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Endocrine-related Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895137/successful-response-to-pegylated-interferon-alpha-in-a-recurrent-paraganglioma
#1
Thibault Bahougne, Alessio Imperiale, Gerlinde Averous, Gerard Chabrier, Nelly Burnichon, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, Nassim Dali-Youcef, Rossella Libé, Eric Baudin, Catherine Roy, Herve Lang, Laurence Kessler
INTRODUCTION: Early and accurate identification of recurrences in patients with aggressive paraganglioma (PGL) poses significant challenges. Moreover, the most appropriate therapeutic strategy for recurrent PGL remains to be established. RESULTS: We report the case of 52-year-old man with a history of recurrent, sporadic, left retroperitoneal PGL that relapsed twice (at eight and nine years after the first surgical intervention). At the time of the second recurrence, 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) demonstrated a pathologically increased tracer uptake in multiple nodular lesions (10-15 mm in size) located close to the remnant of the left renal pedicle and in the left lombar paravertebral region...
November 28, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872141/differential-roles-of-ret-isoforms-in-medullary-and-papillary-thyroid-carcinomas
#2
Eric Y Lian, Sarah M Maritan, Jessica G Cockburn, Katayoon Kasaian, Mathieu Jf Crupi, David Hurlbut, Steven Jones, Sam Wiseman, Lois M Mulligan
The RET receptor tyrosine kinase mediates cell proliferation, survival and migration in embryogenesis, and is implicated in transformation and tumour progression in multiple cancers. RET is frequently mutated and constitutively activated in familial and sporadic thyroid carcinomas. As a result of alternative splicing, RET is expressed as two protein isoforms, RET9 and RET51, which differ in their unique C-terminal amino acids. These isoforms have distinct intracellular trafficking and associated signaling complexes, but functional differences are not well defined...
November 21, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811202/targeting-pi3k-mtor-signaling-exerts-potent-antitumor-activity-in-pheochromocytoma-in-vivo
#3
Misu Lee, Ninelia Minaskan, Tobias Wiedemann, Martin Irmler, Johannes Backers, Behrooz H Yousefi, Georgios Kaissis, Rickmer Braren, Iina Laitinen, Natalia S Pellegata
Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are mostly benign tumors, amenable to complete surgical resection. However, 10-17% of cases can become malignant, and once metastasized, there is no curative treatment for this disease. Given the need to identify effective therapeutic approaches for PCC, we evaluated the antitumor potential of the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 against these tumors. We employed an in vivo model of endogenous PCCs (MENX mutant rats), which closely recapitulate the human tumors. Mutant rats with PCCs were treated with 2 doses of BEZ235 (20 and 30 mg/kg), or with placebo, for 2 weeks...
November 3, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799362/animal-models-of-medullary-thyroid-cancer-state-of-the-art-and-view-to-the-future
#4
Giovanni Vitale, Germano Gaudenzi, Luisa Circelli, Marco Federico Manzoni, Andrea Bassi, Niccolò Fioritti, Antongiulio Faggiano, Annamaria Al Colao
Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a neuroendocrine tumour originating from parafollicular C cells accounting for 5-10% of thyroid cancers. Increased understanding of disease-specific molecular targets of therapy has led to the regulatory approval of two drugs (vandetanib and cabozantinib) for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma. These drugs increase progression free survival, however, they are often poorly tolerated and most treatment responses are transient. Animal models are indispensable tools for investigating the pathogenesis, mechanisms for tumour invasion and metastasis, and new therapeutic approaches for cancer...
October 31, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799361/de-novo-mutation-in-men1-is-not-associated-with-parental-somatic-mosaicism
#5
Yael Laitman, Anat Jaffe, Hagit Schayek, Eitan Friedman
Extract: Dear Editor, Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1- OMIM #131100) is characterized by the co-occurrence of tumors in at least two of the following three endocrine tissues: parathyroid, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary [Thakker 2014]. Familial MEN1 follows an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and germline mutations in the MEN1 gene at 11q13 can be detected in affected family members [Chandrasekharappa et al 1997]. Mutations in the CDKN1B gene (CDKN1B, KIP1, OMIM #600778) have been also reported in MEN1 families but are far less frequent [Pellegata et al 2006]...
October 31, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799360/androgen-receptor-signaling-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-a-lesson-in-persistence
#6
Isabel Coutinho, Tanya Day, Wayne D Tilley, Luke A Selth
The androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis drives all stages of prostate cancer, including the lethal, drug-resistant form of the disease termed castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which arises following failure of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Persistent AR activity in spite of ADT and the second-generation AR-targeting agents enzalutamide and abiraterone is achieved in many cases via direct alterations to the AR. Indeed, the role of AR in prostate cancer represents an archetype of therapy-mediated selection pressure and oncogene addiction...
