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Folia Neuropathologica

Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Arezoo Rajabian, Ahmad Ghorbani, Maliheh Moradzadeh, Azar Hosseini
<i>Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Increasing glutamate leads to neurodegenerative disease. Nowadays, plant medicine plays a role in the treatment of some disorders. In this research, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of <I>Ferula gummosa</I> root extract against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in the rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) and mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cell lines. The cells were pretreated with extract for 2 h and then exposed to glutamate for 24 h...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Tomasz Stępień, Ewa Taracha, Ewelina Kaniuga, Adam Płaźnik, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz
<i>In our study expression of phospho-(Ser-10)-histone H3 (pH3S10), a marker for the early stage of neurogenesis, and cellular early response genes were investigated using c-Fos protein as an example of a transcription factor in the neurogenic process in rats. Neurogenesis in the adult brain is regulated by endo- and exogenous factors, which influence the proliferation potential of progenitor cells and accelerate the dendritic development of newborn neurons. D-amphetamine, a psychoactive substance, is one of the exogenous factors able to influence the process of neurogenesis...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Kaja Kasarełło, Anika Jesion, Karolina Tyszkowska, Katarzyna Matusik, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Robert Wrzesień, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska
<i>Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmunological disease leading to neurodegeneration. The etiology of the disease remains unknown, which strongly impedes the development of effective therapy. Most MS treatments focus on modulating the activity of the immune system. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) exerts a broad spectrum of action, such as modulating immune cell differentiation towards anti-inflammatory subtypes, influencing cytokine production, regulating immune cell migration into the central nervous system, and activating intracellular antioxidant mechanisms...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Lingxing Wang, Honghong Huang, Hongchao Cai, Yafang Chen
<i><B>Introduction</B>: Maternal hypoxia induces an adverse uterine environment and may induce long-term effects in offspring. This study investigated whether maternal hypoxia increases hippocampal cell vulnerability and exacerbates neurological impairments in adult rat offspring following ischemia. <B>Material and methods</B>: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to no maternal hypoxia or maternal hypoxia treatment groups. Adult male rat offspring were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Huiyu Zhang, Minfang Guo, Lihong Zhang, Huiqing Xue, Zhi Chai, Yuqing Yan, Yanxia Xing, Baoguo Xiao, Peijun Zhang, Cungen Ma
<i>Huangqi glycoprotein (HQGP) is prepared from Astragalus membranaceus by ammonium sulfate precipitation. It was indicated that HQGP has an immunoregulatory effect. In this study, we established a chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model and observed the therapeutic effect and possible mechanisms of HQGP (intraperitoneally at 1 mg/kg/day) on EAE. The results showed that HQGP delayed onset and ameliorated severity of EAE, and reduced the infiltration and accumulation of pathogenic T cells in the central nerves system (CNS)...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Kinga Czubowicz, Mariusz Głowacki, Ewa Fersten, Ewa Kozłowska, Robert P Strosznajder, Zbigniew Czernicki
<i>Cytokines are widely known mediators of inflammation accompanying many neurodegenerative disorders including normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). NPH is caused by impaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption and treated by surgical shunt insertion. The early diagnosis of NPH is difficult because of various manifestations of the disease. One of the most promising research directions is biochemical CSF analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the CSF levels of cytokines. The levels of various cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-10 and TNF-α) were measured in patients with idiopathic active normal pressure hydrocephalus, arrested hydrocephalus and hydrocephalus with brain atrophy compared to controls...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Dorota Dziewulska, Dorota Sulejczak, Michalina Wężyk
<i>We report patients from a Polish family with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) who possess a novel heterozygous R110C mutation in exon 3 of the NOTCH3 gene leading to stereotypical cysteine loss. The proband had only seizure attacks and her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed very numerous hyperintense foci in the cerebral white matter in a location characteristic of CADASIL. Distinctive ultrastructural assessment of vessels from skin-muscle biopsy revealed only mild degenerative changes but relatively numerous homogeneous deposits of granular osmiophilic material (GOM)...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Pawel P Liberski, Agata Gajos, Andrzej Bogucki
<i>We report here autophagy in the optic nerve in experimental Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) (Fujisaki-1) in mice and experimental Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) (Echigo-1) in hamsters. Lesions of both experimental GSS in mice and experimental CJD in hamsters were practically indistinguishable. Briefly, they consisted of widespread Wallerian degeneration, spongiform change and a glial reaction. Numerous axonal swellings were seen. The latter were filled with numerous mitochondria and lysosomal electron-dense bodies...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Ryszard Pluta, Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł, Sławomir Januszewski, Stanisław J Czuczwar
<i>Cardiac arrest, usually occurring in the aged population, is the most important cause of high morbidity and death in developed countries. Commonly, attention, depression, cognitive impairment, spatial memory, short- and long-term memory, executive functions, decreased quality of life and social participation are disturbed following circulation arrest. Deficits in cognitive function, similar to prodromal Alzheimer's disease dementia, following cardiac arrest remain an area of concern. Recent research has focused on the post-resuscitation period to identify mechanisms of long-term brain damage and cognitive impairment...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Tadeusz A Mendel, Beata Błażejewska-Hyżorek, Grażyna M Szpak, Tomasz Stępień, Eliza Lewandowska, Sylwia Tarka, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz
In patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is estimated at about 37% and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at 1% of patients. A case with coincident occurrence of ICH, SAH and CVT in a patient with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is reported. A 79-year-old woman was admitted to the Neurological Department after the occurrence of generalized seizures, the first in her life. On admission she was unconscious with right hemiparesis and deviation of eyes to the left...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Anna M Lavezzi, Francesco Piscioli, Teresa Pusiol
This report describes a case of sudden collapse of a 20-hour-old newborn, while he was placed close to their mother according to skin-to-skin care, attributed to developmental alterations of brainstem nuclei involved in regulation of the vital functions. The infant, after a normal pregnancy, appeared well developed at birth, with no evidence of malformations or trauma, but showing severe asphyxia. The routine autopsy did not reveal a possible cause of death. Only the in-depth anatomopathological examination of the autonomic nervous system, according to the protocol developed by the "Lino Rossi" Research Center of Milan University, provided an explanation of the pathogenetic mechanism of this early death...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Blanka Hermann, Michal Woznica, Wojciech Kloc, Piotr Borkowski, Witold Libionka, Ewa Izycka-Swieszewska
We present a case of a rare neoplasm in a 77-year-old woman with previous oncological history, who developed a rapid onset of cerebellar symptoms. The neuroimaging detected a posterior fossa tumor suspected of meningioma which was completely resected soon after. Histologically the neoplasm had two components with different immunophenotype. One constituent was lobular, composed of monotonous mitotically active round cells with a predominant neuronal profile. The second, astrocytic component contained lipomatous cells intermixed with larger gemistocytic astrocytes...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Haoliang Xu, Julia Rewerska, Nathan Aardsma, Konstantin Slavin, Tibor Valyi-Nagy, Hongyu Ni
Primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PCNS-PTLD) is a rare complication with inferior survival outcomes in solid organ transplant patients. It represents approximately 7-15% of all PTLD patients. Because of the rarity of this disease, the diagnosis of PCNS-PTLD is often challenging, and the optimal therapy has not been established. We report a case of a renal transplant patient who initially presented with acute altered neurological function, an enhancing mass lesion of the brain on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nonspecific reactive histopathological changes on brain biopsy...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Agnieszka A Koppolu, Agnieszka Madej-Pilarczyk, Małgorzata Rydzanicz, Joanna Kosińska, Piotr Gasperowicz, Jolanta Dorszewska, Wojciech Kozubski, Barbara Steinborn, Andrzej M Kochański, Rafał Płoski
Collagen VI-related myopathy is a group of disorders affecting skeletal muscles and connective tissue. The most common symptoms are muscle weakness and joint deformities which limit the movement and progress over time. Several forms of collagen VI-related myopathies have been described: Bethlem myopathy, an intermediate form and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, which is the most severe. Here we report a novel de novo c.1056+3A>C substitution in intron 14 of the COL6A1 gene encoding alpha-chains of collagen VI in a 13-year-old girl suffering from collagen VI (ColVI) myopathy...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Hamid R Sadeghnia, Hamideh Shaterzadeh, Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Safranal is a monoterpene aldehyde found in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) petals. It has been previously reported that safranal has a wide range of activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we examined the effect of safranal on brain injuries in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 30 min, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Safranal in the doses of 72.5 and 145 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally at 0, 3, and 6 h after reperfusion...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Mohammadreza Semnani, Farhad Mashayekhi, Mahnaz Azarnia, Zivar Salehi
The cuprizone multiple sclerosis (MS) animal model is characteristic for toxic demyelination and represents a reversible demyelination and remyelination system. It has been shown that green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) might be effective in improving the symptoms and pathological conditions associated with autoimmune inflammatory diseases in several animal models. In this study the effects of EGCG on proteolipid protein (PLP) and oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 (Olig1) expression in the cerebral cortex of a murine model of cuprizone-induced demyelination was investigated...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Irena Niebroj-Dobosz, Beata Sokołowska, Agnieszka Madej-Pilarczyk, Michał Marchel, Irena Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz
Deficit of lamin A/C or emerin causes genetically transmitted Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). As lamins are considered to be mediators of oxidative stress, the antioxidant/oxidant status was examined. The total oxidant/antioxidant status in serum was examined in 29 cases of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. The study included 12 autosomal-dominant laminopathies (AD-EDMD), 17 X-linked emerinopathies (X-EDMD) and 20 age-matched normal subjects. Total oxidant status (TOS) was reduced in all cases, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was found to be decreased in the majority of the patients (in 82...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Richard A Armstrong
The 'prion-like' transfer of pathogenic proteins may play a role in the pathogenesis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Propagation of such proteins along anatomical pathways may give rise to specific spatial patterns of the 'signature' neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) characteristic of these disorders. Hence, the spatial patterns of the NCI were compared in three molecular subtypes of FTLD: (1) two variants of FTLD-tau, viz. cortico-basal degeneration (CBD) and Pick's disease (PiD), (2) FTLD with transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43(TDP-43)-immunoreactive inclusions (FTLD-TDP), and (3) FTLD with 'fused in sarcoma' (FUS)-immunoreactive inclusions (FTLD-FUS)...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Dorota Dziewulska, Ewa Matyja, Milena Laure-Kamionowska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
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