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Journal of the History of the Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768082/mary-jane-hogue-1883-1962-a-pioneer-in-human-brain-tissue-culture
#1
Steven J Zottoli, Ernst-August Seyfarth
The ability to maintain human brain explants in tissue culture was a critical step in the use of these cells for the study of central nervous system disorders. Ross G. Harrison (1870-1959) was the first to successfully maintain frog medullary tissue in culture in 1907, but it took another 38 years before successful culture of human brain tissue was accomplished. One of the pioneers in this achievement was Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962). Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 in West Chester, Pennsylvania, and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652555/henry-herbert-donaldson-s-1857-1938-contribution-to-an-organized-approach-to-the-experimental-study-of-the-mammalian-central-nervous-system
#2
J Wayne Lazar
This article shows that the academic and research careers of Henry Herbert Donaldson (1857-1938) were directed to provide basic information about the growth of the vertebrate nervous system and to provide standards and the means to make such research efficient. He earned the reputation of making the albino rat a standard laboratory animal. His academic career began when he was an undergraduate at Yale University in 1875 and concluded with his death as Professor and Head of the Department of Neurology at the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology of the University of Pennsylvania in 1938...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595374/procedures-and-complications-in-late-nineteenth-century-experimental-neuroanatomical-research-exemplified-by-articles-of-henry-herbert-donaldson-1857-1938
#3
J Wayne Lazar
Henry Herbert Donaldson (1857-1938) was a leader in neurological research in the United States for several decades, beginning about 1890. A detailed account of three of his earliest publications shows the neuroanatomical procedures involved in the study of the relation of brain and intelligence during the late-nineteenth-century in America. Two of the articles, published in September 1890 and December 1891, were titled, "Anatomical Observations on the Brain and Several Sense-Organs of the Blind Deaf-Mute, Laura Dewy Bridgman (1829-1889)"; the third, published in August 1892, used the information from the first two to delimit the extent of the visual processing area of the human cortex...
April 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469679/gabrielle-l%C3%A3-vy-and-the-roussy-l%C3%A3-vy-syndrome
#4
Peter J Koehler
In 1934, Gabrielle Lévy died at the age of 48. She became well known for an article she published on a hereditary polyneuropathy in cooperation with Gustav Roussy, resulting in the eponym Roussy-Lévy syndrome. Not much is known about this extraordinary neurologist/neuropathologist. Her family declared that she died from the disease she was studying. She was a pupil of Pierre Marie, with whom she worked at the Salpêtrière in Paris and wrote on war neurology. In cooperation with Marie, she published a number of articles on postencephalitic syndromes, which also became the subject of her 1922 thesis...
April 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469655/valentin-magnan-and-sergey-korsakov-french-and-russian-pioneers-in-the-study-of-alcohol-abuse
#5
Paul Eling, Alla Vein
This study focuses on two outstanding psychiatrists: the Frenchman Valentin Magnan (1835-1916) and the Russian Sergey Korsakov (1854-1900). Their international renown is primarily associated with their investigations into health consequences of alcohol consumption; they were pioneers in this field, and happened to know each other well. The similarities and differences are shown in social and scientific approaches adopted by these two scientists. In his work, Magnan focused mainly on absinthe and epilepsy; he considered alcoholism to be a hereditary mental disorder...
April 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452046/neuroanniversary-2018
#6
Paul Eling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293067/cortical-epileptogenesis-and-david-ferrier
#7
Mervyn Eadie
There was an increasing medical interest in the localization of representation of function in the cerebral cortex after Broca in 1861 identified a cortical area that appeared responsible for expressive speech. By the late 1860s, John Hughlings Jackson-based on clinico-pathological correlations mainly in persons with focal motor seizures-had reasoned that contralateral somatic motor function was represented in another area of the cortex. This localization was supported by Fritsch and Hitzig (1870) in experimental cortical stimulation studies in dogs...
April 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236568/richard-bright-s-observations-on-diseases-of-the-nervous-system-due-to-inflammation
#8
Henry S Schutta
This study examines case reports of brain diseases attributed to inflammation in Richard Bright's Reports of Medical Cases, Volume II. The rationale for the belief that these cases were due to inflammation is discussed in light of theories of inflammation that were current in Bright's time. The consequences of these theories for the therapy of brain diseases are evaluated. The value of Bright's reports lies in the accuracy of the descriptions of a number of brain diseases, featuring descriptions of symptoms or conditions that were novel or not well known in the early nineteenth century...
