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Protein and Peptide Letters

Azza Abdu Allah, Eman Abd El Gayed, Sahar Hammoudah, Lama Mohamed El-Attar, Walid Shehab-Eldin
BACKGROUND: Irisin; a novel myokine/adipokine; encoded by FNDC5 gene have been suggested to play an important role in energy metabolism and obesity. However, the genetic variations at this locus and their effects on different metabolic parameters is still poorly understood. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the role of FNDC5/irisin gene polymorphisms (RS16835198 and RS726344) in obese individuals and their genotype phenotype correlation with circulating serum irisin level and other biochemical parameters like glucose, lipid metabolism and liver enzymes...
May 8, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Zailong Cai, Jiewei Hu, Lin Pang, Binghua Jiao, Shengsheng Yang
Given the emergence of new-generation gene sequencing, numerous genome sequences of species have been revealed, however, their biological functions need to be confirmed. This study aimed to identify new, highly active calcitonins (CTs) from the gene database. A total of 64 candidate CT genes and amino acid sequences from different species were obtained by BLAST using the salmon CT (sCT) sequence as the query sequence. These sequences were clustered to 27 different CT polypeptide sequences, and then the evolutionary tree was constructed...
May 7, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Savina Dipresa, Luca De Toni, Carlo Foresta, Andrea Garolla
A number of test have been proposed to assess male fertility potential, ranging from routine testing by light microscopic method for evaluating semen samples, to screening test for DNA integrity aimed to look at sperm chromatin abnormalities. Spermatozoa are an extremely differentiated cell, they have critical functions for embryo development and heredity, in addiction to delivering a haploid paternal genome to the oocyte. Towards this goal certain requirements must always be met. The ability of spermatozoa to perform its reproductive function taking place in the spermatogenesis, a highly specialized process depending on multiple factors with effect on male fertility...
April 18, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Domenico Milardi, Giuseppe Grande, Chiara Autilio, Francesca Mancini, Laura De Marinis, Riccardo Marana, Cecilia Zuppi, Andrea Urbani, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Silvia Baroni
Recent evidences suggest that hypogonadism is an important risk factor for lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Several papers have discussed the role of chronic inflammation in the development of BPH, which may be modulated by the hypogonadal state. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), known protein marker of systemic inflammation, can be assayed in the seminal plasma and represents a reliable and sensitive marker of inflammation for the male accessory gland inflammation (MAGI)...
April 18, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Luca De Toni, Savina Dipresa, Carlo Foresta, Andrea Garolla
Sperm thermotaxis, namely the temperature-oriented motility of sperm cells, is a key process involved in ejaculated sperm guidance towards the oocyte for fertilization pourposes. Since its discovery in 2003, many studies clarified the dynamic, the sensitivity and the overall weight of this process in the comprehensive context of fertilization. However, the identification of sperm thermosensor/s remained elusive until recently. The most recent cues about the molecular bases of the old known process of thermotaxis are here revised...
April 18, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Yolanda Fernandez-Hermida, Giuseppe Grande, Micaela Menarguez, Anna Laura Astorri, Rafael Azagra
Cervical Mucus (CM) is a viscous fluid produced by the cervical glands. It plays a key role in the transport and capacitation of sperm through the female genital tract. The CM undergoes modifications that make it have different biophysical and biochemical characteristics throughout the cycle, becoming an important element for the identification of ovulation. Since CM is rich in secreted proteins, it may represent moreover a source of putative biomarkers for female reproductive tract diseases. This review is an attempt to collect relevant knowledge about the physicochemical properties and functions of the cervical mucus, including its important role as a clinical marker of female fertility, and draws attention to CM as a source of potential proteomic biomarkers...
April 18, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Mauro Bibancos De Rose, Mariana Moraes Piccolomini
Assisted reproduction techniques (ART) have significantly advanced since the first successful in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, most in vitro-produced embryos fail to implant. Key steps in ART are the correct infertility diagnosis, in order to manage the individual treatments, and the assessment of gamete and embryo viability, to identify the embryo with the best implantation potential. Non-invasive approaches to correctly diagnose infertility and to access embryo development potential have the advantages of increasing the knowledge of embryo physiology, therefore allowing the development of methods to predict developmental competence and viability...
