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Microbiological Research

Yusuf Akhter, Shweta Thakur
Protein turnover and recycling is a prerequisite in all living organisms to maintain normal cellular physiology. Many bacteria are proteasome deficient but they possess typical protease enzymes for carrying out protein turnover. However, several groups of actinobacteria such as mycobacteria harbor both proteasome and proteases. In these bacteria, for cellular protein turnover the target proteins undergo post-translational modification referred as pupylation in which a small protein Pup (prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein) is tagged to the specific lysine residues of the target proteins and after that those target proteins undergo proteasomal degradation...
November 2017: Microbiological Research
Daniela Krajčíková, Vladimír Forgáč, Adam Szabo, Imrich Barák
Bacillus subtilis spores, representatives of an exceptionally resistant dormant cell type, are encircled by a thick proteinaceous layer called the spore coat. More than 80 proteins assemble into four distinct coat layers: a basement layer, an inner coat, an outer coat and a crust. As the spore develops inside the mother cell, spore coat proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm are gradually deposited onto the prespore surface. A small set of morphogenetic proteins necessary for spore coat morphogenesis are thought to form a scaffold to which the rest of the coat proteins are attached...
November 2017: Microbiological Research
Chinnannan Karthik, Namasivayam Elangovan, Thamilarasan Senthil Kumar, Subramani Govindharaju, Selvaraj Barathi, Mohammad Oves, Padikasan Indra Arulselvi
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can increase the host plant tolerance to cope up with heavy metal induced stress, which can be improve plant growth. Thus, the present study was designed to isolate Cr(VI) tolerant PGPR strain and evaluate its plant growth promoting (PGP) properties under Cr(VI) stress. Rhizobacterial strain AR6 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and showed 99% homology with Cellulosimicrobium funkei (KM032184) in BLASTn analysis. Strain AR6 was specifically selected due to its high Cr(VI) tolerance (1200μg/ml) and substantial production of PGP substances...
November 2017: Microbiological Research
Shobit Thapa, Radha Prasanna, Kunal Ranjan, Kulandaivelu Velmourougane, Balasubramanian Ramakrishnan
The abundance of phyllosphere bacterial communities of seven genotypes of rice ADT- 38, ADT-43, CR-1009, PB-1, PS-5, P-44, and PB-1509 was investigated, in relation to nutrient dynamics of rhizosphere and leaves. P-44 genotype recorded highest pigment accumulation, while genotypes CR-1009 and P-44 exhibited most number of different bacterial morphotypes, Colony forming units in two media (Nutrient agar and R2A) varied significantly and ranged from 10(6)-10(7) per g plant tissues. Among the selected 60 distinct morphotypes, IAA and siderophore producers were the dominant functional types...
November 2017: Microbiological Research
Wei Wang, Zixin Peng, Zulqarnain Baloch, Yujie Hu, Jin Xu, Wenhui Zhang, Séamus Fanning, Fengqin Li
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to genetically characterize the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of Salmonella enterica serotype Indiana C629 isolated from a chicken carcass in China in 2014. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility against a panel of 23 antimicrobial agents was carried out on Salmonella enterica serotype Indiana C629 and assessed according to CLSI standards. Whole-genome sequencing of this isolate was conducted to obtain the complete genome of S...
November 2017: Microbiological Research
Dayana P Meneses, Eduardo J Gudiña, Fabiano Fernandes, Luciana R B Gonçalves, Lígia R Rodrigues, Sueli Rodrigues
In this study, the biosurfactant production by an Aureobasidium thailandense LB01 was reported for the first time. Different agro-industrial by-products (corn steep liquor, sugarcane molasses, and olive oil mill wastewater) were evaluated as alternative low-cost substrates. The composition of the culture medium was optimized through response surface methodology. The highest biosurfactant production (139±16mg/L) was achieved using a culture medium containing yeast extract (2g/L); olive oil mill wastewater (1...
