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Academic Radiology

Nadja Kadom, Jason N Itri, Anna Trofimova, Hansel J Otero, Michal Horný
The field of radiology has witnessed a burst of technological advances that improve diagnostic quality, reduce harm to patients, support clinical needs, and better serve larger more diverse patient populations. One of the critical challenges with these advances is proving that value outweighs the cost. The use of cutting-edge technology is often expensive, and the reality is that our society cannot afford all the screening and diagnostic tests that are being developed. At the societal level, we need tools to help us decide which health programs should be funded...
November 8, 2018: Academic Radiology
Jia Shen Jiang, Ye Hua, Xue Jun Zhou, Dan Dan Shen, Jin Long Shi, Min Ge, Qi Nan Geng, Zhong Zheng Jia
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether volume transfer constant (Ktrans ) and volume of extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue (Ve ) derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) could quantitatively assess the tumor proliferation index (Ki-67) of gliomas noninvasively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The preoperative DCE MRI data of 69 patients with pathologically confirmed glioma (28, 8, and 33 cases in grades Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ) were retrospectively reviewed...
November 8, 2018: Academic Radiology
Sebastian D Reinartz, Robin F Gohmann, Felix Hardt, Jonas Schmoee, Timm Dirrichs, Eric Tietz, Christiane K Kuhl, Kerstin Fehrenbacher, Andreas Napp
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To identify the influence and artifact burden in cardiac CT imaging of a leadless cardiac pacemaker (LCP) performed with all three generations of DualSource CT (DSCT) Scanners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The LCP was examined in DSCT scanners of the first to third generation using DualEnergy (DECT) and DSCT as well as alterations of the current-time product. For DECT examinations, virtual monoenergetic images were computed manually on a dedicated workstation...
November 6, 2018: Academic Radiology
Anna Rozenshtein, Brent Griffith, Tan-Lucien H Mohammed, Darel E Heitkamp, Linda A Deloney, Angelisa M Paladin, Stacy E Smith, Ernest F Wiggins Iii, Jonathan O Swanson
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The Association of Program Directors in Radiology (APDR) regularly surveys its members to gather information regarding a broad range of topics related to radiology residency. The survey results provide insight into the opinions of residency program leadership across the country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational cross-sectional study using a web-based survey posed to the APDR membership in the fall of 2017. The final survey consisted of 53 items, 48 multiple choice questions and five write-in comments...
November 5, 2018: Academic Radiology
Joshua P Nickerson
Social media has become integrated into the lives of millions of people, but it has only recently been explored as a potential teaching tool. There is a body of literature to suggest that today's learners desire use of these interactive platforms for learning and that they result in higher degrees of student satisfaction, although it is not yet clear that a greater degree of knowledge transfer or retention is achieved. There are barriers to implementation in a curriculum, but as we learn to overcome these barriers and find new and creative ways to leverage social media we as educators will meet our students needs in the era of "web 2...
November 5, 2018: Academic Radiology
Jonathan L Mezrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Academic Radiology
Janelle Li, Mustafa Qureshi, Avneesh Gupta, Stephan W Anderson, Jorge Soto, Baojun Li
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We present a novel method to quantify the degree of liver fibrosis using fibrosis area fraction based on statistical chi-square analysis of heterogeneity of echo texture within liver on routine ultrasound images. We demonstrate, in a clinical study, that fibrosis area fraction derived this way has the potential to become a noninvasive, quantitative radiometric discriminator of normal or low-grade liver fibrosis (Ishak fibrosis score range = F0-3) and advanced liver fibrosis or cirrhosis (Ishak fibrosis score range = F4-6) on routine ultrasound images...
November 2, 2018: Academic Radiology
Zhenyin Liu, Tao Zhang, Hua Jiang, Wenchan Xu, Jing Zhang
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To develop nomogram models incorporating MR and clinical features for preoperative prediction of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)/1p19q subtype in patients with lower-grade gliomas (LGG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We classified LGG (149 patients) into three categories: (1) IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion, (2) IDH mutation and no 1p/19q codeletion, and (3) wild-type IDH. The correlation between clinical and MR features and IDH/1p19q subtype was analyzed...
November 1, 2018: Academic Radiology
Christopher M Straus, Andrew W Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: Academic Radiology
Alexander Goehler, Christopher Moore, Jennifer M Manne-Goehler, Jennifer Arango, Linda D'Amato, Howard P Forman, Jeffrey Weinreb
PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility and impact of Clinical Decision Support for imaging ordering. METHODS: A survey of 231 emergency providers identified Computed tomography angiography (CTA)-Pulmonary embolism (PE) as an overutilized study. We developed an algorithm that combined established risk scores to stratify patients for PE work-up (recommendations: CTA, D-dimer or no further testing); the algorithm was integrated into the Epic Radiology Information Ordering System...
October 30, 2018: Academic Radiology
Junqi Sun, Guangyao Wu, Feifei Shan, Zhihua Meng
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in combination with conventional MRI in identifying the residual tumor after biopsy for early cervical carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients with histologically proven early cervical carcinoma were enrolled into this study. MRI sequences included two sets of MRI sequences including conventional MRI (T1WI, T2WI, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) and IVIM DWI/conventional MRI combinations...
