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Journal of Reproduction and Development

Mubbashar Hassan, Usman Arshad, Muhammad Bilal, Abdul Sattar, Muhammad Avais, Heinrich Bollwein, Nasim Ahmad
The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in luteal size (LS), progesterone (P4), and luteal blood flow (LBF) between pregnant and non-pregnant Bos indicus dairy cows during the first three weeks after insemination, and whether these parameters are related to each other. Lactating cows (n = 13) of mixed parity with a body weight of 430 ± 18 kg (mean ± SD), showing regular estrous cycle were used in the study. All cows were artificially inseminated and were classified as pregnant (embryonic heartbeat on day 30; n = 8) or non-pregnant (inter-estrus interval 17 to 21 days, n = 5)...
November 4, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Hisashi Nabenishi, Shunsei Kawakami, Shota Shimo, Kaito Takeshita, Atusi Yamazaki, Kazuhiro Suzuki
Tie-stall housing inhibits movement in cows, thereby restricting the behavioral indicators used by farmers for detecting estrous. In this study, we investigated the changes in patterns of lying and standing times at estrous, and evaluated the potential for automated detection of estrous within tie-stalls using a barometer and accelerometer. On estrous days, total daily standing time was significantly longer than that during non-estrous days (P < 0.05). A practical method was developed for detecting slight altitude changes using a novel device, which consisted of a barometer and accelerometer, and was attached to the neckband...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Guoyun Wu, Quanwei Wei, Debing Yu, Fangxiong Shi
Soy-based formula contains high concentrations of the isoflavone genistein. Genistein possesses estrogenic and tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity and interferes with cellular proliferation and development. To date, the acute and chronic effects of genistein on ovarian and uterine development have not been fully elucidated. In this study, mice at postnatal day 1 were subcutaneously injected with 100 mg/kg genistein for 10 consecutive days, and then their ovaries and uteri were collected on days 10, 21, and 90...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Kenta Nishitani, Koji Hayakawa, Satoshi Tanaka
Mouse trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) have been established and maintained using hyperglycemic conditions (11 mM glucose) for no apparent good reason. Because glucose metabolites are used as resources for cellular energy production, biosynthesis, and epigenetic modifications, differences in extracellular glucose levels may widely affect cellular function. Since the hyperglycemic culture conditions used for TSC culture have not been fully validated, the effect of extracellular glucose levels on the properties of TSCs remains unclear...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Hsiu-Lin Huang, Hsiao-Lung Liu, Yu-Shin Cheng
In a prior study, comparisons of individuals of Anas platyrhynchos with higher/lower reproductive performances showed that the expression of the transmembrane and immunoglobulin domain containing 1 (TMIGD1) gene significantly differed between the two groups. Here, we demonstrate that ducks with the TMIGD1 GG genotype have a significantly higher fertilization rate than other TMIGD1 genotypes. Primers designed based on the TMIGD1 sequence of Pekin duck were able to successfully amplify a TMIGD1 fragment from Tsaiya ducks, and sequencing results indicated that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TMIGD1 gene existed...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Keisuke Koyama, Takeshi Koyama, Masahito Sugimoto
Ovarian reserve in cattle can be predicted by an indicator, the antral follicle count (AFC), which is easily determined via ovarian ultrasonography. However, the repeatability of AFC measurements in the same individual taken approximately 1 year apart after first parity remains unclear. This study, thus, aimed to clarify the between-lactation repeatability of AFC after first parity in dairy cows. We measured the AFC of the same individual cows consecutively across both first and second parity, both second and third parity, and both third and fourth parity in 31, 37, and 26 heads, respectively...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Naoko Inoue, Kei-Ichiro Maeda, Hiroko Tsukamura
Kisspeptin, identified as a natural ligand of GPR54 in 2001, is now considered as a master regulator of puberty and subsequent reproductive functions in mammals. Our previous studies using Kiss1 knockout (KO) rats clearly demonstrated the indispensable role of kisspeptin in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/gonadotropin secretion. In addition, behavioral analyses of Kiss1 KO rats revealed an organizational effect of kisspeptin on neural circuits controlling sexual behaviors. Our studies using transgenic mice carrying a region-specific Kiss1 enhancer-driven reporter gene provided a clue as to the mechanism by which estrogen regulates Kiss1 expression in hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Toshiyuki Suzuki, Ryosuke Sakumoto, Ken-Go Hayashi, Takatoshi Ogiso, Hiroki Kunii, Takahiro Shirozu, Sung-Woo Kim, Hanako Bai, Manabu Kawahara, Koji Kimura, Masashi Takahashi
