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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225237/has-the-spectrum-of-aids-defining-illnesses-been-changing-since-the-introduction-of-new-treatments-and-combination-of-treatments
#1
LETTER
P Pezzotti, L Dal Maso, D Serraino, S Franceschi, G Rezza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225236/negative-result-of-cytomegalovirus-blood-culture-with-restoration-of-cd4-t-cell-reactivity-to-cytomegalovirus-after-haart-in-an-hiv-1-infected-patient
#2
LETTER
T S Li, R Tubiana, A M Fillet, B Autran, C Katlama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225235/mortality-risk-in-selenium-deficient-hiv-positive-children
#3
A Campa, G Shor-Posner, F Indacochea, G Zhang, H Lai, D Asthana, G B Scott, M K Baum
OBJECTIVE: To determine the independent contribution of specific nutritional factors on disease progression and survival in HIV-1-infected children. POPULATION: HIV-infected children (N = 24), who were perinatally exposed to the virus and symptomatic, were recruited between October and December of 1990 from the Jackson Memorial Pediatric Immunology Clinic, Miami, Florida, and observed for 5 years. METHODS: Immune status was measured by CD4 cell count; nutritional status was determined using serum albumin and plasma trace elements including iron, zinc, and selenium...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225234/predictors-and-risk-taking-consequences-of-drug-use-among-hiv-infected-women
#4
L Novotná, T E Wilson, H L Minkoff, L A McNutt, J A DeHovitz, I Ehrlich, D C Des Jarlais
OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of drug use among women with HIV, and to examine associations between drug use, health, risk behavior, and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). DESIGN: A longitudinal cohort study of 260 women with confirmed HIV-positive serostatus. METHODS: Each participant contributed a self-report interview, a clinical examination, laboratory testing of cultures for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and urinalysis for the presence of metabolites of cocaine and opiates...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225233/correlates-of-condom-failure-in-a-sexually-active-cohort-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#5
E Stone, P Heagerty, E Vittinghoff, J M Douglas, B A Koblin, K H Mayer, C L Celum, M Gross, G E Woody, M Marmor, G R Seage, S P Buchbinder
Condom failure (slippage or breakage) has been shown to be associated with HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM), but predictors of failure have been poorly elucidated. Of 2592 HIV-seronegative MSM participants in the HIV Network for Prevention Trials (HIVNET) multisite Vaccine Preparedness Study who reported condom use for anal sex in the 6 months before enrollment, condom failure was reported by 16.6%, with failure rates of 2.1/100 episodes of condom usage (2.5 failures/100 episodes for receptive anal sex and 1...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225232/feasibility-of-a-preventive-hiv-1-vaccine-cohort-among-persons-attending-sexually-transmitted-disease-clinics-in-thailand
#6
L E Markowitz, N Sirisopana, A Charonwatanachokchai, W Julvanichpong, T Siraprapasiri, T Palanuvej, P Siriwongrangsun, V Tungsakul, K Pumratana, A Chitwarakorn, R A Michael, A E Brown
Persons attending sexually transmitted disease clinics at three sites in Thailand were recruited to participate in a 1-year study of HIV-1 incidence. Between September 1995 and February 1996, 31% (371 of 1205) of eligible men and 24% (161 of 659) of eligible women agreed to participate. At enrollment, HIV-1 seropositivity was 3.8% among men and 2.5% among women. Follow-up of the 514 participants who were seronegative at baseline was 78% at the 12-month visit. During the study period, 53% of men reported 2 or more sexual partners, 31% reported sex with a commercial sex worker (CSW), and 33% with a casual partner...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225231/predominance-of-ccr5-dependent-hiv-1-subtype-e-isolates-in-cambodia
#7
E Menu, J M Reynes, M C Müller-Trutwin, L Guillemot, P Versmisse, M Chiron, S An, V Trouplin, P Charneau, H Fleury, F Barré-Sinoussi, F F Sainte Marie
To investigate the genetic and biologic features of HIV-1 strains circulating in Cambodia, viruses from 95 HIV-1-seropositive individuals were subtyped by heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) and 23 were further analyzed for their biologic characteristics. Eighty-nine individuals were clearly infected by HIV-1 subtype E. The other six samples were sequenced, together with 17 HMA subtype E samples. All but one of the 23 Cambodian env sequences clustered with previously described Thai and Vietnamese subtype E sequences, bearing a GPGQ motif at the tip of the V3 loop; the last had a GPGR motif and was phylogenetically equidistant from Asian and African subtype E viruses...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225230/protease-inhibitor-use-among-a-community-sample-of-people-with-hiv-disease
