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Academic Radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647389/improving-abnormality-detection-on-chest-radiography-using-game-like-reinforcement-mechanics
#1
Po-Hao Chen, Howard Roth, Maya Galperin-Aizenberg, Alexander T Ruutiainen, Warren Gefter, Tessa S Cook
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Despite their increasing prevalence, online textbooks, question banks, and digital references focus primarily on explicit knowledge. Implicit skills such as abnormality detection require repeated practice on clinical service and have few digital substitutes. Using mechanics traditionally deployed in video games such as clearly defined goals, rapid-fire levels, and narrow time constraints may be an effective way to teach implicit skills. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We created a freely available, online module to evaluate the ability of individuals to differentiate between normal and abnormal chest radiographs by implementing mechanics, including instantaneous feedback, rapid-fire cases, and 15-second timers...
June 21, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647388/characterization-of-breast-masses-in-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-and-digital-mammograms-an-observer-performance-study
#2
Heang-Ping Chan, Mark A Helvie, Lubomir Hadjiiski, Deborah O Jeffries, Katherine A Klein, Colleen H Neal, Mitra Noroozian, Chintana Paramagul, Marilyn A Roubidoux
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment of lesions in two-view digital mammogram (DM) to two-view wide-angle digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) without DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent, two-view DBTs were acquired from 134 subjects and the corresponding DMs were collected retrospectively. The study included 125 subjects with 61 malignant (size: 3...
June 21, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647387/practical-considerations-for-the-use-of-breast-mri-for-breast-cancer-evaluation-in-the-preoperative-setting
#3
Debra L Monticciolo
Preoperative contrast-enhanced (CE) breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains controversial in the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient. Additional lesions are frequently discovered in these patients with CE breast MRI. As staging and treatment planning evolve to include more information on tumor biology and aggression, so should our consideration of extent of disease. Directing CE breast MRI to those patients most likely to have additional disease may be beneficial. We sought to develop practical guidance for the use of preoperative CE breast MRI in the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient based on recent scientific data...
June 21, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647386/the-importance-of-combined-teaching-methods-in-radiology-resident-education
#4
LETTER
Teresa Chapman, Janet R Reid, Erin E O'Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645458/pulmonary-3-he-magnetic-resonance-imaging-biomarkers-of-regional-airspace-enlargement-in-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#5
Eric Lessard, Heather M Young, Anurag Bhalla, Damien Pike, Khadija Sheikh, David G McCormack, Alexei Ouriadov, Grace Parraga
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Thoracic x-ray computed tomography (CT) and hyperpolarized (3)He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide quantitative measurements of airspace enlargement in patients with emphysema. For patients with panlobular emphysema due to alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), sensitive biomarkers of disease progression and response to therapy have been difficult to develop and exploit, especially those biomarkers that correlate with outcomes like quality of life. Here, our objective was to generate and compare CT and diffusion-weighted inhaled-gas MRI measurements of emphysema including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and MRI-derived mean linear intercept (Lm) in patients with AATD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ex-smokers, and elderly never-smokers...
June 20, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645457/diagnostic-medical-imaging-in-pediatric-patients-and-subsequent-cancer-risk
#6
REVIEW
David J Mulvihill, Sachin Jhawar, John B Kostis, Sharad Goyal
The use of diagnostic medical imaging is becoming increasingly more commonplace in the pediatric setting. However, many medical imaging modalities expose pediatric patients to ionizing radiation, which has been shown to increase the risk of cancer development in later life. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the available data regarding the risk of cancer development following exposure to ionizing radiation from diagnostic medical imaging. Attention is paid to modalities such as computed tomography scans and fluoroscopic procedures that can expose children to radiation doses orders of magnitude higher than standard diagnostic x-rays...
