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Microbiological Research

Hala Almshawit, Ian Macreadie
The antifungal effect of thymoquinone, a component of black seed essential oil, has been studied on different types of fungi. Its mechanism of action as an antifungal has not been described yet. This study demonstrates the fungicidal effect of thymoquinone on different Candida species with particular emphasis on C. glabrata planktonic cells and biofilms. Since cell death was induced via the generation of oxidative stress as evidenced by the abrogation of thymoquinone toxicity in cells incubated with antioxidants, a part of thymoquinone's mechanism of action includes a direct involvement as a pro-oxidant...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Elnaz Mehdizadeh Aghdam, Malte Sinn, Vahideh Tarhriz, Abolfazl Barzegar, Jörg S Hartig, Mohammad Saeid Hejazi
Riboswitches are located in non-coding areas of mRNAs and act as sensors of cellular small molecules, regulating gene expression in response to ligand binding. The TPP riboswitch is the most widespread riboswitch occurring in all three domains of life. However, it has been rarely characterized in environmental bacteria other than Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In this study, TPP riboswitches located in the 5' UTR of thiC operon from Alishewanella tabrizica and Alishewanella aestuarii were identified and characterized...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Avirup Dutta, Atul Katarkar, Keya Chaudhuri
Cholera, an acute infection of the small intestine, is caused by Vibrio cholerae. The present study identified a hypothetical protein in V. cholerae O395, which was predicted to be acquired through horizontal gene transfer the origin of which was found to be from a phage. Its expression was further confirmed by RT-PCR. Homology based 3D model of the hypothetical protein indicated DksA like homologue. Protein binding site of 3D-model revealed a deep cleft which may influence the dimer formation and interaction with ds-DNA molecule...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Shuangquan Yan, Mengmeng Xu, Rui Wang, Qiming Li, Zhaoxiao Yu, Jianping Xie
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis-one of the most devastating infectious diseases, is a successful intracellular pathogen capable of surviving diverse stresses. Unveiling the molecular mechanisms governing this superior adaptation will inspire better control measures against tuberculosis. To define the role of Rv2788, a manganese-dependent transcriptional repressor, M.smegmatis was used as the host strain for heterologous expression Rv2788. Rv2788 can significantly change the colony morphology and fatty acids and permeability of cell wall, enhance the growth of the recombinants and resistance to diverse stresses, such as hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), diamide exposure, surface stress, acidic condition, multiple antibiotics treatment including chloramphenicol, vancomycin and amikacin...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Andrea K Borsodi, Attila Szabó, Gergely Krett, Tamás Felföldi, András Specziár, Gergely Boros
Studying the microbiota in the alimentary tract of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) gained special interest recently, as these types of investigations on non-native fish species may lead to a better understanding of their ecological role and feeding habits in an invaded habitat. For microbiological examinations, bigheaded carp gut contents and water column samples from Lake Balaton (Hungary) were collected from spring to autumn in 2013. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were performed to reveal the composition...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Bibha Dahal, Gitanjali NandaKafle, Lora Perkins, Volker S Brözel
Biological Nitrogen Fixation is critical for ecosystem productivity. Select members of Bacteria and Archaea express a nitrogenase enzyme complex that reduces atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Several nitrogen fixing bacteria form symbiotic associations with plants, but free-living diazotrophs also contribute a substantial amount of nitrogen to ecosystems. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize free-living diazotrophs in arid lands of South Dakota Badlands. Samples were obtained from sod tables and the surrounding base in spring and fall...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Tanka P Prasai, Kerry B Walsh, Surya P Bhattarai, David J Midmore, Thi T H Van, Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
