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Cell Death and Differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524859/mesenchymal-stem-cells-sense-mitochondria-released-from-damaged-cells-as-danger-signals-to-activate-their-rescue-properties
#1
Meriem Mahrouf-Yorgov, Lionel Augeul, Claire Crola Da Silva, Maud Jourdan, Muriel Rigolet, Sylvie Manin, René Ferrera, Michel Ovize, Adeline Henry, Aurélie Guguin, Jean-Paul Meningaud, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti, Anne-Marie Rodriguez
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect tissues against cell death induced by ischemia/reperfusion insults. This therapeutic effect seems to be controlled by physiological cues released by the local microenvironment following injury. Recent lines of evidence indicate that MSC can communicate with their microenvironment through bidirectional exchanges of mitochondria. In particular, in vitro and in vivo studies report that MSCs rescue injured cells through delivery of their own mitochondria. However, the role of mitochondria conveyed from somatic cells to MSC remains unknown...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524858/caspase-dependent-non-apoptotic-processes-in-development
#2
REVIEW
Yu-Ichiro Nakajima, Erina Kuranaga
Caspases are at the core of executing apoptosis by orchestrating cellular destruction with proteolytic cascades. Caspase-mediated proteolysis also controls diverse nonlethal cellular activities such as proliferation, differentiation, cell fate decision, and cytoskeletal reorganization. During the last decade or so, genetic studies of Drosophila have contributed to our understanding of the in vivo mechanism of the non-apoptotic cellular responses in developmental contexts. Furthermore, recent studies using C...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524857/a-defined-metabolic-state-in-pre-b-cells-governs-b-cell-development-and-is-counterbalanced-by-swiprosin-2-efhd1
#3
Merle Stein, Sebastian Dütting, Dimitrios Mougiakakos, Michael Bösl, Kristin Fritsch, Dorothea Reimer, Sophia Urbanczyk, Tobit Steinmetz, Wolfgang Schuh, Aline Bozec, Thomas H Winkler, Hans-Martin Jäck, Dirk Mielenz
B-cell development in the bone marrow comprises proliferative and resting phases in different niches. We asked whether B-cell metabolism relates to these changes. Compared to pro B and small pre B cells, large pre B cells revealed the highest glucose uptake and ROS but not mitochondrial mass, whereas small pre B cells exhibited the lowest mitochondrial membrane potential. Small pre B cells from Rag1(-/-);33.C9 μ heavy chain knock-in mice revealed decreased glycolysis (ECAR) and mitochondrial spare capacity compared to pro B cells from Rag1(-/-) mice...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524856/histone-variant-h3-3-orchestrates-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-in-the-developing-brain
#4
Wenlong Xia, Jianwei Jiao
During the brain development, the process of neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation and differentiation is precisely regulated. The deficiency in the embryonic brain development will cause serious developmental disorders. Epigenetic modifications play critical roles in controlling proliferation and differentiation in different types of stem cells. Histone variants, as one of epigenetic regulators, have been reported to be associated with many bioprocesses. Among different variants, H3.3 is one of the important epigenetic regulators, but its role in embryonic NSCs remains unclear...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524855/viral-hijacking-of-host-caspases-an-emerging-category-of-pathogen-host-interactions
#5
REVIEW
Patrick F Connolly, Howard O Fearnhead
Viruses co-evolve with their hosts, and many viruses have developed mechanisms to suppress or modify the host cell apoptotic response for their own benefit. Recently, evidence has emerged for the opposite strategy. Some viruses have developed the ability to co-opt apoptotic caspase activity to facilitate their own proliferation. In these strategies, viral proteins are cleaved by host caspases to create cleavage products with novel activities which facilitate viral replication. This represents a novel and interesting class of viral-host interactions, and also represents a new group of non-apoptotic roles for caspases...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524854/a-smad3-pten-regulatory-loop-controls-proliferation-and-apoptotic-responses-to-tgf-%C3%AE-in-mouse-endometrium
#6
Nuria Eritja, Isidre Felip, Mari Alba Dosil, Lucia Vigezzi, Cristina Mirantes, Andree Yeramian, Raúl Navaridas, Maria Santacana, David Llobet-Navas, Akihiko Yoshimura, Masatoshi Nomura, Mario Encinas, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Xavi Dolcet
The TGF-β/Smad and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways are important regulators of proliferation and apoptosis, and their alterations lead to cancer development. TGF-β acts as a tumor suppressor in premalignant cells, but it is a tumor promoter for cancerous cells. Such dichotomous actions are dictated by different cellular contexts. Here, we have unveiled a PTEN-Smad3 regulatory loop that provides a new insight in the complex cross talk between TGF-β/Smad and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. We demonstrate that TGF-β triggers apoptosis of wild-type polarized endometrial epithelial cells by a Smad3-dependent activation of PTEN transcription, which results in the inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524853/two-paths-to-let-the-replisome-go
#7
Vincenzo D'Angiolella, Daniele Guardavaccaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498367/initiation-and-execution-mechanisms-of-necroptosis-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Sasker Grootjans, Tom Vanden Berghe, Peter Vandenabeele
Necroptosis is a form of regulated cell death, which is induced by ligand binding to TNF family death domain receptors, pattern recognizing receptors and virus sensors. The common feature of these receptor systems is the implication of proteins, which contain a receptor interaction protein kinase (RIPK) homology interaction motif (RHIM) mediating recruitment and activation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), which ultimately activates the necroptosis executioner mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL)...