Interferon-tau (IFNT), a type I interferon (IFN), is known as pregnancy recognition signaling molecule secreted from the ruminant conceptus during the preimplantation period. Type I IFNs, such as IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, are known to activate cell-death pathways as well as induce apoptosis. In cows, induction of apoptosis with DNA fragmentation is induced by IFNT in cultured bovine endometrial epithelial cells. However, the status of cell-death pathways in the bovine endometrium during the preimplantation period still remains unclear...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Xuerui Yao, Hao Jiang, Shuang Liang, Xinghui Shen, Qingshan Gao, Yong Nan Xu, Nam-Hyung Kim
Laminarin (LAM) is a β-glucan oligomer known to possess biological activities such as anticancer and antioxidant effects. This study explored the influence of LAM supplementation on in vitro aged porcine oocytes and the underlying mechanisms behind this influence. We found that LAM delayed the aging process and improved the quality of aged oocytes. LAM supplementation enhanced the subsequent developmental competence of aged oocytes during the in vitro aging process. The blastocyst formation rate was significantly increased in aged oocytes treated with 20 µg/ml LAM compared to non-treated aged oocytes (45...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Ryosuke Kaneko, Toshie Kakinuma, Sachiko Sato, Atsushi Jinno-Oue
Efficient cryopreservation and transportation of mouse sperm are among the most desirable strategies for current and future research on mouse genetics. However, the current method for sperm cryopreservation uses an 11-cm plastic straw, which is a bulky and fragile container. Developing an alternative to overcome the limitations associated with this method would accelerate biomedical research. Here, we developed the ST (sperm-freezing in ShorT STraw to reduce STorage space) method for cryopreserving mouse sperm in short 3...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Esra Gozde Kosebent, Fatma Uysal, Saffet Ozturk
Telomeres are repetitive non-coding DNA sequences located at the end of chromosomes in eukaryotic cells. Their most important function is to protect chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA damage. They are also implicated in meiosis and synapse formation. The length of telomeres inevitably shortens at the end of each round of DNA replication and, also, as a consequence of the exposure to oxidative stress and/or genotoxic agents. The enzyme telomerase contributes to telomere lengthening. It has been reported that telomerase is exclusively expressed in germ cells, granulosa cells, early embryos, stem cells, and various types of cancerous cells...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Irina Garcia-Ispierto, Fernando López-Gatius
Pregnancy loss during the late embryonic and early fetal periods influences dairy herd economy. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the effects of a single or double GnRH dose administered at the time of pregnancy diagnosis (28-34 days post-AI) on the pregnancy survival of cows in their third lactation or further carrying live singletons or unilateral twins, and (2) examine the impacts of GnRH treatment on subsequent twin reduction in twin pregnancies. Cows carrying singletons (n = 1,054) or unilateral twins (n = 379) were assigned at the time of pregnancy diagnosis to the following groups: control (no treatment), GnRH (100 μg GnRH), and 2GnRH (200 μg GnRH)...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Yuka Miki, Satoshi Tsukamoto, Naojiro Minami
Studying gene expression in germ cells is useful for elucidating mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, because different genes are activated in male and female germ cells. The promoter regions of an oocyte-specific gene, Oog1, have been characterized. Driving the expression of green fluorescent protein with these different promoter regions provided us with critical information on the regulation of gene expression. The 3.9 kb long promoter functions in both male and female germ cells in transgenic mice. What is the cause of this sexually dimorphic expression? There may be important factors within and perhaps also outside this 3...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara, Hiroko Morimoto, Satoshi Watanabe, Takashi Shinohara
