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Journal of Reproduction and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890522/characterization-of-the-testicular-regeneration-potential-in-premature-cockerels
#1
Po-Liang Cheng, Hui-Ru Wu, Cheng-Yan Li, Chih-Feng Chen, Hsu-Chen Cheng
Previous studies have shown that grafted neonatal chicken testicular tissue can develop and produce functional sperm; however, it was unclear whether regenerative processes or proportional growth caused the re-appearance of spermatogenic tissue. We dissociated testicular tissues, performed subcutaneous auto-transplantation of the re-aggregated cells to castrated cockerels, and monitored the post-surgery development of these transplanted aggregates. We found that these transplanted cell aggregates experienced compensatory growth in the form of a 300-fold increase in size, rather than the 30-fold increase observed in normal testis development...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867677/c-x-c-chemokine-receptor-type-4-cxcr4-is-a-key-receptor-for-chicken-primordial-germ-cell-migration
#2
Jeong Hyo Lee, Jeong-Woong Park, Si Won Kim, Joonghoon Park, Tae Sub Park
In mammals, germ cells originate outside of the developing gonads and follow a unique migration pattern through the embryonic tissue toward the genital ridges. Many studies have attempted to identify critical receptors and factors involved in germ cell migration. However, relatively few reports exist on germ cell receptors and chemokines that are involved in germ cell migration in avian species. In the present study, we investigated the specific migratory function of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) in chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855439/intrauterine-growth-retardation-promotes-fetal-intestinal-autophagy-in-rats-via-the-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-pathway
#3
Chao Wang, Ruiming Zhang, Le Zhou, Jintian He, Qiang Huang, Farman A Siyal, Lili Zhang, Xiang Zhong, Tian Wang
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) impairs fetal intestinal development, and is associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanism underlying this intestinal injury is largely unknown. We aimed to investigate this mechanism through analysis of intestinal autophagy and related signaling pathways in a rat model of IUGR. Normal weight (NW) and IUGR fetuses were obtained from primiparous rats via ad libitum food intake and 50% food restriction, respectively. Maternal serum parameters, fetal body weight, organ weights, and fetal blood glucose were determined...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845020/is-transcription-in-sperm-stationary-or-dynamic
#4
Xiaoxia Ren, Xiaoli Chen, Zhenling Wang, Dong Wang
Transcriptional activity is repressed due to the packaging of sperm chromatins during spermiogenesis. The detection of numerous transcripts in sperm, however, raises the question whether transcriptional events exist in sperm, which has been the central focus of the recent studies. To summarize the transcriptional activity during spermiogenesis and in sperm, we reviewed the documents on transcript differences during spermiogenesis, in sperm with differential motility, before and after capacitation and cryopreservation...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824024/efficient-and-scheduled-production-of-pseudopregnant-female-mice-for-embryo-transfer-by-estrous-cycle-synchronization
#5
Ayumi Hasegawa, Keiji Mochida, Narumi Ogonuki, Michiko Hirose, Toshiko Tomishima, Kimiko Inoue, Atsuo Ogura
In embryo transfer experiments in mice, pseudopregnant females as recipients are prepared by sterile mating with vasectomized males. Because only females at the proestrus stage accept males, such females are selected from a stock of animals based on the appearance of their external genital tract. Therefore, the efficiency of preparing pseudopregnant females largely depends on the size of female colonies and the skill of the operators who select females for sterile mating. In this study, we examined whether the efficiency of preparing pseudopregnant females could be improved by applying an estrous cycle synchronization method by progesterone (P4) pretreatment, which significantly enhances the superovulation outcome in mice...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824040/haploid-embryonic-stem-cell-lines-derived-from-androgenetic-and-parthenogenetic-rat-blastocysts
#6
Masumi Hirabayashi, Hiromasa Hara, Teppei Goto, Akiko Takizawa, Melinda R Dwinell, Takahiro Yamanaka, Shinichi Hochi, Hiromitsu Nakauchi
The present study was conducted to establish haploid embryonic stem (ES) cell lines using fluorescent marker-carrying rats. In the first series, 7 ES cell lines were established from 26 androgenetic haploid blastocysts. However, only 1 ES cell line (ahES-2) was found to contain haploid cells (1n = 20 + X) by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and karyotypic analyses. No chimeras were detected among the 10 fetuses and 41 offspring derived from blastocyst injection with the FACS-purified haploid cells...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804108/effects-of-vitrification-and-a-rho-associated-coiled-coil-containing-protein-kinase-1-inhibitor-on-the-meiotic-and-developmental-competence-of-feline-oocytes
#7
Saengtawan Arayatham, Narong Tiptanavattana, Theerawat Tharasanit
