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Cell Death and Differentiation

Yuhao Jiao, Joanne E Davis, Jai Rautela, Emma M Carrington, Mandy J Ludford-Menting, Wilford Goh, Rebecca B Delconte, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Rachel Koldej, Daniel Gray, David Huang, Ben T Kile, Andrew M Lew, David S Ritchie, Nicholas D Huntington
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is used to treat over 15,000 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) per year. Donor graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect can prevent AML relapse; however, alloSCT is limited by significant toxicity related to conditioning intensity, immunosuppression, opportunistic infections, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Reducing the intensity of conditioning regimens prior to alloSCT has improved their tolerability, but does not alter the pattern of GVHD and has been associated with increased rates of graft rejection and relapse...
November 12, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Giuseppe Lonetto, Gabriela Koifman, Alon Silberman, Ayush Attery, Hilla Solomon, Smadar Levin-Zaidman, Naomi Goldfinger, Ziv Porat, Ayelet Erez, Varda Rotter
It is well accepted that malignant transformation is associated with unique metabolism. Malignant transformation involves a variety of cellular pathways that are associated with initiation and progression of the malignant process that remain to be deciphered still. Here we used a mouse model of mutant p53 that presents a stepwise progressive transformation of adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). While the established parental p53Mut-MSCs induce tumors, the parental p53WT-MSCs that were established in parallel, did not...
November 9, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Simon Gutbier, Anna-Sophie Spreng, Johannes Delp, Stefan Schildknecht, Christiaan Karreman, Ilinca Suciu, Thomas Brunner, Marcus Groettrup, Marcel Leist
The development of drugs directly interfering with neurodegeneration has proven to be astonishingly difficult. Alternative therapeutic approaches could result from a better understanding of the supportive function of glial cells for stressed neurons. Therefore, here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the endogenous neuro-defensive activity of astrocytes. A well-established model of postmitotic human dopaminergic neurons (LUHMES cells) was used in the absence ('LUHMES' mono-culture) or presence ('co-culture') of astrocytes...
November 2, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Qijin Zhao, Daoyuan Lu, Jing Wang, Beibei Liu, Heping Cheng, Mark P Mattson, Aiwu Cheng
Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is a major antioxidant defense enzyme. Here we provide evidence that SOD2 plays critical roles in maintaining calcium homeostasis in newly generated embryonic cerebral cortical neurons, which is essential for normal mitochondrial function and subcellular distribution, and neurite outgrowth. Primary cortical neurons in cultures established from embryonic day 15 SOD2+/+ and SOD2-/- mice appear similar during the first 24 h in culture. During the ensuing two days in culture, SOD2-/- neurons exhibit a profound reduction of neurite outgrowth and their mitochondria become fragmented and accumulate in the cell body...
November 2, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Aleksandar Rakovic, Jonathan Ziegler, Christoph U Mårtensson, Jannik Prasuhn, Katharina Shurkewitsch, Peter König, Henry L Paulson, Christine Klein
The Parkinson's disease (PD)-related ubiquitin ligase Parkin and mitochondrial kinase PINK1 function together in the clearance of damaged mitochondria. Upon mitochondrial depolarization, Parkin translocates to mitochondria in a PINK1-dependent manner to ubiquitinate outer mitochondrial membrane proteins. According to the current model, the ubiquitin- and LC3-binding adaptor protein SQSTM1 is recruited to mitochondria, followed by their selective degradation through autophagy (mitophagy). However, the role of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), although essential for this process, still remains largely elusive...
October 30, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Barbara S Sixt, Carlos Núñez-Otero, Oliver Kepp, Raphael H Valdivia, Guido Kroemer
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial agent responsible for ocular infections and sexually transmitted diseases. It has been postulated that Chlamydia inhibits apoptosis in host cells to maintain an intact replicative niche until sufficient infectious progeny can be generated. Here we report that, while cells infected with C. trachomatis are protected from apoptosis at early and mid-stages of infection, they remain susceptible to the induction of other cell death modalities. By monitoring the fate of infected cells by time-lapse video microscopy and by analyzing host plasma membrane integrity and the activity of caspases, we determined that C...
October 30, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Lauren C Fogarty, Robert T Flemmer, Brittany A Geizer, Maria Licursi, Ahila Karunanithy, Joseph T Opferman, Kensuke Hirasawa, Jacqueline L Vanderluit
During neurogenesis, proliferating neural precursor cells (NPC) exit the cell cycle and differentiate into postmitotic neurons. The proteins that regulate cell survival through the stages of differentiation, however, are still poorly understood. Here, we examined the roles of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, in promoting survival as cells progress through the stages of neurogenesis in the mouse embryonic central nervous system. We used Nestin-mediated, nervous system-specific conditional deletion of mcl-1, bcl-x or both to identify their distinct and overlapping roles...
