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Folia Neuropathologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677375/high-expression-of-cx3c-chemokine-receptor-1-cx3cr1-in-human-carotid-plaques-is-associated-with-vulnerability-of-the-lesions
#1
Marta Masztalewicz, Przemysław Nowacki, Łukasz Szydłowski, Maciej Żukowski, Piotr Gutowski
<i><b>Introduction</b>: In data based on ex vivo studies and animal models, fractalkine is considered an important mediator in the development and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. We do not know how it is associated with human carotid plaques morphology. <b>Material and methods</b>: The study included 126 carotid plaques taken from 126 patients who underwent endarterectomy of internal carotid arteries. We assessed the following characteristics: inflammatory infiltration, connective tissue elements, foam cells, lipid core, plaque vascularisation, calcifications, intraplaque haemorrhage, thrombi built into the plaque structure, and mural thrombi...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677374/retinal-ganglion-cell-inner-plexiform-layer-thickness-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Maja Živković, Volkan Dayanir, Jelena Stamenović, Srdjan Ljubisavljević, Ana Pražić, Marko Zlatanović, Gordana Zlatanović, Vesna Jakšić, Marija Radenković, Svetlana Jovanović
<i><b>Introduction: </b> The aim of the paper was to analyze the changes in the macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL) thickness in patients with Parkinson's disease. <b>Material and methods</b>: The study enrolled 46 patients with established diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and 46 healthy subjects. Both groups were age- and gender-matched. An OCT protocol, namely standardized Ganglion Cell Analysis algorithm was used to measure the thickness of the macular GCL-IPL layer...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677373/commitment-of-protein-p53-and-amyloid-beta-peptide-a%C3%AE-in-aging-of-human-cerebellum
#3
Danuta Maślińska, Milena Laure-Kamionowska, Dariusz Szukiewicz, Sławomir Maśliński, Krystyna Księżopolska-Orłowska
Protein p53 is known to induce the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to a variety of cellular distress signals and DNA damage. A recent study has demonstrated that in blood cells of aging subjects, p53 may induce early pathological changes that precede the amyloidogenic cascade. However, it is not clear whether p53 participates in the local deposition of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) in the nerve tissue of normal aging subjects. Therefore, in the present study, we analyse the distribution of both (Aβ and p53) proteins in the cerebellum of individuals without any history of dementia or other neurological illness who died suddenly in traffic accidents...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677372/early-increased-density-of-cyclooxygenase-2-cox-2-immunoreactive-neurons-in-down-syndrome
#4
Maria Mulet, José Miguel Blasco-Ibáńez, Carlos Crespo, Juan Nácher, Emilio Varea
<i>Neuroinflammation is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. One of the enzymes involved in neuroinflammation, even in early stages of the disease, is COX-2, an inducible cyclooxygenase responsible for the generation of eicosanoids and for the generation of free radicals. Individuals with Down syndrome develop Alzheimer's disease early in life. Previous studies pointed to the possible overexpression of COX-2 and correlated it to brain regions affected by the disease. We analysed the COX-2 expression levels in individuals with Down syndrome and in young, adult and old mice of the Ts65Dn mouse model for Down syndrome...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677371/neuropathological-characteristics-of-the-brain-in-two-patients-with-slc19a3-mutations-related-to-the-biotin-thiamine-responsive-basal-ganglia-disease
#5
Maciej Pronicki, Dorota Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Elżbieta Jurkiewicz, Dariusz Rokicki, Elżbieta Ciara, Joanna Trubicka, Katarzyna Iwanicka-Pronicka, Magdalena Pajdowska, Marek Migdał, Wieslawa A Grajkowska
<i>Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is a severe form of a rare neurogenetic disorder caused by pathogenic molecular variants in the thiamine transporter gene. Nowadays, a potentially effective treatment is known, therefore the early diagnosis is mandatory. The aim of the paper was to assess the contribution of neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies to a proper diagnosis. We present the brain study of two Polish patients with SLC19A3 mutations, including (1) an infant with an intriguing "walnut" appearance of the brain autopsied many years before the discovery of the SLC19A3 defect, and (2) a one-year-old patient with clinical features of Leigh syndrome...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677370/neuronal-vacuolation-and-spinocerebellar-degeneration-associated-with-altered-neurotransmission
#6
Aggeliki Giannakopoulou
<i>Inherited neurodegenerative disorders are debilitating diseases that occur across different species, such as the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), and many are caused by mutations in the same genes as corresponding human conditions. In the present study, we report an inherited neurodegenerative condition, termed 'neuronal vacuolation and spinocerebellar degeneration' (NVSD) which affects neonatal or young dogs, mainly Rottweilers, which recently has been linked with the homozygosity for the RAB3GAP1:c...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677369/propofol-attenuates-intermittent-hypoxia-induced-up-regulation-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-microglia-through-inhibiting-the-activation-of-nf-b%C3%AE%C2%BA-p38-mapk-signalling
#7
Song Liu, Jin-Yuan Sun, Lian-Ping Ren, Kui Chen, Bo Xu
