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Molecular Medicine

Alberto L Horenstein, Valeria Quarona, Denise Toscani, Federica Costa, Antonella Chillemi, Vito Pistoia, Nicola Giuliani, Fabio Malavasi
Human myeloma cells express CD38 at high levels and grow in hypoxic niches inside the bone marrow. Myeloma cells respond to hypoxia with metabolic changes leading to aerobic glycolysis, thus reducing ATP and increasing NAD(+). Our hypothesis is that these conditions favor the enzymatic pathways involved in the production of adenosine in the niche. Within the niche, NAD(+) is able to activate a discontinuous adenosinergic pathway that relies upon CD38, CD203a, and CD73 or TRACP, according to the environmental pH...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Moncef Zouali, Gregory Tsay
Immunologists have long investigated B lymphocytes as solely antibody producing cells. With further studies, it became clear that B cells are able to exert a variety of functions within the immune system, and beyond. As a result, B cells are considered promising targets for immunotherapy in a variety of disorders. Recently, experts in B cell biology and autoimmunity convened to discuss important stepping stones to decipher the complexity of B lymphocyte-mediated pathways in autoimmune diseases.
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Anna Korol, Aftab Taiyab, Judith A West-Mays
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) leads to the formation of ocular fibrotic pathologies, such as anterior subcapsular cataract and posterior capsule opacification. Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, mediated by the Rho family of GTPases, plays a key role in EMT, however, how actin dynamics affect downstream markers of EMT has not been fully determined. Our previous work suggests that myocardin related transcription factor A (MRTF-A), an actin-binding protein, might be an important mediator of TGFβ-induced EMT in lens epithelial cells...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Utpal Bhadra, Pradipta Patra, Jagamohan Chhatai, Manika Pal-Bhadra
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are well preserved in every animal. These pigmy sized non-coding RNAs (21-23 nt), scattered in genome, are responsible for micromanaging the versatile gene regulations. Involvement of miRNAs was surveillance cops in all human diseases including cardiovascular defects, tumor formation, reproductive pathways, and neurological and autoimmune disorders. The effective functional role of miRNA can be reduced by chemical entities of antisense oligonucleotides and versatile small molecules that support the views of novel therapy of different human diseases...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Yuli Zhu, Huaishan Wang, Yi Xu, Yu Hu, Hui Chen, Lianxian Cui, Jianmin Zhang, Wei He
Circulating γδ T cells in healthy individuals rapidly respond to bacterial and viral pathogens. Many studies have demonstrated that γδ T cells are activated and expanded by Listeria monocytogenes (L.monocytogenes), a foodborne bacterial pathogen with high fatality rates. However, the roles of γδ T cells during L.monocytogenes infection are not clear. In the present study, we characterized the morphological characteristics of phagocytosis in γδ T cells after L.monocytogenes infection using transmission electron microscopy...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Eman A Toraih, Manal S Fawzy, Abdullah I El-Falouji, Elham O Hamed, Nader A Nemr, Mohammad H Hussein, Noha M Abd El Fadeal
Stem cell transcriptional signature activation is an essential event in the development of cancer. This study aimed to investigate the differential expression profile of three pluripotency-associated genes (OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2), G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and the ligand (CXCL2), and alpha feto-protein (AFP) in hepatogenic differentiated stem cells and in sera of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HCV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord blood were differentiated using hepatogenic differentiation media...
September 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Leila Vania, Carryn J Chetty, Eloise Ferreira, Stefan F T Weiss
Cancer is a highly complex disease that has become one of the leading causes of death globally. Metastasis, a major cause of cancer deaths, requires two crucial events known as adhesion and invasion. The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor [laminin receptor precursor/high-affinity laminin receptor (LRP/LR)] enhances these two steps, consequently aiding in cancer progression. In this study, the role of LRP/LR in adhesion and invasion of early (SW-480 & HT-29) and late (DLD-1) stage colorectal cancer cells has been investigated...
