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Journal of Reproduction and Development

Kohta Kikuchi, Keisuke Sasaki, Hiroki Akizawa, Hayato Tsukahara, Hanako Bai, Masashi Takahashi, Yasuo Nambo, Hiroshi Hata, Manabu Kawahara
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is responsible for a broad range of physiological processes during fetal development and adulthood, but genomic analyses of IGF2 containing the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) in equines have been limited. In this study, we characterized the IGF2 mRNA containing the UTRs, and determined its expression pattern in the fetal tissues of horses. The complete equine IGF2 mRNA sequence harboring another exon approximately 2.8 kb upstream from the canonical transcription start site was identified as a new transcript variant...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Yuko Toishi, Nobuo Tsunoda, Shun-Ichi Nagata, Rikio Kirisawa, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe, Yojiro Yanagawa, Seiji Katagiri, Kazuyoshi Taya
Testosterone (T) concentration is a useful indicator of reproductive function in male animals. However, T concentration is not usually measured in veterinary clinics, partly due to the unavailability of reliable and rapid assays for animal samples. In this study, a rapid chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay system (CLEIA system) that was developed for the measurement of T concentration in humans use was validated for stallion blood samples. First, serum T concentrations were measured using the CLEIA system and compared with those measured by a fluoroimmunoassay that has been validated for use in stallions...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Hiroaki Okamura, Takashi Yamamura, Yoshihiro Wakabayashi
A population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin, and therefore they are referred to as KNDy neurons. It has been suggested that KNDy neurons participate in several brain functions, including the control of reproduction. The present study aimed to advance our understanding of the anatomy of the KNDy neural system. We first produced an antiserum against goat kisspeptin. After confirming its specificity, the antiserum was used to histochemically detect kisspeptin-positive signals...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Shin-Ichi Kashiwabara, Satsuki Tsuruta, Yutaro Yamaoka, Kanako Oyama, Chieko Iwazaki, Tadashi Baba
Mutant mice lacking a testis-specific cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase, PAPOLB/TPAP, exhibit spermiogenesis arrest and male infertility. However, the mechanism by which PAPOLB regulates spermiogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the relationships between PAPOLB and other spermiogenesis regulators present in the chromatoid body (CB). The loss of PAPOLB had no impact either on the abundance of CB components such as PIWIL1, TDRD6, YBX2, and piRNAs, or on retrotransposon expression. In addition, localization of CB proteins and CB architecture were both normal in PAPOLB-null mice...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Iulian Ibănescu, Claus Leiding, Heinrich Bollwein
This study aimed to identify motile sperm subpopulations in extended boar semen and to observe the presumptive seasonal variation in their distribution. Data from 4837 boar ejaculates collected over a two-year period were analyzed in terms of kinematic parameters by Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA). Individual sperm data were used to determine subgroups of motile sperm within the ejaculates using cluster analysis. Four motile sperm subpopulations (SP) were identified, with distinct movement patterns: SP1 sperm with high velocity and high linearity; SP2 sperm with high velocity but low linearity; SP3 sperm with low velocity but high linearity; and SP4 sperm with low velocity and low linearity...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Alexander A Tokmakov, Ken-Ichi Sato, Vasily E Stefanov
Spawned unfertilized eggs have been found to die by apoptosis in several species with external fertilization. However, there is no necessity for the externally laid eggs to degrade via this process, as apoptosis evolved as a mechanism to reduce the damaging effects of individual cell death on the whole organism. The recent observation of egg degradation in the genital tracts of some oviparous species provides a clue as to the physiological relevance of egg apoptosis in these animals. We hypothesize that egg apoptosis accompanies ovulation in species with external fertilization as a normal process to eliminate mature eggs retained in the genital tract after ovulation...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Ihsan Ali, Hai Xing Liu, Li Zhong-Shu, Ma Dong-Xue, Lijie Xu, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Obaid Ullah, Fang Nan-Zhu