October 29, 2018: Academic Radiology
Weishu Hou, Yangyang Xue, Wei Tang, Hongli Pan, Man Xu, Xiaohu Li, Sixing Bi, Yujun Shen, Yinfeng Qian, Yongqiang Yu
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the feasibility of determining quantitative parameters for evaluating tumor hypoxia in the C6 glioma model by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were inoculated to establish C6 brain glioma models. DCE-MRI scans were performed 14, 21, and 28 days after transplantation. Quantitative parameters comprising Ktrans , Ve , Kep , and Vp were calculated and analyzed...
October 29, 2018: Academic Radiology
Shoichiro Matsushita, Tsuneo Yamashiro, Shin Matsuoka, Kunihiro Yagihashi, Yasuo Nakajima
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between generation-based bronchial wall attenuation on thin-section computed tomography (CT) scans and airflow limitation in patients with bronchial asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 28 bronchial asthma patients (13 men, 15 women; age range, 23-89 years) who underwent both chest CT and spirometry. On CT, the mean values of peak wall attenuation, wall area percentage, and luminal area were measured in the segmental, subsegmental, and sub-subsegmental bronchi of the right B1 and B10 bronchi...
October 27, 2018: Academic Radiology
Yu Zhang, Yifeng Zhu, Xiaomeng Shi, Juan Tao, Jingjing Cui, Yue Dai, Minting Zheng, Shaowu Wang
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to develop a radiomics model for predicting the histopathological grades of soft tissue sarcomas preoperatively through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients who were pathologically diagnosed with soft tissue sarcomas and their histological grades were recruited. All patients had undergone MRI before surgery on a 3.0T MRI scanner. Radiomics features were extracted from fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging...
October 27, 2018: Academic Radiology
Kitt Shaffer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2018: Academic Radiology
Molly Simmonite, Joshua Carp, Bradley R Foerster, Lynn Ossher, Myria Petrou, Daniel H Weissman, Thad A Polk
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Healthy aging is associated with pervasive declines in cognitive, motor, and sensory functioning. There are, however, substantial individual differences in behavioral performance among older adults. Several lines of animal research link age-related reductions of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the brain's primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, to age-related cognitive, motor, and sensory decline. Our study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3T to explore whether occipital GABA declines with age in humans and whether individual differences in occipital GABA are linked to individual differences in fluid processing ability...
October 13, 2018: Academic Radiology
Noam Nissan, Debbie Anaby, Ido Tavor, Yeruham Kleinbaum, Zohar Dotan, Eli Konen, Orith Portnoy
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The testicles are structured in a well-defined microtubular network formation, which is expected to be reflected in high anisotropic diffusivity. However, preliminary studies reported on low values of fractional-anisotropy (FA) in the normal testicles. Our aim was to design and apply a diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) protocol in order to elucidate the diffusivity properties of the testicles and their determining factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 16 healthy volunteers were prospectively scanned at 3T...
October 12, 2018: Academic Radiology
Zongming Wang, Zhigang Mao, Xiangsong Zhang, Dongsheng He, Xin Wang, Qiu Du, Zheng Xiao, Diming Zhu, Yonghong Zhu, Haijun Wang
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: It is clinically essential, but sometimes challenging, to distinguish pituitary tissue from pituitary adenomas (PAs). It is helpful to avoid damage of pituitary tissue during management. We evaluated the ability of 13 N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) to locate and distinguish pituitary tissue from PAs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight patients (four with prolactinoma, 10 with Cushing's disease, 12 with acromegaly, and 22 with nonfunctional PAs) prospectively underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 13 N-ammonia PET/CT, 18 F-FDG PET/CT, prior to surgery...
October 12, 2018: Academic Radiology
Kristin E Williams, Amanda Amin, Jacqueline Hill, Carissa Walter, Marc Inciardi, Jason Gatewood, Mark Redick, Jo Wick, Suzanne Hunt, Onalisa Winblad
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate radiologic and pathologic features associated with upgrade of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) to ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer at surgical excision, in order to identify patients who may consider alternatives to excision. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective analysis examined patients who underwent surgical excision of biopsy-proven ADH at our institution. Imaging and pathology from biopsy were reviewed to determine radiologic (lesion size, radiologic abnormality, biopsy type, needle gauge, number of cores, percent of lesion removed) and pathologic features (histologic calcifications, presence of necrosis, micropapillary features, extent of ADH) associated with ADH upgrade...
October 12, 2018: Academic Radiology
Hans-Jonas Meyer, Gordian Hamerla, Anne Kathrin Höhn, Alexey Surov
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Histogram analysis is an imaging analysis in which a whole tumor can be assessed, and every voxel of a radiological image is issued into a histogram. Thereby, statistically information about tumor can be obtained. The purpose of the study was to analyze possible relationships between histogram parameters derived from conventional MRI sequences and several histopathological features in cervical squamous cell carcinomas. METHODS: A total of 18 female patients (age range 32-79 years) with squamous cell cervical carcinoma were retrospectively enrolled into the study...
October 11, 2018: Academic Radiology
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