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Endocrine-related Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146581/long-noncoding-rnas-emerging-players-in-thyroid-cancer-pathogenesis
#1
Avaniyapuram Kannan Murugan, Munirajan Arasambattu Kannan, Ali S Alzahrani
Thyroid cancer continues to be the most common malignancy of endocrine glands. The incidence of thyroid cancer rises significantly over the past 4 decades and emerges as a major health issue. In recent years, a significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of molecular mechanisms of thyroid carcinogenesis, resulting in significant diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications; yet, it has not reached a satisfactory level. Identifying novel molecular therapeutic targets and molecules for diagnosis and prognosis are expected to advance the overall management of this common malignancy...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142006/characterization-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-in-heterozygous-mutant-menx-rats-a-novel-model-of-invasive-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma
#2
Sara Molatore, Andrea Kügler, Martin Irmler, Tobias Wiedemann, Frauke Neff, Annette Feuchtinger, Johannes Beckers, Mercedes Robledo, Frederico Roncaroli, Natalia S Pellegata
Rats affected by the MENX syndrome spontaneously develop multiple neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) including adrenal, pituitary and thyroid gland neoplasms. MENX was initially reported to be inherited as a recessive trait and affected rats were found to be homozygous for the predisposing Cdkn1b mutation encoding p27. We here report that heterozygous MENX mutant rats (p27+/mut) develop the same spectrum of NETs seen in the homozygous (p27mut/mut) animals but with slower progression. Consequently, p27+/mut rats have a significantly shorter lifespan compared with their wild-type (p27+/+) littermates...
November 15, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142005/the-next-step-mechanisms-driving-adrenocortical-carcinoma-metastasis
#3
Enzo Lalli, Michaela Luconi
Endocrine tumors have the peculiarity to become clinically evident not only due to symptoms related to space occupation by the growing lesion, similarly to most other tumors, but also, and most often, because of their specific hormonal secretion, which significantly contributes to their pathological burden. Malignant endocrine tumors, in addition, have the ability to produce distant metastases. Here we critically review the current knowledge about mechanisms and biomarkers characterizing the metastatic process in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a rare endocrine malignancy with a high risk of relapse and metastatization even when the primary tumor is diagnosed and surgically removed at an early stage...
November 15, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142004/advances-in-the-management-of-men2
#4
Samuel Wells
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a tumor derived from the neural crest, occurs either sporadically or as the dominant component of the type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes, MEN2A and MEN2B. The discovery that mutations in the RET protooncogene cause hereditary MTC was of great importance, since it led to the development of novel methods of diagnosis and treatment. For example, the detection of a mutated RET allele in family members at risk for inheriting MEN2A or MEN2B signaled that they would develop MTC, and possibly other components of the syndromes...
November 15, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066504/patient-quality-of-life-and-prognosis-in-men2
#5
Joanna Grey, Kym Winter
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) refers to the autosomal dominant neuroendocrine tumour syndromes, MEN type 2A (MEN2A) and MEN type 2B (MEN2B). They are typified by the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), phaeochromocytoma and parathyroid hyperplasia in MEN2A, and MTC, phaeochromocytomas, ganglioneuromatosis and skeletal abnormalities in MEN2B. The aggressiveness of MTC is variable according to genotype, and although it is still the major cause of mortality in both conditions, prognosis has improved dramatically in those diagnosed and treated at a young age thanks to predictive genetic testing...
October 24, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066503/chromogranin-a-as-circulating-marker-for-diagnosis-and-management-of-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-more-flaws-than-fame
#6
Vincenzo Marotta, Maria Chiara Zatelli, Concetta Sciammarella, Maria Rosaria Ambrosio, Marta Bondanelli, Annamaria A L Colao, Antongiulio Faggiano
Owing to the heterogeneity of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), the availability of reliable circulating markers is critical for improving diagnostics, prognostic stratification, follow-up, and definition of treatment strategy. This review is focused on Chromogranin A (CgA), a hydrophilic glycoprotein present in large dense core vesicles of neuroendocrine cells. Despite being long identified as the most useful NEN-related circulating marker, clinical application of CgA is controversial. CgA assays still lack of standardization, thus hampering not only clinical management but also the comparison between different analyses...
October 24, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066502/ros-induced-near-homozygous-genomes-in-thyroid-cancer
#7
Willem Corver, Joris Demmers, Jan Oosting, Shima Sahraeian, Arnoud Boot, Dina Ruano, Ton Van Wezel, Hans Morreau
A near-homozygous genome (NHG) is especially seen in a subset of follicular thyroid of the oncocytic type (FTC-OV). A NHG was also observed in the metabolically relatively quiescent cell lines XTC.UC1, a model for FTC-OV, and in FTC-133, -236 and -238, the latter three derived from one single patient with follicular thyroid cancer. FTC-236 subclones showed subtle whole-chromosome differences indicative of sustained reciprocal mitotic missegregations. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger experiments reduced the number of chromosomal missegregations in XTC...
