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Endocrine-related Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773553/intratumoral-androgen-levels-are-linked-to-tmprss2-erg-fusion-in-prostate-cancer
#1
Matias Knuuttila, Arfa Mehmood, Jenni Mäki-Jouppila, Henrik Ryberg, Pekka Taimen, Juha Knaapila, Otto Ettala, Peter J Bostrom, Claes Ohlsson, Mikko S Venäläinen, Asta Laiho, Laura L Elo, Petra Sipilä, Sari Makela, Matti Poutanen
Intratumoral androgen biosynthesis is one of the mechanisms involved in the progression of prostate cancer, and an important target for novel prostate cancer therapies. Using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and genome-wide RNA sequencing, we have analyzed androgen concentrations and androgen-regulated gene expression in cancerous and morphologically benign prostate tissue specimens and serum samples obtained from 48 primary prostate cancer patients. Intratumoral DHT concentrations were significantly higher in the cancerous tissues compared to benign prostate (p<0...
May 17, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769293/emerging-multitarget-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#2
Federica Grillo, Tullio Florio, Francesco Ferraù, Elda Kara, Giuseppe Fanciulli, Antongiulio Faggiano, Annamaria A L Colao
In the last few years, the therapeutic approach for neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has changed dramatically following the approval of several novel targeted treatments. The multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor (MTKI), sunitinib malate, has been approved by regulatory agencies in pancreatic NENs. The MTKI class, however, includes several other molecules (approved for other conditions), which are currently being studied in NENs. An in depth review on the studies published on the following MTKIs in neuroendocrine tumours: axitinib, cabozantinib, famitinib, lenvatinib, nintedanib, pazopanib, sorafenib and sulfatinib was performed...
May 16, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760166/the-role-of-il-1b-in-breast-cancer-bone-metastasis
#3
Claudia Tulotta, Penelope Dawn Ottewell
Approximately 75% of patients with late stage breast cancer will develop bone metastasis. This condition is currently considered incurable and patients' life expectancy is limited to 2-3 years following diagnosis of bone involvement. IL-1B is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose expression in primary tumours has been identified as a potential biomarker for predicting breast cancer patients at increased risk for developing bone metastasis. In this Review, we discuss how IL-1B from both the tumour cells and the tumour microenvironment influence growth of primary breast tumours, dissemination into the bone metastatic niche and proliferation into overt metastases...
May 14, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760165/the-impact-of-transcription-on-metabolism-in-prostate-and-breast-cancers
#4
Ninu Poulose, Ian G Mills, Rebecca E Steele
Metabolic dysregulation is regarded as an important driver in cancer development and progression. The impact of transcriptional changes on metabolism have been intensively studied in hormone-dependent cancers, and in particular in prostate and breast cancer. These cancers have strong similarities in the function of important transcriptional drivers, such as the estrogen and androgen receptor, at the level of dietary risk and epidemiology, genetics and therapeutically. In this review we will focus on the function of these nuclear hormone receptors and their downstream impact on metabolism, with a particular focus on lipid metabolism...
May 14, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752349/paediatric-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-in-von-hippel-lindau-disease
#5
Samuel Matthew O'Toole, Anju Sahdev, Satya Bhattacharya, Roger Feakins, Evelien F Gevers, William Drake
Extract: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) are an established feature of von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), occurring in up to 17% of mutation carriers (Libutti et al. 2000; Blansfield et al. 2007; Erlic et al. 2010; Igarashi et al. 2014). The natural history of VHL-pNETs is poorly characterised with metastatic disease occurring in up to 25% of affected individuals (Erlic et al. 2010). Management of this unique pNET subgroup is complicated by the potential for multifocal and metachronous disease as well as extra-pancreatic VHL-related neoplasms (e...