Stem cell homing is a complex phenomenon that involves multiple steps; thus far, attempts to increase homing efficiency have met with limited success. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) migrate to the niche after microinjection into seminiferous tubules, but the homing efficiency is very low. Here we report that reversible disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) between Sertoli cells enhances the homing efficiency of SSCs. We found that SSCs on a C57BL/6 background are triggered to proliferate in vitro when MHY1485, which stimulates MTORC, were added to culture medium...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Ryotaro Miura, Nobu Matsumoto, Taiki Izumi, Mitsunori Kayano, Shingo Haneda, Motozumi Matsui
We examined the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment 5 days after artificial insemination (AI) on conception rate when the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) in the ovaries was either ipsilateral or contralateral to the corpus luteum (CL) in lactating dairy cows. 577 cows from 4 dairy farms were divided into the following two groups 5 days after AI using transrectal ultrasonography: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG; n = 348), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL, and (2) the contralateral group (CG; n = 229), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Kenichiro Sakaguchi, Takashi Tanida, Mohammed A Abdel-Ghani, Chihiro Kanno, Yojiro Yanagawa, Seiji Katagiri, Masashi Nagano
The antral follicle count (AFC) is used as an indicator of cow fertility. We herein investigated the relationship between AFC and the steroidogenesis of granulosa cells and confirmed the developmental competence of oocytes derived from early antral follicles (0.5-1.0 mm) using in vitro growth culture. Slaughterhouse-derived ovaries were divided into high (≥ 25) and low (< 25) AFC groups based on AFC (≥ 2.0 mm). Oocyte-cumulus-granulosa complexes (OCGCs) collected from early antral follicles were cultured for 12 days...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Van Khanh Nguyen, Huong Thi Thu Vu, Huong Thi Nguyen, Huu Xuan Quan, Lan Doan Pham, Kazuhiro Kikuchi, Son Thanh Nguyen, Tamas Somfai
We compared the efficacy of the microdrop and minimum volume cooling (MVC) methods for the vitrification of in vitro-produced porcine zygotes and blastocysts after equilibration in low concentrations of cryoprotectant agents. Zygotes and blastocysts were equilibrated in 2% (v/v) ethylene glycol and 2% (v/v) propylene glycol for 13-15 min. Then, they were vitrified in a medium comprised of 17.5% ethylene glycol, 17.5% propylene glycol, 0.3 M sucrose, and 50 mg/ml polyvinylpyrrolidone either by either dropping them directly into liquid nitrogen (microdrop method) or placing them on Cryotop sheets in a minimum volume of medium and plunging into liquid nitrogen (MVC method)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Blanca Algarra, Verónica Maillo, Manuel Avilés, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán, Dimitrios Rizos, María Jiménez-Movilla
Previously, our group demonstrated that recombinant porcine oviductin (pOVGP1) binds to the zona pellucida (ZP) of in vitro-matured (IVM) porcine oocytes with a positive effect on in vitro fertilization (IVF). The fact that pOVGP1 was detected inside IVM oocytes suggested that this protein had a biological role during embryo development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pOVGP1 on bovine in vitro embryo development. We applied 10 or 50 µg/ml of pOVGP1 during IVF, embryonic in vitro culture (IVC), or both, to evaluate cleavage and embryo development...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Md Hasanur Alam, Jibak Lee, Takashi Miyano
The role of oocytes in follicular antrum formation is not well understood. We examined the effect of oocyte-derived growth factors, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), on the formation of antrum-like structures by cultured bovine oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs). OGCs containing growing oocytes (105‒115 µm in diameter) were collected from early antral follicles (1.2‒1.8 mm) and used to prepare oocytectomized complexes (OXCs) and granulosa cell complexes (GCs)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Saishu Yoshida, Ken Fujiwara, Takashi Inoue, Erika Sasaki, Yoshie Kametani, Susumu Takekoshi, Naoko Inoshita, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
Studies on mouse and rat pituitaries reported that Sox2-expressing cells play roles as stem/progenitor cells in the adult pituitary gland. The presence of cells with stem cell-like properties in the pituitary adenoma and SOX2-positive cells has been demonstrated in the human pituitary. However, considering the difficulty in fully examining the stem/progenitor cell properties in the human pituitary, in the present study, we analyzed the SOX2-positive cells in the pituitary of the adult common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), which is used as a non-human primate model...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
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