October 24, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066501/knockdown-of-brca2-enhances-cisplatin-and-cisplatin-induced-autophagy-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#8
B Wan, L Dai, L Wang, Y Zhang, H Huang, G Qian, T Yu
Clinical implications of the BRCA2 expression level on treatments of ovarian cancer are controversial. Here we demonstrated that platinum-resistant cancer had a higher percentage of high BRCA2 level (87.5% vs. 43.6%, p = 0.001), and that patients with a low BRCA2 level in cancer tissues had longer progression-free survival (with a median time of 28.0 vs. 12.0 mon, p < 0.001) and platinum-free duration (with a median time of 19.0 vs. 5.0 mon, p < 0.001) compared with those with a high BRCA2 level. In human ovarian cancer cell lines CAOV-3 and ES-2, cisplatin induced an up-regulation of the RAD51 protein, which was inhibited after silencing BRCA2; silencing BRCA2 enhanced the action of cisplatin in vitro and in vivo...
October 24, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046289/a-novel-model-to-predict-positive-prostate-biopsy-based-on-serum-androgen-level
#9
Takeshi Ujike, Motohide Uemura, Atsunari Kawashima, Akira Nagahara, Kazutoshi Fujita, Yasushi Miyagawa, Norio Nonomura
Circulating levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and testosterone are widely used for detection of prostate cancer prior to prostate biopsy; however both remain controversial. Effective screening strategies based on quantitative factors could help avoid unnecessary biopsies. Here, we sought to clarify the predictive value of free testosterone (FT) versus total testosterone (TT) in identifying patients likely to have positive biopsies. This study aims to develop a novel model for predicting positive prostate biopsy based on serum androgen levels...
October 18, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042396/differentiated-thyroid-cancer-millions-spent-with-no-tangible-gain
#10
Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Art Sedrakyan, Adedayo A Onitilo, Nasser Bagheri, Paul Glasziou, Suhail A R Doi
The incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has rapidly increased worldwide over the last decades. It is unknown if the increase in diagnosis has been mirrored by an increase in thyroidectomy rates with the concomitant economic impact that this would have on the healthcare system. DTC and thyroidectomy incidence as well as DTC specific mortality were modelled using Poisson regression in New South Wales (NSW), Australia per year and by sex. The incidence of 2002 was the point from which the increase in rates were assessed cumulatively over the subsequent decade...
October 17, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042395/nuclear-receptor-profiling-in-prostatospheroids-and-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#11
Zhu Wang, Dinglan Wu, Chi-Fai Ng, Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh, Shan Yu, Yuliang Wang, Franky Leung Chan
Nuclear receptors (NRs), which belong to a superfamily of transcription factors and consist of a total of 48 members in humans, govern the expression of genes involved in a board range of developmental, reproductive, metabolic and immunological programs. Given the significant importance of androgen receptor and a few known NRs in the progression of prostate cancer, we surveyed the expression profiles of the entire NR superfamily in three-dimensional (3D) cultured prostatospheroids derived from different prostate cancer cell lines and a tumor xenograft model of castration-resistant prostate cancer VCaP-CRPC by quantitative real-time RT-PCR...
October 17, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018055/dose-response-effects-of-exercise-on-insulin-among-colon-cancer-survivors
#12
Justin Brown, Michael Rickels, Andrea Troxel, Babette Zemel, Nevena Damjanov, Bonnie Ky, Andrew Rhim, Anil Rustgi, Kerry S Courneya, Kathryn Schmitz
Physical activity is associated with a lower risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. The pathways through which physical activity may alter disease outcomes are unknown, but may include changes in metabolic growth factors, such as insulin. METHODS: Between January 2015 and August 2015, 39 stage I-III colon cancer survivors were randomized to one of three groups: usual-care control, 150 min∙wk-1 of aerobic exercise (low-dose), and 300 min∙wk-1 of aerobic exercise (high-dose) for six months...
October 10, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018054/the-induction-of-myeloma-cell-death-and-dna-damage-by-tetrac-a-thyroid-hormone-derivative
#13
Keren Cohen, Uri Abadi, Aleck Hercbergs, Paul J Davis, Martin Ellis, Osnat Ashur-Fabian
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy in which involvement of the thyroid hormone-integrin αvβ3 pathway was shown and pharmacologic inhibition of this pathway is a rational approach to disease management. A thyroid hormone derivative, tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), which inhibits L-thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) binding to αvβ3 integrin, was studied in five MM cell lines and primary bone marrow (BM) MM cells. Tetrac inhibited MM cell proliferation (absolute cell number/viability) and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis (annexin-V/PI and cell cycle)...
