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Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213385/effectiveness-of-acarbose-in-treating-elderly-patients-with-diabetes-with-postprandial-hypotension
#1
Jie Zhang, Lixin Guo
: : Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a common condition that occurs primarily in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of acarbose for PPH; it also investigated possible mechanisms behind PPH development. This single-blind, randomized controlled trial included 91 elderly patients with T2DM, aged between 60 and 80 years, who were inpatients at Beijing Hospital between March 2012 and November 2014. The patients were included into one of three groups: Group A, patients with T2DM without PPH; Group B, patients with T2DM with PPH receiving placebo; and Group C, patients with T2DM with PPH receiving acarbose...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193704/pneumocystis-colonization-in-asthmatic-patients-not-receiving-oral-corticosteroid-therapy
#2
Emma L Davey, Rhonda E Colombo, Charles Fiorentino, Gary Fahle, Richard T Davey, Kenneth N Olivier, Joseph A Kovacs
: Pneumocystis jirovecii can colonize patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To determine if colonization occurs in asthma patients, sputum samples from 10 patients with mild asthma, who were not receiving oral corticosteroids, were evaluated by a sensitive real-time PCR assay that targets a multicopy gene of P. jirovecii. 2 patients (20%) had Pneumocystis DNA detected; 1 patient had 3 positive samples over an 11-day period. Thus, Pneumocystis colonization occurs in asthma patients, and further studies are warranted to evaluate its role in airways disease...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193703/methylation-in-the-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-gene-is-associated-with-cerebral-ischemic-stroke
#3
Hsiu-Fen Lin, Edward Hsi, Ling-Chun Huang, Yi-Chu Liao, Suh-Hang H Juo, Ruey-Tay Lin
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is involved in the pathophysiology of stroke. Previous studies have shown that MMP-2 activity is increased in stroke; however, evidence of epigenetic regulation of the MMP-2 in stroke is still limited. We examined methylation of the MMP-2 promoter in patients with ischemic stroke. This study included 298 patients with ischemic stroke and 258 age-matched and sex-matched controls. MMP-2 promoter methylation levels were measured by pyrosequencing at eight potential cytosine-guanine (CpG) sites...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179401/high-serum-soluble-cd200-levels-in-patients-with-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#4
Funda Sari, Saadet Gumuslu, Ramazan Cetinkaya, Metin Sarikaya, Arzu Didem Yalcin
CD200 is a novel immune-effective molecule, existing in a cell membrane-bound form, as well as in a soluble form in serum, which performs to modulate inflammatory and acquired immune responses. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the development of large renal cysts and progressive loss of renal function. As defects in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells occur in ADPKD, we asked whether serum soluble CD200 might underlie and effect on ADPKD...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151398/role-of-non-government-organizations-in-engaging-medical-students-in-research
#5
Branavan Manoranjan, Ayan K Dey, Xin Wang, Alexandra Kuzyk, Karen Petticrew, Chris Carruthers, Ian Arnold
The continued decline in medical trainees entering the workforce as clinician-scientists has elevated the need to engage medical students in research. While past studies have shown early exposure to generate interest among medical students for research and academic careers, financial constraints have limited the number of such formal research training programs. In light of recent government budget cuts to support research training for medical students, non-government organizations (NGOs) may play a progressively larger role in supporting the development of clinician-scientists...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138012/early-intervention-results-in-lower-mortality-in-patients-with-cancer-hospitalized-for-metastatic-spinal-cord-compression
#6
Achuta Kumar Guddati, Gagan Kumar, Iuliana Shapira
Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is one of the most dreaded complications of cancer. A Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2000 to 2011 was used to extract data for all in-hospital stays of patients with MSCC using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The usage and timing of radiation therapy and surgical interventions were identified using ICD-9-M codes. These interventions were defined as 'early intervention' if they were provided within the first 48 hours of hospitalization...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138011/systematic-review-of-%C3%AE-blocker-aspirin-and-statin-in-critically-ill-patients-importance-of-severity-of-illness-and-cardiac-troponin
#7
Florence G Rothenberg, Michael B Clay, Hina Jamali, Robin H Vandivier-Pletsch