Oocyte cryopreservation is the technique of choice for the long-term storage of female gametes. However, it induces an irreversible loss of oocyte viability and function. We examined the effects of vitrification and a Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) inhibitor (ROCKi) on the meiotic and developmental competence of feline oocytes. We examined the expression of LIM kinase (LIMK) 1 and 2, with and without ROCKi treatment. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in vitro with 0, 10, 20, and 40 µM ROCKi...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757527/rad51-maintains-chromosome-integrity-and-mitochondrial-distribution-during-porcine-oocyte-maturation-in-vitro
#8
Zhe-Long Jin, Nam-Hyung Kim
DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 1 (RAD51) plays a central role in homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA breaks. HR depends on the formation of a RAD51 recombinase filament that facilitates strand invasion. However, the role of RAD51 during porcine oocyte maturation is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and function of RAD51 during porcine oocyte maturation in vitro. RAD51 was mainly localized to the nucleus at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, and was widely distributed in the cytoplasm between the GV breakdown (GVBD) and metaphase II stage...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701622/effects-on-glycocalyx-structures-of-frozen-thawed-bovine-sperm-induced-by-flow-cytometry-and-artificial-capacitation
#9
Kohei Umezu, Yuuki Hiradate, Takashi Numabe, Kenshiro Hara, Kentaro Tanemura
Sperm sorting by flow cytometry is a useful technology in the bovine industry, but the conception rates after artificial insemination using sex-sorted sperm are lower than when using the un-sorted sperm. In this study, we have investigated the causes for these low conception rates. We have focused on changes caused by flow cytometry to the glycocalyx, which forms the outermost surface of the sperm membrane. We have also evaluated the effects of capacitation on the glycocalyx since capacitation involves a redistribution of the sperm membrane that is vital for successful fertilization and conception...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690291/geminin-deletion-in-pre-meiotic-dna-replication-stage-causes-spermatogenesis-defect-and-infertility
#10
Yue Yuan, Xue-Shan Ma, Qiu-Xia Liang, Zhao-Yang Xu, Lin Huang, Tie-Gang Meng, Fei Lin, Heide Schatten, Zhen-Bo Wang, Qing-Yuan Sun
Geminin plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation by regulating DNA replication and serves as a transcriptional molecular switch that directs cell fate decisions. Spermatogonia lacking Geminin disappear during the initial wave of mitotic proliferation, while geminin is not required for meiotic progression of spermatocytes. It is unclear whether geminin plays a role in pre-meiotic DNA replication in later-stage spermatogonia and their subsequent differentiation. Here, we selectively disrupted Geminin in the male germline using the Stra8-Cre/loxP conditional knockout system...
July 9, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652559/expression-of-thyroid-hormone-regulator-genes-in-the-yolk-sac-membrane-of-the-developing-chicken-embryo
#11
Hanny Cho Too, Mitsuhiro Shibata, Masato Yayota, Veerle M Darras, Atsushi Iwasawa
Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for the correct development of nearly every structure in the body from the very early stages of development, yet the embryonic thyroid gland is not functional at these stages. To clarify the roles of the egg yolk as a source of THs, the TH content in the yolk and the expression of TH regulator genes in the yolk sac membrane were evaluated throughout the 21-day incubation period of chicken embryos. The yolk TH content (22.3 ng triiodothyronine and 654.7 ng thyroxine per total yolk on day 4 of incubation) decreased almost linearly along with development...
June 25, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603222/bovine-embryo-induces-an-anti-inflammatory-response-in-uterine-epithelial-cells-and-immune-cells-in-vitro-possible-involvement-of-interferon-tau-as-an-intermediator
#12
Anup K Talukder, Mohamed S Yousef, Mohammad B Rashid, Kensuke Awai, Tomas J Acosta, Takashi Shimizu, Kiyoshi Okuda, Masayuki Shimada, Kazuhiko Imakawa, Akio Miyamoto
Recent observations suggest that the bovine uterus starts to react to the early embryo immediately after its arrival from the oviduct. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the early developing embryo on the immune-related gene profile in bovine uterine epithelial cells (BUECs) in vitro, and to further examine the impact of conditioned media (CM), either from embryo-BUEC co-culture or embryo culture alone, on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). First, BUECs were co-cultured with morulae (n = 10) for D5-D9 (D0 = IVF), and gene expression in BUECs was analyzed...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603220/mir-6539-is-a-novel-mediator-of-somatic-cell-reprogramming-that-represses-the-translation-of-dnmt3b
#13
Fujia Wu, Li Tao, Shuai Gao, Likun Ren, Zhuqing Wang, Shumin Wang, Jianhui Tian, Lei An
Global DNA hypomethylation has been shown to be involved in the pluripotency of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Relatedly, DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are believed to be a substantial barrier to genome-wide demethylation. There are two distinct stages of DNMT expression during iPS cell generation. In the earlier stage of reprogramming, the expression of DNMTs is repressed to overcome epigenetic barriers. During the late stage, the expression of DNMTs is upregulated to ensure iPS cells obtain the full pluripotency required for further development...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579579/regulation-of-zygotic-gene-activation-by-chromatin-structure-and-epigenetic-factors