November 2017: Microbiological Research
Almudena Aranda-Martinez, Miguel Ángel Naranjo Ortiz, Isabel Sofía Abihssira García, Ernesto A Zavala-Gonzalez, Luis Vicente Lopez-Llorca
Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose and virtually unexplored as raw material for bioethanol production. In this paper, we investigate chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin which is the main component of shellfish waste, as substrate for bioethanol production by fungi. Fungal parasites of invertebrates such as the nematophagous Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc) or the entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana (Bb) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma) are biocontrol agents of plant parasitic nematodes (eg...
November 2017: Microbiological Research
Huizhong Liu, Yujie Xiao, Hailing Nie, Qiaoyun Huang, Wenli Chen
The global regulatory molecule (p)ppGpp is synthesized under limited nutrition conditions and involves in many cellular processes in bacteria. (p)ppGpp has been reported to affect biofilm formation in several bacterial species. Here, we found that deletion of (p)ppGpp synthase genes of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 led to enhanced biofilm formation in polystyrene microtitre plates. Besides, the pellicle of this mutant formed at the air-liquid interface lost the robust structure and became frail. The biofilm formation and its structure are mainly determined by exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and adhesins...
November 2017: Microbiological Research
Marta de Ramón-Carbonell, Paloma Sánchez-Torres
A putative sucrose transporter PdSUT1 included in the same clade that Sut1p from Schizosaccharomyces pombe was identified in Penicillium digitatum, the major citrus postharvest pathogen. PdSUT1 gene was characterized using target gene disruption and gene overexpression. The ΔPdSUT1 mutants generated by gene elimination showed reduction in fungal virulence during citrus fruit infection assayed in mature fruit at 20°C. However, the overexpression mutants did not increased disease severity neither in the mutants coming from a high virulent nor from a low virulent P...
October 2017: Microbiological Research
Paola Fincheira, Leonardo Parra, Ana Mutis, Maribel Parada, Andrés Quiroz
Chemical products are applied during horticulture to increase food production, but the environmental problems resulting from these applications have led to a search for more sustainable products. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) demonstrating plant growth promoter (PGP) activity released by bacterial species have emerged as alternatives, but their effects on Lactuca sativa growth are unknown. In this study, VOCs released by Bacillus sp. BCT9 cultures grown in different media (Methyl Red & Voges Proskauer, Murashige & Skoog and nutrient media) at concentrations of 0...
October 2017: Microbiological Research
Zheng Wu, Wenli Gao, Shaotong Zhou, Zhaolin Wen, Xianpu Ni, Huanzhang Xia
Gentamicin B and gentamicin C1a are the direct precursor for Isepamicin and Etimicin synthesis, respectively. Although producing strains have been improved for many years, both gentamicin B titer and gentamicin C1a titer in the fermentation are still low. Because all gentamicin components are biosynthesized using UDP-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and UDP-xylose as precursors, we tried to explore strategies for development of strains capable of directing greater fluxes of these precursors into production of gentamicins...
October 2017: Microbiological Research
Xi Yu, Heng Liu, Xueliang Niu, Oren Akhberdi, Dongsheng Wei, Dan Wang, Xudong Zhu
G-protein-mediated signaling pathways regulate fungal morphogenesis, development and secondary metabolism. In this study, we report a gene, pgα1, that putatively encodes the α-subunit of a group I G protein in Pestalotiopsis microspora NK17, which is known to produce various secondary metabolites, including the antitumor drug taxol and pestalotiollide B (PB). Mutants of pgα1 showed retarded vegetative growth, aging of the mycelium, premature conidiation, deformed conidia, significantly increased melanin production, and a sharp decrease in PB production...
October 2017: Microbiological Research
Lei Yan, Huiyun Da, Shuang Zhang, Viviana Morillo López, Weidong Wang
Bacterial magnetosome, synthetized by magnetosome-producing microorganisms including magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) and some non-magnetotactic bacteria (Non-MTB), is a new type of material comprising magnetic nanocrystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer. Because of the special properties such as single magnetic domain, excellent biocompatibility and surface modification, bacterial magnetosome has become an increasingly attractive for researchers in biology, medicine, paleomagnetism, geology and environmental science...
