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Journal of Reproduction and Development

Irina Garcia-Ispierto, Fernando López-Gatius
Pregnancy loss during the late embryonic and early fetal periods influences dairy herd economy. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the effects of a single or double GnRH dose administered at the time of pregnancy diagnosis (28-34 days post-AI) on the pregnancy survival of cows in their third lactation or further carrying live singletons or unilateral twins, and (2) examine the impacts of GnRH treatment on subsequent twin reduction in twin pregnancies. Cows carrying singletons (n = 1,054) or unilateral twins (n = 379) were assigned at the time of pregnancy diagnosis to the following groups: control (no treatment), GnRH (100 μg GnRH), and 2GnRH (200 μg GnRH)...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Yuka Miki, Satoshi Tsukamoto, Naojiro Minami
Studying gene expression in germ cells is useful for elucidating mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, because different genes are activated in male and female germ cells. The promoter regions of an oocyte-specific gene, Oog1, have been characterized. Driving the expression of green fluorescent protein with these different promoter regions provided us with critical information on the regulation of gene expression. The 3.9 kb long promoter functions in both male and female germ cells in transgenic mice. What is the cause of this sexually dimorphic expression? There may be important factors within and perhaps also outside this 3...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara, Hiroko Morimoto, Satoshi Watanabe, Takashi Shinohara
Stem cell homing is a complex phenomenon that involves multiple steps; thus far, attempts to increase homing efficiency have met with limited success. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) migrate to the niche after microinjection into seminiferous tubules, but the homing efficiency is very low. Here we report that reversible disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) between Sertoli cells enhances the homing efficiency of SSCs. We found that SSCs on a C57BL/6 background are triggered to proliferate in vitro when MHY1485, which stimulates MTORC, were added to culture medium...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Ryotaro Miura, Nobu Matsumoto, Taiki Izumi, Mitsunori Kayano, Shingo Haneda, Motozumi Matsui
We examined the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment 5 days after artificial insemination (AI) on conception rate when the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) in the ovaries was either ipsilateral or contralateral to the corpus luteum (CL) in lactating dairy cows. 577 cows from 4 dairy farms were divided into the following two groups 5 days after AI using transrectal ultrasonography: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG; n = 348), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL, and (2) the contralateral group (CG; n = 229), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Kenichiro Sakaguchi, Takashi Tanida, Mohammed A Abdel-Ghani, Chihiro Kanno, Yojiro Yanagawa, Seiji Katagiri, Masashi Nagano
The antral follicle count (AFC) is used as an indicator of cow fertility. We herein investigated the relationship between AFC and the steroidogenesis of granulosa cells and confirmed the developmental competence of oocytes derived from early antral follicles (0.5-1.0 mm) using in vitro growth culture. Slaughterhouse-derived ovaries were divided into high (≥ 25) and low (< 25) AFC groups based on AFC (≥ 2.0 mm). Oocyte-cumulus-granulosa complexes (OCGCs) collected from early antral follicles were cultured for 12 days...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Nguyen Khanh VAN, Vu Thi Thu Huong, Nguyen Thi Huong, Quan Xuan Huu, Lan Doan Pham, Kazuhiro Kikuchi, Nguyen Thanh Son, Tamas Somfai
We compared the efficacy of the microdrop and minimum volume cooling (MVC) methods for the vitrification of in vitro-produced porcine zygotes and blastocysts after equilibration in low concentrations of cryoprotectant agents. Zygotes and blastocysts were equilibrated in 2% (v/v) ethylene glycol and 2% (v/v) propylene glycol for 13-15 min. Then, they were vitrified in a medium comprised of 17.5% ethylene glycol, 17.5% propylene glycol, 0.3 M sucrose, and 50 mg/ml polyvinylpyrrolidone either by either dropping them directly into liquid nitrogen (microdrop method) or placing them on Cryotop sheets in a minimum volume of medium and plunging into liquid nitrogen (MVC method)...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Blanca Algarra, Verónica Maillo, Manuel Avilés, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán, Dimitrios Rizos, Maria Jimenez-Movilla
Previously, our group demonstrated that recombinant porcine oviductin (pOVGP1) binds to the zona pellucida (ZP) of in vitro-matured (IVM) porcine oocytes with a positive effect on in vitro fertilization (IVF). The fact that pOVGP1 was detected inside IVM oocytes suggested that this protein had a biological role during embryo development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pOVGP1 on bovine in vitro embryo development. We applied 10 or 50 µg/ml of pOVGP1 during IVF, embryonic in vitro culture (IVC), or both, to evaluate cleavage and embryo development...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Md Hasanur Alam, Jibak Lee, Takashi Miyano