May 11, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748190/preventive-medicine-for-von-hippel-lindau-disease-associated-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#6
Tobias Krauss, Alfonso Massimiliano Ferrara, Thera P Links, Ulrich Wellner, Irina Bancos, Andrey Kvachenyuk, Karina Villar Gómez de Las Heras, Marina Yukina, Roman Petrov, Garrett Bullivant, Laura von Duecker, Swati S Jadhav, Ursula Ploeckinger, Staffan Welin, Camilla Schalin-Jantti, Oliver Gimm, Marija Pfeifer, Joanne Ngeow, Kornelia Hasse-Lazar, Gabriela Sanso, Xiao-Ping Qi, Umit Ugurlu, Rene Eduardo Diaz, Nelson Wohllk, Mariola Peczkowska, Jens Aberle, Delmar Munir Lourenço, Maria Adelaide Pereira, Maria Candida Barisson Villares Fragoso, Ana O Hoff, Madson Queiroz Almeida, Alice H D Violante, Ana R P Quidute, Zheiwei Zhang, Monica Recasens, Luis Robles Diaz, Tada Kunavisarut, Taweesak Wannachalee, Sirinart Sirinvaravong, Eric Jonasch, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Merav Fraenkel, Dmitry Beltsevich, Viacheslav I Egorov, Dirk Bausch, Matthias Schott, Nikolaus Tiling, Gianmaria Pennelli, Stefan Zschiedrich, Roland Därr, Juri Ruf, Timm Denecke, Karl-Heinrich Link, Stefania Zovato, Ernst von Dobschuetz, Svetlana Yaremchuk, Holger Amthauer, Ozer Makay, Attila Patocs, Martin K Walz, Tobias B Huber, Jochen Seufert, Per Hellman, Raymond H Kim, Ekaterina Kuchinskaya, Francesca Schiavi, Angelica Malinoc, Nicole Reisch, Barbara Jarzab, Marta Barontini, Andrzej Januszewicz, Nalini Shah, William Young, Giuseppe Opocher, Charis Eng, Hartmut P H Neumann, Birke Bausch
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are rare in von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) but cause serious morbidity and mortality. Management guidelines for VHL-PanNETs continue to be based on limited evidence, and survival data to guide surgical management are lacking. We established the European-American-Asian-VHL-PanNET-Registry to assess data for risks for metastases, survival and long-term outcomes to provide best management recommendations. Of 2,330 VHL patients, 273 had a total of 484 PanNETs. Median age at diagnosis of PanNET was 35 years (range 10-75)...
May 10, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743167/characterising-the-adipose-inflammatory-microenvironment-in-male-breast-cancer
#7
Tom Lees, Angharad Cullinane, Alexandra Condon, Abeer M Shaaban, Matthew Humphries, Valerie Speirs
Male breast cancer (MBC) incidence seems to parallel global increases in obesity. The stromal microenvironment contributes to carcinogenesis, yet the role of adipocytes in this is understudied in MBC. We identified 4 cohorts of male breast tissues diagnosed when obesity was rare (archival cohort) and more common (contemporary cohort). We examined the microenvironment of archival and contemporary cohorts of MBC, diagnosed 1940 - 1970 and 1998 - 2006, respectively, with 2 cohorts of, archival and contemporary gynaecomastia, diagnosed 1940 - 1979 and 1996 - 2011, respectively serving as controls...
May 9, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743166/exploiting-insights-on-the-ret-receptor-for-personalized-cancer-medicine
#8
Lois M Mulligan
The focus of precision cancer medicine is the use of patient genetic signatures to predict disease occurrence and course and tailor approaches to individualized treatment to improve patient outcomes. The RET receptor tyrosine kinase represents a paradigm for the power of personalized cancer management to change cancer impact and improve quality of life. Oncogenic activation of RET occurs through several mechanisms including activating mutations and increased or aberrant expression. Activating RET mutations found in the inherited cancer syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 permit early diagnosis, predict disease course, and guide disease management to optimize patient survival...