September 8, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Xiaoyin Niu, Shaohua Deng, Shan Li, Yebin Xi, Chengzhen Li, Li Wang, Dongyi He, Zhaojun Wang, Guangjie Chen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease that results in a chronic and inflammatory disorder. Dynamic balance of helper T cells (Th)1, Th17 and regulatory T cells (Treg) is broken in RA. Since there is no cure for RA at present, it's necessary to find a truly effective and convenient treatment. Several studies intended to induce ergotopic regulation to treat autoimmune diseases. This study was undertaken to find the potential ergotope peptides and investigate its effect in treating the animal model of RA and their underlying regulatory mechanisms...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Prakasha Kempaiah, Karol Dokladny, Zachary Karim, Evans Raballah, John M Ong'echa, Pope L Moseley, Douglas J Perkins
Severe malarial anemia [SMA, hemoglobin (Hb) <5.0 g/dL] is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality among children residing in Plasmodium falciparum transmission regions. Exploration of molecular pathways through global gene expression profiling revealed that SMA was characterized by decreased HSPA1A, a heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 coding gene. Hsp70 is a ubiquitous chaperone that regulates Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines known to be important in malaria pathogenesis (e...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Jana Drgonova, Donna Walther, G Luke Hartstein, Mohammad O Bukhari, Michael H Baumann, Jonathan Katz, Frank Scott Hall, Elizabeth R Arnold, Shaun Flax, Anthony Riley, Olga Rivero-Martin, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Juan Troncoso, Barbara Ranscht, George R Uhl
The cadherin 13 (CDH13) gene encodes a cell adhesion molecule likely to influence development and connections of brain circuits that modulate addiction, locomotion and cognition, including those that involve midbrain dopamine neurons. Human CDH13 mRNA expression differs by more than 80% in postmortem cerebral cortical samples from individuals with different CDH13 genotypes, supporting examination of mice with altered Cdh13 expression as models for common human variation at this locus. Constitutive cdh13 knockout mice display evidence for changed cocaine reward: shifted dose response relationship in tests of cocaine-conditioned place preference using doses that do not alter cocaine conditioned taste aversion...
August 18, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Juan Xiao, Xueping Feng, Xiao-Ying Huang, Zhongshi Huang, Yanqiang Huang, Chaogan Li, Genliang Li, Song Nong, Ruoshi Wu, Yongzhi Huang, Xi-Dai Long
Acute pancreatitis is characterized by zymogen pre-activation. Severe inflammation caused by zymogen activation can eventually lead to multiple organ dysfunctions, which contributes to the high mortality rate of severe acute pancreatitis. However, there is no specific treatment available for acute pancreatitis therapy. Here, we show that spautin-1, which effectively inhibits autophagy flux, ameliorated the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis induced by cerulein or L-Arginine. CaMKII phosphorylation due to cytosolic calcium oeverload was revealed in this paper...
August 18, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Lasse Folkersen, Boel Brynedal, Lina Marcela Diaz-Gallo, Daniel Ramsköld, Klementy Shchetynsky, Helga Westerlind, Yvonne Sundström, Danika Schepis, Aase Hensvold, Nancy Vivar, Maija-Leena Eloranta, Lars Rönnblom, Søren Brunak, Vivianne Malmström, Anca Catrina, Ulrik Gw Moerch, Lars Klareskog, Leonid Padyukov, Louise Berg
OBJECTIVE: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) several recent efforts have sought to discover means of predicting which patients would benefit from treatment. However, results have been discrepant with few successful replications. Our objective was to build a biobank with DNA, RNA and protein measurements to test the claim that the current state-of-the-art precision medicine will benefit RA patients. METHODS: We collected 451 blood samples from 61 healthy individuals and 185 RA patients initiating treatment, before treatment initiation and at a 3 month follow-up time...
August 15, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Giovanni Grasso, Alessandro Landi, Concetta Alafaci
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a form of neuropathic pain that affects the fifth cranial nerve, the most widely distributed nerve in the head. Although TN has been associated with a variety of pathological conditions, neurovascular compression on the trigeminal nerve, as it exits the brain stem, is the most frequent reported cause. This compression provides a progressive demyelination of the nerve and a subsequent aberrant neural transmission. Although several studies have clarified some physiopathological mechanisms underlying TN, the molecular basis remains vague...
