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Journal of Reproduction and Development

Lanjie Lei, Feng Han, Qiuyan Cui, Weifang Liao, Hui Liu, Gaopeng Guan, Lei Yang
Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) is a component of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling cascade, which plays an important role in mouse hypothalamic and ovarian functions. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of IRS2 in steroidogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation in mouse granulosa cells (GCs). Flow cytometry and CCK8 assay showed that IRS2 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, reduced cell viability, and increased apoptosis in GCs. The study also revealed that the expression of Cyclin A1, Cyclin B1 and Bcl2 was downregulated, while the expression of Bax, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin D2 was upregulated...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Hiroyuki Watanabe
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has become critical for the treatment of severe male infertility. The principal feature of ICSI is the direct injection of spermatozoon into an oocyte, which facilitates the production of fertilized embryos regardless of semen characteristics, such as sperm concentration and motility. However, the chromosomal integrity of ICSI zygotes is degraded compared to that of zygotes obtained via in vitro fertilization. This chromosomal damage may occur due to the injection of non-capacitated, acrosome-intact spermatozoa, which never enter the oocytes under natural fertilization...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Mitsuhiro Sakase, Keita Kitagawa, Masahiko Kibushi, Noritoshi Kawate, W W P N Weerakoon, M A Hannan, Namiko Kohama, Hiromichi Tamada
This study was conducted to clarify the relationships of plasma concentrations of insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), testosterone, inhibin, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) with scrotal circumference and testicular weight in Japanese Black beef bull calves (n = 20), from birth to pre-puberty. Monthly blood sampling (0 to 7 months) and scrotal circumference measurements (0 to 7 months) were performed. Testicular weight was recorded immediately after castration at 7 months. Plasma INSL3, testosterone, inhibin, and IGF-I concentrations were measured either by enzyme immunoassay or time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Luca Palazzese, Jaime Gosálvez, Debora A Anzalone, Pasqualino Loi, Joseph Saragusty
Sperm freeze-drying is a revolutionary technique, which has been gaining prominence in recent years. The first related significant result was Wakayama and Yanagimachi's demonstration in 1998 of the birth of healthy mouse offspring by Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), using epididymal freeze-dried spermatozoa. Mouse, rat, and hamster models were the first small mammals born from lyophilized epididymal spermatozoa, whereas most other studies in this field used ejaculated spermatozoa. In this work, we applied this technique to ram epididymal spermatozoa, checking the correlation between DNA integrity and embryo development following ICSI...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Ayano Yamada, Mitsuhiro Sakase, Moriyuki Fukushima, Hiroshi Harayama
Progressive movement of spermatozoa has conventionally been regarded as a good indicator of motility. However, bull spermatozoa exhibit two types of progressive movement: progressive/planar movement without rotation and progressive/helical movement with rotation. The aim of this study was to reconsider the evaluation criteria of bull ejaculated sperm motility in the context of rotation. Here, we compared the movement patterns of ejaculated spermatozoa with relatively high and low protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated signaling activities, because sperm motility is positively regulated by PKA-mediated signaling activities...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Kelly A Campen, Chelsea R Abbott, Louisa A Rispoli, Rebecca R Payton, Arnold M Saxton, J Lannett Edwards
The intimate association of cumulus cells with one another and with the oocyte is important for regulating oocyte meiotic arrest and resumption. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of heat stress on cumulus cell communication and functions that may be related to accelerated oocyte meiosis during early maturation. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes underwent in vitro maturation for up to 6 h at thermoneutral control (38.5°C) or elevated (40.0, 41.0 or 42.0°C) temperatures. Gap junction communication between the cumulus cells and the oocyte was assessed using the fluorescent dye calcein after 4 h of in vitro maturation...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Kenichiro Sakaguchi, Atsushi Ideta, Yojiro Yanagawa, Masashi Nagano, Seiji Katagiri, Masato Konishi
