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Folia Neuropathologica

Sumit Das, Tibor Valyi-Nagy
<i>Multiple fusiform aneurysms occurring in a single patient are very uncommon. Fusiform aneurysms affecting the anterior circulation are extremely rare and reported cases involve the middle cerebral artery and internal carotid artery. We report here a case of a 55-year-old African American male who had a history of multiple strokes and who was found unresponsive prior to his latest hospital admission. Neuroimaging was remarkable for multiple fusiform aneurysms involving segments of the anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries as well as subarachnoid and intraparenchymal hemorrhage...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Sylwia Walczysková, Pavel Ressner, Šárka Hilscherová, Jaroslav Kotlas, Jiří Konrád, Věnceslava Svobodová
<i>The clinical spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is characterized by personality changes, language impairment, and executive function deficits. About 40% of FTLD cases have a family history of the disease, and the GRN gene is currently the most frequent genetic determinant. In cases of inherited FTLD with GRN mutations, parkinsonism is often an early sign due to greater grey matter atrophy in the caudate nucleus and bilateral atrophy in the thalamus. We investigated a female patient with signs of frontotemporal lobe atrophy and unilateral caudate nucleus atrophy on MRI...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Ernest Jan Bobeff, Karol Wiśniewski, Wielisław Papierz, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Dariusz Jan Jaskólski
<i><b>Introduction</b>: Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a rare tumour originating from embryologic remnants of Rathke's pouch. Although it is considered a clinically benign neoplasm, necrosis is encountered in 25% of cases and it can invade adjacent bone structures. <b>Aims</b>: To establish clinical, radiological and histopathological features of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma. <b>Material and methods: </b> Analysis of three cases: two females and one man, aged 61-70...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Maha M A Zakaria, Shahira Y Mikhael, Azza K Abu Hussein, Rania A Salah El-Din, Hany W Abd El-Malak, Iman H Hewedi, Hany S Nadim
<i>Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a series of stenotic malformations in the cerebrospinal venous outflow routes, which is postulated to cause multiple sclerosis (MS). The hypotheses assumed that CCSVI leads to iron deposition which triggers inflammation and demyelination in MS. Invasive endovascular treatment of CCSVI was initiated based on the previous theory. The present study was designed to validate this hypothesis using a rat model of CCSVI. Bilateral jugular vein ligation (JVL) was performed on female albino rats (n = 15), and sham-operated rats (n = 15) were used as a control group...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Liegelin Kavitha Bernhardt, Sampath Madhyastha, Lakshminarayana Bairy, Anoop Kishore
<i>Prenatal stress-induced neurobehavioral deficits observed in offspring are multifactorial, including oxidative stress in the developing brain. The time by which the developing brain acquires self-defense against oxidative stress is not clear. Hence in the present study we aimed to evaluate the brain antioxidant status during different developing periods. Further the study also evaluates the role of the glutathione precursor, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on the brain antioxidant status. Pregnant rats were subjected to restraint stress during an early or late gestational period...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Jacques De Reuck, Florent Auger, Nicolas Durieux, Vincent Deramecourt, Claude-Alain Maurage, Charlotte Cordonnier, Florence Pasquier, Didier Leys, Regis Bordet
<i><b>Introduction</b>: Mixed dementia (MixD) refers to a combination of definite Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular encephalopathy. The existence of a "pure" type of vascular dementia (VaD) is controversial. There is a need to find magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics allowing the distinction between VaD and MixD. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI compares the frequency or severity and the topography of the small cerebrovascular lesions in brains of patients with VaD and with MixD...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Richard A Armstrong
<i>The objective of this study was to determine whether there is evidence from quantitative morphometry and spatial pattern analysis to support the hypothesis of anatomical spread of -synuclein in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Hence, clustering of -synuclein-immunoreactive Lewy bodies (LB), Lewy neurites (LN), and Lewy grains (LG) was studied in -synuclein-immunolabeled sections of cortical and limbic regions in 12 cases of PDD. The data suggested that: (1) LB, LN, and LG occurred in clusters which in 63% of regions were regularly distributed parallel to the tissue boundary, (2) in approximately 30% of cortical regions, the estimated cluster size of LB, LN, and LG was within the size range of cellular columns associated with the cortico-cortical pathways, (3) regularly distributed clusters were present in anatomically connected regions, and (4) the clustering pattern was similar to that of prion protein (PrPsc) deposits in Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD)...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Kelvin M Pińa Batista, Sayoa Alvarez de Eulate-Beramendi, Kenia Y Álvarez Reyes de Pińa, Pedro Reimunde Figueira, Adan Fernandez Canal, Josué M Avecillas Chasin, Ángela Meilan, Rodrigo Ugalde, Ivan Fernandez Vega
<i>Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor. Despite multimodality therapy with aggressive microsurgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the median survival is below 15 months. Glioblastomas are heterogeneous tumors with high resistance to most chemotherapeutic drugs. According to reliable evidence, YKL-40, one of the best investigated chitinase-like protein, may facilitate invasion, migration and angiogenesis, and could be also responsible for temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma, thus conferring a dismal prognosis...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Iwona Sontowska, Ewa Matyja, Jacek Malejczyk, Wieslawa Grajkowska