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a dysfunction in protein-folding capacity, is involved in many pathological and physiological responses, including embryonic development. This study aims to determine the developmental competence, apoptosis, and stress-induced gene expression in mouse preimplantation embryos grown in an in vitro culture medium supplemented with different concentrations of the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM) and the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Treatment of zygotes with 0.5 µg/ml TM significantly decreased (P < 0...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Toshiaki Sumiyoshi, Natumi Endo, Tomomi Tanaka, Hideo Kamomae
Relaxation of the intravaginal part of the uterus is obvious around 6 to 18 h before ovulation, and this is considered the optimal time for artificial insemination (AI), as demonstrated in recent studies. Estrous signs have been suggested as useful criteria for determining the optimal time for AI. Therefore, this study evaluated the usefulness of estrous signs, particularly the relaxation of the intravaginal part of the uterus, as criteria for determining the optimal time for AI. A Total of 100 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows kept in tie-stall barns were investigated...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Hiromi Kusaka, Hiroshi Miura, Motohiro Kikuchi, Minoru Sakaguchi
After parturition, the ovary ipsilateral to the side of previous pregnancy exhibits lower functional activity than that exhibited by the contralateral ovary. The local inhibitory effects of the corpus luteum of the previous pregnancy, and/or the presence of a previous gravid uterine horn, may induce the ipsilateral suppression of folliculogenesis. We examined the influence of the side of previous pregnancy on ovulation and folliculogenesis, until completion of the third postpartum ovulation. The ovaries of 30 Holstein cows were scanned by ultrasonography, through the three postpartum ovulation sequences...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Toshimichi Ishii, Kensuke Tomita, Hideo Sakakibara, Satoshi Ohkura
This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of multi-layered cumulus cells (MCCs) during vitrification and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of mature bovine oocytes and embryogenesis after IVF. The rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation were higher in vitrified and fertilized oocytes with MCCs than in denuded oocytes (P < 0.05), but were comparable to the rates in fresh oocytes with MCCs or without (denuded). When the MCC-enclosed oocytes were denuded before IVF, blastocyst formation rate reduced compared with that in vitrified oocytes with MCCs (P < 0...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Yutaka Hashiyada
Production of sires with high breeding potential is indispensable for prompt and reliable breeding using their semen in the cattle industry. Currently, in Japan, we aim to further the production of Japanese black sires via a new breeding system that uses genetically homologous monozygotic twins so that better growth performance and carcass traits can be translated to the increased production of beef with higher economic value. Several studies have reported that monozygotic twins are produced by embryo bisection...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Minami W Okuyama, Tomochika Sugiura, Masaharu Moriyoshi, Kazuto Yamashita, Jun Tamura, Seiji Katagiri
For examining pig ovaries, which have complex structures, laparoscopy is a useful technique, but requires general anesthesia; therefore, it cannot be performed repeatedly within a short period of time. We report a transvaginal endoscopy-based technique for conducting ovarian examinations without general anesthesia. Sows were sedated in pig stalls. Using a colonoscope, the vaginal wall was punctured with a trocar. To avoid the trocar being caught in the broad ligament of the uterus or the connective tissue around the vagina, the trocar was inserted close to the external uterine os and between the 2:00 and 3:00 or the 9:00 and 10:00 positions (in a clockwise direction)...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Akihiko Ohta, Yuichiro Tsunoda, Yoshihiko Tamura, Kayoko Iino, Naoto Nishimura, Hiroto Nishihara, Haruka Takanashi, Saishu Yoshida, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
The gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), are important hormones in vertebrate reproduction. The isolation of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland is sub-optimal, as the cross-contamination of one hormone with another is common and often results in the variation in the measured activity of LH and FSH. The production of recombinant hormones is, therefore, a viable approach to solve this problem. This study aimed to express recombinant rat, mouse, and mastomys FSH and LH in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Takayuki Yamochi, Shu Hashimoto, Masaya Yamanaka, Yoshiharu Nakaoka, Yoshiharu Morimoto
