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Latifah Amin, Hasrizul Hashim, Zurina Mahadi, Anisah Che Ngah, Khaidzir Ismail
BACKGROUND: Advances in xenotransplantation have the potential to resolve the issue of organ shortages. Despite this, the procedure is expected to meet with a degree of resistance from the public. The purpose of this study was to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes towards xenotransplantation. METHODS: A multidimensional survey instrument measuring attitudes to xenotransplantation, including the factors that predict such attitudes, was developed based on earlier studies and validated...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Anu Paul, Vered Padler-Karavani
All living cells are covered with a dense "sugar-coat" of carbohydrate chains (glycans) conjugated to proteins and lipids. The cell surface glycome is determined by a non-template driven process related to the collection of enzymes that assemble glycans in a sequential manner. In mammals, many of these glycans are topped with sialic acids (Sia), a large family of acidic sugars. The "Sialome" is highly diverse owing to various Sia types, linkage to underlying glycans, range of carriers, and complex spatial organization...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Wei Nie, Xiaoqian Ma, Cejun Yang, Zeyi Chen, Pengfei Rong, Minghua Wu, Jianhui Jiang, Mengqun Tan, Shounan Yi, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-induced damage is one of the key factors associated with islet graft dysfunction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be used to enhance the therapeutic effect of islet transplantation due to their paracrine potential such as exosomes. In this study, we investigated whether exosomes from human umbilical cord-derived MSC-conditioned medium (hu-MSC-CM) could increase the survival and function of neonatal porcine islet cell clusters (NICCs) exposed to hypoxia. METHODS: Neonatal porcine islet cell clusters were cultured with hu-MSC-CM, with or without exosomes, and native medium RPMI-1640 (Control) under hypoxic conditions (1% O2 )...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Yang Liu, YingNan Zhang, Qingfeng Liang, Chao Yan, Li Wang, Jing Zhang, ZhiQiang Pan
BACKGROUND: In current non-human primate models, full-thickness porcine grafts could not achieve long-term survival without using potent systemic immunosuppressors. Moreover, the thickness disparity in xeno-PKP proved to be hard to manipulate and may cause several complications which also could prevent the grafts from long survival. Considering the advantages of Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) derived from its ultrathin graft and lower rejection rate, we hypothesize xeno-DSAEK may overcome these imperfections in xeno-PKP...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Hanchao Gao, Qing Zhang, Jicheng Chen, David K C Cooper, Hidetaka Hara, Pengfei Chen, Ling Wei, Yanli Zhao, Jia Xu, Zesong Li, Zhiming Cai, Shaodong Luan, Lisha Mou
Whether porcine cytokines are induced after pig-to-primate xenotransplantation and activate human cells remains unknown. First, we investigated the regulation of porcine IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α in xenotransplantation using an in vitro model in which porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) and porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with human serum. Downstream cytokines/chemokines were monitored. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-1β) and chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1, and CXCL2) were upregulated in the both cell types...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Javier Villadiego, Sonia Romo-Madero, Roberto García-Swinburn, Nela Suárez-Luna, Alfonso Bermejo-Navas, Miriam Echevarría, Juan J Toledo-Aral
BACKGROUND: The use of long-term immunosuppressive treatments on neural transplantation has been controversial during the last decades. Although nowadays there is a consensus about the necessity of maintaining a permanent state of immunosuppression to preserve the survival of cerebral grafts, little is known about the effects that chronic immunosuppression produces both on the neurodegenerative process and on transplants function. METHODS: Here, we establish a new immunosuppressive protocol, based on the discontinuous administration of CsA (15 mg/kg; s...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Angela Barone, John Benktander, Christy Whiddon, Chunsheng Jin, Cesare Galli, Susann Teneberg, Michael E Breimer
BACKGROUND: Pericardial tissue from various animal species is utilized for the production of the bioprosthetic heart valves (BHV) used clinically. Experimental data show that the eventual breakdown of BHV is partly due to immunological interactions with carbohydrate tissue antigens. To understand these processes, we have examined the glycolipid-based carbohydrate antigens in naïve porcine, bovine, and equine pericardia. EXPERIMENTAL: Total non-acid and acid glycosphingolipid fractions were isolated from porcine, bovine, and equine pericardia, and individual glycolipid compounds were characterized by thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, and binding of monoclonal antibodies, lectins and bacteria in chromatogram binding assays...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Claire Crossan, Nizar I Mourad, Karen Smith, Pierre Gianello, Linda Scobie
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous implantation of a macroencapsulated patch containing human allogenic islets has been successfully used to alleviate type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in a human recipient without the need for immunosuppression. The use of encapsulated porcine islets to treat T1DM has also been reported. Although no evidence of pathogen transfer using this technology has been reported to date, we deemed it appropriate to determine if the encapsulation technology would prevent the release of virus, in particular, the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)...
