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Xenotransplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897334/xenotransplantation-literature-update-september-october-2016
#1
AnAn Hua, Magie Steinhoff, Christopher Burlak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859686/a-cure-for-type-2-diabetes
#2
David J G White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859642/microbiological-safety-of-clinical-xenotransplantation-products-monitoring-strategies-and-regulatory-aspects-a-commentary
#3
Henk-Jan Schuurman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862343/human-anti-pig-nk-cell-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-in-the-presence-of-regulatory-dendritic-cells
#4
Natacha Madelon, Gisella L Puga Yung, Jörg D Seebach
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DC) play a major role in natural killer (NK) cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation leading to cell-mediated xenogeneic responses. In contrast, the use of in vitro differentiated regulatory DC may represent an attractive approach to protect porcine endothelial cells (pEC) from human cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the potential of human regulatory DC to reduce xenogeneic NK cell and CTL responses to pEC. METHODS: Human monocytes were differentiated into DC with GM-CSF and IL-4 in the absence or presence of rapamycin or IL-10...
November 13, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862363/a-comprehensive-microbiological-safety-approach-for-agarose-encapsulated-porcine-islets-intended-for-clinical-trials
#5
Lawrence S Gazda, James Collins, Archie Lovatt, Robert W Holdcraft, Merribeth J Morin, Daniel Galbraith, Melanie Graham, Melissa A Laramore, Christine Maclean, John Black, Euan W Milne, Douglas G Marthaler, Horatiu V Vinerean, Michelle M Michalak, Deborah Hoffer, Steven Richter, Richard D Hall, Barry H Smith
BACKGROUND: The use of porcine islets to replace insulin-producing islet β-cells, destroyed during the diabetogenic disease process, presents distinct challenges if this option is to become a therapeutic reality for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. These challenges include a thorough evaluation of the microbiological safety of the islets. In this study, we describe a robust porcine islet-screening program that provides a high level of confidence in the microbiological safety of porcine islets suitable for clinical trials...
November 11, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678013/xenograft-of-microencapsulated-sertoli-cells-restores-glucose-homeostasis-in-db-db-mice-with-spontaneous-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Giovanni Luca, Iva Arato, Francesca Mancuso, Mario Calvitti, Giulia Falabella, Giuseppe Murdolo, Giuseppe Basta, Don F Cameron, Barbara C Hansen, Francesca Fallarino, Tiziano Baroni, Maria Chiara Aglietti, Cristina Tortoioli, Maria Bodo, Riccardo Calafiore
BACKGROUND: Increased abdominal fat and chronic inflammation in the expanded adipose tissue of obesity contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The emerging immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of Sertoli cells have prompted their application to experimental models of autoimmune/inflammatory disorders, including diabetes. The main goal of this work was to verify whether transplantation of microencapsulated prepubertal porcine Sertoli cells (MC-SC) in the subcutaneous abdominal fat depot of spontaneously diabetic and obese db/db mice (homozygous for the diabetes spontaneous mutation [Lepr(db) ]) would: (i) improve glucose homeostasis and (ii) modulate local and systemic immune response and adipokines profiles...
September 27, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677911/induction-management-and-complications-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus-in-rhesus-monkeys
#7
Jong-Min Kim, Jun-Seop Shin, Byoung-Hoon Min, Hyun-Je Kim, Jung-Sik Kim, Il-Hee Yoon, Won-Young Jeong, Ga-Eul Lee, Min-Sun Kim, Ju-Eun Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Chung-Gyu Park
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) model using streptozotocin (STZ) which induces chemical ablation of β cell in the pancreas has been widely used for various research purposes in non-human primates. However, STZ has been known to have a variety of adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and even mortality. The purpose of this study is to report DM induction by STZ, toxicity associated with STZ and procedure and complication of exogenous insulin treatment for DM management in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that are expected to be transplanted with porcine islets within 2 months...