October 10, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974544/tert-structural-rearrangements-in-metastatic-pheochromocytomas
#14
Trisha Dwight, Aidan Flynn, Kaushalya Amarasinghe, Diana E Benn, Richard Lupat, Jason Li, Daniel Cameron, Annette Hogg, Shiva Balachander, Ida Lm Candiloro, Stephen Wong, Bruce G Robinson, Anthony T Papenfuss, Anthony J Gill, Alexander Dobrovic, Rodney J Hicks, Roderick Clifton-Bligh, Richard William Tothill
Pheochromocytomas (PC) and paragangliomas (PGL) are endocrine tumors for which the genetic and clinico-pathological features of metastatic progression remain incompletely understood. As a result, the risk of metastasis from a primary tumor cannot be predicted. Early diagnosis of individuals at high risk of developing metastases is clinically important and the identification of new biomarkers that are predictive of metastatic potential is of high value. Activation of TERT has been associated with a number of malignant tumors, including PC/PGL...
October 3, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971898/anti-androgen-withdrawal-syndrome-aaws-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-prostate-cancer
#15
Gianmarco Leone, Marcello Tucci, Consuelo Buttigliero, Clizia Zichi, Daniele Pignataro, Paolo Bironzo, Francesca Vignani, Giorgio Scagliotti, Massimo Di Maio
Antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome is an unpredictable event diagnosed in patients with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer treated with combined androgen blockade therapy. It is defined by Prostate-Specific Antigen value reduction, occasionally associated with a radiological response, that occurs 4 to 6 weeks after first-generation antiandrogen therapy discontinuation. New-generation hormonal therapies, such as enzalutamide and abiraterone acetate, improved overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and recent trials have also shown the efficacy of abiraterone in hormone-sensitive disease...
September 28, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931560/ret-mediated-modulation-of-tumour-microenvironment-and-immune-response-in-men2
#16
Maria Domenica Castellone, Rosa Marina Melillo
Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) arise from thyroid parafollicular, calcitonin-producing C-cells and can occur either as sporadic or as hereditary diseases in the context of familial syndromes, including multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN2A), multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN2B) and familial MTC (FMTC). In a large fraction of sporadic cases, and virtually in all inherited cases of MTC, activating point mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are found. RET encodes for a receptor tyrosine kinase protein endowed with transforming potential on thyroid parafollicular cells...
September 20, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924064/circulating-steroid-hormone-variations-throughout-different-stages-of-prostate-cancer
#17
Gido Snaterse, Jenny A Visser, Wiebke Arlt, Johannes Hofland
Steroid hormones play a central role in the maintenance and progression of prostate cancer. The androgen receptor is the primary driver of tumor cell proliferation and is activated by the androgens testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Inhibition of this pathway through medical or surgical castration improves survival in the majority of advanced prostate cancer patients. However, conversion of adrenal androgen precursors and alternative steroidogenic pathways have been found to contribute to tumor progression and resistance to treatment...
September 18, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912377/immune-response-in-the-thyroid-cancer-microenvironment-making-immunotherapy-a-possible-mission
#18
Robert C Mould, Jacob P van Vloten, Amanda W K AuYeung, Khalil Karimi, Byram W Bridle
The incidence of thyroid cancers has been steadily increasing worldwide over the past few decades. Although five-year survival rates for differentiated thyroid cancers are upwards of 90%, clinical outcomes for patients with undifferentiated, recurrent and/or metastatic disease are often dismal despite conventional interventions. As such, there is a demand for novel treatment options. Cancer immunotherapy represents the ultimate form of personalized medicine by leveraging the specificity and potency of a patient's immune system to kill their tumour...
September 14, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883084/advances-in-risk-oriented-surgery-for-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2
#19
Andreas Machens, Henning Dralle
Genetic association studies hinge on definite clinical case definitions of the disease of interest. This is why more penetrant mutations were overrepresented in early multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN2) studies, whereas less penetrant mutations went underrepresented. Enrichment of genetic association studies with advanced disease may produce a flawed understanding of disease evolution, precipitating far-reaching surgical strategies like bilateral total adrenalectomy and 4-gland parathyroidectomy in MEN2. The insight into the natural course of the disease gleaned over the past 25 years caused a paradigm shift in MEN2: from the removal of target organs at the expense of greater operative morbidity to close biochemical surveillance and targeted resection of adrenal tumors and hyperplastic parathyroid glands...
September 7, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874394/looking-beyond-the-thyroid-advances-in-understanding-of-pheochromocytoma-and-hyperparathyroidism-phenotypes-in-men2-and-of-non-men2-familial-forms
#20
Carole Guerin, Pauline Romanet, David Taieb, Thierry Brue, André Lacroix, Frederic Sebag, Anne Barlier, Frederic Castinetti
Over the last years, the knowledge of MEN2 and non MEN2 familial forms of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) has increased. In MEN2, PHEO is the second most frequent disease: the penetrance and age at diagnosis depend on the mutation of RET. Given the prevalence of bilateral PHEO (50% by age 50), adrenal sparing surgery, aimed at sparing a part of the adrenal cortex to avoid adrenal insufficiency, should be systematically considered in patients with bilateral PHEO. Non MEN2 familial forms of PHEO now include more than 20 genes: however, only small phenotypic series have been reported, suggesting that phenotypic features of isolated hereditary PHEO must be better explored, and follow-up series are needed to better understand the outcome of patients carrying mutations of these genes...
September 5, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
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