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Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495861/testosterone-treatment-and-cardiovascular-and-venous-thromboembolism-risk-what-is-new
#1
G Corona, M Dicuio, G Rastrelli, E Maseroli, F Lotti, A Sforza, M Maggi
In men, testosterone (T) production declines as a function of ageing. Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is the most commonly used term to indicate this age-related condition. In LOH, the relative clinical significance and the potential benefit of testosterone treatment (TTh) are still the subject of strong criticisms in the scientific community. The debate is further complicated by the recent position statement of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) emphasizing that, in LOH, the benefits and safety of TTh have not been fully established...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483983/efficacy-of-interventions-for-adherence-to-the-immunosuppressive-therapy-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#2
Yichen Zhu, Yifan Zhou, Lei Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jun Lin
Immunosuppressive treatment regimens are complex and require ongoing self-management. Medication adherence can be difficult to achieve for several reasons. The current meta-analysis and systematic review investigated whether adherence interventions improved immunosuppressive treatment adherence in kidney transplant recipients. Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched until October 17, 2016 using the following search terms: kidney transplantation, compliance, adherence, and immunosuppressive therapy...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455386/monthly-variation-in-pediatric-visits-for-headache-to-us-emergency-departments
#3
Kerry Caperell, Anna Rominger
Headache is a common pediatric symptom often associated with stress and fatigue which may be more common during the school year. The purpose of this study is to determine if visits for headache are more common during the months of the school year. This study is a secondary analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) database from 2001 to 2010. Patient visits in those aged 18 years or younger not associated with injury were examined. Only visits with an International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) code consistent with headache were included...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442533/racial-disparities-in-stage-specific-gastric-cancer-analysis-of-results-from-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-seer-program-database
#4
Gang Zhang, Xing Zhao, Jie Li, Yu Yuan, Ming Wen, Xin Hao, Ping Li, Aimin Zhang
The incidence of gastric cancer is declining in western countries but continues to represent a serious health problem worldwide, especially in Asia and among Asian Americans. This study aimed to investigate ethnic disparities in stage-specific gastric cancer, including differences in incidence, treatment and survival. The cohort study was analyzed using the data set of patients with gastric cancer registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program from 2004 to 2013. Among 54,165 patients with gastric cancer, 38,308 were whites (70...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442532/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-simvastatin-during-the-resolution-phase-of-experimentally-formed-venous-thrombi
#5
Yaping Feng, Bo Lei, Fuxian Zhang, Luyuan Niu, Huan Zhang, Mingyi Zhang
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common vascular disease and is closely linked to inflammation. Over the past decade, the potential antithrombotic effect of statins has been elucidated by clinical studies, primarily through focusing on DVT prevention. The effects of statins on DVT resolution and its underlying mechanisms have been rarely addressed. We established a rabbit model of the inferior vena cava (IVC) venous thrombosis. After 48 hours, the rabbits were treated with saline, heparin, simvastatin, or simvastatin combined with heparin, respectively, for 14 days...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433982/acute-on-chronic-gastrointestinal-bleeding-a-unique-clinical-entity
#6
Don C Rockey, Adam C Hafemeister, Joan S Reisch
Gastrointestinal bleeding is defined in temporal-spatial terms-as acute or chronic, and/or by its location in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we define a distinct type of bleeding, which we have coined 'acute on chronic' gastrointestinal bleeding. We prospectively identified all patients who underwent endoscopic evaluation for any form of gastrointestinal bleeding at a University Hospital. Acute on chronic bleeding was defined as the presence of new symptoms or signs of acute bleeding in the setting of chronic bleeding, documented as iron deficiency anemia...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386034/cns-findings-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-a-neuropathological-case-report
#7
Kimberly Ferrero, Mitchell Silver, Alan Cocchetto, Eliezer Masliah, Dianne Langford
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized as a persistent, debilitating complex disorder of unknown etiology, whereby patients suffer from extreme fatigue, which often presents with symptoms that include chronic pain, depression, weakness, mood disturbances, and neuropsychological impairment. In this mini review and case report, we address central nervous system (CNS) involvement of CFS and present neuropathological autopsy findings from a patient who died with a prior diagnosis of CFS. Among the most remarkable pathological features of the case are focal areas of white matter loss, neurite beading, and neuritic pathology of axons in the white matter with axonal spheroids...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381408/rare-genetic-variants-in-gata-transcription-factors-in-patients-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#8