To determine the optimum culture duration for porcine growing oocytes (GOs) to attain maturation competence, we examined the meiotic competence, chromatin configuration, and fertilization ability of porcine oocytes obtained from early antral follicles and cultured for 10-16 days. The survival rate of oocytes after 10 days of culture (62.8%) was similar to that of oocytes after 12 days of culture (55%) and significantly higher than that of oocytes cultured for 14 and 16 days (52.9% and 24.3%, respectively). No significant difference was observed in the diameter of ooplasm from oocytes cultured for different durations (117...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Eunhye Kim, Seon-Ung Hwang, Junchul David Yoon, Eui-Bae Jeung, Eunsong Lee, Dae Young Kim, Sang-Hwan Hyun
Compared with the in vivo environment, porcine in vitro embryo-culture systems are suboptimal, as they induce oxidative stress via the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). High ROS levels during early embryonic development cause negative effects, such as apoptosis. In this study, we examined the effects of the antioxidant carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) during in vitro culture (IVC) on embryonic development in porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Zygotes were treated with different concentrations of Ge-132 (0, 100, 200, and 400 μg/ml)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Po-Liang Cheng, Hui-Ru Wu, Cheng-Yan Li, Chih-Feng Chen, Hsu-Chen Cheng
Previous studies have shown that grafted neonatal chicken testicular tissue can develop and produce functional sperm; however, it was unclear whether regenerative processes or proportional growth caused the re-appearance of spermatogenic tissue. We dissociated testicular tissues, performed subcutaneous auto-transplantation of the re-aggregated cells to castrated cockerels, and monitored the post-surgery development of these transplanted aggregates. We found that these transplanted cell aggregates experienced compensatory growth in the form of a 300-fold increase in size, rather than the 30-fold increase observed in normal testis development...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Jeong Hyo Lee, Jeong-Woong Park, Si Won Kim, Joonghoon Park, Tae Sub Park
In mammals, germ cells originate outside of the developing gonads and follow a unique migration pattern through the embryonic tissue toward the genital ridges. Many studies have attempted to identify critical receptors and factors involved in germ cell migration. However, relatively few reports exist on germ cell receptors and chemokines that are involved in germ cell migration in avian species. In the present study, we investigated the specific migratory function of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) in chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Chao Wang, Ruiming Zhang, Le Zhou, Jintian He, Qiang Huang, Farman A Siyal, Lili Zhang, Xiang Zhong, Tian Wang
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) impairs fetal intestinal development, and is associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanism underlying this intestinal injury is largely unknown. We aimed to investigate this mechanism through analysis of intestinal autophagy and related signaling pathways in a rat model of IUGR. Normal weight (NW) and IUGR fetuses were obtained from primiparous rats via ad libitum food intake and 50% food restriction, respectively. Maternal serum parameters, fetal body weight, organ weights, and fetal blood glucose were determined...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Xiaoxia Ren, Xiaoli Chen, Zhenling Wang, Dong Wang
Transcriptional activity is repressed due to the packaging of sperm chromatins during spermiogenesis. The detection of numerous transcripts in sperm, however, raises the question whether transcriptional events exist in sperm, which has been the central focus of the recent studies. To summarize the transcriptional activity during spermiogenesis and in sperm, we reviewed the documents on transcript differences during spermiogenesis, in sperm with differential motility, before and after capacitation and cryopreservation...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Saengtawan Arayatham, Narong Tiptanavattana, Theerawat Tharasanit
Oocyte cryopreservation is the technique of choice for the long-term storage of female gametes. However, it induces an irreversible loss of oocyte viability and function. We examined the effects of vitrification and a Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) inhibitor (ROCKi) on the meiotic and developmental competence of feline oocytes. We examined the expression of LIM kinase (LIMK) 1 and 2, with and without ROCKi treatment. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in vitro with 0, 10, 20, and 40 µM ROCKi...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
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