September 27, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677785/complement-c3-inhibitor-cp40-attenuates-xenoreactions-in-pig%C3%A2-hearts-perfused-with-human-blood
#8
Jan-Michael Abicht, Ioannis Kourtzelis, Bruno Reichart, Sophia Koutsogiannaki, Alexandra Primikyri, John D Lambris, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Lesca Holdt, Alexander Kind, Sonja Guethoff, Tanja Mayr
BACKGROUND: The complement system plays a crucial role in acute xenogeneic reactions after cardiac transplantation. We used an ex vivo perfusion model to investigate the effect of Cp40, a compstatin analog and potent inhibitor of complement at the level of C3. METHODS: Fifteen wild-type pig hearts were explanted, cardiopleged, and reperfused ex vivo after 150 minutes of cold ischemia. Hearts were challenged in a biventricular working heart mode to evaluate cardiac perfusion and function...
September 27, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615035/extended-microbiological-characterization-of-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipigs-porcine-cytomegalovirus-and-other-viruses
#9
Vladimir A Morozov, Elena Plotzki, Avi Rotem, Uriel Barkai, Joachim Denner
BACKGROUND: To prevent transmission of zoonotic microorganisms from pig transplants to human recipients when performing xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, or organs, donor pigs have to be carefully characterized. Göttingen minipigs (GöMP) are often used for various biomedical investigations and are well characterized concerning the presence of numerous bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. Recently, we studied the prevalence and expression of porcine endogenous retroviruses and the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in GöMP...
September 11, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613329/porcine-endothelium-induces-dna-histone-complex-formation-in-human-whole-blood-a-harmful-effect-of-histone-on-coagulation-and-endothelial-activation
#10
Hyun Ju Yoo, Ji-Eun Kim, Ja Yoon Gu, Sae Bom Lee, Hyun Joo Lee, Ho Young Hwang, Yoohwa Hwang, Young Tae Kim, Hyun Kyung Kim
BACKGROUND: Neutrophils play a role in xenograft rejection. When neutrophils are stimulated, they eject the DNA-histone complex into the extracellular space, called neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). We investigated whether NET formation actively occurs in the xenograft and contributes to coagulation and endothelial activation. METHODS: Human whole blood was incubated with porcine aortic endothelial cells (pEC) from wild-type or α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) pigs...
September 10, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659666/corrigendum
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659665/xenotransplantation-literature-update-july-august-2016
#12
Christopher Burlak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613198/psychosocial-challenges-of-xenotransplantation-the-need-for-a-multidisciplinary-religious-and-cultural-dialogue
#13
LETTER
Wayne Paris, Kyeonghee Jang, Leah Colsch, Ali Prus, Ruth Bargainer, Bakr Nour, David K C Cooper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613101/inhibition-of-b-cell-activation-and-antibody-production-by-triggering-inhibitory-signals-via-the-pd-1-pd-ligand-pathway
#14
Anna Buermann, Dorothee Römermann, Wiebke Baars, Joachim Hundrieser, Jürgen Klempnauer, Reinhard Schwinzer
BACKGROUND: The development of donor-reactive antibodies is regarded to be an important barrier limiting long-term outcome of allo- and xenografts. We asked whether enhanced signaling via the co-inhibitory receptor programmed cell death-1 (PD-1; CD279) can downregulate human B-cell activation. METHODS: Proliferation of human purified CD19(+) B cells was induced by in vitro stimulation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-B). To induce antibody production, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were co-cultured with the porcine B-cell line L23...
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610947/characterization-of-immunogenic-neu5gc-in-bioprosthetic-heart-valves
#15
Eliran Moshe Reuven, Shani Leviatan Ben-Arye, Tal Marshanski, Michael E Breimer, Hai Yu, Imen Fellah-Hebia, Jean-Christian Roussel, Cristina Costa, Manuel Galiñanes, Rafael Mañez, Thierry Le Tourneau, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Emanuele Cozzi, Xi Chen, Vered Padler-Karavani
BACKGROUND: The two common sialic acids (Sias) in mammals are N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and its hydroxylated form N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Unlike most mammals, humans cannot synthesize Neu5Gc that is considered foreign and recognized by circulating antibodies. Thus, Neu5Gc is a potential xenogenic carbohydrate antigen in bioprosthetic heart valves (BHV) that tend to deteriorate in time within human patients. METHODS: We investigated Neu5Gc expression in non-engineered animal-derived cardiac tissues and in clinically used commercial BHV, and evaluated Neu5Gc immunogenicity on BHV through recognition by human anti-Neu5Gc IgG...