Non-cardiac critically ill patients with type II myocardial infarction (MI) have a high risk of mortality. There are no evidence-based interventions to mitigate this risk. We systematically reviewed the literature regarding the use of medications known to reduce mortality in patients with cardiac troponin (cTn) elevation due to type I MI (β blockers, statin, and aspirin) in studies of critically ill patients without Type I MI. All PubMed publications between 1976-2/19/16 were reviewed. Search terms included: β blocker or aspirin or statin and intensive care unit (ICU) or critically ill or sepsis; 497 primary references were obtained...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130412/update-on-disease-modifying-therapies-for-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Diana L Vargas, William R Tyor
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It predominantly affects young women and is one of the most common causes of disability in young adults. MS is characterized by formation of white matter lesions in the CNS as a result of inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss. Treatment has been a focus of neurological research for over 60 years. A number of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) have become available making MS a treatable disease. These compounds target the inflammatory response in MS...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104820/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-malignancies-with-mismatch-repair-deficiency-a-review-of-the-state-of-the-current-knowledge
#9
Ali Naboush, Christopher A J Roman, Iuliana Shapira
The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors to treat malignant tumors with microsatellite instability is an emerging new modality. This is based on the observations that these tumors may have a high mutation rate-thus a potential source of tumor-specific neoantigens-and harbor infiltrating cytotoxic T cells in response, suggesting that they may be particularly susceptible to immune checkpoint therapy. PUBMED and ASCO library were systematically reviewed to identify all relevant data that involved the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of cancers with microsatellite instability...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073942/emergency-department-visits-related-to-functional-abdominal-pain-in-the-pediatric-age-group
#10
Chaitanya Pant, Abhishek Deshpande, Thomas J Sferra, Mojtaba Olyaee
To analyze visits to and admissions from the emergency department (ED) in children with a primary diagnosis of functional abdominal pain (FAP). This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (HCUP-NEDS 2008-2012). FAP-related ED visits were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The most frequent secondary diagnoses associated with FAP-related ED visits were also extracted. In 2012, a total of 796,665 children presented to the ED with a primary diagnosis of FAP...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069629/randomized-pragmatic-trial-of-nasogastric-tube-placement-in-patients-with-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-bleeding
#11
Don C Rockey, Chul Ahn, Silvio W de Melo
: The value of nasogastric (NG) tube placement in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding (UGIB) is unclear. We therefore aimed to determine the usefulness of NG tube placement in patients with UGIB. The study was a single-blind, randomized, prospective, non-inferiority study comparing NG placement (with aspiration and lavage) to no NG placement (control). The primary outcome was the probability that physicians could predict the presence of a high-risk lesion (ie, requiring endoscopic therapy)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057714/elevated-il-37-il-18-and-il-18bp-serum-concentrations-in-patients-with-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#12
Wang Liuqing, Xia Liping, Shen Hui, Lu Jing
The objectives of this study were to examine the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-37 and its clinical association in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and to investigate whether or not IL-37 participates in the regulation of the pathogenesis of pSS. ELISA was used to analyse the serum levels of IL-37, total IL-18 and IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). The level of free IL-18 was calculated based on the mass action law. The correlations between the IL-37 serum levels with the laboratory values and the total IL-18 and IL-18BP serum levels were analyzed by a Spearman's correlation test...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993947/shared-decision-making-following-disclosure-of-coronary-heart-disease-genetic-risk-results-from-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Hayan Jouni, Raad A Haddad, Tariq S Marroush, Sherry-Ann Brown, Teresa M Kruisselbrink, Erin E Austin, Khader Shameer, Emma M Behnken, Rajeev Chaudhry, Victor M Montori, Iftikhar J Kullo
: Whether disclosure of genetic risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) influences shared decision-making (SDM) regarding use of statins to reduce CHD risk is unknown. We randomized 207 patients, age 45-65 years, at intermediate CHD risk, and not on statins, to receive the 10-year risk of CHD based on conventional risk factors alone (n=103) or in combination with a genetic risk score (n=104). A genetic counselor disclosed this information followed by a physician visit for SDM regarding statin therapy...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980005/characterization-of-pabpn1-expansion-mutations-in-a-large-cohort-of-mexican-patients-with-oculopharyngeal-muscular-dystrophy-opmd