Cristina Alonso-Montes, Julián Rodríguez-Reguero, María Martín, Juan Gómez, Eliecer Coto, Manuel Naves-Díaz, César Morís, Jorge B Cannata-Andía, Isabel Rodríguez
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a very heterogeneous disease. Although primarily caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins, other genes might explain that heterogeneity. Potential candidate genes are GATA transcription factors that regulate the expression of proteins associated with HCM. Exons of GATA2, GATA4, and GATA6 genes were sequenced in 212 patients with unrelated HCM previously analyzed for genes encoding the most frequently mutated sarcomeric proteins. Functional effects of variants were predicted by in silico analyses...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363939/nasopharyngeal-microbiome-in-premature-infants-and-stability-during-rhinovirus-infection
#9
Geovanny F Perez, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Natalia Isaza, Mary C Rose, Anamaris M Colberg-Poley, Gustavo Nino
RATIONALE: The nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiota of newborns and infants plays a key role in modulating airway inflammation and respiratory symptoms during viral infections. Premature (PM) birth modifies the early NP environment and is a major risk factor for severe viral respiratory infections. However, it is currently unknown if the NP microbiota of PM infants is altered relative to full-term (FT) individuals. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the NP microbiota differences in preterm and FT infants during rhinovirus (RV) infection...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360035/prognostic-value-of-early-response-assessment-using-18f-fdg-pet-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#10
Jun Ma, Xiaojing Wu, Jianghong Li, Zhihua Wang, Yi Wang
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the prognostic value of early response assessment using (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission thermography (PET) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs). MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until August 1, 2016 using the keywords non-small cell lung carcinoma, positron-emission tomography, fluorodeoxyglucose, prognosis, disease progression, survival, erlotinib, gefitinib, and afatinib...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341625/non-cardiac-surgery-in-patients-with-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-devices-a-single-institutional-experience
#11
Carol W Chen, Kristoffel R Dumon, Oren Shaked, Michael A Acker, Pavan Atluri, Daniel T Dempsey
With improvements in life expectancy for patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), non-cardiac surgeons will increasingly encounter surgical problems in this population. 209 patients underwent LVAD placement between 10/1/2007 and 6/1/2015 at a single institution. Survival was compared between patients who had non-cardiac surgery (NCS) during the initial LVAD implantation hospitalization (n=36) and those who had NCS only in subsequent hospitalizations (n=33). Postoperative complication rates were examined...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330835/clinical-effectiveness-of-telemedicine-for-chronic-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Mao-Huan Lin, Wo-Liang Yuan, Tu-Cheng Huang, Hai-Feng Zhang, Jing-Ting Mai, Jing-Feng Wang
Telemedicine interventions may be associated with reductions in hospital admission rate and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). The present study is an updated analysis (as of June 30, 2016) of randomized controlled trials, where patients with HF underwent telemedicine care or the usual standard care. Data were extracted from 39 eligible studies for all-cause and HF-related hospital admission rate, length of stay, and mortality. The overall all-cause mortality (pooled OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.91, p<0...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298473/glutathione-peroxidase-activity-and-expression-levels-are-significantly-increased-in-acute-coronary-syndromes
#13
Ana Holley, Janet Pitman, John Miller, Scott Harding, Peter Larsen
High levels of the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), have been associated with improved outcomes following acute coronary syndromes (ACS), suggesting a protective role. How GPx levels are altered with coronary disease is not clearly established. This study examined GPx activity, protein, and mRNA levels in healthy controls, patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), and patients with ACS. We studied 20 individuals from each of the healthy control, stable CAD, and ACS groups. GPx activity and protein levels, along with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) were assayed in plasma...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270407/impact-of-elective-versus-required-medical-school-research-experiences-on-career-outcomes
#14
Alice N Weaver, Tyler R McCaw, Matthew Fifolt, Lisle Hites, Robin G Lorenz
