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Protein and Peptide Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219317/dietary-fiber-gap-and-host-gut-microbiota
#1
Meng Han, Ping Liu, Defa Li, Yuan Li, Xi Ma
Accumulating evidence are dramatically increasing access to the facts that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in host metabolism and health, which revealed the possibility of a plethora of associations between gut bacteria and human diseases. Several functional roles carried out by a major class of host's diet, such as fiber. Fiber is the main source of microbiota-accessible carbohydrate in the diet of humans. In modern diet, it is difficult to intake dietary fiber as enough as recommended standard. The low-fiber diet in the modern life, known as fiber gap, can trigger to a substantial depletion of the human gut microbiota diversity and beneficial metabolites...
February 20, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219316/from-disorder-to-mis-order-structural-aspects-of-pathogenic-oligomerization-in-conformational-diseases
#2
Chin Pang Benny Yiu, Yu Wai Chen
Proteins implicated in neurological conformational diseases contain substantial amounts of "intrinsic disorder". These native monomeric functional states may transit into some oligomeric states that have high β-sheet contents and seed the formation of insoluble amyloid fibrils. The prevailing view is that these "toxic" oligomers should be targeted for drug development. Here, an overview of the diseases was presented, within the general framework of the oligomerization of intrinsically disordered proteins. These systems pose some specific challenges to structural studies: the toxic oligomers are transient, low in concentration, and often need to be studied in a heterogeneous environment...
February 20, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201963/inhibition-of-amyloid-like-fibril-formation-of-trypsin-by-red-wines
#3
Márta Kotormán, Phanindra Babu Kasi, László Halász, Attila Borics
The aim of the present study was to examine the potential role and applicability of dietary supplements in reducing the risk of development of amyloid diseases associated with the gastrointestinal tract, such as type II diabetes. Trypsin, a well-known serine protease was used as a model protein in our experiments. The effect of various red wines on the formation of amyloid-like fibrils of trypsin was studied in vitro, in aqueous ethanol, at pH 7.0. Turbidity measurements, aggregation kinetics experiments, Congo red binding assays and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopic measurements were used to follow the aggregation process in the presence or absence of various red wines...
February 14, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190398/transforming-cytosolic-proteins-into-insoluble-and-membrane-toxic-forms-by-genetic-pathological-or-environmental-factors
#4
Jianxing Song
An increasing spectrum of diseases other than neurodegenerative diseases is characteristic of aggregation of specific proteins, while aggregation of a large number of non-specific proteins are associated with aging down to Escherichia coli. Triggered by disease-causing mutations and aging-associated damages, many well-folded cytosolic proteins become "completely insoluble" in vivo. As facilitated by our discovery in 2005 that "completely insoluble" proteins could be solubilized in unsalted water, we have deciphered that disease- and aging-associated factors act to eliminate the native folds of human VAPB-MSP and SOD1, as well as E...
February 9, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190397/when-good-goes-awry-the-aggregation-of-protein-therapeutics
#5
Jennifer M Redington, Leonid Breydo, Vladimir N Uversky
Protein therapeutics are playing an increasingly important role in treatment of a variety of human diseases. However, like the rest of proteins, they are susceptible to aggregation. Aggregation of proteinaceous pharmaceuticals can cause a loss of efficacy and, potentially, cytotoxicity and an immunogenic response. This review describes various ways protein therapeutics aggregate and a variety of approaches taken to prevent or minimize this process.
February 9, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183247/streptomyces-as-overexpression-system-for-heterologous-production-of-an-antimicrobial-peptide
#6
Marisol Roldán-Tapia, Jozef Anné, Ana Gisela Reyes, Ulises Carrasco, Cesar Millán-Pacheco, Javier Barrios-González, Armando Mejía
Defense mechanisms of plants against phytopathogens include cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs). The broad-spectrum activity of these peptides has been evaluated previously against different phytopathogens. Their lack of toxicity for plants and animals is a promising feature for pest control. Although, some attempts have been made previously in order to increase their heterologous expressions, the employed strategies have so far proven to be ineffective. Low production yield and elevated costs are the obstacles to overcome...
February 8, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183246/solid-state-structure-of-abeta-ab-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Junxia Lu, Xing-Qi Dong, Jian-Jun Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become the most common neurodegenerative disease. The deposition of amyloid fibrils in the brain is one of the characteristics of AD. The fibrils are composed of amyloid-b peptide (Ab). Ab is produced through a series event of protease cleavage of a transmembrane protein called β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) which is commonly expressed in the brain. The production of Ab and its propensity to aggregation to form oligomers and fibrils are believed to initiate a sequence of events that lead to AD dementia...