#14
Marisa Cruz-Aguilar, Caroline Guerrero-de Ferran, Jose Luis Tovilla-Canales, Angel Nava-Castañeda, Juan C Zenteno
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an autosomal-dominant, adult-onset disorder defined by blepharoptosis, dysphagia, and proximal muscle weakness. OPMD arises from heterozygous expansions of a trinucleotide (GCN) tract situated at the 5' region of the polyadenylate RNA binding protein 1 (PABPN1) gene. The frequency of a particular (GCN) expansion in a given population of patients with OPMD is largely influenced by the occurrence of founder mutations. Analysis of large groups of patients with OPMD from different ethnic origins will help to estimate the relative contribution of each expanded allele to the disease...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965361/effect-of-preceding-medications-on-resuscitation-outcome-of-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#15
Shih-Wen Hung, Chien-Ming Chu, Chih-Feng Su, Li-Ming Tseng, Tzong-Luen Wang
As evidence regarding the impact of preceding medications on resuscitation outcomes has been inconsistent, this study aimed to analyze the association between preceding medications and resuscitation outcomes in patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This retrospective study included patients with OHCA presenting to a tertiary care hospital by emergency medical service (EMS) between January 2006 and June 2011. Using the Utstein template, data were collected from EMS and hospital medical records for prehospital care, in-hospital care, and medications which were taken continuously for at least 2 weeks preceding OHCA...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940551/management-of-alcohol-misuse-in-patients-with-liver-diseases
#16
Jennifer L Peng, Milan Prakash Patel, Breann McGee, Tiebing Liang, Kristina Chandler, Sucharat Tayarachakul, Sean O'Connor, Suthat Liangpunsakul
Excessive alcohol use not only causes alcoholic liver disease (ALD) but also increases the risk of liver-related mortality in patients who already have other chronic liver diseases. Screening for alcohol misuse or alcohol use disorder (AUD) among patients with underlying liver disease is essential. This clinical review covers what is known about ALD, the impact of alcohol in patients with underlying liver diseases, current management of alcohol misuse and AUD, and the management of alcohol misuse and AUD specifically in patients with liver diseases...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940550/cox-2-dependent-and-independent-effects-of-cox-2-inhibitors-and-nsaids-on-proatherogenic-changes-in-human-monocytes-macrophages
#17
Iryna Voloshyna, Lora J Kasselman, Steven E Carsons, Michael J Littlefield, Irving H Gomolin, Joshua De Leon, Allison B Reiss
It is the second decade of controversy regarding the cardiovascular effects of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. At this time, celecoxib is the only available COX-2-specific inhibitor for treatment of pain and inflammation. Therefore, the present study was designed primarily to determine the impact of celecoxib on cholesterol handling (uptake via scavenger receptors and efflux from the cells) and foam cell formation in human THP-1 macrophages, followed by comparison to rofecoxib and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130441/author-index
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130440/calcipotriol-inhibits-proliferation-of-human-keratinocytes-by-downregulating-stat1-and-stat3-signaling
#19
Wenli Liang, Zigang Lin, Li Zhang, Xuan Qin, Yuan Zhang, Ledong Sun
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease, which is characterized by aberrantly high levels of inflammation, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are still not fully understood. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT3, and the downstream proteins suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3, have been implicated in psoriasis disease progression. Calcipotriol, a synthetic derivative of vitamin D, has been used clinically to treat psoriasis, but the mechanism of action that underlies the beneficial effects of calcipotriol is still being explored...
February 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807146/scientific-retreats-with-speed-dating-networking-to-stimulate-new-interdisciplinary-translational-research-collaborations-and-team-science
#20
Damayanthi Ranwala, Anthony J Alberg, Kathleen T Brady, Jihad S Obeid, Randal Davis, Perry V Halushka
To stimulate the formation of new interdisciplinary translational research teams and innovative pilot projects, the South Carolina Clinical and Translational Research (SCTR) Institute (South Carolina Clinical and Translational Science Award, CTSA) initiated biannual scientific retreats with 'speed dating' networking sessions. Retreat themes were prioritized based on the following criteria; cross-cutting topic, unmet medical need, generation of novel technologies and methodologies. Each retreat begins with an external keynote speaker followed by a series of brief research presentations by local researchers focused on the retreat theme, articulating potential areas for new collaborations...
February 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
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