May 12, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498365/inhibition-of-twist1-mediated-invasion-by-chk2-promotes-premature-senescence-in-p53-defective-cancer-cells
#9
Debasis Nayak, Anmol Kumar, Souneek Chakraborty, Reyaz Ur Rasool, Hina Amin, Archana Katoch, Veena Gopinath, Vidushi Mahajan, Mahesh K Zilla, Bilal Rah, Sumit G Gandhi, Asif Ali, Lekha Dinesh Kumar, Anindya Goswami
Twist1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor is implicated as a key mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic dissemination in p53-deficient cancer cells. On the other hand, checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), a major cell cycle regulatory protein provides a barrier to tumorigenesis due to DNA damage response by preserving genomic stability of the cells. Here we demonstrate that Chk2 induction proficiently abrogates invasion, cell scattering and invadopodia formation ability of p53-mutated invasive cells by suppressing Twist1, indicating Chk2 confers vital role in metastasis prevention...
May 12, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498363/a-novel-microrna-regulator-of-prostate-cancer-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#10
Nathan Bucay, Divya Bhagirath, Kirandeep Sekhon, Thao Yang, Shinichiro Fukuhara, Shahana Majid, Varahram Shahryari, ZLaura Tabatabai, Kirsten L Greene, Yutaka Hashimoto, Marisa Shiina, Soichiro Yamamura, Yuichiro Tanaka, Guoren Deng, Rajvir Dahiya, Sharanjot Saini
The most frequent alteration in the prostate oncogenome is loss of chromosome (chr) 8p21 that has been associated with loss of NKX3.1 homeobox gene. Chr8p21 deletions increase significantly with tumor grade and are associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer (PCa), suggesting critical involvement of this region in tumor progression. Recent studies suggest that apart from NKX3.1, this region harbors alternative tumor suppressors that are yet undefined. We proposed a novel, paradigm shifting hypothesis that this locus is associated with a miRNA gene cluster-miR-3622a/b- that plays a crucial suppressive role in PCa...
May 12, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498362/caspases-and-their-substrates
#11
REVIEW
Olivier Julien, James A Wells
Protease biology is intimately linked to the functional consequences of substrate cleavage events. Human caspases are a family of 12 fate-determining cysteine proteases that are best known for driving cell death, either apoptosis or pyroptosis. More recently, caspases have been shown to be involved in other cellular remodeling events as well including stem cell fate determination, spermatogenesis, and erythroid differentiation. Recent global proteomics methods enable characterization of the substrates that caspases cleave in live cells and cell extracts...
May 12, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475178/lactb-mediated-tumour-suppression-by-increased-mitochondrial-lipid-metabolism
#12
Danilo Cucchi, Claudio Mauro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475177/the-role-of-hybrid-ubiquitin-chains-in-the-myd88-and-other-innate-immune-signalling-pathways
#13
REVIEW
Philip Cohen, Sam Strickson
The adaptor protein MyD88 is required for signal transmission by toll-like receptors and receptors of the interleukin-1 family of cytokines. MyD88 signalling triggers the formation of Lys63-linked and Met1-linked ubiquitin (K63-Ub, M1-Ub) chains within minutes. The K63-Ub chains, which are formed by the E3 ubiquitin ligases TRAF6, Pellino1 and Pellino2, activate TAK1, the master kinase that switches on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades and initiates activation of the canonical IκB kinase (IKK) complex...
May 5, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475174/diverse-ubiquitin-linkages-regulate-rip-kinases-mediated-inflammatory-and-cell-death-signaling
#14
REVIEW
Axel Witt, Domagoj Vucic
Members of the RIP kinase family are key regulators of inflammation and cell death signaling implicated in maintaining immune responses and proper tissue homeostasis. Increasing evidence points to post-translational modifications of RIP1, RIP2 and RIP3 as being critical for regulating their function. Ubiquitination and the E3 ligases, such as inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins and LUBAC, that direct substrate selectivity as well as the deubiquitinating enzymes, such as A20 and OTULIN, that reverse these modifications dictate the outcome of RIP kinase signaling...