October 2017: Microbiological Research
Verónica Urrialde, Begoña Alburquerque, José Pedro Guirao-Abad, Jesús Pla, Juan Carlos Argüelles, Rebeca Alonso-Monge
Arsenic is a toxic metalloid widespread in nature. Recently, it has been demonstrated a main role of the transcription factor Pho4 in the acquisition of tolerance to arsenic-derived compounds, arsenite and arsenate in Candida albicans. Here, the effect of these compounds on this pathogenic yeast has been analyzed. In wild type cells, both arsenite and arsenate induced a marked increase in the endogenous production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), together with the accumulation of intracellular trehalose and the activation of catalase, suggesting their role as generators of oxidative stress in this yeast...
October 2017: Microbiological Research
Yi-Yang Yu, Chun-Hao Jiang, Chao Wang, Liu-Jun Chen, Hong-Yang Li, Quan Xu, Jian-Hua Guo
Rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühnis increasingly threatening rice production in China. DNA fingerprints of 220 R. solani strains isolated in 11 provinces of China were established by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. Cluster analysis of strains isolated from the same region showed high similarity, indicating that the genetic diversity of R. solani strains is significantly related to geographical origin. We assessed potential bio-control abilities of bio-control agents (BCAs) by values according to inhibition zones against R...
October 2017: Microbiological Research
Yosra I Nagy, Manal M M Hussein, Yasser M Ragab, Ahmed S Attia
Moraxella catarrhalis is becoming an important human respiratory tract pathogen affecting significant proportions from the population. However, still little is known about its physiology and molecular regulation. To this end, the CydDC, which is a heterodimeric ATP binding cassette transporter that has been shown to contribute to the maintenance of the redox homeostasis across the periplasm in other Gram-negative bacteria, is studied here. Amino acids multiple sequence alignments indicated that M. catarrhalis CydC is different from the CydC proteins of the bacterial species in which this system has been previously studied...
September 2017: Microbiological Research
Divya Bandekar, Om Prakash Chouhan, Swati Mohapatra, Mousumi Hazra, Saugata Hazra, Sumit Biswas
The hallmark of the lifecycle of Vibrio cholerae is its ability to switch between two lifestyles - the sessile, non-pathogenic form and the motile, infectious form in human hosts. One of these changes is in the formation of surface biofilms, when in sessile aquatic habitats. The cell-cell interactions within a V. cholerae biofilm are stabilized by the production of an exopolysachharide (EPS) matrix, which in turn is regulated by the ubiquitous secondary messenger, cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), synthesized by proteins containing GGD(/E)EF domains in all prokaryotic systems...
September 2017: Microbiological Research
Muhammad Zahid Mumtaz, Maqshoof Ahmad, Moazzam Jamil, Tanveer Hussain
Bioaugmentation of Zn solubilizing rhizobacteria could be a sustainable intervention to increase bioavailability of Zn in soil which can be helpful in mitigation of yield loss and malnutrition of zinc. In present study, a number of pure rhizobacterial colonies were isolated from maize rhizosphere and screened for their ability to solubilize zinc oxide. These isolates were screened on the basis of zinc and phosphate solubilization, IAA production, protease production, catalase activity and starch hydrolysis...
September 2017: Microbiological Research
Bhagya Iyer, Mahendrapal Singh Rajput, Shalini Rajkumar
Diverse nitrogen fixing bacteria harbouring chick pea rhizosphere and root nodules were tested for multiple plant growth promoting traits like tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, production of ammonia, indole 3-acetic acid, chitinase, phytase and alkaline phosphatase. Isolates belonged to diverse genus like Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Ensifer, Klebsiella, etc. Most isolates solubilized TCP and RP along with the lowering of media pH, indicating acidification to be the chief mechanism behind this solubilization...
September 2017: Microbiological Research
Jiangbing Xu, Zhongjun Jia, Xiangui Lin, Youzhi Feng
Paddy methane (CH4) production is biologically dominated by methanogenic archaea that metabolize a variety of organic and/or inorganic carbon sources. Though formate is easily dissimilated into H2/CO2, formate-metabolizing methanogenic archaea are distinct from CO2-utilizing methanogen taxa. The identity of formate-metabolizing methanogenic archaea in paddy soil remains elusive. In this investigation, molecular approaches based on stable isotope probing (SIP) technique were conducted to identify the formate-metabolizing methanogenic archaea in paddy soil...
September 2017: Microbiological Research
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