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Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895848/four-artemisinin-based-treatments-in-african-pregnant-women-with-malaria
#1
Divine Pekyi, Akua A Ampromfi, Halidou Tinto, Maminata Traoré-Coulibaly, Marc C Tahita, Innocent Valéa, Victor Mwapasa, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Gertrude Kalanda, Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Raffaella Ravinetto, Theonest Mutabingwa, Prosper Gbekor, Harry Tagbor, Gifty Antwi, Joris Menten, Maaike De Crop, Yves Claeys, Celine Schurmans, Chantal Van Overmeir, Kamala Thriemer, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Umberto D'Alessandro, Michael Nambozi, Modest Mulenga, Sebastian Hachizovu, Jean-Bertin B Kabuya, Joyce Mulenga
BACKGROUND: Information regarding the safety and efficacy of artemisinin combination treatments for malaria in pregnant women is limited, particularly among women who live in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial of treatments for malaria in pregnant women in four African countries. A total of 3428 pregnant women in the second or third trimester who had falciparum malaria (at any parasite density and regardless of symptoms) were treated with artemether-lumefantrine, amodiaquine-artesunate, mefloquine-artesunate, or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895847/efficacy-of-a-low-cost-bubble-cpap-system-in-treatment-of-respiratory-distress-in-a-neonatal-ward-in-malawi
#2
Kondwani Kawaza, Heather E Machen, Jocelyn Brown, Zondiwe Mwanza, Suzanne Iniguez, Al Gest, E O'Brian Smith, Maria Oden, Rebecca R Richards-Kortum, Elizabeth Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895846/antibiotics-as-part-of-the-management-of-severe-acute-malnutrition
#3
Indi Trehan, Hayley S Goldbach, Lacey N LaGrone, Guthrie J Meuli, Richard J Wang, Kenneth M Maleta, Mark J Manary
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition contributes to 1 million deaths among children annually. Adding routine antibiotic agents to nutritional therapy may increase recovery rates and decrease mortality among children with severe acute malnutrition treated in the community. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned Malawian children, 6 to 59 months of age, with severe acute malnutrition to receive amoxicillin, cefdinir, or placebo for 7 days in addition to ready-to-use therapeutic food for the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895845/a-trial-of-a-7-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-adults
#4
Neil French, Stephen B Gordon, Thandie Mwalukomo, Sarah A White, Gershom Mwafulirwa, Herbert Longwe, Martin Mwaiponya, Eduard E Zijlstra, Malcolm E Molyneux, Charles F Gilks
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading and serious coinfection in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, particularly in Africa. Prevention of this disease by vaccination with the current 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine is suboptimal. Protein conjugate vaccines offer a further option for protection, but data on their clinical efficacy in adults are needed. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical efficacy trial, we studied the efficacy of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in predominantly HIV-infected Malawian adolescents and adults who had recovered from documented invasive pneumococcal disease...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895844/effect-of-human-rotavirus-vaccine-on-severe-diarrhea-in-african-infants
#5
Shabir A Madhi, Nigel A Cunliffe, Duncan Steele, Desirée Witte, Mari Kirsten, Cheryl Louw, Bagrey Ngwira, John C Victor, Paul H Gillard, Brigitte B Cheuvart, Htay H Han, Kathleen M Neuzil
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. Data are needed to assess the efficacy of the rotavirus vaccine in African children. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in South Africa (3166 infants; 64.1% of the total) and Malawi (1773 infants; 35.9% of the total) to evaluate the efficacy of a live, oral rotavirus vaccine in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895843/severe-anemia-in-malawian-children
#6
Job Cj Calis, Kamija S Phiri, E Brian Faragher, Bernard J Brabin, Imelda Bates, Luis E Cuevas, Rob J de Haan, Ajib I Phiri, Pelani Malange, Mirriam Khoka, Paul Jm Hulshof, Lisette van Lieshout, Marcel Ghm Beld, Yik Y Teo, Kirk A Rockett, Anna Richardson, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Malcolm E Molyneux, Michaël Boele van Hensbroek
BACKGROUND: Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 381 preschool children with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration, <5.0 g per deciliter) and 757 preschool children without severe anemia in urban and rural settings in Malawi. Causal factors previously associated with severe anemia were studied. The data were examined by multivariate analysis and structural equation modeling...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895842/postoperative-outcome-of-caesarean-sections-and-other-major-emergency-obstetric-surgery-by-clinical-officers-and-medical-officers-in-malawi
#7
Garvey Chilopora, Caetano Pereira, Francis Kamwendo, Agnes Chimbiri, Eddie Malunga, Staffan Bergström
BACKGROUND: Clinical officers perform much of major emergency surgery in Malawi, in the absence of medical officers. The aim of this study was to validate the advantages and disadvantages of delegation of major obstetric surgery to non-doctors. METHODS: During a three month period, data from 2131 consecutive obstetric surgeries in 38 district hospitals in Malawi were collected prospectively. The interventions included caesarean sections alone and those that were combined with other interventions such as subtotal and total hysterectomy repair of uterine rupture and tubal ligation...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895841/bednets-and-malaria-in-africa