February 8, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176660/phoenixin-a-newly-discovered-peptide-with-multi-functions
#8
Taoyan Yuan, Zhongxin Sun, Wanqiu Zhao, Tao Wang, Jufang Zhang, Dong Niu
Phoenixin (PNX) is a newly identified peptide that is mainly distributed in the nervous system. Initial studies demonstrated that PNX is a reproductive peptide, however, further studies indicated that PNX might play a wide range of roles in additional physiological process such as sensory processing, anxiety and memory. Recently, Gpr173 was identified as the cognate receptor of PNX and aspects of the regulatory mechanism of PNX has now been clarified. This review aims to provide the current knowledge of PNX and propose some study directions for future research...
February 7, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176659/intrinsically-disordered-domains-amyloids-and-protein-liquid-phases-evolving-concepts-and-open-questions
#9
Miguel Ángel Mompeán, Douglas Vinson Laurents
Enzymes and structural proteins dominated thinking about protein structure and function for most of the twentieth century. In recent decades, however, we have begun to appreciate the significant physiological and pathological roles of nonglobular proteins. Amyloids first gained infamy from their implications in a score of human mortal diseases. However, they have recently been discovered to play vital physiological roles, such as memory consolidation in humans. This raises an important question: Can we inhibit pathological amyloids without affecting functional amyloids? Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), many of which are prone to form amyloids, perform many essential functions, yet their importance has only been recognized in the last quarter century...
February 6, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176658/a-structural-view-of-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-assembly-and-amyloid-aggregation
#10
Zhenying Liu, Shengnan Zhang, Dan Li, Cong Liu
The major len protein αB-crystallin (αB) is an intracellular chaperone. It belongs to the family of small heat shock protein (sHsps) which plays a critical role in maintaining protein homeostasis and preventing protein aggregation, especially under stress conditions. Dysfunction of αB is closely related to cataract, and many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Due to the extremely heterogeneous and polydispersed nature of αB, it remains unclear how αB self-assemblies and prevents its client proteins from aggregation...
February 6, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176657/emerging-methods-for-structural-analysis-of-protein-aggregation
#11
Eshan Khan, Amit Kumar
Protein misfolding and aggregation is a key attribute of different neurodegenerative diseases. Misfolded and aggregated proteins are intrinsically disordered and rule out structure based drug design. The comprehensive characterization of misfolded proteins and associated aggregation pathway is prerequisite to develop therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases caused due to the protein aggregation. Visible protein aggregates used to be the final stage during aggregation mechanism. The structural analysis of intermediate steps in such protein aggregates will help us to discern the conformational role and subsequently involved pathways...
February 6, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155619/quantification-of-specific-glycation-sites-in-human-serum-albumin-as-prospective-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-biomarkers
#12
Sandro Spiller, Andrej Frolov, Ralf Hoffmann
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common lifestyle disease affecting all countries. Due to its asymptomatic onset, it is often diagnosed after irreversible vascular complications have been initiated. Therefore, specific markers characteristic for very early disease stages and suitable for early diagnostics are required. Glycation of plasma proteins, such as human serum albumin (HSA), has been often suggested as marker. However, the total glycation degree of HSA does not provide sufficient information about short-term fluctuations of blood glucose concentrations due to the large number of glycation sites...
February 2, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155618/host-defense-peptides-and-cancer-perspectives-on-research-design-and-outcomes
#13
Laszlo Otvos
Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) inhibit the proliferation of bacteria and frequently protect experimental animals from bacterial challenge. If the mode of action is membrane disintegration, one would expect that AMP can also kill cancer cells whose membrane structure lies between those of normal and bacterial cells. However, an ever-increasing number of reports suggest that AMP, with their newer name, host-defense peptides (HDP), do not directly kill bacteria under in vitro conditions when small molecule antibacterials are bactericidal...
February 2, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128054/purification-and-characterization-of-2s-albumin-from-seeds-of-wrightia-tinctoria-exhibiting-antibacterial-and-dnase-activity
#14
Anchal Sharma, Pramod Kumar, Pooja Kesari, Neetu Chaudhary, Madhusudhanarao Katiki, Manisha Mishra, Pradhyumna Kumar Singh, Bhola R Gurjar, Ashwani Kumar Sharma, Shailly Tomar, Pravindra Kumar
2S albumin is a low-molecular-weight seed storage protein belonging to the prolamin superfamily. In the present work a small 2S albumin (WTA) protein of ~16 kDa has been purified from the seeds of Wrightia tinctoria.The WTA is a heterodimer protein with a small subunit of ~5 kDa and a larger subunit of ~11 kDa bridged together through disulphide bonds. The protein exhibits deoxyribonucleases activity against closed circular pBR322 plasmid DNA and linear BL21 genomic DNA. The protein also showed antibacterial activity against Morexalla catarrhalis...