May 9, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724878/the-aberrantly-expressed-mir-372-partly-impairs-sensitivity-to-apoptosis-in-parathyroid-tumor-cells
#9
Chiara Verdelli, Irene Forno, Annamaria Morotti, Pasquale Creo, Vito Guarnieri, Alfredo Scillitani, Filomena Cetani, Leonardo Vicentini, Gianni Balza, Edoardo Beretta, Stefano Ferrero, Valentina Alessandra Vaira, Sabrina Corbetta
Parathyroid tumors deregulate microRNAs belonging to the two clusters on the chromosome 19, the C19MC and miR-371-373 clusters. Here, we report that the embryonic miR-372 is aberrantly expressed in half of parathyroid adenomas, (PAds) in most of atypical adenomas and carcinomas (n=15). Through in situ hybridization we identified that miR-372-positive parathyroid tumor cells were scattered throughout the tumor parenchyma. In PAds-derived cells, ectopic miR-372 inhibited the expression of its targets CDKN1A/p21 and LATS2 at both mRNA and protein levels...
May 3, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700012/cellular-kinetics-of-med12-mutant-uterine-leiomyoma-growth-and-regression-in-vivo
#10
Vanida Ann Serna, Xin Wu, Wenan Qiang, Justin Thomas, Michael Blumenfeld, Takeshi Kurita
Cellular mechanisms of uterine leiomyoma (LM) formation have been studied primarily utilizing in vitro models. However, recent studies established that the cells growing in the primary cultures of MED12 mutant LM (MED12-LM) do not carry causal mutations. To improve the accuracy of LM research, we addressed the cellular mechanisms of LM growth and regression utilizing a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model, which faithfully replicates the patient tumors in situ. The growth and maintenance of MED12-LMs depend on 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4)...
April 26, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695586/greb1-isoforms-regulate-proliferation-independent-of-er%C3%AE-co-regulator-activities-in-breast-cancer
#11
Corinne N Haines, Kara M Braunreiter, Xiaokui M Mo, Craig Joseph Burd
Activation of the transcription factor estrogen receptor α (ERα) and the subsequent regulation of estrogen-responsive genes play a crucial role in the development and progression of the majority of breast cancers. One gene target of ERα, growth regulation by estrogen in breast cancer 1 (GREB1), is associated with proliferation and regulation of ERα activity in estrogen-responsive breast cancer cells. The GREB1 gene encodes three distinct isoforms: GREB1a, GREB1b, and GREB1c, whose molecular functions are largely unknown...
April 25, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692347/chromatin-reprogramming-in-breast-cancer
#12
Erin E Swinstead, Ville Paakinaho, Gordon Hager
Reprogramming of the chromatin landscape is a critical component to the transcriptional response in breast cancer. Effects of sex hormones such as estrogens and progesterone have been well described to have a critical impact on breast cancer proliferation. However, the complex network of the chromatin landscape, enhancer regions, and mode of function of steroid receptors (SRs) and other transcription factors (TFs), is an intricate web of signaling and functional processes that is still largely misunderstood at the mechanistic level...
April 24, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692346/-tert-aberrancies-a-screening-tool-for-malignancy-in-follicular-thyroid-tumours
#13
Johan Owe Paulsson, Ninni Mu, Ivan Shabo, Na Wang, Jan Zedenius, Catharina Larsson, C Christofer Juhlin
TERT promoter mutations have been linked to adverse clinical parameters in thyroid cancer, but TERT expressing tumours are not always mutated. Little is known regarding other TERT -related genetic aberrations. To delineate the role of TERT gene aberrancies in follicular thyroid tumours, 95 follicular carcinomas (FTC), 43 follicular adenomas (FTA) and 33 follicular tumours of uncertain malignant potential (FT-UMP) were collected. The tumours were assayed for TERT expression, TERT promoter mutations, TERT promoter hypermethylation and TERT gene copy number alterations, and the results were compared to clinical parameters...
April 24, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674428/optimising-endocrine-therapy-in-postmenopausal-women-with-advanced-breast-cancer
#14
Thomas Ho Lai Yau, Kl Cheung
Hormone receptor-positive breast cancer is commonly treated with endocrine therapy; however, overtime cancer cells can develop endocrine resistance. This review aims to document combination therapy and sequential therapy in the use of endocrine agents and targeted agents. By conducting two systematic searches using 4 databases: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science. A total of 26 studies that covered combination therapy were obtained and included for the review. 14 were phase III documenting combinations of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and cyclin dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors...
