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Journal of the History of the Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414619/how-the-nerves-reached-the-muscle-bernard-katz-stephen-w-kuffler-and-john-c-eccles-certain-implications-of-exile-for-the-development-of-twentieth-century-neurophysiology
#1
Frank W Stahnisch
This article explores the work by Bernard Katz (1911-2003), Stephen W. Kuffler (1913-1980), and John C. Eccles (1903-1997) on the nerve-muscle junction as a milestone in twentieth-century neurophysiology with wider scientific implications. The historical question is approached from two perspectives: (a) an investigation of twentieth-century solutions to a longer physiological dispute and (b) an examination of a new kind of laboratory and academic cooperation. From this vantage point, the work pursued in Sydney by Sir John Carew Eccles' team on the neuromuscular junction is particularly valuable, since it contributed a central functional element to modern physiological understanding regarding the function and structure of the human and animal nervous system...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394694/the-death-of-sir-victor-horsley-1857-1916-and-his-burial-in-amarah
#2
Nadeem Toodayan
Sir Victor Alexander Haden Horsley (1857-1916), the pioneering British neurological surgeon, passed away 100 years ago. He died young in his sixtieth year from the effects of heat stroke while serving as consulting military surgeon to the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force in Amarah, modern-day Iraq, and was buried in the now largely abandoned "Amara War Cemetery." By the time of his death in 1916, Victor Horsley had established himself as one of the most eminent innovators of modern neurological surgery. His pioneering researches in cerebral physiology earned him an early reputation in the field, and his experiences with vivisection allowed him to confidently operate on the brain and spinal cord at a time when surgical intervention of the nervous system was fraught with uncertainty...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368685/the-complicity-of-friends-how-george-eliot-g-h-lewes-and-john-hughlings-jackson-encoded-herbert-spencer-s-secret-by-martin-n-raitiere
#3
Samuel H Greenblatt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318373/thank-you-stan
#4
Paul Eling, Peter J Koehler, Frank W Stahnisch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273005/what-is-in-a-word-neuron-early-usage-and-evolution-in-antiquity-to-its-long-lasting-current-significance
#5
Eugenio Frixione
Neuron, a Greek term with a rustic background, made much of its way to its current significance since antiquity, when full recognition was achieved that sensory and motor signals travel through the animal body along nerves (neura, plural). Drawing from classic and recent historical scholarship, this study identifies the successive steps toward such a major breakthrough, starting from the usage of the expression in archaic times and continuing up to the much later transference of a mature theory into the modern world...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136158/jan-evangelista-purkyn%C3%A4-1787-1869-and-his-instruments-for-microscopic-research-in-the-field-of-neuroscience
#6
Alexandr Chvátal
The findings obtained by the famous nineteenth-century Czech scientist Jan Evangelista Purkyně (1787-1869) in the field of microscopic structure of animal and human tissues, including the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, have already been described in depth in a number of older and newer publications. The present article contains an overview of the instruments and tools that Purkyně and his assistants used for microscopic research of tissue histology. Some of these instruments were developed either by Purkyně alone, such as the microtomic compressor, or together with his assistant Adolph Oschatz, such as the microtome...
January 31, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26927541/vincenc-alexandr-bohd%C3%A3-lek-1801-1883-czech-anatomist-and-neuroscientist-of-the-nineteenth-century
#7
Alexandr Chvátal, David Kachlík
Vincenc Alexandr Bohdálek (Vincenz Alexander Bochdalek) was a well-known anatomist and pathologist in the nineteenth century. Today, however, his name is all but forgotten. Bohdálek described a number of anatomical structures; some of them became eponyms. Unfortunately, his findings concerning the innervation of the eye, upper jaw, hard palate, auditory system, and meninges are little known today. This current overview is based on available archival sources and provides an insight into his results in the field of nervous system research, which account for almost half his work...