Many US medical schools have added a scholarly or research requirement as a potential intervention to increase the number of medical students choosing to become academic physicians and physician scientists. We designed a retrospective qualitative survey study to evaluate the impact of medical school research at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) on career choices. A survey tool was developed consisting of 74 possible questions with built-in skip patterns to customize the survey to each participant...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258130/paradigms-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-phenotypes-immunobiology-and-therapy-with-a-focus-on-vascular-disease
#15
Michael Schivo, Timothy E Albertson, Angela Haczku, Nicholas J Kenyon, Amir A Zeki, Brooks T Kuhn, Samuel Louie, Mark V Avdalovic
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and heterogeneous syndrome that represents a major global health burden. COPD phenotypes have recently emerged based on large cohort studies addressing the need to better characterize the syndrome. Though comprehensive phenotyping is still at an early stage, factors such as ethnicity and radiographic, serum, and exhaled breath biomarkers have shown promise. COPD is also an immunological disease where innate and adaptive immune responses to the environment and tobacco smoke are altered...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179401/high-serum-soluble-cd200-levels-in-patients-with-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#16
Funda Sari, Saadet Gumuslu, Ramazan Cetinkaya, Metin Sarikaya, Arzu Didem Yalcin
CD200 is a novel immune-effective molecule, existing in a cell membrane-bound form, as well as in a soluble form in serum, which performs to modulate inflammatory and acquired immune responses. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the development of large renal cysts and progressive loss of renal function. As defects in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells occur in ADPKD, we asked whether serum soluble CD200 might underlie and effect on ADPKD...
April 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138011/systematic-review-of-%C3%AE-blocker-aspirin-and-statin-in-critically-ill-patients-importance-of-severity-of-illness-and-cardiac-troponin
#17
Florence G Rothenberg, Michael B Clay, Hina Jamali, Robin H Vandivier-Pletsch
Non-cardiac critically ill patients with type II myocardial infarction (MI) have a high risk of mortality. There are no evidence-based interventions to mitigate this risk. We systematically reviewed the literature regarding the use of medications known to reduce mortality in patients with cardiac troponin (cTn) elevation due to type I MI (β blockers, statin, and aspirin) in studies of critically ill patients without Type I MI. All PubMed publications between 1976-2/19/16 were reviewed. Search terms included: β blocker or aspirin or statin and intensive care unit (ICU) or critically ill or sepsis; 497 primary references were obtained...
April 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104820/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-malignancies-with-mismatch-repair-deficiency-a-review-of-the-state-of-the-current-knowledge
#18
Ali Naboush, Christopher A J Roman, Iuliana Shapira
The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors to treat malignant tumors with microsatellite instability is an emerging new modality. This is based on the observations that these tumors may have a high mutation rate-thus a potential source of tumor-specific neoantigens-and harbor infiltrating cytotoxic T cells in response, suggesting that they may be particularly susceptible to immune checkpoint therapy. PUBMED and ASCO library were systematically reviewed to identify all relevant data that involved the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of cancers with microsatellite instability...
April 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069629/randomized-pragmatic-trial-of-nasogastric-tube-placement-in-patients-with-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-bleeding
#19
Don C Rockey, Chul Ahn, Silvio W de Melo
The value of nasogastric (NG) tube placement in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding (UGIB) is unclear. We therefore aimed to determine the usefulness of NG tube placement in patients with UGIB. The study was a single-blind, randomized, prospective, non-inferiority study comparing NG placement (with aspiration and lavage) to no NG placement (control). The primary outcome was the probability that physicians could predict the presence of a high-risk lesion (ie, requiring endoscopic therapy). 140 patients in each arm were included; baseline clinical features were similar in each group...
April 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151398/role-of-non-government-organizations-in-engaging-medical-students-in-research
#20
Branavan Manoranjan, Ayan K Dey, Xin Wang, Alexandra Kuzyk, Karen Petticrew, Chris Carruthers, Ian Arnold
The continued decline in medical trainees entering the workforce as clinician-scientists has elevated the need to engage medical students in research. While past studies have shown early exposure to generate interest among medical students for research and academic careers, financial constraints have limited the number of such formal research training programs. In light of recent government budget cuts to support research training for medical students, non-government organizations (NGOs) may play a progressively larger role in supporting the development of clinician-scientists...
March 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
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