#8
Don Mathanga, Malcolm E Molyneux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895840/the-malawi-hybrid-medical-graduates-1992-1998
#9
Adelola Adeloye
In April 1991, the Malawi College of Medicine opened its doors to Malawi medical students who had undertaken all but the final year of their undergraduate training in the United Kingdom. The first batch qualified with the MB BS degrees of the University of Malawi in September 1992. Since then and up to July 1998, 112 doctors have been produced. They are all Malawians, 90 males and 22 females, 29%, 31% and 40% respectively come from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi. Seventy-one per cent of the graduates had passed through Chancellor College, Zomba, and 27% had attended the Kamuzu Academy, Kasunga, Malawi...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895839/letter-from-%C3%A2-malawi-the-first-year-of-the-college-of-medicine-of-the-university-of-malawi
#10
Geoffrey W Dahlenburg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895838/a-medical-career-in-malawi-personal-reflections
#11
Malcolm E Molyneux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895837/communicating-science-beyond-the-mmj
#12
Muza Gondwe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895836/reflections-on-research-at-the-college-of-medicine-excellence-yesterday-today-tomorrow
#13
Robin L Broadhead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895835/reflections-on-the-first-twenty-five-years-of-the-university-of-malawi-college-of-medicine
#14
Adamson S Muula, Wakisa Mulwafu, Diston Chiweza, Ronald Mataya
September 2016 marks 25 years since the College of Medicine of the University of Malawi was established. In this article we reflect on its conception, birth, adolescence, and youth. The contributions of multiple stakeholders are celebrated while being mindful of the ongoing efforts to consolidate past and current gains. For instance, the College of Medicine was, until recently, the only medical school in the country, but a new private medical school has just been opened in Lilongwe. International partnerships and wide-ranging resource mobilisation from both internal and international funders has been the hallmark of the growth and expansion of the Malawi College of Medicine...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895834/profile-interview-dr-lucinda-manda-taylor-a-good-leader-should-be-passionate-because-leadership-is-not-simply-about-having-a-position
#15
Thengo Kavinya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895833/climate-change-as-the-biggest-threat-to-public-health-in-southern-africa-and-measures-to-reduce-its-impacts
#16
Fanuel M Bickton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895832/clostridium-difficile-a-healthcare-associated-infection-of-unknown-significance-in-adults-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
REVIEW
Alexander J Keeley, Nicholas J Beeching, Katharine E Stott, Paul Roberts, Alastair J Watson, Michael Bj Beadsworth
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes a high burden of disease in high-resource healthcare systems, with significant morbidity, mortality, and financial implications. CDI is a healthcare-associated infection for which the primary risk factor is antibiotic usage, and it is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoea in HIV-infected patients in the United States. Little is known about the disease burden of CDI in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV and healthcare-associated infections are more prevalent and antibiotic usage is less restricted...
June 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895831/the-spectrum-of-heart-disease-in-adults-in-malawi-a-review-of-the-literature-with-reference-to-the-importance-of-echocardiography-as-a-diagnostic-modality
#18
Theresa J Allain, Louis Kinley, Bright Tsidya, Ailsa Murray, Mark Cheesman, Sam Kampondeni, Noel Kayange
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895830/development-of-a-subspecialty-cardiology-curriculum-for-paediatric-registrars-in-malawi-implementation-of-a-long-distance-hybrid-model
#19
Laura Newberry, Neil Kennedy, Elizabeth A Greene
BACKGROUND: Malawi has a high burden of paediatric cardiac disease but a limited number of health providers familiar with these chronic diseases. Given the rising number of Malawian postgraduate paediatric trainees at the University of Malawi College of Medicine, we sought to remedy this lack of basic cardiology training with a long-distance, module-based curriculum that could be utilised independently, as needed, with on-site teaching. We also wished to evaluate the initial modules for utility and improvement in knowledge and confidence in each topic...
June 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895829/correlates-of-cannabis-use-among-high-school-students-in-shamva-district-zimbabwe-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study
#20
Charmaine T Chivandire, James January
BACKGROUND: We set out to determine the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors that influence cannabis use in young people aged 13 to 19 years in Shamva District, Zimbabwe. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study focusing on the correlates of cannabis use was conducted among 311 school-going adolescents who were selected using multistage sampling. RESULTS: Eight percent of the students in our sample reported current use of cannabis...
June 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
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