Here, we describe a simplified procedure for embryo production in the Japanese black cow that uses a single caudal epidural injection of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). First, we compared the efficiency of superovulation for in vivo embryo production between conventional multiple FSH treatment (control, n = 10) and single epidural administration (epidural, n = 5). The number of transferable blastocysts was similar between control and epidural groups (4.7 ± 3.5 and 9.0 ± 6.0, respectively). Next, we compared in vitro embryo production by ovum pick-up and in vitro fertilization (OPU-IVF) between control (n = 12) and epidural groups (n = 12)...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Lauro González-Fernández, Beatriz Macías-García, Violeta Calle-Guisado, Luis Jesús García-Marín, María Julia Bragado
We aimed to test whether the calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors, calmidazolium (CZ) and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7), can be used to assess lipid disorder by flow cytometry using Merocyanine 540 (M540). Boar spermatozoa were incubated in non-capacitating conditions for 10 min at room temperature with 1 μM CZ, 200 μM W-7, or 1 mM 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP). Then, the sperm were 1) directly evaluated, 2) centrifuged and washed prior to evaluation, or 3) diluted with PBS prior to evaluation...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Jianning Yu, Leyan Yan, Zhe Chen, Hui Li, Huanxi Zhu, Rong Chen, ZhenDan Shi
Treatment of fetal rat and embryonic chicken with exogenous glucocorticoids induces premature differentiation of growth hormone (GH) secreting cells. The effect of corticosterone (CORT) on somatotroph differentiation was mostly studied in pituitary cells in vitro. Currently, there is no evidence for glucocorticoid-mediated induction of somatotroph differentiation during pituitary development in bird species other than chicken. In this study, we sought to find out if in ovo injection of corticosterone into developing goose embryos could induce premature increase of GH in somatotrophs...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Álvarez-Rodriguez Manuel, Vicente-Carrillo Alejandro, Rodriguez-Martinez Heriberto
Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) apparently improves sperm survival in vitro and in vivo (oviduct), maintaining sperm motility and inducing capacitation, but not acrosome exocytosis, either by direct action as a macromolecule or via CD44 membrane receptors. This study explored ejaculated, liquid-extended pig spermatozoa to ascertain (i) the presence (Western blotting) and specific location (immunocytochemistry) of the CD44 receptor, using a specific monoclonal commercial antibody; (ii) whether the CD44 receptor changed location when exposed to bicarbonate, a capacitating trigger, in vitro; and (iii) whether the addition of HA, of molecular size comparable to that produced in the oviduct sperm reservoir (0...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Maiko Kobayashi, Takamasa Koyama, Yasuhiro Yasutomi, Tadashi Sankai
We attempted to elucidate female reproduction in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). These monkeys have a non-seasonal menstruation cycle, which makes them suitable subjects for studies in a variety fields including medical science and regenerative medicine. We analyzed individual breeding data including time of menarche, start of regular menstruation, and first pregnancy. These three events are related to the maturation of female long-tailed macaques. All research subjects were female long-tailed macaques bred at the Tsukuba Primate Research Center...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Masaki Takasu, Masami Maeda, Julio Almunia, Kotono Nakamura, Noriko Nishii, Satoshi Takashima
In microminipigs, estrus induction with abortion treatment, which is typically performed between 25 and 40 days after mating, is not always successful. Thus, the authors hypothesized that it may be more difficult to induce estrus by treating microminipigs approximately 40 days after mating. Accordingly, in this study, estrus induction was performed with abortion treatment in four microminipigs as follows: 0.3 mg of cloprostenol, a prostaglandin F2-alpha analog, was administered (day 0); after 24 h, 0.15 mg of cloprostenol and 250 IU of equine chorionic gonadotrophin were administered intramuscularly and simultaneously (day 1); after 96 h, 120 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin was injected intramuscularly (day 4)...