#8
E G Bing, A M Kilbourne, R A Brooks, E F Lazarus, M Senak
OBJECTIVES: Protease inhibitors have become integral to HIV disease management. This paper examines sociodemographic factors affecting patient use and perceived knowledge of protease inhibitors, and the relationship between protease inhibitor use and perceived health. METHODS: 1034 people with HIV disease from a large AIDS services organization completed a mailed self-administered survey that assessed sociodemographics, protease inhibitor use and perceived knowledge, and perceived change in health status over the previous year...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225229/hiv-1-dynamics-in-children
#9
A J Melvin, A G Rodrigo, K M Mohan, P A Lewis, L Manns-Arcuino, R W Coombs, J I Mullins, L M Frenkel
HIV-1-infected children have higher plasma viral loads and progress to disease more quickly than infected adults. To gain insight into the accelerated pathogenesis of HIV-1 in children, viral dynamics were measured following the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and compared with those reported for adults. A biphasic decline in plasma HIV-1 RNA was observed, with a rapid decrease during the first 1 to 2 weeks of therapy (phase I) followed by a slower decline (phase II). The phase I and II decay rates were not significantly different among children of different ages, pretherapy plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, or CD4 cell counts...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225228/lack-of-tumors-in-infants-with-perinatal-hiv-1-exposure-and-fetal-neonatal-exposure-to-zidovudine
#10
I C Hanson, T A Antonelli, R S Sperling, J M Oleske, E Cooper, M Culnane, M G Fowler, L A Kalish, S S Lee, G McSherry, L Mofenson, D E Shapiro
Zidovudine (ZDV) therapy during pregnancy and to the neonate reduced perinatal HIV transmission by nearly 70% in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) protocol 076. ZDV has been reported as positive in several in vitro carcinogenicity screening tests. We evaluated the short-term risk for tumors in 727 children with known ZDV exposure enrolled into the PACTG 076/219 and the Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS). ZDV exposure in utero (antepartum) occurred in 97% and 99% of infants in PACTG 076/219 or WITS, respectively...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225227/comparison-of-gynecologic-history-and-laboratory-results-in-hiv-positive-women-with-cd4-lymphocyte-counts-between-200-and-500-cells-microl-and-below-100-cells-microl
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
D H Watts, C Spino, L Zaborski, D Katzenstein, S Hammer, C Benson
OBJECTIVE: To assess rates of sexual activity, contraceptive use, genital infections and dysplasia, and other gynecologic symptoms among well-characterized populations of HIV-seropositive women enrolled in two Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (AACTG) randomized studies. METHODS: Gynecologic data were collected using standardized interview and examination forms from women enrolled in two protocols: ACTG 175, an antiretroviral trial (CD4+ lymphocyte counts 200-500 cells/microl) and ACTG 196, a Mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis trial (CD4+ counts < or =100 cells/microl)...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225226/comparison-of-clinical-manifestations-of-hiv-infection-among-women-by-risk-group-cd4-cell-count-and-hiv-1-plasma-viral-load-her-study-group-hiv-epidemiology-research
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
A M Rompalo, J Astemborski, E Schoenbaum, P Schuman, C Carpenter, S D Holmberg, D L Warren, H Farzadegan, D Vlahov, D K Smith
OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of HIV-related symptoms, physical examination findings, and hematologic variables among women whose risk for HIV is injection drug use since 1985 as opposed to sexual contact and to evaluate the influence of HIV plasma viral load and CD4+ cell count on clinical manifestations according to risk. METHODS: Participants of the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS; a multicenter, prospective, controlled study of HIV infection in women) were administered a risk behavior and symptom interview, underwent a physical examination, and received hematologic testing, including CD4+ cell counts done on study entry...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225225/detection-and-enumeration-of-hiv-1-producing-cells-by-elispot-enzyme-linked-immunospot-assay
#13
P Corne, M F Huguet, L Briant, M Segondy, J Reynes, J P Vendrell
The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay was adapted to detect and enumerate HIV-1-producing cells at the single cell level. With CEM cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected in vitro with HIV-1, the ELISPOT assay detected cells that produced HIV-1 antigens and showed that between 5.4% and 9.5% of the p24 antigen-positive CEM cells and 11.1% to 23.6% of the p24 antigen-positive PBMC were productively infected. In HIV-1-infected patients in early stage of the disease and without antiretroviral therapy, up to 4...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225224/v3-serotyping-of-hiv-1-infection-correlation-with-genotyping-and-limitations