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610605/efficient-production-of-biallelic-ggta1-knockout-pigs-by-cytoplasmic-microinjection-of-crispr-cas9-into-zygotes
#16
Bjoern Petersen, Antje Frenzel, Andrea Lucas-Hahn, Doris Herrmann, Petra Hassel, Sabine Klein, Maren Ziegler, Klaus-Gerd Hadeler, Heiner Niemann
BACKGROUND: Xenotransplantation is considered to be a promising solution to the growing demand for suitable donor organs for transplantation. Despite tremendous progress in the generation of pigs with multiple genetic modifications thought to be necessary to overcoming the severe rejection responses after pig-to-non-human primate xenotransplantation, the production of knockout pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Producing genetically modified pigs by intracytoplasmic microinjection of porcine zygotes is an alluring alternative...
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596934/comparison-of-methods-for-isolating-primary-hepatocytes-from-mini-pigs
#17
Yi Li, Yujia Wang, Qiong Wu, Li Li, Yujun Shi, Hong Bu, Ji Bao
Successful porcine hepatocyte isolation is crucial for the development of bioartificial liver devices and hepatocyte transplantation. Serva collagenase NB grades are formulated collagenases that are suitable for various tissue isolation applications. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can improve the viability of human hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two collagenases and effect of NAC on hepatocyte isolation from porcine liver tissue. Porcine hepatocytes were isolated using the perfusion method from Bama mini pigs assigned to the Serva NB 4 group (n=6), the Serva NB 8 group (n=6), or the NB 8+NAC group (n=6)...
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511593/human-antibody-recognition-of-xenogeneic-antigens-neugc-and-gal-on-porcine-heart-valves-could-genetically-modified-pig-heart-valves-reduce-structural-valve-deterioration
#18
Whayoung Lee, Cassandra Long, Jagdeece Ramsoondar, David Ayares, David K C Cooper, Rizwan A Manji, Hidetaka Hara
BACKGROUND: Glutaraldehyde-fixed bioprosthetic heart valves (GBHVs) derived from wild-type (WT, genetically unmodified) pigs are widely used clinically for heart valve replacement. There is evidence that their failure is related to an immune response. The use of valves from genetically engineered pigs that do not express specific pig antigens may prolong GBHV survival. Our aims were to determine (i) expression of Gal and NeuGc on heart (aortic and pulmonary) valves and pericardium of WT, α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO) and GTKO/N-glycolylneuraminic acid gene-knockout (GTKO/NeuGcKO) pigs in comparison with three different commercially available GBHVs and (ii) to determine human antibody binding to these tissues...
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511303/molecular-immunology-profiles-of-monkeys-following-xenografting-with-the-islets-and-heart-of-%C3%AE-1-3-galactosyltransferase-knockout-pigs
#19
Sun A Ock, Jungkyu Lee, Keon Bong Oh, Seongsoo Hwang, Ik Jin Yun, Curie Ahn, Hyun Keun Chee, Hwajung Kim, Jae Berm Park, Sung Joo Kim, Youngim Kim, Gi-Sun Im, EungWoo Park
Effective immunosuppression strategies and genetically modified animals have been used to prevent hyperacute and acute xenograft rejection; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the expression of a comprehensive set of immune system-related genes (89 genes, including five housekeeping genes) in the blood of cynomolgus monkeys (~5 yr old) used as graft recipients, before and after the xenografting of the islets and heart from single and double α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalT) knockout (KO) pigs (<6 weeks old)...
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506420/diabetes-induction-by-total-pancreatectomy-in-minipigs-with-simultaneous-splenectomy-a-feasible-approach-for-advanced-diabetes-research
#20
Sophie Heinke, Barbara Ludwig, Undine Schubert, Janine Schmid, Thomas Kiss, Anja Steffen, Stefan Bornstein, Stefan Ludwig
BACKGROUND: Safe and reliable diabetes models are a key prerequisite for advanced preclinical studies on diabetes. Chemical induction is the standard model of diabetes in rodents and also widely used in large animal models of non-human primates and minipigs. However, uncertain efficacy, the potential of beta-cell regeneration, and relevant side effects are debatable aspects particularly in large animals. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate a surgical approach of total pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy for diabetes induction in an exploratory study in Goettingen minipigs...
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
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