January 26, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128053/the-%C3%AE-sheet-core-is-the-favored-candidate-of-engineering-sdr-for-enhancing-thermostability-but-not-for-activity
#15
Deshuai Lou, Jun Tan, Liancai Zhu, Shunlin Ji, Bochu Wang
7α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (7α-HSDHs) can stereoselectively catalyze steroids, aromatic α-ketoesters, and benzaldehyde analogues playing a critical role in the biotransformation and poor thermostability that hinders their biomedical and industrial applications. Based on the three-dimensional structure of 7α-HSDH from Clostridium absonum (CA 7α-HSDH), recently reported program MAESTRO was used to compute the ΔΔG and predict the single-point mutants that could enhance its thermostability. Four mutants were selected and verified experimentally...
January 26, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117011/functional-peptides-from-laminin-1-improve-the-cell-adhesion-capacity-of-recombinant-mussel-adhesive-protein
#16
Kai Wang, Lina Ji, Zichun Hua
Since cell adhesion is important for cell processes such as migration and proliferation, it is a crucial consideration in biomaterial design and development. Based on the fusion of mussel adhesive protein fp151 with laminin-1-originated functional peptides we designed fusion proteins (fLA4, fLG6 and fAG73) and explored their cell adhesion properties. In our study, cell adhesion analysis showed that protein fLG6 and fLA4 had a significantly higher cell adhesion property for A549 than fp151. Moreover, protein fAG73 also displayed a strong adhesion capacity for Hela cells...
January 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117010/inhibition-of-p53-mutant-peptide-aggregation-in-vitro-by-cationic-osmolyte-acetylcholine-chloride
#17
Zhaolin Chen, Mathumai Kanapathipillai
Mutations of tumor suppressor protein p53 are present in almost about 50% of all cancers. It has been reported that the p53 mutations cause aggregation and subsequent loss of p53 function, leading to cancer progression. Here in this study we focus on the inhibitory effects of cationic osmolyte molecules acetylcholine chloride, and choline on an aggregation prone 10 amino acid p53 mutant peptide WRPILTIITL, and the corresponding wildtype peptide RRPILTIITL in vitro. The characterization tools used for this study include Thioflavin- T (ThT) induced fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), congo red binding, turbidity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and cell viability assays...
January 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117014/bispecific-antibodies-bsabs-promising-immunotherapeutic-agents-for-cancer-therapy
#18
Deasmond Omane Acheampong, Christian Kweku Adokoh, Paulina Ampomah, Daniel S Agyirifor, Isaac Dadzie, Francis Armah-Arkah, Ernest Amponsah Asiamah
Antibodies have become the preferred therapeutic treatment option for cancers. Antibody therapy is associated with low toxic profile and specific in its activity, unlike chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Types of tumor are known to express multiple receptors that cross-talk to activate perpetual growth, proliferation and metastasis, and inhibit apoptosis in such tumors. Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) are therefore the preferred agent for the treatment of such cancers due to its unique characteristics. This review discusses up to date therapeutic potentials of BsAbs...
January 19, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124609/recombinant-expression-functional-characterization-of-two-scorpion-venom-toxins-with-three-disulfide-bridges-from-the-chinese-scorpion-buthus-martensii-karsch
#19
ShengGuo Lin, XueLin Wang, XueYao Hu, YongShan Zhao, MingYi Zhao, JingHai Zhang, Yong Cui
Scorpion venom contains a large variety of biologically active peptides. However, most of these peptides have not been identified and characterized. Peptides with three disulfide bridges, existing in the scorpion venom, have not been studied in detail and have been poorly characterized until now. Here, we report the recombinant expression and functional characterization of two kinds of venom peptides (BmKBTx and BmNaL-3SS2) with three disulfide bridges. This study adopted an effective E. coli system. The genes for BmKBTx and BmNaL-3SS2 were obtained by the Polymerase Chain Reaction method and finally cloned to the pSYPU-1b vector...
January 17, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124608/immunoglobulin-g-glycation-by-fructose-leads-to-structural-perturbations-and-drop-off-in-free-lysine-and-arginine-residues
#20
Mohammad Faisal, Abdulrahman Alatar, Saheem Ahmad
Non-enzymatic glycation is the addition of free carbonyl group of reducing sugar to the free amino groups of proteins and leads to the formation of early glycation products and further into advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Fructose reacts rapidly with the free amino groups of proteins to form AGEs. AGEs are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, particularly in diabetic complications. In this study, IgG was glycated with fructose monosaccharide at 10 mM concentration for varying time interval...
January 17, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
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