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Health and Human Rights

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302185/much-to-debate-about-conscientious-objection
#1
Wendy Chavkin, Laurel Swerdlow, Jocelyn Fifield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302184/refusal-to-treat-patients-does-not-work-in-any-country-even-if-misleadingly-labeled-conscientious-objection
#2
Christian Fiala, Joyce H Arthur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302183/the-rule-of-law-as-a-social-determinant-of-health
#3
O B K Dingake
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302182/global-survey-of-national-constitutions-mapping-constitutional-commitments-to-sexual-and-reproductive-health-and-rights
#4
Lucía Berro Pizzarossa, Katrina Perehudoff
General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states' legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate whether and to what extent the right to sexual and reproductive health is respected, protected, and fulfilled; to what extent these provisions are inclusive and non-discriminatory; and to what degree the interlinkages between this and other human rights are acknowledged...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302181/medical-students-attitudes-toward-torture-revisited
#5
Krista Dubin, Andrew R Milewski, Joseph Shin, Thomas P Kalman
This paper reports the findings of a survey of medical students' attitudes toward torture and discusses variables that may correlate with those attitudes. In late 2016, 483 enrolled medical and MD-PhD students at the Weill Cornell Medical College received an anonymous, institutional review board-approved survey that included questions about torture and its effectiveness, demographic questions, inquiries about personal experiences of harassment or discrimination, and questions regarding engagement in human rights activities...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302180/the-cholera-epidemic-in-zimbabwe-2008-2009-a-review-and-critique-of-the-evidence
#6
C Nicholas Cuneo, Richard Sollom, Chris Beyrer
The 2008-2009 Zimbabwe cholera epidemic resulted in 98,585 reported cases and caused more than 4,000 deaths. In this study, we used a mixed-methods approach that combined primary qualitative data from a 2008 Physicians for Human Rights-led investigation with a systematic review and content analysis of the scientific literature. Our initial investigation included semi-structured interviews of 92 key informants, which we supplemented with reviews of the social science and human rights literature, as well as international news reports...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302179/where-public-health-meets-human-rights-integrating-human-rights-into-the-validation-of-the-elimination-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-and-syphilis
#7
Eszter Kismödi, Karusa Kiragu, Olga Sawicki, Sally Smith, Sophie Brion, Aditi Sharma, Lilian Mworeko, Alexandrina Iovita
In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a process for validation of the elimination of mother-to-child transmission (EMTCT) of HIV and syphilis by countries. For the first time in such a process for the validation of disease elimination, WHO introduced norms and approaches that are grounded in human rights, gender equality, and community engagement. This human rights-based validation process can serve as a key opportunity to enhance accountability for human rights protection by evaluating EMTCT programs against human rights norms and standards, including in relation to gender equality and by ensuring the provision of discrimination-free quality services...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302178/as-the-hiv-epidemic-among-young-women-grows-can-we-look-to-the-sdgs-to-reverse-the-trend
#8
Terry McGovern, Johanna Fine, Carolyn Crisp, Emily Battistini
To end the growing HIV epidemic among young women, human rights violations must be addressed. The Sustainable Development Goals have the potential to help, but only if political barriers are overcome and a rights-based approach is integrated.
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302177/a-reporting-system-to-protect-the-human-rights-of-people-living-with-hiv-and-key-populations
#9
R Taylor Williamson, Vivian Fiscian, Ryan Ubuntu Olson, Fred Nana Poku, Joseph Whittal
People living with HIV and key populations face human rights violations that affect their access to health services, relationships in their communities, housing options, and employment. To address these violations, government and civil society organizations in Ghana developed a discrimination reporting system managed by the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice that links people living with HIV and key populations to legal services. This article presents findings on how Ghanaian stakeholders built this reporting system and discusses preliminary data on its impact...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302176/no-more-broken-promises-challenges-and-opportunities-for-key-populations-in-demanding-more-transparency-accountability-and-participation-in-the-global-response-against-the-hiv-and-aids-epidemic
#10
Tomás A Chang Pico, Jillian Clare Kohler, Julia Hoffmann, Lucy Mungala
The global fight against HIV/AIDS continues to pose challenges: infection rates are on the rise in many settings, stigma and discrimination remain rampant, and the global response is under increasing financial pressure. There is a high risk of losing what has been achieved so far in the fight against HIV and AIDS, but also the momentum to meet the so-called Fast Track targets for 2030. In light of these trends, it is fundamental to focus on the human rights of key populations (KPs)-especially to health, non-discrimination, access to information, and to equal and meaningful participation in political and public affairs-by placing them at the center of the global HIV response...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302175/human-rights-and-the-global-fund-to-fight-aids-tuberculosis-and-malaria-how-does-a-large-funder-of-basic-health-services-meet-the-challenge-of-rights-based-programs
#11
Ralf Jürgens, Joanne Csete, Hyeyoung Lim, Susan Timberlake, Matthew Smith
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was created to greatly expand access to basic services to address the three diseases in its name. From its beginnings, its governance embodied some human rights principles: civil society is represented on its board, and the country coordination mechanisms that oversee funding requests to the Global Fund include representatives of people affected by the diseases. The Global Fund's core strategies recognize that the health services it supports would not be effective or cost-effective without efforts to reduce human rights-related barriers to access and utilization of health services, particularly those faced by socially marginalized and criminalized persons...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302174/neglected-population-neglected-right-children-living-with-hiv-and-the-right-to-science