The role of oocytes in follicular antrum formation is not well understood. We examined the effect of oocyte-derived growth factors, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), on the formation of antrum-like structures by cultured bovine oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs). OGCs containing growing oocytes (105-115 µm in diameter) were collected from early antral follicles (1.2-1.8 mm) and used to prepare oocytectomized complexes (OXCs) and granulosa cell complexes (GCs)...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Saishu Yoshida, Ken Fujiwara, Takashi Inoue, Erika Sasaki, Yoshie Kametani, Susumu Takekoshi, Naoko Inoshita, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
Studies on mouse and rat pituitaries reported that Sox2-expressing cells play roles as stem/progenitor cells in the adult pituitary gland. The presence of cells with stem cell-like properties in the pituitary adenoma and SOX2-positive cells has been demonstrated in the human pituitary. However, considering the difficulty in fully examining the stem/progenitor cell properties in the human pituitary, in the present study, we analyzed the SOX2-positive cells in the pituitary of the adult common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), which is used as a non-human primate model...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Lanjie Lei, Feng Han, Qiuyan Cui, Weifang Liao, Hui Liu, Gaopeng Guan, Lei Yang
Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) is a component of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling cascade, which plays an important role in mouse hypothalamic and ovarian functions. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of IRS2 in steroidogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation in mouse granulosa cells (GCs). Flow cytometry and CCK8 assay showed that IRS2 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, reduced cell viability, and increased apoptosis in GCs. The study also revealed that the expression of Cyclin A1, Cyclin B1 and Bcl2 was downregulated, while the expression of Bax, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin D2 was upregulated...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Hiroyuki Watanabe
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has become critical for the treatment of severe male infertility. The principal feature of ICSI is the direct injection of spermatozoon into an oocyte, which facilitates the production of fertilized embryos regardless of semen characteristics, such as sperm concentration and motility. However, the chromosomal integrity of ICSI zygotes is degraded compared to that of zygotes obtained via in vitro fertilization. This chromosomal damage may occur due to the injection of non-capacitated, acrosome-intact spermatozoa, which never enter the oocytes under natural fertilization...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Mitsuhiro Sakase, Keita Kitagawa, Masahiko Kibushi, Noritoshi Kawate, W W P N Weerakoon, M A Hannan, Namiko Kohama, Hiromichi Tamada
This study was conducted to clarify the relationships of plasma concentrations of insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), testosterone, inhibin, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) with scrotal circumference and testicular weight in Japanese Black beef bull calves (n = 20), from birth to pre-puberty. Monthly blood sampling (0 to 7 months) and scrotal circumference measurements (0 to 7 months) were performed. Testicular weight was recorded immediately after castration at 7 months. Plasma INSL3, testosterone, inhibin, and IGF-I concentrations were measured either by enzyme immunoassay or time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Luca Palazzese, Jaime Gosálvez, Debora A Anzalone, Pasqualino Loi, Joseph Saragusty
Sperm freeze-drying is a revolutionary technique, which has been gaining prominence in recent years. The first related significant result was Wakayama and Yanagimachi's demonstration in 1998 of the birth of healthy mouse offspring by Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), using epididymal freeze-dried spermatozoa. Mouse, rat, and hamster models were the first small mammals born from lyophilized epididymal spermatozoa, whereas most other studies in this field used ejaculated spermatozoa. In this work, we applied this technique to ram epididymal spermatozoa, checking the correlation between DNA integrity and embryo development following ICSI...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Jianning Yu, Leyan Yan, Zhe Chen, Hui Li, Huanxi Zhu, Rong Chen, ZhenDan Shi