April 12, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Giovanni Luca, Tiziano Baroni, Iva Arato, Barbara Hansen, Don Cameron, Riccardo Calafiore
Several publications have been written reviewing the basic physiology of the mammalian Sertoli cell, but the aim of this review is to summarize some of the recent findings regarding the immunomodulatory role of Sertoli cells, and especially the key Sertoli cell regulatory proteins that are associated with the well-defined immune privileged status of the testis. A better definition and understanding of these Sertoli cell proteins and the mechanisms of immuno-protection should help to elucidate their role in damage of the spermatogenic process and their role in cell therapy for a number of cell-mediated chronic diseases...
April 12, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Giuseppe Grande, Federica Vincenzoni, Francesca Mancini, Silvia Baroni, Giovanni Luca, Riccardo Calafiore, Riccardo Marana, Massimo Castagnola, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Domenico Milardi
Infectious etiologies contribute to 15% of male factor infertility. Enterococcus faecalis is commonly identified in semen colture of infertile men and it is associated with significantly poorer semen quality. Aim of this study was to identify new seminal biomarkers for the male tract infection by E. faecalis, using proteomic profiling, in order to understand the effect of E. faecalis on the physiopathology of male reproduction. We included in the study ten patients seeking medical care for primary infertility with prostate-vescicular-epidydimitis and with microbiological analysis on semen and/or prostatic secretions positive for Enterococcus faecalis...
April 12, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Fiorella Di Nicuolo, Monia Specchia, Lorenza Trentavizi, Giovanni Scambia, Nicoletta Di Simone
One of the common complications of pregnancy is spontaneous pregnancy loss which occurs in an estimated 5- 15% of pregnancies. Of all women 1%-5% suffer from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Despite the fact that RPL has been associated to various anatomic, hormonal, immune, hematologic, and genetic defects, in 30% of the patients, screening tests included in the RPL workup may have negative results. Recently, we demonstrated a significant increased activation of endometrial NALP-3 inflammasome, and a caspase-1 dependent secretion of IL-18 and IL-1β in the endometrial tissues obtained from RPL women compared with a fertile women group...
April 12, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Ada Soler-Ventura, Judit Castillo, Alberto de la Iglesia, Meritxell Jodar, Ferran Barrachina, Josep Lluis Ballesca, Rafael Oliva
Protamines are the most abundant sperm nuclear proteins and pack approximately the 92-98% of the mammalian sperm DNA. In mammals, two types of protamines have been described, the protamine 1 (P1) and the protamine 2 (P2) family, whose relative ratio has been related to the proper sperm chromatin maturity and the normality/abnormality of the male gamete. Specifically, the deregulation of the P1/P2 ratio has been correlated to DNA damage, alterations in seminal parameters, and low success rate of assisted reproduction techniques...
April 12, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Rosita Angela Condorelli, Sandro La Vignera, Aldo E Calogero
Many evidences attribute to cigarette smoking a negative effect on the reproductive health of both genders, but the mechanisms are not entirely clear. Many compounds derived from cigarette combustion may be responsible for the negative impact that cigarette smoke has on sperm parameters. In particular, the effects of nicotine, an alkaloid present in the tobacco plant and the main constituent of cigarette smoke, on sperm parameters, have been studied, showing that it alters sperm parameters. Recently we investigated the mechanism by which nicotine alters spermatozoa through the evaluation of the expression of nicotinic receptors subunits in human spermatozoa...
April 12, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Priyadarshini, Nancy Taneja
Protein expression during the exposure of the cells to different glucose concentrations may alter and can give vital information about the pathogenesis of T2D. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with various diseases and its supplementation can improve the diseased state. L6 skeletal muscle cells were exposed to different glucose (G) concentrations (0mM, 8mM, 16mM and 25mM) supplemented with vitamin D (VD) for 48 hours. Three distinct bands observed in SDS-PAGE in samples obtained from cells which were exposed to 8mM (G), 8mM (G) + VD and 16mM (G)...