October 31, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754854/hyperglycaemia-induced-resistance-to-docetaxel-is-negated-by-metformin-a-role-for-igfbp-2
#7
Kalina Biernacka, Raj A Persad, Amit Bahl, David Gillatt, Jeff M P Holly, Claire M Perks
The incidence of many common cancers varies between different populations and appears to be affected by a Western lifestyle. Highly proliferative malignant cells require sufficient levels of nutrients for their anabolic activity. Therefore targeting genes and pathways involved in metabolic pathways could yield future therapeutics. A common pathway implicated in energetic and nutritional requirements of a cell is the LKB1/AMPK pathway. Metformin is a widely studied anti-diabetic drug, which improves glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes via targeting this pathway...
October 17, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729416/pushing-estrogen-receptor-around-in-breast-cancer
#8
Elgene Lim, Gerard Tarulli, Neil Portman, Theresa Hickey, Wayne D Tilley, Carlo Palmieri
The estrogen receptor-α (herein called ER) is a nuclear sex steroid receptor (SSR) that is expressed in approximately 75% of breast cancers. Therapies that modulate ER action have substantially improved the survival of patients with ER-positive breast cancer, but resistance to treatment still remains a major clinical problem. Treating resistant breast cancer requires co-targeting of ER and alternate signalling pathways that contribute to resistance to improve the efficacy and benefit of currently available treatments...
October 11, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765799/erbb-2-nuclear-function-in-breast-cancer-growth-metastasis-and-resistance-to-therapy
#9
Patricia Elizalde, Rosalia I Cordo Russo, Maria F Chervo, Roxana Schillaci
Approximately 15-20% of breast cancers (BC) show either membrane overexpression of ErbB-2 (MErbB-2), a member of the ErbBs family of receptor tyrosine kinases, or ErbB-2 gene amplification. Until the development of MErbB-2-targeted therapies, this BC subtype, called ErbB-2-positive, was associated with increased metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Although these therapies have significantly improved overall survival and cure rates, resistance to available drugs is still a major clinical issue. In its classical mechanism, MErbB-2 activates downstream signaling cascades which transduce its effects in BC...
October 7, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702751/patient-derived-tumour-xenografts-for-breast-cancer-drug-discovery
#10
John Cassidy, Ankita Sati Batra, Wendy Greenwood, Alejandra Bruna
Despite remarkable advances in our understanding of the drivers of human malignancies, new targeted therapies often fail to show sufficient efficacy in clinical trials. Indeed, the cost of bringing a new agent to market has risen substantially in the last several decades, in part fuelled by extensive reliance on preclinical models that fail to accurately reflect tumour heterogeneity. In order to halt unsustainable rates of attrition in the drug discovery process we must develop a new generation of preclinical models capable of reflecting the complex heterogeneity found in human cancers...
October 4, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697900/mtor-inhibitors-response-and-mtor-pathway-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#11
Simona Falletta, Stefano Partelli, Corrado Rubini, Dominik Nann, Andrea Doria, Ilaria Marinoni, Vanessa Polenta, Carmelina Di Pasquale, Ettore C Degli Uberti, Aurel Perren, Massimo Falconi, Maria Chiara Zatelli
Medical therapy of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (P-NET) may take advantage of Everolimus treatment. However the extent of therapeutic response cannot be predicted. The present study was aimed to identify possible predictive markers of response to Everolimus in P-NET. We found that Everolimus reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in primary cultures of 6 P-NET (P-NET-R), where the proliferative and antiapoptotic effects of IGF1 were blocked by Everolimus. On the contrary, 14 P-NET primary cultures (P-NET-NR) were resistant to Everolimus and IGF1, suggesting an involvement of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in the mechanism of resistance...
October 3, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687494/the-endocrine-influence-on-the-bone-microenvironment-in-early-breast-cancer
#12
Caroline Wilson, Hannah Brown, Ingunn Holen
Multiple factors influence the survival of disseminated breast tumour cells (DTCs) in bone. Whilst gene signature studies have identified genes that predict a propensity of tumours to metastasise to bone, the bone environment is key in determining the fate of these tumour cells. Breast cancer cells locate to specific niches within the bone that support their survival, regulated by host factors within the bone microenvironment including bone cells, cells of the bone micro vasculature, immune cells and the extracellular matrix...