October 25, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Dubeiqi Hong, Xuan Zhang, Riyong Li, Jiahong Yu, Yaxin Lou, Qihua He, Xuanze Li, Dong Xu, Ping Lv, Jian Lin, Yingyu Chen
Transmembrane protein 268 (TMEM268) encodes a novel human protein of previously unknown function. This study analyzed the biological activities and molecular mechanisms of TMEM268 in vivo and in vitro. We found that TMEM268 deletion decreases cell viability, proliferation, and cell adhesion as well as causing S-phase cell cycle arrest and disrupts cytoskeleton remolding. Xenograft tumor mouse model studies showed that TMEM268 deletion inhibits the tumorigenesis of BGC823 gastric cancer cells. In addition, TMEM268-deleted BGC823 cells failed to colonize the lungs after intravenous injection and to form metastatic engraftment in the peritoneum...
October 25, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Yingqin Li, Qingmei He, Xin Wen, Xiaohong Hong, Xiaojing Yang, Xinran Tang, Panpan Zhang, Yuan Lei, Ying Sun, Jian Zhang, Yaqin Wang, Jun Ma, Na Liu
Human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has the highest metastatic rate in head and neck. However, the mechanisms underlying NPC metastasis remain unclear. Here using propensity-score-matched miRNA microarray analysis, miR-142-3p is identified to be the most correlated with distant-metastasis-free survival and downregulated in paraffin-embedded NPC with distant metastasis, which is validated in both internal cohort and external GEO dataset from Canada. miR-142 locus hypermethylation was observed and found to be associated with miR-142-3p downregulation in metastatic NPC...
October 23, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Eui Ho Kim, Sing-Wai Wong, Jennifer Martinez
Compared to the tidy and immunologically silent death during apoptosis, necrosis seems like a chaotic and unorganized demise. However, we now recognize that there is a method to its madness, as many forms of necrotic cell death are indeed programmed and function beyond lytic cell death to support homeostasis and immunity. Inherently more immunogenic than their apoptotic counterpart, programmed necrosis, such as necroptosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, and NETosis, releases inflammatory cytokines and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), skewing the milieu to a pro-inflammatory state...
October 22, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Lígia C Gomes-da-Silva, Ana Joaquina Jimenez, Allan Sauvat, Wei Xie, Sylvie Souquere, Séverine Divoux, Marko Storch, Baldur Sveinbjørnsson, Øystein Rekdal, Luis G Arnaut, Oliver Kepp, Guido Kroemer, Franck Perez
LC3 is a protein that can associate with autophagosomes, autolysosomes, and phagosomes. Here, we show that LC3 can also redistribute toward the damaged Golgi apparatus where it clusters with SQSTM1/p62 and lysosomes. This organelle-specific relocation, which did not involve the generation of double-membraned autophagosomes, could be observed after Golgi damage was induced by various strategies, namely (i) laser-induced localized cellular damage, (ii) local expression of peroxidase and exposure to peroxide and diaminobenzidine, (iii) treatment with the Golgi-tropic photosensitizer redaporfin and light, (iv) or exposure to the Golgi-tropic anticancer peptidomimetic LTX-401...
October 22, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Lu-Yu Zhou, Mei Zhai, Yan Huang, Sheng Xu, Tao An, Yun-Hong Wang, Rong-Cheng Zhang, Cui-Yun Liu, Yan-Han Dong, Man Wang, Li-Li Qian, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Yu-Hui Zhang, Jian Zhang, Kun Wang
Dysregulated autophagy is associated with many pathological disorders such as cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that circular RNAs (circRNAs) have important roles in some biological processes. However, it remains unclear whether circRNAs participate in the regulation of autophagy. Here we report that a circRNA, termed autophagy-related circular RNA (ACR), represses autophagy and myocardial infarction by targeting Pink1-mediated phosphorylation of FAM65B. ACR attenuates autophagy and cell death in cardiomyocytes...