April 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749148/the-earliest-observations-on-facial-palsy
#8
Edward H Reynolds, James V Kinnier Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050717/neuroanniversary-2017
#9
Paul Eling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26927332/theodore-l-sourkes-phd-frsc-oc-february-21-1919-january-17-2015
#10
Paul Foley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829058/het-brein-van-farao-tot-fmri-een-fenomenale-ontdekkingsreis-the-brain-from-pharaoh-to-fmri-an-extraordinary-journey-through-the-history-of-brain-science-by-kees-brunia
#11
Han Diesfeldt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26828976/who-was-the-red-dean
#12
Paul Eling, Kees Brunia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26828891/who-was-the-red-dean
#13
Paul Eling, Kees Brunia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26666300/a-convenient-inconvenience-the-eponymous-legacy-of-sir-william-richard-gowers-1845-1915
#14
Nadeem Toodayan
A century since his passing, the legacy of the great Victorian clinical neurologist, Sir William Richard Gowers (1845-1915), remains traceable to students and practitioners of medicine worldwide through eponymous medical terms named in his honor. Popular designations like "Gowers' sign" continue to lead curious minds to learn more about the pioneering neurologist's lifework and influence, and yet Gowers himself was not fond of medical eponyms. Memorably remarking that eponyms were an educational "inconvenience" in medicine, Gowers was apt to disfavor the system in the very same lecture in which he reportedly first referred to the spinal cord fasciculus that later took his name...
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26584250/an-entire-universe-of-the-roman-world-s-architecture-found-in-the-human-skull
#15
Dana Turliuc, Șerban Turliuc, Andrei Cucu, Gabriela Dumitrescu, Claudia Costea
Today's neuroanatomical terminology has its origins in the Romans' way of life, in their civil and military house architecture, as well as in the fields of engineering and technology. Despite the fact that they did not know how the nervous system worked and what the role of each neuroanatomic structure was, over time, especially in Renaissance and early modern times, the anatomists sought descriptive names for the nervous structures they have identified by way of similarity with some ancient items. This study aims to briefly review the influence of Roman architecture, engineering, and technology on neuroanatomic nomenclature, the precursor of modern neuroanatomical terminology...
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26584151/discovering-the-structure-of-nerve-tissue-part-3-from-jan-evangelista-purkyn%C3%A4-to-ludwig-mauthner
#16
Alexandr Chvátal
The previous works of Purkyně, Valentin, and Remak showed that the central and peripheral nervous systems contained not only nerve fibers but also cellular elements. The use of microscopes and new fixation techniques enabled them to accurately obtain data on the structure of nerve tissue and consequently in many European universities microscopes started to become widely used in histological and morphological studies. The present review summarizes important discoveries concerning the structure of neural tissue, mostly from vertebrates, during the period from 1838 to 1865...
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26566190/th%C3%A3-odore-flournoy-on-synesthetic-personification
#17
Anna Plassart, Rebekah C White
In 1893, Théodore Flournoy published a landmark book on synesthesia - Des phénomènes de synopsie [Of Synoptic Phenomena]. The book presented a pioneering chapter on synesthetic personification, including numerous striking case examples, and it is frequently cited by twenty-first-century researchers as providing some of the earliest examples of the phenomenon. Flournoy employed a broad definition of personification - the representation of stimuli as concrete and specific individuals or inanimate objects. This definition encompassed a more extensive set of phenomena than the definition used by researchers today and was illustrated by cases that would fall outside of contemporary subtypes of synesthetic personification...
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880075/holes-in-the-head-the-art-and-archeology-of-trepanation-in-ancient-peru-by-john-w-verano
#18
Stanley Finger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767377/the-split-between-gall-and-spurzheim-1813-1818
#19
Harry Whitaker, Gonia Jarema
An acerbic footnote in Volume 3 (1818) of the five-volume great work of Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Gaspar Spurzheim, Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General and of the Brain in Particular with Observations on the Possibility of Understanding the Many Moral and Intellectual Dispositions of Man and Animals by the Configuration of Their Heads, marked the end of the collaboration between Gall, the founder of organologie, and Spurzheim, promoter of phrenology. We discuss the background of this note and the nature of the rift that marked the end of Gall and Spurzheim's collaboration...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684552/paul-broca-s-search-for-basque-skulls-the-full-story
#20
Santiago Giménez-Roldán
Paul Broca surmised that the short and broad-brachycephalic-skulls of the earliest European settlers had become longer and narrower-dolichocephalic-in modern populations due to the blending of different races. Swedish anatomist Anders Retzius had two brachycephalic skulls said to be from contemporary Basque individuals, a claim suited to test Broca's hypothesis. Broca worked with fellow anatomist and surgeon Pedro González Velasco, the founding father of Spanish anthropology, to gather a large number of Basque skulls...
October 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
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