May 5, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475173/microrna-30a-attenuates-mutant-kras-driven-colorectal-tumorigenesis-via-direct-suppression-of-me1
#15
Hongxing Shen, Chuan Xing, Kaisa Cui, Yunxiao Li, Jinxiang Zhang, Runlei Du, Xiaodong Zhang, Youjun Li
Frequent KRAS mutations contribute to multiple cancers including ~40% of human colorectal cancers (CRCs). Systematic screening of 1255 microRNAs (miRNAs) identified miR-30a as a synthetic lethal in KRAS-mutant CRC cells. miR-30a was downregulated in CRCs and repressed by P65. miR-30a directly targeted malic enzyme 1 (ME1) and KRAS, and inhibited anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumorigenesis by KRAS-mutant CRC cells. ME1 was significantly upregulated in KRAS-mutant CRCs. Eliminating ME1 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) resulted in obviously decreased NADPH production, levels of triglyceride and fatty acid, and an inhibition of tumorigenicity of KRAS-mutant CRCs...
May 5, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409773/the-making-of-a-mammalian-peroxisome-version-2-0-mitochondria-get-into-the-mix
#16
Michael Schrader, Luca Pellegrini
A recent report from the Laboratory of Heidi McBride (McGill University) presents a role for mitochondria in the de novo biogenesis of peroxisomes in mammalian cells. Peroxisomes are essential organelles responsible for a wide variety of biochemical functions, from the generation of bile to plasmalogen synthesis, reduction of peroxides, and the oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids. Like mitochondria, peroxisomes proliferate primarily through growth and division of pre-existing peroxisomes. However, unlike mitochondria, peroxisomes do not fuse; further, and perhaps most importantly, they can also be born de novo, a process thought to occur through the generation of pre-peroxisomal vesicles that originate from the endoplasmic reticulum...
April 14, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362431/killers-creating-new-life-caspases-drive-apoptosis-induced-proliferation-in-tissue-repair-and-disease
#17
Caitlin E Fogarty, Andreas Bergmann
Apoptosis is a carefully orchestrated and tightly controlled form of cell death, conserved across metazoans. As the executioners of apoptotic cell death, cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases (caspases) are critical drivers of this cellular disassembly. Early studies of genetically programmed cell death demonstrated that the selective activation of caspases induces apoptosis and the precise elimination of excess cells, thereby sculpting structures and refining tissues. However, over the past decade there has been a fundamental shift in our understanding of the roles of caspases during cell death-a shift precipitated by the revelation that apoptotic cells actively engage with their surrounding environment throughout the death process, and caspases can trigger a myriad of signals, some of which drive concurrent cell proliferation regenerating damaged structures and building up lost tissues...
March 31, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362430/cyld-a20-and-otulin-deubiquitinases-in-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-cell-death-so-similar-yet-so-different
#18
REVIEW
Marie Lork, Kelly Verhelst, Rudi Beyaert
Polyubiquitination of proteins has a pivotal role in the regulation of numerous cellular functions such as protein degradation, DNA repair and cell signaling. As deregulation of these processes can result in pathological conditions such as inflammatory diseases, neurodegeneration or cancer, tight regulation of the ubiquitin system is of tremendous importance. Ubiquitination by E3 ubiquitin ligases can be counteracted by the activity of several deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). CYLD, A20 and OTULIN have been implicated as key DUBs in the negative regulation of NF-κB transcription factor-mediated gene expression upon stimulation of cytokine receptors, antigen receptors and pattern recognition receptors, by removing distinct types of polyubiquitin chains from specific NF-κB signaling proteins...
March 31, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338655/evolution-of-caspase-mediated-cell-death-and-differentiation-twins-separated-at-birth
#19
REVIEW
Ryan A V Bell, Lynn A Megeney
The phenotypic and biochemical similarities between caspase-mediated apoptosis and cellular differentiation are striking. They include such diverse phenomenon as mitochondrial membrane perturbations, cytoskeletal rearrangements and DNA fragmentation. The parallels between the two disparate processes suggest some common ancestry and highlight the paradoxical nature of the death-centric view of caspases. That is, what is the driving selective pressure that sustains death-inducing proteins throughout eukaryotic evolution? Plausibly, caspase function may be rooted in a primordial non-death function, such as cell differentiation, and was co-opted for its role in programmed cell death...
March 24, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282038/spata2-more-than-a-missing-link
#20
Lisa Schlicher, Prisca Brauns-Schubert, Florian Schubert, Ulrich Maurer
The assembly of the TNFR1 signalling complex (TNF-RSC) depends on K63- and M1-linked ubiquitylation, promoting the recruitment of complex constituents and the stability of the complex. Ubiquitylation is a dynamic process, controlled by E3 ubiquitin ligases as well as deubiquitinases, such as CYLD and OTULIN. A novel molecule, SPATA2, which is crucial for recruiting and activating the deubiquitinase CYLD within the TNF-RSC, has now been identified by four different studies. Loss of SPATA2 was shown to result in increased TNF-, but also NOD2-mediated proinflammatory signalling...
March 10, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
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