#12
Michael L Scanlon, Gillian MacNaughton, Courtenay Sprague
The laws, language, and tools of human rights have been instrumental in expanding access to lifesaving treatment for people living with HIV. Children, however, remain a neglected population, as evidenced by inadequate child-specific and child-friendly HIV treatment options. In this article, we explore the right to science, a potentially powerful but underdeveloped right in international law, and its application to research and development for pediatric HIV treatment. Drawing on reports of human rights bodies and scholars and applying the human rights typology of state obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill, we argue that states have five core obligations related to research and development for child-specific and child-friendly treatment: (1) adopting a public goods approach to science and science policy; (2) including and protecting children in research activities; (3) adopting legal and policy frameworks to support research and development through public funding and private sector incentives; (4) promoting international cooperation and assistance; and (5) ensuring the participation of marginalized communities in decision-making processes...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302173/in-women-s-eyes-key-barriers-to-women-s-access-to-hiv-treatment-and-a-rights-based-approach-to-their-sustained-well-being
#13
Luisa Orza, Emily Bass, Emma Bell, E Tyler Crone, Nazneen Damji, Sophie Dilmitis, Liz Tremlett, Nasra Aidarus, Jacqui Stevenson, Souhaila Bensaid, Calorine Kenkem, Gracia Violeta Ross, Elena Kudravtseva, Alice Welbourn
There is rightly a huge global effort to enable women living with HIV to have long productive lives, through treatment access. However, many women living with HIV experience violence against women (VAW), in both domestic and health care settings. The ways in which VAW might prevent treatment access and adherence for women has not to date been reviewed coherently at the global level, from women's own perspectives. Meanwhile, funding for global health care, including HIV treatment, is shrinking. To optimize women's health and know how best to optimize facilitators and minimize barriers to access and adherence, especially in this shrinking funding context, we need to understand more about these issues from women's own perspectives...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302172/associations-between-police-harassment-and-hiv-vulnerabilities-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-in-jamaica
#14
Carmen H Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Kathleen S Kenny, Kandasi Levermore, Nicolette Jones, Annecka Marshall, Peter A Newman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302171/hiv-sex-work-and-law-enforcement-in-china
#15
Tingting Shen, Joanne Csete
HIV prevalence in China is low in the general population but higher among certain key affected populations, including sex workers. Providing and purchasing sexual services are administrative offenses. Police engage in humiliating and repressive practices against sex workers. A study reported here based on the experience of over 500 sex workers highlights that the human rights abuses that sex workers face at the hands of the police directly undermine the country's HIV response toward sex workers. An important element of this phenomenon is the police's use of condoms as evidence of sex work, which impedes sex workers' possession and use of condoms...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302170/at-the-nexus-how-hiv-related-immigration-policies-affect-foreign-nationals-and-citizens-in-south-korea
#16
Jessica M Keralis
Effective HIV prevention requires the protection and empowerment of marginalized groups at high risk of infection. However, many policies persist that stigmatize these groups and hinder HIV prevention efforts, including HIV-related travel restrictions. In the Republic of Korea, which requires HIV tests for certain visa categories, these restrictions negatively affect the national HIV response and access to accurate information on effective HIV prevention. In addition, they violate migrants' human rights to confidentiality and informed consent to testing and the rights of persons living with HIV (PLHIV) to privacy, work, medical care, bodily integrity, and freedom from discrimination...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302169/human-rights-in-the-fourth-decade-of-the-hiv-aids-response-an-inspiring-legacy-and-urgent-imperative
#17
Jamie Enoch, Peter Piot
More than 35 years since the HIV/AIDS pandemic began, HIV continues to cause almost two million new infections each year, and the "end of AIDS" by 2030 remains elusive.1 Violations of human rights continue to fuel high rates of new infections among key populations and a generalized epidemic in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Meanwhile, as political shifts worldwide threaten not only HIV funding but also progress toward the globalization of human rights, civil society mobilization and advocacy founded firmly on human rights principles have a more vital role to play than ever...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302168/learning-from-the-past-confronting-legal-social-and-structural-barriers-to-the-hiv-response
#18
EDITORIAL
Luisa Cabal, Patrick Eba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302167/harnessing-the-power-and-promise-of-human-rights-to-end-aids-by-2030
#19
Michel Sidibé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302166/the-impact-of-legal-advocacy-strategies-to-advance-roma-health-the-case-of-macedonia
#20
Alphia Abdikeeva, Alina Covaci
Across Europe, Roma face exclusion and obstacles in access to health services, resulting in poorer health. While there are legal and policy frameworks for Roma inclusion, implementation often lags behind. Increasing the grassroots capacity of Roma to advocate for accountability in health care and against systemic impediments has been a central focus of Open Society Foundations (OSF) support. This analysis discusses the impact of an OSF-supported legal advocacy project on Roma health rights in Macedonia. The paper uses qualitative indicators to measure the capacity of nongovernmental organizations, accountability for violations, changes in law and practice, and impact on communities...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
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