June 20, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645456/andragogic-approaches-to-continuing-medical-education
#7
Christian W Cox, Richard B Gunderman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641934/radiology-resident-education-in-defense-of-the-socratic-method
#8
LETTER
Ciaran E Redmond, Gerard M Healy, Simon Clifford, Eric J Heffernan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606593/sub-solid-nodule-detection-performance-on-reduced-dose-computed-tomography-with-iterative-reduction-comparison-between-20%C3%A2-ma-7%C3%A2-mas-and-120%C3%A2-ma-42%C3%A2-mas-regarding-nodular-size-and-characteristics-and-association-with-size-specific-dose-estimate
#9
Yukihiro Nagatani, Masashi Takahashi, Mitsuru Ikeda, Tsuneo Yamashiro, Hisanobu Koyama, Mitsuhiro Koyama, Hiroshi Moriya, Satoshi Noma, Noriyuki Tomiyama, Yoshiharu Ohno, Kiyoshi Murata, Sadayuki Murayama
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare sub-solid nodule detection performances (SSNDP) on chest computed tomography (CT) with Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR 3D) between 7 mAs (0.21 mSv) and 42 mAs (1.28 mSv) in total and in subgroups classified by nodular size, characteristics, and location, and analyze the association of SSNDP with size-specific dose estimate (SSDE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of the Area-detector Computed Tomography for the Investigation of Thoracic Diseases Study, a Japanese multicenter research project, 68 subjects underwent chest CT with 120 kV, 0...
June 9, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595876/a-diagnostic-accuracy-meta-analysis-of-ct-and-mri-for-the-evaluation-of-small-bowel-crohn-disease
#10
Wenhong Liu, Jincai Liu, Wenlian Xiao, Guanghua Luo
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in assessing small bowel (SB) Crohn disease (CD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, Karger, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and Springer for studies in which CT or MRI were evaluated to assess SB CD. Bivariate random effect meta-analytic methods were used to estimate pooled sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic curves...
June 5, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579267/preliminary-results-of-a-simplified-breast-mri-protocol-to-characterize-breast-lesions-comparison-with-a-full-diagnostic-protocol-and-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#11
Valeria Romeo, Renato Cuocolo, Raffaele Liuzzi, Albina Riccardi, Antonello Accurso, Alessandra Acquaviva, Roberta Buonocore, Massimo Imbriaco
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether a simplified breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol consisting of a localizer, one precontrast sequence, and three time-point postcontrast sequences (at 28 seconds, 84 seconds and 252 seconds after the contrast agent administration) is suitable for the characterization of breast lesions as compared to a full diagnostic protocol (FDP). This study also aimed to review the current literature concerning abbreviated breast MRI protocols and offer an alternative protocol...
June 1, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572001/quantitative-flair-mri-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Jeremy Fabes, Lucy Matthews, Nicola Filippini, Kevin Talbot, Mark Jenkinson, Martin R Turner
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hyperintensity assessed visually in the corticospinal tract (CST) lacks sensitivity for a diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We sought to explore a quantitative approach to fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI intensity across a range of ALS phenotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three classical ALS patients, 10 with a flail arm presentation, and six with primary lateral sclerosis underwent MRI at 3 Tesla...
May 29, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554551/applying-quantitative-ct-image-feature-analysis-to-predict-response-of-ovarian-cancer-patients-to-chemotherapy
#13
Gopichandh Danala, Theresa Thai, Camille C Gunderson, Katherine M Moxley, Kathleen Moore, Robert S Mannel, Hong Liu, Bin Zheng, Yuchen Qiu
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the role of applying quantitative image features computed from computed tomography (CT) images for early prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy in the clinical trials for treating ovarian cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A dataset involving 91 patients was retrospectively assembled. Each patient had two sets of pre- and post-therapy CT images. A computer-aided detection scheme was applied to segment metastatic tumors previously tracked by radiologists on CT images and computed image features...
May 26, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554550/reliability-of-mr-quantification-of-rotator-cuff-muscle-fatty-degeneration-using-a-2-point-dixon-technique-in-comparison-with-the-goutallier-classification-validation-study-by-multiple-readers
#14
Saya Horiuchi, Taiki Nozaki, Atsushi Tasaki, Akira Yamakawa, Yasuhito Kaneko, Takeshi Hara, Hiroshi Yoshioka
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Presurgical assessment of fatty degeneration is important in the management of patients with rotator cuff tears. The Goutallier classification is widely accepted as a qualitative scoring system, although it is highly observer-dependent and has poor reproducibility. The objective of this study was to quantify fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus muscle using a 2-point Dixon technique in patients with rotator cuff tears by multiple readers, and to evaluate the reproducibility compared to Goutallier classification...