Treatment of fetal rat and embryonic chicken with exogenous glucocorticoids induces premature differentiation of growth hormone (GH) secreting cells. The effect of corticosterone (CORT) on somatotroph differentiation was mostly studied in pituitary cells in vitro. Currently, there is no evidence for glucocorticoid-mediated induction of somatotroph differentiation during pituitary development in bird species other than chicken. In this study, we sought to find out if in ovo injection of corticosterone into developing goose embryos could induce premature increase of GH in somatotrophs...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Manuel Álvarez-Rodriguez, Alejandro Vicente-Carrillo, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez
Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) apparently improves sperm survival in vitro and in vivo (oviduct), maintaining sperm motility and inducing capacitation, but not acrosome exocytosis, either by direct action as a macromolecule or via CD44 membrane receptors. This study explored ejaculated, liquid-extended pig spermatozoa to ascertain (i) the presence (Western blotting) and specific location (immunocytochemistry) of the CD44 receptor, using a specific monoclonal commercial antibody; (ii) whether the CD44 receptor changed location when exposed to bicarbonate, a capacitating trigger, in vitro; and (iii) whether the addition of HA, of molecular size comparable to that produced in the oviduct sperm reservoir (0...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Maiko Kobayashi, Takamasa Koyama, Yasuhiro Yasutomi, Tadashi Sankai
We attempted to elucidate female reproduction in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). These monkeys have a non-seasonal menstruation cycle, which makes them suitable subjects for studies in a variety fields including medical science and regenerative medicine. We analyzed individual breeding data including time of menarche, start of regular menstruation, and first pregnancy. These three events are related to the maturation of female long-tailed macaques. All research subjects were female long-tailed macaques bred at the Tsukuba Primate Research Center...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Masaki Takasu, Masami Maeda, Julio Almunia, Kotono Nakamura, Noriko Nishii, Satoshi Takashima
In microminipigs, estrus induction with abortion treatment, which is typically performed between 25 and 40 days after mating, is not always successful. Thus, the authors hypothesized that it may be more difficult to induce estrus by treating microminipigs approximately 40 days after mating. Accordingly, in this study, estrus induction was performed with abortion treatment in four microminipigs as follows: 0.3 mg of cloprostenol, a prostaglandin F2-alpha analog, was administered (day 0); after 24 h, 0.15 mg of cloprostenol and 250 IU of equine chorionic gonadotrophin were administered intramuscularly and simultaneously (day 1); after 96 h, 120 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin was injected intramuscularly (day 4)...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Mohammed A Abdel-Ghani, Kenichiro Sakaguchi, Chihiro Kanno, Yojiro Yanagawa, Seiji Katagiri, Masashi Nagano
We investigated the effects of pre-maturational (pre-IVM) culture on the developmental competence of small-sized bovine oocytes (110 and < 115 µm). Oocytes were cultured with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) for 0, 5, or 10 h and subjected to in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture. The cleavage rate (73%) of small-sized oocytes with 5 h pre-IVM was higher than those with 0 and 10 h pre-IVM (61 and 62%, respectively). The blastocyst rate (16%) of embryos derived from small-sized oocytes with 5 h pre-IVM was higher than those with 0 and 10 h pre-IVM (9 and 8%, respectively)...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Takashi Fujii, Hiroki Hirayama, Shigeo Fukuda, Soichi Kageyama, Akira Naito, Hitomi Yoshino, Satoru Moriyasu, Takashi Yamazaki, Kozo Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Hayakawa, Kenichi Takahashi, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Ken Sawai
Artificial insemination with cryopreserved semen is a well-developed technique commonly used for controlled reproduction in cattle. However, despite current technical advances, cryopreservation continues to damage bull spermatozoa, resulting in a loss of approximately 30 to 50% of viable spermatozoa post thawing. To further improve the efficiency of cryopreservation of bull spermatozoa, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the cryobiological properties that affect cryoinjuries during cryopreservation process of bull spermatozoa is required...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Saffet Ozturk, Fatma Uysal
Spermatogenesis is briefly defined as the production of mature spermatozoa from spermatogonial stem cells at the end of a strictly regulated process. It is well known that, to a large extent, transcriptional activity ceases at mid-spermiogenesis. Several mRNAs transcribed during early stages of spermatogenesis are stored as ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). During the later stages, translational control of these mRNAs is mainly carried out in a time dependent-manner by poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) in cooperation with other RNA-binding proteins and translation-related factors...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
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