August 11, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Sarah J Atkinson, Brian M Varisco, Mary Sandquist, Meghan N Daly, Lindsey Klingbeil, Joshua W Kuethe, Emily F Midura, Kelli Harmon, Amy Opaka, Patrick Lahni, Giovanna Piraino, Paul Hake, Basilia Zingarelli, Joel E Mortenson, James L Wynn, Hector R Wong
Genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP8) improves survival in an adult murine sepsis model. Because developmental age influences the host inflammatory response, we hypothesized that developmental age influences the role of MMP8 in sepsis. First, we compared sepsis survival between wild type (WT, C57BL/6) and MMP8 null juvenile-aged mice (12-14 days) after intraperitoneal injection of a standardized cecal slurry. Second, peritoneal lavages collected at 6 and 18 hours after cecal slurry injection were analyzed for bacterial burden, leukocyte subsets, and inflammatory cytokines...
August 8, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Brian S Tanaka, Peng Zhao, Fadia B Dib-Hajj, Valerie Morisset, Simon Tate, Stephen G Waxman, Sulayman D Dib-Hajj
Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a debilitating pain disorder characterized by episodic unilateral facial pain along the territory of branches of the trigeminal nerve. Human painful disorders, but not TN, have been linked to gain-of-function mutations in peripheral voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9). Gain-of-function mutations in NaV1.6, which is expressed in myelinated and unmyelinated CNS and peripheral nervous system neurons and supports neuronal high-frequency firing, have been linked to epilepsy but not to pain...
August 3, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Claudia R Vintilescu, Sana Afreen, Ashlee E Rubino, Adriana Ferreira
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and lethal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons leading to muscle paralysis in affected individuals. Numerous mechanisms have been implicated in the death of these neurons. However, the pathobiology of this disease has not been completely elucidated. In the present study, we investigated to what extent tau cleavage and the generation of the neurotoxic tau45-230 fragment is associated with ALS. Quantitative Western blot analysis indicated that high levels of tau45-230 accumulated in lumbar and cervical spinal cord specimens obtained from ALS subjects...
August 3, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Xiaoyu Wu, Sinan Cakmak, Markus Wortmann, Maani Hakimi, Jian Zhang, Dittmar Böckler, Susanne Dihlmann
Male sex is a risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Within the AAA adventitia, infiltrating leukocytes express high levels of inflammasome components. To further elucidate the role of inflammatory cells in the pathogenesis of AAA, we here addressed expression and functionality of inflammasome components in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of AAA patients in association with sex. PBMC and plasma were isolated from 100 vascular patients, including 34 pairs of AAA patients and age/sex-matched non-AAA patients...
July 29, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Yoram Yagil, Barak Markus, Refael Kohen, Chana Yagil
We investigated the pathophysiology of diet-induced diabetes in the Cohen diabetic rat (CDs/y) from its induction to its chronic phase, using a multi-layered integrated genomic approach. We identified by linkage analysis two diabetes-related quantitative trait loci on RNO4 and RNO13. We determined their functional contribution to diabetes by chromosomal substitution, using congenic and consomic strains. To identify within these loci genes of relevance to diabetes, we sequenced the genome of CDs/y and compared it to 25 other rat strains...
July 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Kangxia He, Hongqin You, Yuxia Li, Lianxian Cui, Jianmin Zhang, Wei He
T cell engineering with T cell receptors (TCRs) specific for tumors plays an important role in adoptive T-cell transfer (ATC) therapy for cancer. Here, we present a novel strategy to redirect peripheral blood-derived αβT cells against tumors via TCRγ4δ1 gene transduction. The broad-spectrum anti-tumor activity of TCRδ1 cells in innate immunity is dependent on CDR3δ1. TCRγ4δ1-engineered αβT cells were prepared by lentiviral transduction and characterized by analyzing in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity to tumors, ability of proliferation and cytokine production, and their potential role in autoimmunity...
July 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Noriko Satake, Connie Duong, Sakiko Yoshida, Michael Oestergaard, Cathy Chen, Rachael Peralta, Shuling Guo, Punit P Seth, Yueju Li, Laurel Beckett, Jong Chung, Jan Nolta, Nitin Nitin, Joseph M Tuscano
The exponential rise in molecular and genomic data has generated a vast array of therapeutic targets. Oligonucleotide-based technologies to down regulate these molecular targets have promising therapeutic efficacy. However, there is relatively limited success in translating this into effective in vivo cancer therapeutics. The primary challenge is the lack of effective cancer cell-targeted delivery methods, particularly for a systemic disease such as leukemia. We developed a novel leukemia-targeting compound composed of a monoclonal antibody directly conjugated to an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)...
July 22, 2016: Molecular Medicine
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