April 19, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669844/open-issues-on-g3-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-back-to-the-future
#15
Maria Chiara Zatelli, Elia Guadagno, Erika Messina, Fabio Lo Calzo, Antongiulio Faggiano, Annamaria A L Colao
The recent recognition that Grade 3 (G3) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) can be divided into two different categories according to the histopathological differentiation, i.e. G3 neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and G3 neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) has generated a lot of interest concerning not only the diagnosis, but also the differential management of such new group of NEN. However, several issues need to be fully clarified in order to put G3 NET and G3 NEC in the right place. The aim of this review is to focus on those issues that are still undetermined starting from the current knowledge, evaluating the available evidence and the possible clinical implications...
April 18, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636368/combining-chloroquine-with-rad001-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-a-nen-mouse-model
#16
Shani Avniel, Gil Leibowitz, Victoria Doviner, David J Gross, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg
NEN patients often require systemic treatment, which is frequently limited by the emergence of drug resistance. mTOR inhibitors (mTORi) such as RAD001 (everolimus) has been shown to inhibit tumor progression. mTORi stimulates autophagy, a degradation pathway that might promote the survival of tumor cells that are exposed to anti-cancer therapy. Chloroquine (CQ), a well-known anti-malarial and anti-rheumatic drug, suppress autophagy. Based on our previous results, we hypothesized that CQ may enhance the anti-tumorigenic effects of mTORi by inhibiting autophagy...
April 10, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622689/protein-stabilization-by-rsume-accounts-for-pttg-pituitary-tumor-abundance-and-oncogenicity
#17
Mariana Fuertes, Melanie Sapochnik, Lucas Tedesco, Sergio Senin, Alejandra Attorresi, Pablo Ajler, Guillermo Carrizo, Andrés Cervio, Gustavo Sevlever, Juan José Bonfiglio, Günter K Stalla, Eduardo Arzt
Increased levels of the proto-oncogene pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG) have been repeatedly reported in several human solid tumors, especially in endocrine-related tumors such as pituitary adenomas. Securin PTTG has a critical role in pituitary tumorigenesis. However, the cause of upregulation has not been found yet, despite analyses made at the gene, promoter and mRNA level that show that no mutations, epigenetic modifications or other mechanisms that deregulate its expression may explain its overexpression and action as an oncogene...
April 5, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618578/pet-response-assessment-in-apatinib-treated-radioactive-iodine-refractory-thyroid-cancer
#18
Chen Wang, Xin Zhang, Xue Yang, Hui Li, Ruixue Cui, Wenmin Guan, Xin Li, Zhaohui Zhu, Yansong Lin
This work evaluated the use of the positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) technique to assess the early therapeutic response and predict the prognosis of patients with radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RAIR-DTC) who underwent apatinib therapy. Standardised uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), derived from 18FDG PET/CT and SUV from 68Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT, were evaluated. Tumour response was evaluated using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1...
April 4, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618577/androgen-receptor-moonlighting-in-the-prostate-cancer-microenvironment
#19
Bianca Cioni, Wilbert Zwart, Andries M Bergman
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is vital for normal development of the prostate, and is critically involved in prostate cancer (PCa). AR is not only found in epithelial prostate cells, but is also expressed in various cells in the PCa-associated stroma, which constitute the tumor microenvironment (TME). In the TME, AR is expressed in fibroblasts, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. AR expression in the TME was shown to be decreased in higher grade and metastatic PCa, suggesting that stromal AR plays a protective role against PCa progression...
April 4, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615431/clinical-significance-of-ret-and-ras-mutations-in-sporadic-medullary-thyroid-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#20
Huy Gia Vuong, Toru Odate, Hanh T T Ngo, Thong Quang Pham, Thao T K Tran, Kunio Mochizuki, Tadao Nakazawa, Ryohei Katoh, Tetsuo Kondo
There are ongoing debates with respect to the prognostic roles of molecular biomarkers in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). In this study, we aimed at investigating the prognostic value of RET and RAS mutations - the two most common mutations in sporadic MTCs. A search was conducted in four electronic databases. Relevant data were extracted and pooled into odds ratios (OR), mean differences (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the random-effect model. We used Egger's regression test and visual of funnel plots to assess the publication bias...
April 3, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
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