<i>Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNT) is categorized as a benign glioneuronal neoplasm affecting children and young adults with chronic epileptic seizures. It is characterized by predominant intracortical localization and nodular architecture. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour usually demonstrates a distinctive morphological pattern with a specific glioneuronal element but occasionally, its morphological picture is heterogeneous and unspecific. Thus, considering the morphology of DNT, three different histopathological subtypes are distinguished: simple, complex, and non-specific and diffuse...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Yu Wan, Jun Zhang
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive disease, is characterized by the selective loss of spinal motor neurons due to reduced levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. The clinical symptoms of SMA are progressive proximal muscle weakness and paralysis. Here we describe a 20-year-old Turkmenistan male with SMA who presented with uncommon pathological reflexes and asymmetric onset of weakness. The diagnosis after genetic analysis revealed a homozygous deletion of SMN1 exons seven and eight...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Luca Massaro, Aldo Morra, Gloria Sarasin, Anna Rambaldo, Raffaele De Caro
The superior cerebellar artery (SCA) shows the least variable course and the lowest incidence of anatomical variations among cerebellar arteries. In the present study, an 84-year-old woman was affected by a cerebellar infarction which underwent haemorrhagic evolution in the following days. Neuroimaging investigations also showed a probable double origin of the left SCA. Neuropathological examination confirmed the presence of a large haemorrhagic infarction at the level of the superior portion of the left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Dorota Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Hanna Mierzewska, Monika Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Elżbieta Ciara, Joanna Trubicka, Maciej Pronicki, Dariusz Rokicki, Małgorzata Rydzanicz, Rafał Płoski, Ewa Pronicka
Pathogenic molecular variants in the ADAR gene are a known cause of rare diseases, autosomal recessive Aicardi- Goutières syndrome type 6, severe infantile encephalopathy with intracranial calcifications and dominant dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria, demonstrated mainly in Asian adults. Recently, they have been also found in patients with nonsyndromic bilateral striatal necrosis accompanied by skin changes of the freckles-like type. Here, we present Polish siblings with acute onset and slowly progressive extrapyramidal syndrome with preserved intellectual abilities and basal ganglia changes found in MRI...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Dorota Sulejczak, Anna Taraszewska, Stanisław J Chrapusta, Dorota Dziewulska, Paweł Nakielski, Janina Rafałowska
An excessive glutamate level can result in excitotoxic damage and death of central nervous system (CNS) cells, and is involved in the pathogenesis of many CNS diseases. It may also be related to a failure of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). This study was aimed at examining the effects of extended administration of monosodium glutamate on the BSCB and spinal cord cells in adult male Wistar rats. The glutamate was delivered by subarachnoidal application of glutamate-carrying electrospun nanofiber mat dressing at the lumbar enlargement level...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Chen Chen, Yanning Qian
Unmethylated CpG DNA, as a stimulatory molecule, has potent pro-inflammatory effects in the central nervous system (CNS). Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been confirmed to exert anti-inflammatory effects in CNS. Our study was aimed to explore the effects of DEX on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in unmethylated CpG DNA-challenged microglia. In vivo, after 3 d intracisternal injection of ODN1668, we evaluated the severity of meningitis with or without DEX via pathobiology method and detected the expression of TNF-α from molecular and protein levels...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Dorota Dziewulska, Ewelina Nycz
CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is an inherited angiopathy characterized by degeneration and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of still unknown pathomechanism. Many functions of VSMCs, such as adhesion, apoptosis, contraction, differentiation, migration, and proliferation are determined by integrins - surface adhesion receptors involved in binding and interactions between cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Since integrins play such an important role in VSMCs biology, disturbances in their expression may influence myocytes behavior and fate in CADASIL...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Marta Nesteruk, Tomasz Nesteruk, Maria Styczyńska, Monika Mandecka, Anna Barczak, Maria Barcikowska
INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of several biomarkers in predicting the conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD): β-amyloid and tau proteins in cerebrospinal fluid and the volumetric evaluation of brain structures including the hippocampus in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: MRI of the brain with the volumetric assessment of hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, superior, medial and inferior temporal gyri was performed in 40 patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Anna Wilkaniec, Karen Schmitt, Amandine Grimm, Joanna B Strosznajder, Anne Eckert
Recent data indicate that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with disturbances of the circadian rhythm in patients. We examined the effect of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, the main component of the senile plaques playing a critical role in the deregulation of calcium (Ca<sup>2+</sup>) homeostasis in AD, on the circadian oscillation of cytosolic calcium (Ca<sup>2+</sup>) levels <i><i>in vitro</i></i>. The experiments we carried out in human primary skin fibroblasts...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Anna-Maria Barciszewska
High-grade gliomas are the most aggressive and devastating brain neoplasms. Therefore much effort is put on understanding their background as well as development of new effective diagnostic and therapeutic methods. However, until now the genetic only approach has not provided a satisfactory answer. Recently, it has been shown that the epigenetic issue is important for high-grade gliomas' development and progression. Out of many epigenetic mechanisms, as DNA methylation, histone methylation and acetylation, especially microRNAs showed to be deeply involved in the carcinogenesis process...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
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2016: Folia Neuropathologica
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