According to the World Health Organisation, antibiotics are rapidly losing potency in every country of the world. Poultry are currently perceived as a major source of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need for new and natural ways to control pathogens in poultry and humans alike. Porous, cation rich, aluminosilicate minerals, zeolites can be used as a feed additive in poultry rations, demonstrating multiple productivity benefits. Next generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA marker gene was used to phylogenetically characterize the fecal microbiota and thus investigate the ability and dose dependency of zeolite in terms of anti-pathogenic effects...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Xu Yang, En Huang, Ahmed E Yousef
Brevibacillin is a newly-discovered antimicrobial lipopeptide produced by Brevibacillus laterosporus OSY-I1. It is active against Gram-positive bacteria, including antibiotic resistant strains. This research was initiated to investigate the mechanism of action of brevibacillin against an indicator strain, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. Results of the study proved that brevibacillin binds to lipoteichoic acid (LTA) on cell wall before interacting with cell membrane. Additionally, brevibacillin disrupts S. aureus cytoplasmic membrane by increasing its permeability, depolarization and potassium leakage...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Filippo Fratini, Simone Mancini, Barbara Turchi, Elisabetta Friscia, Luisa Pistelli, Giulia Giusti, Domenico Cerri
Origanum vulgare (oregano) and Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) were traditionally employed as natural remedies for infected wounds and skin injuries where Staphylococcus aureus is mainly involved. The first aim of this study was to investigate oregano and manuka essential oils (EOs) chemical compositions and evaluate their antibacterial activity (MIC, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) against fourteen S. aureus wild strains. The second aim was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of oregano and manuka EOs mixed in different combination (FIC, Fractional Inhibitory Concentration) with an improved chequerboard technique...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Guillermo A Maroniche, Julia E García, Florencia Salcedo, Cecilia M Creus
Since their discovery, plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria from the genus Azospirillum have been subjected to intensive research due to their biotechnological potential as crop inoculants. Phylogenetic analysis of Azospirillum spp. is carried out by 16S rRNA sequencing almost exclusively, but inconsistencies and low confidence often arise when working with close species. In this work, it was observed that these difficulties might be explained by a high number of rRNA operons with considerable inter-genic variability within Azospirillum genomes...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Ramy K Aziz, Jonathan M Monk, Kathleen A Andrews, Jenny Nhan, Valerie L Khaw, Hesper Wong, Bernhard O Palsson, Pep Charusanti
Most Escherichia coli strains are naturally unable to grow on 1,2-propanediol (PDO) as a sole carbon source. Recently, however, a K-12 descendent E. coli strain was evolved to grow on 1,2-PDO, and it was hypothesized that this evolved ability was dependent on the aldehyde dehydrogenase, AldA, which is highly conserved among members of the family Enterobacteriacea. To test this hypothesis, we first performed computational model simulation, which confirmed the essentiality of the aldA gene for 1,2-PDO utilization by the evolved PDO-degrading E...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Juliana P Gamalier, Thiago P Silva, Victor Zarantonello, Felipe F Dias, Rossana C N Melo
Secretion of membrane vesicles is an important biological process of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This process has been characterized in pathogenic bacteria, but is less clear in non-pathogenic bacteria from aquatic ecosystems. Here, we investigated, for the first time, the process of formation of outer membranes vesicles (OMVs), nanoscale vesicles extruded from the outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria, in cultures of freshwater bacteria after exposure or not to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as an environmental stressor...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Mariela R Woelke, Natalia S Paulucci, Armentano Selva, Hermes Garban, Mirta García de Lema
Desaturases, key enzymes in the metabolism of fatty acids, regulate the physical and biochemical properties of membranes. They adjust the composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in response to changes in the environmental. We demonstrated the existence of Δ9 desaturase activity in epimastigotes of the Trypanosoma cruzi Tulahuen strain. In the present study, showed that this enzyme has an approximate molecular mass of 50kDa and a pI value of approximately 9. In order to characterize the Δ9 desaturase of Trypanosoma cruzi, (TcΔ9DES) we have cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Tomaž Rijavec, Aleš Lapanje