October 22, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Michelle N Messmer, Annelise G Snyder, Andrew Oberst
Our conception of programmed cell death has expanded beyond apoptosis to encompass additional forms of cell suicide, including necroptosis and pyroptosis; these cell death modalities are notable for their diverse and emerging roles in engaging the immune system. Concurrently, treatments that activate the immune system to combat cancer have achieved remarkable success in the clinic. These two scientific narratives converge to provide new perspectives on the role of programmed cell death in cancer therapy. This review focuses on our current understanding of the relationship between apoptosis and antitumor immune responses and the emerging evidence that induction of alternate death pathways such as necroptosis could improve therapeutic outcomes...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Daniel Frank, James E Vince
Pyroptosis and necroptosis represent two pathways of genetically encoded necrotic cell death. Although these cell death programmes can protect the host against microbial pathogens, their dysregulation has been implicated in a variety of autoimmune and auto-inflammatory conditions. The disease-promoting potential of necroptosis and pyroptosis is likely a consequence of their ability to induce a lytic cell death. This cell suicide mechanism, distinct from apoptosis, allows the release of immunogenic cellular content, including damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), to trigger inflammation...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Bradlee L Heckmann, Bart Tummers, Douglas R Green
Programmed cell death (PCD) plays critical roles in development, homeostasis, and both control and progression of a plethora of diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies. Besides classical apoptosis, several different forms of PCD have now been recognized, including necroptosis. The way a cell dies determines the reaction of the surrounding environment, and immune activation in response to cell death proceeds in a manner dependent on which death pathways are activated. Apoptosis and necroptosis are major mechanisms of cell death that typically result in opposing immune responses...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Yajun Chen, Feng Yang, Erhu Fang, Wenjing Xiao, Hong Mei, Huanhuan Li, Dan Li, Huajie Song, Jianqun Wang, Mei Hong, Xiaojing Wang, Kai Huang, Liduan Zheng, Qiangsong Tong
Argonaute 2 (AGO2), the core component of microRNA (miRNA)-induced silencing complex, plays a compelling role in tumorigenesis and aggressiveness. However, the mechanisms regulating the functions of AGO2 in cancer still remain elusive. Herein, we indentify one intronic circular RNA (circRNA) generated from AGO2 gene (circAGO2) as a novel regulator of AGO2-miRNA complexes and cancer progression. CircAGO2 is up-regulated in gastric cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, and neuroblastoma, and is associated with poor prognosis of patients...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Zhenyi Su, Slawomir A Dziedzic, Die Hu, Vica Jean Barrett, Nicole Broekema, Wanjin Li, Lihui Qian, Na Jia, Dimitry Ofengeim, Ayaz Najafov, Hong Zhu, David M Knipe, Junying Yuan
ABIN-1 (encoded by the gene Tnip1) is a ubiquitin-binding protein that can interact with ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 (encoded by the gene TNFAIP3) to restrain the activation of necroptosis and NF-κB activation. Genetic variants in the genes Tnip1 and TNFAIP3 are both strongly associated with susceptibility to autoimmune chronic inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis vulgaris and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in humans. Here we investigated the mechanism by which ABIN-1 regulated innate immune responses...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Jan Rožanc, Theodore Sakellaropoulos, Asier Antoranz, Cristiano Guttà, Biswajit Podder, Vesna Vetma, Nicole Rufo, Patrizia Agostinis, Vaia Pliaka, Thomas Sauter, Dagmar Kulms, Markus Rehm, Leonidas G Alexopoulos
Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer responsible for the majority of skin cancer-related deaths. Recent insight into the heterogeneous nature of melanoma suggests more personalised treatments may be necessary to overcome drug resistance and improve patient care. To this end, reliable molecular signatures that can accurately predict treatment responsiveness need to be identified. In this study, we applied multiplex phosphoproteomic profiling across a panel of 24 melanoma cell lines with different disease-relevant mutations, to predict responsiveness to MEK inhibitor trametinib...
October 15, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Chen Qian, Zhongluan Wu, Roy Chun-Laam Ng, Maria-Mercè Garcia-Barceló, Zheng-Wei Yuan, Kenneth Kak Yuen Wong, Paul Kwong Hang Tam, Vincent Chi Hang Lui
In mammals, urorectal development starts at early embryonic stage, defective urorectal development results in anorectal malformations, which are common congenital developmental defects of the anus and the urethra in newborns. The etiology and embryology of the defects are still largely unknown. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (Pdgfra) is a cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase, upon binding to its ligands (Pdgfa-d), mediates intracellular signaling and regulates embryonic development. The expression of Pdgfra is tightly regulated in the developing urorectal mesenchyme, and its dysregulation is associated with urorectal defects in animals with urorectal defects...
October 15, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Wenjiao Li, Fei Yue, Yuan Dai, Boyun Shi, Guibin Xu, Xianhan Jiang, Xinke Zhou, Gerd P Pfeifer, Leyuan Liu
RASSF1A (Ras association domain family 1 isoform A) is a tumor suppressor and frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Autophagy is to degrade misfolded or aggregated proteins and dysfunctional organelles. Autophagy defects enhance oxidative stress and genome instability to promote tumorigenesis. Activating autophagy flux by increasing levels of the RASSF1A-interacting microtubule-associated protein 1 S (MAP1S) leads to suppression of HCC in addition to extending lifespans...
October 12, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
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