September 29, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660402/circadian-rhythmicity-and-the-influence-of-clock-genes-on-prostate-cancer
#13
Zsofia Kiss, Paramita M Ghosh
The androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (CaP). Since the mid-1990s, reports in the literature pointed out higher incidences of CaP in some select groups, such as airline pilots and night shift workers in comparison to those working regular hours. The common finding in these 'high-risk' groups was that they all experienced a deregulation of the body's internal circadian rhythm. Here we discuss how the circadian rhythm affects androgen levels and modulates CaP development and progression...
September 22, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649723/systemic-therapies-in-neuroendocrine-tumors-and-novel-approaches-towards-personalised-medicine
#14
Marianne Pavel, Christine Sers
Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a group of heterogenous neoplasms. Evidence-based treatment options for antiproliferative therapy include somatostatin analogs, the mTOR inhibitor everolimus, the multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with 177-Lu-octreotate. In the absence of definite predictive markers therapeutic decision making follows clinical and pathological criteria. Since objective reponse rates with targeted drugs are rather low, and response duration is limited in most patients, numerous combination therapies targeting multiple pathways have been explored in the field...
September 20, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645052/new-roles-for-nuclear-receptors-in-prostate-cancer
#15
Damien A Leach, Suzanne M Powell, Charlotte Bevan
Prostate cancer has, for decades, been treated by inhibiting androgen signalling. This is effective in the majority of patients, but inevitably resistance develops and patients progress to life-threatening metastatic disease - hence the quest for new effective therapies for "castrate-resistant" prostate cancer (CRPC). Studies into what pathways can drive tumour recurrence under these conditions has identified several other nuclear receptor signalling pathways as potential drivers or modulators of CRPC. The nuclear receptors constitute a large (48 members) superfamily of transcription factors sharing a common modular functional structure...
September 19, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645051/neuroendocrine-tumors-moving-from-the-land-of-small-tumors-to-an-expanding-universe
#16
Marianne Pavel
Extract: During my medical studies at the Georg August University of Göttingen in the late 1980's, I was truly inspired early by my mentor and University teacher Werner Creutzfeldt to begin working in the field of neuroendocrine Tumors (NET). Werner Creutzfeldt was a leader of excellence in the field of gastrointestinal endocrinology, neuroendocrine tumors and the entero-insulinar axis/incretin system in Germany. At this time, treatment of NET, i.e. pancreatic NET was reduced to the use of chemotherapeutics like streptozotocin and others with less success...
September 19, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633516/thyroid-stimulating-hormone-in-thyroid-cancer-does-it-matter
#17
Hannah Rachael Nieto, Kristien Boelaert
Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and the incidence is increasing rapidly worldwide. Appropriate diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with thyroid tumours is critical. Fine needle aspiration cytology remains the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid cancer and whilst there have been significant refinements to this technique, diagnostic surgery is often required for patients suspected to have malignancy. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is raised in patients with malignant thyroid nodules compared to those with benign disease, and TSH is proportionally higher in more aggressive tumours...
September 15, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633515/from-bedside-to-bench-and-back-my-journey-in-thyroid-disease
#18
Kristien Boelaert
Extract: I am the oldest of three girls in a Belgian family. I was born in the US in 1970, whilst my parents were studying at the University of Wisconsin. Upon completion of their postgraduate studies, my parents returned to their native country Belgium when I was aged one. From a young age I was fascinated by medicine and in secondary school, human biology was my favourite subject. Whilst neither of my parents is medically trained, they always encouraged me and my sisters to have an inquisitive spirit and fuelled a thirst for knowledge and discovery...
September 15, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619258/plasma-membrane-ion-channels-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-cancer-cells
#19
Iman Azimi, Gregory Raymond Monteith
A variety of studies have suggested that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be important in the progression of cancer in patients through metastasis and/or therapeutic resistance. A number of pathways have been investigated in EMT in cancer cells. Recently, changes in plasma membrane ion channel expression as a consequence of EMT have been reported. Other studies have identified specific ion channels able to regulate aspects of EMT induction. The utility of plasma membrane ion channels as targets for pharmacological modulation make them attractive for therapeutic approaches to target EMT...
September 12, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875244/a-six-genotype-genetic-prognostic-model-for-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#20
Xiaopei Shen, Rengyun Liu, Mingzhao Xing
A unique prognostic role of the genetic duet of BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has been recently established, but the role of RAS mutation in this genetic interplay remains to be established. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data of patients with PTC from 19 medical centers, we investigated the interactions among the three mutations in clinical outcomes of PTC. We found that BRAF and RAS mutations were mutually exclusive, but both were associated with TERT promoter mutations, with the genetic duet of BRAF/RAS and TERT mutations occurring in 34/388 (8...
January 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
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