HCN producing bacteria have previously been isolated from alpine mineral soil and their ecophysiology was presumed to be associated with mineral weathering. Nevertheless, the high ecological patchiness of the alpine environment calls for an extensive and detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of HCN producing bacterial populations and their associated weathering traits. Our results of such an analysis showed that primarily the rhizosphere of pioneer plants was rich in HPPs, harbouring the most potent HCN producers...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Yong Tan, Yinshan Cui, Haoyu Li, Anxiu Kuang, Xiaoran Li, Yunlin Wei, Xiuling Ji
Rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities are considered critically important for plant health and soil fertility. In response to continuous cropping, Panax notoginseng becomes vulnerable to attack by fungal pathogens. In the present study, culture-independent Illumina MiSeq was used to investigate the rhizospheric and root endophytic fungi in response to continuous Panax notoginseng cropping practices. The results demonstrated that fungal diversity is increased inside the roots and in rhizospheric. Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were the dominant phyla detected during the continuous cropping of Panax notoginseng...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Shanmugasundaram Senthil Balan, C Ganesh Kumar, Singaram Jayalakshmi
Biosurfactants are microbial-derived amphiphilic molecules having hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties produced by bacteria, fungi, yeasts and algae and are extracellular or cell wall-associated compounds. In an ongoing survey for bioactive microbial metabolites from microbes isolated from diverse ecological niches, a new lipopeptide biosurfactant was identified from a marine bacterium; Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain SBP-11, which was isolated from a marine diversity hotspot, Gulf of Mannar, India...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Sunita Gaind
The present investigation reveals the solubilization efficiency of tri-calcium phosphate (TCP), Udaipur rock phosphate (URP), aluminium phosphate (AP) and ferric phosphate (FP) by Aspergillus niger (ITCC 6719) and Trichoderma harzianum (ITCC 6721) as function of carbon concentrations. Increasing glucose concentration from 1 to 7% in the growth medium, though improved the phosphorus (P) solubilization significantly but each fungal strain preferred different optimum carbon concentrations for mediating solubilization of different P sources...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
Vytautas Melvydas, Ramune Staneviciene, Algima Balynaite, Jurate Vaiciuniene, Rasa Garjonyte
Formation of self-organized regular patterns (Liesegang patterns) due to reaction-diffusion process in the gel medium and related to vital activity of yeasts is presented. Two different yeast strains (Candida pulcherrima and non-Candida pulcherrima) possess a common characteristic feature to secrete a precursor which in the presence of iron(III) ions forms an insoluble red pigment. During yeast cultivation onto solid agar media, periodic spontaneous distinctly spaced red-colored patterns around the yeasts can are formed if the concentration of elemental iron in the growth media is in the range 4-12mg/L...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
Vivek Singh, Ram Sanmukh Upadhyay, Birinchi Kumar Sarma, Harikesh Bahadur Singh
In the present study we bioprimed seeds of six vegetable crops (tomato, brinjal, chilli, okra, ridge gourd and guar) with different spore doses of Trichoderma asperellum BHUT8 ranging from 10(2) to 10(8) spores ml(-1) and the effect of biopriming was seen on seed germination and development. The most effective spore dose for enhancement in seed germination and radicle length was found to be 10(3) spores ml(-1) in tomato and ridge gourd, 10(4) spores ml(-1) in brinjal and okra while 10(6) spores ml(-1) in chilli and guar...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
Ajit Kumar Passari, Vineet Kumar Mishra, Vincent Vineeth Leo, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Bhim Pratap Singh
In this study, culturable endophytic bacterial isolates obtained from an ethnomedicinal plant Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp., were assessed for their diversity, in vitro screening for their plant growth promoting (PGP) activities and to use them as inoculant for in vivo PGP activities with biocontrol potential. Totally, 73 isolates were recovered from different tissues of C. colebrookianum were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetically analyzed by using BOX-PCR fingerprinting. Out of 73 isolates, 52 exhibited varying extents of antagonistic potential were selected for screening for various PGP traits...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
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