May 21, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Jong-Min Kim, Jaeyoung Kim, Se-Hyun Choi, Jun-Seop Shin, Byoung-Hoon Min, Won Young Jeong, Ga-Eul Lee, Min-Sun Kim, Seeun Kwon, Mee Kum Kim, Chung-Gyu Park
Tacrolimus-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is a rare complication. TA-TMA is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and organ damage due to thrombus. We report asymptomatic TA-TMA diagnosed by laboratory tests in pig-to-rhesus corneal xenotransplantation. Corneal transplantation had been conducted from a wild-type SNU miniature pig to a rhesus macaque. The veterinary records were retrospectively reviewed in this case. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of rituximab, basiliximab, and IVIg as inductive therapies, and steroids with tacrolimus (0...
May 18, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Yang Liu, Jing Zhang, Yingnan Zhang, Mingyang Yin, Sen Miao, Qingfeng Liang, Zhiqiang Pan
BACKGROUND: Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) might be a promising technique for future xeno-corneal transplantation due to its ultrathin graft, extremely low rejection occurrence, suture-free graft fixation, and minimal immunosuppressive regime usage. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and efficacy of preparing porcine DMEK grafts by 2 techniques and investigate the graft ultrastructure. METHODS: Two mainstream techniques, mechanical stripping technique and liquid bubble technique, were modified to prepare the porcine DMEK grafts...
May 13, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Joachim Denner, Linda Scobie, Henk-Jan Schuurman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Robin A Weiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Kate E Smith, Robert C Johnson, Klearchos K Papas
There is currently a significant disparity between the number of patients who need lifesaving transplants and the number of donated human organs. Xenotransplantation is a way to address this disparity and attempts to enable the use of xenogeneic tissues have persisted for centuries. While immunologic incompatibilities have presented a persistent impediment to their use, encapsulation may represent a way forward for the use of cell-based xenogeneic therapeutics without the need for immunosuppression. In conjunction with modern innovations such as the use of bioprinting, incorporation of immune modulating molecules into capsule membranes, and genetic engineering, the application of xenogeneic cells to treat disorders ranging from pain to liver failure is becoming increasingly realistic...
May 6, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Wayne Paris, Rabbi Jerry H Seidler, Kevin FitzGerald, Aasim I Padela, Emanuele Cozzi, David K C Cooper
BACKGROUND: This paper is based on a theological symposium presented at the International Xenotransplantation Association's 14th Congress held in Baltimore, MD, September, 2017. METHODS: The information explores the Jewish, Christian and Muslim theological perceptions and perspectives about cross-species (ie pig-to-human) organ transplantation, the genetic alterations required in the organ-source pig, and their potential to influence individual acceptance of the procedure...
April 24, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Ralf R Tönjes
BACKGROUND: For xenotransplantation, strategies to prevent transmission of microorganisms from the source animal to the human recipient must be closely coordinated since tissues and organs are classified as non-sterile. Strategies for international cooperation and coordination of xenogeneic infection / disease surveillance and response are available. METHODS: The regulatory frameworks and criteria on microbial safety as published by World Health Organization (WHO), European Pharmacopoeia (Ph...
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
David H Sachs
To date, the only successful means of achieving allogeneic transplantation tolerance in the clinic has involved induction of mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism. Such chimerism was first achieved in mice and subsequently in large animals, including miniature swine, monkeys and most recently humans. The mechanism of tolerance has differed between models, involving both deletional and regulatory mechanisms, in varying proportions, depending on the model. Considerable progress has also been made toward induction of tolerance across the xenogeneic pig-to-primate barrier, although complete success has not yet been achieved...
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
Mayara Garcia de Mattos Barbosa, Marilia Cascalho, Jeffrey L Platt
Accommodation refers to a condition in which a transplant (or any tissue) appears to resist immune-mediated injury and loss of function. Accommodation was discovered and has been explored most thoroughly in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. In this setting, kidney transplants bearing blood group A or B antigens often are found to function normally in recipients who lack and hence produce antibodies directed against the corresponding antigens. Whether accommodation is owed to changes in anti-blood group antibodies, changes in antigen or a change in the response of the transplant to antibody binding are critically reviewed and a new working model that allows for the kinetics of development of accommodation is put forth...
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
David K C Cooper, Leo H Buhler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
Martine Rothblatt
A parent of a child with a fatal lung disease decides to try to save her first with improved pharmaceuticals to hold the disease at bay, and then with an unlimited supply of transplantable lungs to cure the disease and manage the consequences of eventual organ rejection. The parent needs to surmount science, ethics, and commercialization issues for organ transplantation to be a practical cure, and several of those issues are particularly difficult for xenotransplanation. After half-a-decade of effort, the parent's personal journey has resulted in a 100-fold increase in the number of hours that pulmonary xenografts are viable, but still remains significantly shy of commercial viability and still leaves some ethical issues open...
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
Aasim I Padela, Rosie Duivenbode
Donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) and xenotransplantation are advanced as possible solutions to the growing gap between the number of individuals in need of organ transplantation and the pool of donors. Investigating how various publics, including religious leaders, might view these "therapies" is essential for broad public and professional support and will be needed in order to make these solutions viable. This study, therefore, presents normative Islamic bioethical perspectives on donation after circulatory determination of death and xenotransplantation...
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
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