<i>As immune sentinels of the central nervous system (CNS), microglia is pivotal cellular mediator of neuroinflammatory processes. Activation of microglia might elicit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines involved in the progression of neuroinflammatory diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated that propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) has an effective anti-inflammatory property. Intermittent hypoxia (IH), as a result of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), could lead to neuron damage and neuroinflammation in the CNS...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677368/functional-properties-of-different-collagen-scaffolds-to-create-a-biomimetic-niche-for-neurally-committed-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-ipsc
#8
Krystyna Pietrucha, Marzena Zychowicz, Martyna Podobinska, Leonora Buzanska
<i>The biomimetic, standardized conditions for <i><i><i><i><i>in vitro</i></i></i></i></i> cultures of human neural progenitors derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-NPs) should meet the requirements to serve as the template and protective environment for therapeutically competent cell population. In this study, two different collagen scaffolds: bi-component consisting of collagen and chondroitin sulphate (Col-CS), and collagen modified by crosslinking agent 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (Col-DAC) have been used for the first time to encapsulate hiPSC-NPs and compared for the ability to create permissive microenvironment enabling cell survival, growth and differentiation...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677367/neurologic-complications-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#9
Piotr C Piotrowski, Anna Lutkowska, Alexander Tsibulski, Marek Karczewski, Paweł P Jagodziński
<i>Transplantology experiences continuous growth and kidney transplantation is the most frequently transplanted solid organ. Metabolic, cardiovascular, infectious or kidney function-related aspects are widely recognised and are of key interest for transplant doctors. Neurological complications seen in these patients, although known, are less covered in the literature. According to some reports, neurologic symptoms are experienced by almost 9 per 10 transplant recipients. The intensity, severity and type of abnormalities may vary, and most frequently the complications seem to be associated with a direct or indirect effect of immunosuppressive medications, including their direct effect on cells, on blood vessels, and susceptibility to infections...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677366/neuropathological-protocol-for-the-study-of-unexplained-stillbirth
#10
Luca Roncati, Francesco Piscioli, Teresa Pusiol, Anna M Lavezzi
<i>An updated neuropathological protocol for the examination of the nervous system in case of unexplained stillbirth has been elaborated and presented in this review. It is focused on the examination of the nervous centers located in the brainstem, which are involved in monitoring the vital functions. Only through a deep analysis of the brainstem it is possible to highlight developmental alterations of these essential centers, and then provide a plausible explanation of the pathogenetic mechanism behind the death...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430295/multiple-cerebral-fusiform-aneurysms-involving-the-posterior-and-anterior-circulation-including-the-anterior-cerebral-artery-a-case-report
#11
Sumit Das, Tibor Valyi-Nagy
<i>Multiple fusiform aneurysms occurring in a single patient are very uncommon. Fusiform aneurysms affecting the anterior circulation are extremely rare and reported cases involve the middle cerebral artery and internal carotid artery. We report here a case of a 55-year-old African American male who had a history of multiple strokes and who was found unresponsive prior to his latest hospital admission. Neuroimaging was remarkable for multiple fusiform aneurysms involving segments of the anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries as well as subarachnoid and intraparenchymal hemorrhage...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430294/grn-mutation-in-a-patient-with-a-behavioral-variant-of-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-bvftd
#12
Sylwia Walczysková, Pavel Ressner, Šárka Hilscherová, Jaroslav Kotlas, Jiří Konrád, Věnceslava Svobodová
<i>The clinical spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is characterized by personality changes, language impairment, and executive function deficits. About 40% of FTLD cases have a family history of the disease, and the GRN gene is currently the most frequent genetic determinant. In cases of inherited FTLD with GRN mutations, parkinsonism is often an early sign due to greater grey matter atrophy in the caudate nucleus and bilateral atrophy in the thalamus. We investigated a female patient with signs of frontotemporal lobe atrophy and unilateral caudate nucleus atrophy on MRI...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430293/three-cases-of-ectopic-sphenoid-sinus-pituitary-adenoma
#13
Ernest Jan Bobeff, Karol Wiśniewski, Wielisław Papierz, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Dariusz Jan Jaskólski
<i><b>Introduction</b>: Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a rare tumour originating from embryologic remnants of Rathke's pouch. Although it is considered a clinically benign neoplasm, necrosis is encountered in 25% of cases and it can invade adjacent bone structures. <b>Aims</b>: To establish clinical, radiological and histopathological features of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma. <b>Material and methods: </b> Analysis of three cases: two females and one man, aged 61-70...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430292/failure-of-the-vascular-hypothesis-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-cerebrospinal-venous-insufficiency
#14
Maha M A Zakaria, Shahira Y Mikhael, Azza K Abu Hussein, Rania A Salah El-Din, Hany W Abd El-Malak, Iman H Hewedi, Hany S Nadim