April 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521659/tabes-dorsalis-not-at-all-elementary-my-dear-watson
#9
Régis Olry, Duane E Haines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351492/moyamoya-%C3%A3-%C3%A3-%C3%A3-%C3%A3-when-cerebral-arteries-go-up-in-smoke
#10
Régis Olry, Quang Vu, Duane E Haines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173053/alfred-walter-campbell-s-return-to-australia
#11
Malcolm Macmillan
Alfred Walter Campbell (1868-1937) established the basic cytoarchitectonic structure of the human brain while he was working as a pathologist at the Rainhill Lunatic Asylum near Liverpool in the United Kingdom. He returned to Australia in 1905 and continued doing research while establishing a neurological practice. His research over the next 17 years focused on four topics: (a) localisation in the cerebellum, (b) the neuroses and psychoses in war, (c) localisation in the cerebral cortex of the gorilla, and (d) the causes and pathology of the mysterious Australian "X" Disease (later known as Murray Valley encephalitis)...
January 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976244/yorkshire-s-influence-on-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-mental-diseases-in-victorian-britain-the-golden-triad-of-york-wakefield-and-leeds
#12
Henry R Rollin, Edward H Reynolds
In the late-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a more humane approach to the care of the insane in Britain was catalyzed in part by the illness of King George III. The Reform Movement envisaged "moral" treatment in asylums in pleasant rural environments, but these aspirations were overwhelmed by industrialization, urbanization, and the scale of the need, such that most asylums became gigantic institutions for chronic insanity. Three institutions in Yorkshire remained beacons of enlightenment in the general gloom of Victorian alienism: the Retreat in York founded and developed by the Quaker Tuke family; the West Riding Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield led by Sir James Crichton-Browne, which initiated research into brain and mental diseases; and the Leeds Medical School and Wakefield axis associated with Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, which pioneered teaching of mental diseases and, later, the first Chair of Psychiatry...
January 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876177/ancient-indian-concepts-about-phenomenology-biology-and-therapeutics-of-epilepsy
#13
Ravindra Arya
This article discusses etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, and treatment of epilepsy, as described in Charaka Samhitā (translation: Charaka's Compendium) and Sushruta Samhitā, the two core texts of Ayurveda, an ancient system of medicine. Ayurveda emphasized amnesia and loss of consciousness as core features of epileptic seizures (Sanskrit: apasmar; translation: apa negation, smaran memory) and recognized that seizures occur due to a disturbance in brain function or flow of "humors" to the brain. Semiology of various seizure types was well described...
January 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777693/beyond-descriptive-neurology-broca-cerebral-hemodynamics-and-cortical-function
#14
Richard Leblanc
Pierre-Paul Broca's studies in neurobiology remain of interest. I review a previously neglected aspect of Broca's work in which he presages the use of modern scanning techniques. Broca's goal was to correlate cerebral metabolism to regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) using a novel method, to which he referred as cerebral thermometry. Broca attempted to measure changes in temperatures from the ischemic area and across the watershed regions during a stroke, and the increased CBF produced by performing a cognitive task such as reading aloud...
January 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768112/the-disparate-histories-of-binocular-vision-and-binaural-hearing
#15
Nicholas J Wade
Vision and hearing are dependent on disparities of spatial patterns received by two eyes and on time and intensity differences to two ears. However, the experiences of a single world have masked attention to these disparities. While eyes and ears are paired, there has not been parity in the attention directed to their functioning. Phenomena involving binocular vision were commented upon since antiquity whereas those about binaural hearing are much more recent. This history is compared with respect to the experimental manipulations of dichoptic and dichotic stimuli and the instruments used to stimulate the paired organs...
January 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632023/on-the-origin-of-the-term-decussatio-pyramidum
#16
František Šimon
There is no consensus regarding the origin of the term decussatio pyramidum. Various anatomists of the past are honored by modern scholars, for example, Vieussens, Reil, and Collins. However, contralateral effects of brain lesions were already mentioned in Hippocratic treatises. Aretaeus of Cappadocia assumed that the anatomical reason for this phenomenon is the interchange of the nerves and called it chiasmos. This opinion was discussed in modern times and the anatomists used the term decussatio nervorum. The authorship of the first demonstration of decussatio pyramidum is given to Mistichelli (1709) and Petit (1710), but neither the term decussatio nor any of its vernacular forms are present in their work...
January 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471291/thomas-mann-s-depiction-of-neurosyphilis-and-other-diseases
#17
François Boller, Nicoletta Caputi
Thomas Mann (1875-1955), a Nobel Prize recipient rightly considered one of the great novelists of the twentieth century, was one of the most medically perceptive writers of recent times. His novels take place against the background of the different plagues (tuberculosis, cholera) that characterized the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. One of Mann's later novels, Doctor Faustus, is set against a background of syphilis. In the 500-page book, which is subtitled The Life of the German Composer Adrian Leverkühn as told by a Friend, we see the theologian turned composer make a pact with the devil...
January 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922095/end-of-volume-editorial-board
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862914/oliver-sacks-1933-2015-a-belated-obituary
#19
Nicolaas J M Arts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820658/snowy-campbell-australian-pioneer-investigator-of-the-brain-by-malcom-macmillan
#20
Neil E Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
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