#14
Satoshi Funaya, Fugaku Aoki
After fertilization, the genomes derived from an oocyte and spermatozoon are in a transcriptionally silent state before becoming activated at a species-specific time. In mice, the initiation of transcription occurs at the mid-one-cell stage, which represents the start of the gene expression program. A recent RNA sequencing analysis revealed that the gene expression pattern of one-cell embryos is unique and changes dramatically at the two-cell stage. However, the mechanism regulating this alteration has not yet been elucidated...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552887/selection-of-viable-in-vitro-fertilized-bovine-embryos-using-time-lapse-monitoring-in-microwell-culture-dishes
#15
Satoshi Sugimura, Tomonori Akai, Kei Imai
Conventionally, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos for transfer are morphologically evaluated at day 7-8 of embryo culture. This method is, however, subjective and results in unreliable selection. We previously described a novel selection system for IVF bovine blastocysts for transfer that traces the development of individual embryos with time-lapse monitoring in our specially developed microwell culture dishes (LinKID micro25). The system can noninvasively identify prognostic factors that reflect viability after transfer...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552886/administration-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-on-day-5-increases-luteal-blood-flow-and-improves-pregnancy-prediction-accuracy-on-day-14-in-recipient-holstein-cows
#16
Tomomi Kanazawa, Motohide Seki, Keiki Ishiyama, Masao Araseki, Yoshiaki Izaike, Toru Takahashi
This study assessed the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) treatment on Day 5 (Day 0 = estrus) on luteal blood flow and accuracy of pregnancy prediction in recipient cows. On Day 5, 120 lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 63) or GnRH group treated with 100 μg of GnRH agonist (n = 57). On Days 3, 5, 7, and 14, each cow underwent ultrasound examination to measure the blood flow area (BFA) and time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV) at the spiral arteries at the base of the corpus luteum using color Doppler ultrasonography...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552864/development-related-changes-in-the-expression-of-the-ovarian-kiss1-and-kiss1r-genes-and-their-sensitivity-to-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-in-prepubertal-female-rats
#17
Mikio Yamasaki, Akira Kuwahara, Takeshi Iwasa, Yuri Yamamoto, Yuka Taniguchi, Yuya Yano, Sumika Matsui, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Minoru Irahara
Kisspeptin, which is encoded by the Kiss1 gene, and its receptor, the G protein-coupled receptor 54 (Kiss1r), play important roles in the regulation of reproductive functions in mammals. Several studies have shown that the Kiss1 and Kiss1r genes are expressed in the rat, primate, and human ovaries, and that the ovarian kisspeptin system plays a pivotal role in ovulation at the proestrous stage in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate development-related changes in the expression of ovarian Kiss1 and Kiss1r genes and in kisspeptin levels, and to identify the regulatory factors for these genes during the prepubertal period...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515391/advanced-glycation-end-products-regulate-interleukin-1%C3%AE-production-in-human-placenta
#18
Kotomi Seno, Saoko Sase, Ayae Ozeki, Hironori Takahashi, Akihide Ohkuchi, Hirotada Suzuki, Shigeki Matsubara, Hisataka Iwata, Takehito Kuwayama, Koumei Shirasuna
Maternal obesity is a major risk factor for pregnancy complications, causing inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-8. Pregnant women with obesity develop accelerated systemic and placental inflammation with elevated circulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs). IL-1β is a pivotal inflammatory cytokine associated with obesity and pregnancy complications, and its production is regulated by NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496019/age-associated-changes-in-granulosa-cells-and-follicular-fluid-in-cows
#19
Hisataka Iwata
Age-associated decline in oocyte quality is common in mammals. Oocytes take a long time to reach their full-grown size in large animals, and maternal physical conditions profoundly affect follicle development. Aging affects the oocyte itself as well as the surrounding environment, such as granulosa cells and follicular fluid. This review discusses age-associated changes that occur in granulosa cells and follicular fluid in cows and suggests that age-associated decline in granulosa cells and follicular fluid hampers proper oocyte development...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496018/effects-of-heat-stress-on-bovine-preimplantation-embryos-produced-in-vitro
#20
Miki Sakatani
Summer heat stress decreases the pregnancy rate in cattle and has been thought to be associated with the early embryonic death caused by the elevation of maternal body temperature. In vitro cultures have been widely used for the evaluation of effects of heat stress on oocytes, fertilization, preimplantation, and embryonic development. Susceptibility to heat stress is present in developmental stages from oocytes to cleavage-stage (before embryonic gene activation, EGA) embryos, leading to a consequent decrease in developmental competence...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
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