May 27, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Mohammed A Abdel-Ghani, Kenichiro Sakaguchi, Chihiro Kanno, Yojiro Yanagawa, Seiji Katagiri, Masashi Nagano
We investigated the effects of pre-maturational (pre-IVM) culture on the developmental competence of small-sized bovine oocytes (110 and < 115 µm). Oocytes were cultured with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) for 0, 5, or 10 h and subjected to in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture. The cleavage rate (73%) of small-sized oocytes with 5 h pre-IVM was higher than those with 0 and 10 h pre-IVM (61 and 62%, respectively). The blastocyst rate (16%) of embryos derived from small-sized oocytes with 5 h pre-IVM was higher than those with 0 and 10 h pre-IVM (9 and 8%, respectively)...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Takashi Fujii, Hiroki Hirayama, Shigeo Fukuda, Soichi Kageyama, Akira Naito, Hitomi Yoshino, Satoru Moriyasu, Takashi Yamazaki, Kozo Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Hayakawa, Kenichi Takahashi, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Ken Sawai
Artificial insemination with cryopreserved semen is a well-developed technique commonly used for controlled reproduction in cattle. However, despite current technical advances, cryopreservation continues to damage bull spermatozoa, resulting in a loss of approximately 30 to 50% of viable spermatozoa post thawing. To further improve the efficiency of cryopreservation of bull spermatozoa, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the cryobiological properties that affect cryoinjuries during cryopreservation process of bull spermatozoa is required...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Saffet Ozturk, Fatma Uysal
Spermatogenesis is briefly defined as the production of mature spermatozoa from spermatogonial stem cells at the end of a strictly regulated process. It is well known that, to a large extent, transcriptional activity ceases at mid-spermiogenesis. Several mRNAs transcribed during early stages of spermatogenesis are stored as ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). During the later stages, translational control of these mRNAs is mainly carried out in a time dependent-manner by poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) in cooperation with other RNA-binding proteins and translation-related factors...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Toshinori Oikawa, Tomoko Itahashi, Risa Yajima, Takashi Numabe
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was expected to enable more efficient use of sperm from sires with preferable genetic traits and result in a generation containing a larger number of offspring with superior genetic characteristics in livestock. However, the efficiency of the early development of embryos produced by ICSI is still far from satisfactory in cattle. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the treatment of cryopreserved sperm with glutathione (GSH) on the early development of embryos produced by ICSI in Japanese Black cattle...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Kento Miura, Shogo Matoba, Narumi Ogonuki, Takafumi Namiki, Junya Ito, Naomi Kashiwazaki, Atsuo Ogura
In mammals, spermatozoa activate oocytes by triggering a series of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations with phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor. Because the introduction of PLCζ alone can induce oocyte activation, it might be a promising reagent for assisted reproductive technologies. To test this possibility, we injected human PLCζ (hPLCζ) mRNA into mouse oocytes at different concentrations. We observed the oocyte activation and subsequent embryonic development. Efficient oocyte activation and embryonic development to the blastocyst stage was achieved only with a limited range of mRNA concentrations (0...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Shinnosuke Honda, Yuka Miki, Yuya Miyamoto, Yu Kawahara, Satoshi Tsukamoto, Hiroshi Imai, Naojiro Minami
Oog1, an oocyte-specific gene that encodes a protein of 425 amino acids, is present in five copies on mouse chromosomes 4 and 12. In mouse oocytes, Oog1 mRNA expression begins at embryonic day 15.5 and almost disappears by the late two-cell stage. Meanwhile, OOG1 protein is detectable in oocytes in ovarian cysts and disappears by the four-cell stage; the protein is transported to the nucleus in late one-cell to early two-cell stage embryos. In this study, we examined the role of Oog1 during oogenesis in mice...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Shunsuke Sakai, Natsumi Hagihara, Mariko Kuse, Koji Kimura, Kiyoshi Okuda
Heat stress (HS) negatively affects reproduction in cattle; however, its effect on endocrine function in bovine endometrial cells remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of HS on the production of prostaglandin (PG)E2 and PGF2α in the cultured bovine endometrial epithelial and stromal cells separately. To evaluate the effect of HS on endocrine function, the cells were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or 40.5°C (HS). After treatment, PGE2 and PGF2α levels were measured via enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and mRNA expressions of enzymes involved in PG synthesis were examined via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Satoshi Tsukamoto, Takayuki Tatsumi
During oogenesis, oocytes accumulate a large set of proteins derived from the maternal genome. These proteins, known as maternal proteins, are not only required for oocyte maturation and fertilization, but also implicated in subsequent embryonic development. However, most maternal proteins are degraded and their amino acid components are utilized for newly synthesized proteins from the embryonic genome. This process is known as the oocyte-to-embryo transition; because it occurs over a short period, mechanisms involving massive degradation of maternal proteins have been proposed...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
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