/childhood-obesity-and-the-right-to-health
#4
Katharina Ó Cathaoir
Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the committee on the CRC), the Special Rapporteur on the right to health, and the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. It suggests how their engagement might be strengthened. It concludes that the final report of the World Health Organization's Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity could provide the committee on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781013/assessing-and-improving-children-s-rights-in-hospitals-case-studies-from-kyrgyzstan-tajikistan-and-moldova
#5
Ana Isabel Fernandes Guerreiro, Aigul Kuttumuratova, Kubanychbek Monolbaev, Larisa Boderscova, Zulfiya Pirova, Martin W Weber
There is a recognized need to raise evidence on how to adopt human rights-based approaches (HRBAs) to health and to assess their impact. In 2013 and 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe used a set of tools to assess and improve the situation of children's rights in 11 hospitals in Kyrgyzstan, 10 hospitals in Tajikistan, and 21 hospitals in Moldova, by applying a HRBA to health, taking as a reference the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The assessment results show a similar situation across countries in some areas, and more or less significant variation in others...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781012/indigenous-child-health-in-brazil-the-evaluation-of-impacts-as-a-human-rights-issue
#6
Anna R Coates, Sandra Del Pino Marchito, Bernardino Vitoy
Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781011/the-judicialization-of-health-and-the-quest-for-state-accountability-evidence-from-1-262-lawsuits-for-access-to-medicines-in-southern-brazil
#7
João Biehl, Mariana P Socal, Joseph J Amon
The impact of increasing numbers of lawsuits for access to medicines in Brazil is hotly debated. Government officials and scholars assert that the "judicialization of health" is driven by urban elites and private interests, and is used primarily to access high-cost drugs. Using a systematic sample of 1,262 lawsuits for access to medicines filed against the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, we assess these claims, offering empirical evidence that counters prevailing myths and affirms the heterogeneity of the judicialization phenomenon...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781010/the-paradox-of-happiness-health-and-human-rights-in-the-kingdom-of-bhutan
#8
Benjamin Mason Meier, Averi Chakrabarti
The Kingdom of Bhutan is seeking to progressively realize the human right to health without addressing the cross-cutting human rights principles essential to a rights-based approach to health. Through a landscape analysis of the Bhutanese health system, documentary review of Bhutanese reporting to the United Nations human rights system, and semi-structured interviews with health policymakers in Bhutan, this study examines the normative foundations of Bhutan's focus on "a more meaningful purpose for development than just mere material satisfaction...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781009/human-trafficking-identification-and-service-provision-in-the-medical-and-social-service-sectors
#9
Corinne Schwarz, Erik Unruh, Katie Cronin, Sarah Evans-Simpson, Hannah Britton, Megha Ramaswamy
The medical sector presents a unique opportunity for identification and service to victims of human trafficking. In this article, we describe local and site-specific efforts to develop an intervention tool to be used in an urban hospital's emergency department in the midwestern United States. In the development of our tool, we focused on both identification and intervention to assist trafficked persons, through a largely collaborative process in which we engaged local stakeholders for developing site-specific points of intervention...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781008/the-hiv-and-aids-tribunal-of-kenya-an-effective-mechanism-for-the-enforcement-of-hiv-related-human-rights
#10
Patrick Michael Eba
Established under Section 25 of the HIV Prevention and Control Act of 2006, the HIV and AIDS Tribunal of Kenya is the only HIV-specific statutory body in the world with the mandate to adjudicate cases relating to violations of HIV-related human rights. Yet, very limited research has been done on this tribunal. Based on findings from a desk research and semi-structured interviews of key informants conducted in Kenya, this article analyzes the composition, mandate, procedures, practice, and cases of the tribunal with the aim to appreciate its contribution to the advancement of human rights in the context of HIV...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781007/opening-the-door-to-zero-new-hiv-infections-in-closed-settings
#11
Anna Torriente, Alexander Tadion, Lee-Nah Hsu
Prisons and other closed settings are high-risk environments for HIV and tuberculosis (TB) transmission. Prisoners often experience overcrowded living conditions and violence-including sexual assault-increasing their vulnerability to HIV and TB. However, high infection rates in prisons affect both prisoners and prison employees. Both groups, in interacting with their families and their communities, represent a potential risk of HIV transmission outside the prison setting. National HIV and TB strategies should therefore include measures to prevent transmission and increase access to HIV-related services in prisons...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781006/essential-medicines-in-national-constitutions-progress-since-2008