<i>Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a series of stenotic malformations in the cerebrospinal venous outflow routes, which is postulated to cause multiple sclerosis (MS). The hypotheses assumed that CCSVI leads to iron deposition which triggers inflammation and demyelination in MS. Invasive endovascular treatment of CCSVI was initiated based on the previous theory. The present study was designed to validate this hypothesis using a rat model of CCSVI. Bilateral jugular vein ligation (JVL) was performed on female albino rats (n = 15), and sham-operated rats (n = 15) were used as a control group...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430291/status-of-the-brain-antioxidant-system-at-different-growing-periods-after-prenatal-stress-and-n-acetyl-cysteine-administration
#15
Liegelin Kavitha Bernhardt, Sampath Madhyastha, Lakshminarayana Bairy, Anoop Kishore
<i>Prenatal stress-induced neurobehavioral deficits observed in offspring are multifactorial, including oxidative stress in the developing brain. The time by which the developing brain acquires self-defense against oxidative stress is not clear. Hence in the present study we aimed to evaluate the brain antioxidant status during different developing periods. Further the study also evaluates the role of the glutathione precursor, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on the brain antioxidant status. Pregnant rats were subjected to restraint stress during an early or late gestational period...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430290/frequency-and-topography-of-small-cerebrovascular-lesions-in-vascular-and-in-mixed-dementia-a-post-mortem-7-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-with-neuropathological-correlates
#16
Jacques De Reuck, Florent Auger, Nicolas Durieux, Vincent Deramecourt, Claude-Alain Maurage, Charlotte Cordonnier, Florence Pasquier, Didier Leys, Regis Bordet
<i><b>Introduction</b>: Mixed dementia (MixD) refers to a combination of definite Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular encephalopathy. The existence of a "pure" type of vascular dementia (VaD) is controversial. There is a need to find magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics allowing the distinction between VaD and MixD. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI compares the frequency or severity and the topography of the small cerebrovascular lesions in brains of patients with VaD and with MixD...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430289/evidence-from-spatial-pattern-analysis-for-the-anatomical-spread-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#17
Richard A Armstrong
<i>The objective of this study was to determine whether there is evidence from quantitative morphometry and spatial pattern analysis to support the hypothesis of anatomical spread of -synuclein in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Hence, clustering of -synuclein-immunoreactive Lewy bodies (LB), Lewy neurites (LN), and Lewy grains (LG) was studied in -synuclein-immunolabeled sections of cortical and limbic regions in 12 cases of PDD. The data suggested that: (1) LB, LN, and LG occurred in clusters which in 63% of regions were regularly distributed parallel to the tissue boundary, (2) in approximately 30% of cortical regions, the estimated cluster size of LB, LN, and LG was within the size range of cellular columns associated with the cortico-cortical pathways, (3) regularly distributed clusters were present in anatomically connected regions, and (4) the clustering pattern was similar to that of prion protein (PrPsc) deposits in Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD)...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430288/mesenchymal-proangiogenic-factor-ykl-40-related-to-glioblastomas-and-its-relationship-with-the-subventricular-zone
#18
Kelvin M Pińa Batista, Sayoa Alvarez de Eulate-Beramendi, Kenia Y Álvarez Reyes de Pińa, Pedro Reimunde Figueira, Adan Fernandez Canal, Josué M Avecillas Chasin, Ángela Meilan, Rodrigo Ugalde, Ivan Fernandez Vega
<i>Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor. Despite multimodality therapy with aggressive microsurgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the median survival is below 15 months. Glioblastomas are heterogeneous tumors with high resistance to most chemotherapeutic drugs. According to reliable evidence, YKL-40, one of the best investigated chitinase-like protein, may facilitate invasion, migration and angiogenesis, and could be also responsible for temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma, thus conferring a dismal prognosis...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430287/dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumour-insight-into-the-pathology-and-pathogenesis
#19
Iwona Sontowska, Ewa Matyja, Jacek Malejczyk, Wieslawa Grajkowska
<i>Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNT) is categorized as a benign glioneuronal neoplasm affecting children and young adults with chronic epileptic seizures. It is characterized by predominant intracortical localization and nodular architecture. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour usually demonstrates a distinctive morphological pattern with a specific glioneuronal element but occasionally, its morphological picture is heterogeneous and unspecific. Thus, considering the morphology of DNT, three different histopathological subtypes are distinguished: simple, complex, and non-specific and diffuse...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139824/pyramidal-signs-in-a-caucasian-patient-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-a-case-report
#20
Yu Wan, Jun Zhang
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive disease, is characterized by the selective loss of spinal motor neurons due to reduced levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. The clinical symptoms of SMA are progressive proximal muscle weakness and paralysis. Here we describe a 20-year-old Turkmenistan male with SMA who presented with uncommon pathological reflexes and asymmetric onset of weakness. The diagnosis after genetic analysis revealed a homozygous deletion of SMN1 exons seven and eight...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
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