April 6, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Jie Yin, Tiejun Li, Jianhua He
BACKGROUND: Our previous study suggested that short-term lysine restriction improved feed intake and gut microbiota in piglets. Thus, in this study, we further used proteomics technology to investigate the potential mechanism associated with long-term lysine restriction in pigs. In addition, blood biochemical parameters, meat quality, and muscle nutrient transporters were also investigated. RESULTS: The results showed that 131 proteins in the liver were markedly altered in response to dietary lysine restriction, with 54 being downregulated and 77 being upregulated, which mainly involved in neurodegenerative diseases, oxidative phosphorylation, and metabolic pathways...
April 6, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Neha Gupta, Prakash S Bisen, Sameer Suresh Bhagyawant
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer demands safe adjuvant to overcome the side effects of standard drug tomoxifen. Diet derived bioactive compounds are reported to exhibit modulation of tumor growth leading to cell death. Chickpea is a protein rich edible legume with several bioactive compounds that includes lectin as well. Characterization of chickpea lectin and its effect against cancer cell has been investigated in this study. METHOD: Cicer arietinum L. lectin (CAL) agglutinating trypsin-treated rabbit blood cells was purified employing DEAE-cellulose and SP-sephadex ion exchange chromatography...
April 6, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Kerensa Broersen, Violeta Ruiperez, Bazbek Davletov
Alpha-synuclein is a protein involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The physiological function of alpha-synuclein is unknown although the protein has been reported to extensively interact with membranes and lipid vesicles. We and others recently suggested that specific brain-enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g. arachidonic acid, can also give rise to a conformational change in alpha-synuclein and ultimately induces its fibrillation. Arachidonic acid is released by phospholipase A2 activity and clinical observations have shown a link between mutations in PLA2G6, the gene responsible for the production of phospholipase A2, and early onset types of parkinsonism...
March 26, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Ujjwal Maulik, Sagnik Sen
BACKGROUND: Uterine Leiomyoma is mainly widespread non-malignant tumor. Around more than 80% woman have these particular tumor among them only 30% of them are detected. Integrin-ᵦ1 is one of the up regulated biomarkers during tumorgenesis which is also associated with structural disordered. Intrinsically disordered proteins are one of the types which are dealing with unstructuredness especially in tertiary structural orchestration. Around 30% of the human proteins consist of intrinsically disordered regions...
March 25, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Yixuan Zhang, Muhammad Hussain, Xiuqin Yang, Peng Chen, Yaping Tian, Hongwu Du
BACKGROUND: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic and chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the exocrine glands, with massive autoantibody production. Although the pathogenesis of the disorder is incompletely understood, some studies have reported that anti-moesin antibodies have been detected in autoimmune diseases with which SS is closely associated. Nevertheless, little is known about moesin's potential involvement in SS. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to verify whether moesin is a specific autoantigen involved in Chinese Hans SS patients...
March 19, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Luisa Zupin, Katia Rupel, Giulia Ottaviani, Augusto Poropat, Roberto Di Lenarda, Matteo Biasotto, Sergio Crovella
Laser therapy (LT) has been employed for treatment of oral mucositis (OM)due to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and bio-stimulatory effects. This pilot study investigated the effect of LT in TR146 epithelial cell line, used to mimic oral mucosa,aimed at evaluating the expression of DEFB1, DEFB4, DEFB103 genes encoding for the human β-defensins 1, 2 and 3. In this cellular model LT decreased mRNA defensins' expression 30 minutes after irradiation but not 24 hours later, suggesting that LT is able to influence β-defensins production immediately after treatment, while its efficacy decreases over time...
February 21, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Michael Gromiha, N R Siva Shanmugam, J Fermin Angelo Selvin, K Veluraja
Protein-carbohydrate interactions play vital roles in several biological processes in living organisms. The comparative analysis of binding site residues along with stabilizing residues in protein-carbohydrate complexes provides ample insights to understand the structure, function and recognition mechanism. In this work, we have identified 2.45% binding site residues in a non-redundant dataset of 1130 complexes using distance-based criteria and 7.07% stabilizing residues using the concepts of hydrophobicity, long-range interactions and conservation of residues...
February 21, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
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