#12
S Katrina Perehudoff, Brigit Toebes, Hans Hogerzeil
A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781005/an-independent-review-and-accountability-mechanism-for-the-sustainable-development-goals-the-possibilities-of-a-framework-convention-on-global-health
#13
Eric A Friedman
The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), a proposed global treaty to be rooted in the right to health and aimed at health equity, could establish a nuanced, layered, and multi-faceted regime of compliance with, and accountability to, the right to health. In so doing, it would significantly strengthen accountability for the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which it would encompass. Legally binding, the FCGH could facilitate accountability through the courts and catalyze comprehensive domestic accountability regimes, requiring national strategies that include transparency, community and national mechanisms for accountability and participation and an enabling environment for social empowerment...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781004/biosocial-approaches-to-the-2013-2016-ebola-pandemic
#14
Eugene T Richardson, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, J Daniel Kelly, Yusupha Dibba, Songor Koedoyoma, Paul E Farmer
Despite more than 25 documented outbreaks of Ebola since 1976, our understanding of the disease is limited, in particular the social, political, ecological, and economic forces that promote (or limit) its spread. In the following study, we seek to provide new ways of understanding the 2013-2016 Ebola pandemic. We use the term, 'pandemic,' instead of 'epidemic,' so as not to elide the global forces that shape every localized outbreak of infectious disease. By situating life histories via a biosocial approach, the forces promoting or retarding Ebola transmission come into sharper focus...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781003/rights-based-tb-programs-for-migrants-and-prisoners-needed-in-north-korea
#15
Sandra Fahy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781002/petition-329-a-legal-challenge-to-the-involuntary-confinement-of-tb-patients-in-kenyan-prisons
#16
Allan Maleche, Nerima Were
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781001/double-standards-in-global-health-medicine-human-rights-law-and-multidrug-resistant-tb-treatment-policy
#17
Thomas Nicholson, Catherine Admay, Aaron Shakow, Salmaan Keshavjee
The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781000/litigation-as-tb-rights-advocacy-a-new-delhi-case-study
#18
Kerry McBroom
One thousand people die every day in India as a result of TB, a preventable and treatable disease, even though the Constitution of India, government schemes, and international law guarantee available, accessible, acceptable, quality health care. Failure to address the spread of TB and to provide quality treatment to all affected populations constitutes a public health and human rights emergency that demands action and accountability. As part of a broader strategy, health activists in India employ Public Interest Litigation (PIL) to hold the state accountable for rights violations and to demand new legislation, standards for patient care, accountability for under-spending, improvements in services at individual facilities, and access to government entitlements in marginalized communities...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780999/tb-in-vulnerable-populations-the-case-of-an-indigenous-community-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#19
Camila Gianella, César Ugarte-Gil, Godofredo Caro, Rula Aylas, César Castro, Claudia Lema
This article analyzes the factors associated with vulnerability of the Ashaninka, the most populous indigenous Peruvian Amazonian people, to tuberculosis (TB). By applying a human rights-based analytical framework that assesses public policy against human rights standards and principles, and by offering a step-by-step framework for a full assessment of compliance, it provides evidence of the relationship between the incidence of TB among the Ashaninka and Peru's poor level of compliance with its human rights obligations...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780998/detention-of-people-lost-to-follow-up-on-tb-treatment-in-kenya-the-need-for-human-rights-based-alternatives
#20
Gitau Mburu, Enrique Restoy, Evaline Kibuchi, Paula Holland, Anthony D Harries
Adherence to treatment is a key element for global TB control. Public health laws can be used to enforce isolation, adherence, and completion of TB treatment. However, the practical application of public health laws can potentially range from voluntary measures to involuntary detention approaches. This paper explores the potential risks and impacts of using detention approaches to enforce TB treatment adherence. In August 2015, we conducted a literature search regarding the application of public health laws to enforce adherence to TB treatment globally, and specifically in Kenya...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
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