May 26, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552374/differential-motivations-for-pursuing-diagnostic-radiology-by-gender-implications-for-residency-recruitment
#15
Lars J Grimm, Dorothy A Lowell, Sarah W Cater, Sora C Yoon
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to determine how the motivations to pursue a career in radiology differ by gender. In addition, the influence of medical school radiology education will be assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiology applicants to our institution from the 2015-2016 interview season were offered an online survey in February 2016. Respondents scored the influence of 24 aspects of radiology on their decision to pursue radiology...
May 25, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551402/free-breathing-functional-pulmonary-mri-response-to-bronchodilator-and-bronchoprovocation-in-severe-asthma
#16
Dante P I Capaldi, Khadija Sheikh, Rachel L Eddy, Fumin Guo, Sarah Svenningsen, Parameswaran Nair, David G McCormack, Grace Parraga
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Ventilation heterogeneity is a hallmark feature of asthma. Our objective was to evaluate ventilation heterogeneity in patients with severe asthma, both pre- and post-salbutamol, as well as post-methacholine (MCh) challenge using the lung clearance index, free-breathing pulmonary (1)H magnetic resonance imaging (FDMRI), and inhaled-gas MRI ventilation defect percent (VDP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen severe asthmatics (49 ± 10 years) provided written informed consent to an ethics board-approved protocol...
May 24, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551401/imaging-workup-of-suspected-classical-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndromes-a-systematic-review-and-retrospective-analysis-of-18-f-fdg-pet-ct
#17
Benedikt Sundermann, Jens-Burchard Schröder, Tobias Warnecke, Walter Heindel, Michael Schäfers, Matthias Weckesser, Boris Buerke
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the clinical efficacy of positron emission tomography (PET) or combined PET-computed tomography (CT) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for whole-body cancer screening in patients with suspected paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). The following main research questions were addressed: What is the percentage of positive findings to be expected in whole-body FDG-PET-CT in adult patients with PNS? How many false positives can be expected as assessed by clinical and histopathological workup? Are there patients who present with a tumor despite initially negative findings? MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a systematic review of the literature and retrospective analysis of FDG-PET-CT and clinical follow-up data from 45 consecutive patients (age: 56...
May 24, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551400/correlation-between-screening-mammography-interpretive-performance-on-a-test-set-and-performance-in-clinical-practice
#18
Diana L Miglioretti, Laura Ichikawa, Robert A Smith, Diana S M Buist, Patricia A Carney, Berta Geller, Barbara Monsees, Tracy Onega, Robert Rosenberg, Edward A Sickles, Bonnie C Yankaskas, Karla Kerlikowske
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence is inconsistent about whether radiologists' interpretive performance on a screening mammography test set reflects their performance in clinical practice. This study aimed to estimate the correlation between test set and clinical performance and determine if the correlation is influenced by cancer prevalence or lesion difficulty in the test set. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This institutional review board-approved study randomized 83 radiologists from six Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries to assess one of four test sets of 109 screening mammograms each; 48 radiologists completed a fifth test set of 110 mammograms 2 years later...
May 24, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551399/use-of-hyperlinks-in-powerpoint-presentations-as-an-educational-tool
#19
Gregory Scott Stacy, Steven G Thiel
PowerPoint software (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) has become a popular tool for creating and displaying electronic presentations. The "hyperlink" function in PowerPoint allows users to advance from one slide to another slide in the presentation when they click on a predetermined word, shape, or image, thereby allowing for a more dynamic and interactive experience than can be obtained with serial presentation of slides alone. The objective of this article is to provide a tutorial describing the necessary steps to create hyperlinks and incorporate them in a variety of ways into a PowerPoint presentation...
May 24, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551398/regional-variation-in-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue-fdg-uptake-using-pet-ct-and-their-relation-to-bmi
#20
Marcus D Goncalves, Judith Green-McKenzie, Abass Alavi, Drew A Torigian
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Skeletal muscle metabolism is a primary contributor to whole-body energy expenditure. Currently, methods to measure changes in skeletal muscle metabolism in vivo are limited. Our objectives were to characterize the regional variation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue (AT) FDG uptake as a surrogate for glycolytic metabolism using (18)F-2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in healthy men and to correlate these findings to body mass index (BMI)...
May 24, 2017: Academic Radiology
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