#14
J C Plantier, F Damond, M Lasky, J L Sankalé, C Apetrei, M Peeters, L Buzelay, S M'Boup, P Kanki, E Delaporte, F Simon, F Barin
HIV-1 V3 serotyping is a classification of immunodeficiency viruses based on antibody binding to V3 peptides that allows obtaining information on circulating subtypes that could be important for population-based epidemiologic studies. Recently, several laboratories have developed V3 enzyme-immunoassays (EIAs) using V3 peptides of subtypes A to E. In the present study, the utility of including additional peptides of subtypes F to H to the EIA was evaluated on a panel of 203 well-characterized serum samples from patients with diverse geographic origins (22 countries) and known HIV-1 genotype (79 A, 61 B, 21 C, 7 D, 7 E, 21 F, 6 G, 1 H)...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225223/growth-hormone-in-immune-reconstitution
#15
REVIEW
S Chappel
Immune cell death or dysfunction is induced by HIV infection and results in an immunocompromised state. Newer treatments are able to control viral replication to prevent massive cytoreduction. Attention must now focus on therapies that will rapidly reconstitute the immune system to provide defense against future HIV attacks as well as opportunistic infections. In addition to increasing the rate of differentiation of myeloid and lymphoid precursors from marrow stem cells, ideal therapies should improve thymic function as well...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225222/increased-intracellular-accumulation-of-macrophage-inflammatory-protein-1beta-and-its-decreased-secretion-correlate-with-advanced-hiv-disease
#16
B Tartakovsky, D Turner, N Vardinon, M Burke, I Yust
Considering that the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta (MIP1beta) may serve as a competitive inhibitor for HIV entry, the objective of this study was to compare intracellular and extracellular levels of MIP1beta, in untreated HIV-infected individuals. HIV patients and healthy controls were tested by two-color flow cytometry for intracellular MIP1beta, in freshly explanted CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, and in monocytes. Sera and plasma collected on the same day were tested, respectively, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for MIP1beta concentration and for number of HIV-RNA copies, using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification procedure (NASBA) methodology...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10225221/effects-of-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-on-cognition-and-behavioral-function-in-cats
#17
E S Steigerwald, M Sarter, P March, M Podell
Experimental intravenous challenge of 8-week old cats with the Maryland isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus, Maryland isolate (FIV-MD) was investigated for its effects on cognitive and behavioral function at 12 months postinfection. Six cats infected with FIV-MD were compared with age-matched controls on several behavioral measures. These measures included an open field observation, locomotion tests, traversing planks of various widths for food reinforcement, and a spatial learning task. No group differences were observed on any measure of locomotion...
April 15, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10215418/9th-international-conference-on-human-retrovirology-htlv-and-related-viruses-kagoshima-japan-april-5-9-1999-abstracts
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10096587/neonatal-characteristics-and-outcome-in-a-cohort-of-infants-born-to-hiv-1-infected-african-women-from-durban-south-africa
#19
LETTER
R Bobat, H Coovadia, A Coutsoudis, D Moodley, E Gouws
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10096586/transmission-of-htlv-i-to-rats-via-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-serum-from-a-patient-with-htlv-i-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis-ham-tsp-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-like-features
#20
M Miller, B Shohat, M Shaklai, D Ron, L Rapaport, C Gordon, E Kott, W Bodemer, H Hannig, G Hunsmann
We tested the possibility that lymphocytes and serum obtained directly from a patient with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) induce infection in rats. Inbred Fischer F344 immunosuppressed rats were inoculated intravenously with 10x10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC; 3 rats) and serum (3 rats) obtained from a HAM/TSP patient, who was seropositive and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for the HTLV-I proviral genome. Antibodies to HTLV-I appeared in the rat sera 2 months later; rat peripheral blood lymphocytes, spleen, salivary gland, and spinal cord were found to contain the proviral genome...
April 1, 1999: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
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