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Endocrine-related Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330196/higher-prevalence-of-lymph-node-metastasis-in-prostate-cancer-in-patients-with-diabetes
#1
Stefan Zoltán Lutz, Tilman Todenhöfer, Robert Wagner, Jörg Hennenlotter, Jana Marlene Ferchl, Marcus Oliver Scharpf, Peter Martus, Harald Staiger, Andreas Fritsche, Arnulf Stenzl, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Martin Heni
Extract: Prostate cancer (PCa) and type 2 diabetes mellitus are under the most frequent diseases in men with a tremendous impact on morbidity and mortality (Giovannucci, et al. 2010). Incidence of many common types of cancer is known to be higher in diabetes (Giovannucci et al. 2010). However, studies reported that incidence of PCa is not increased in men with type 2 diabetes, some studies even found reduced prevalence (Kasper, et al. 2009). In contrast, PCa survival is markedly reduced in patients with coincident type 2 diabetes (Chen, et al...
January 12, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330195/dicer1-gene-mutations-in-endocrine-tumors
#2
Michael Solarski, Fabio Rotondo, William Foulkes, John R Priest, Luis V Syro, Henriett Butz, Michael Cusimano, Kalman Kovacs
In this review, the importance of the DICER1 gene in the function of endocrine cells is discussed. There is conclusive evidence that DICER1 mutations play a crucial role in the development, progression, cell proliferation, therapeutic responsiveness and behavior of several endocrine tumors. We review the literature of DICER1 gene mutations in thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, pineal gland, endocrine pancreas, paragangliomas, medullary, adrenocortical, ovarian, and testicular tumors. Although significant progress has been made during the last few years, much more work is needed to fully understand the significance of DICER1 mutations...
January 12, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330194/telotristat-ethyl-in-carcinoid-syndrome-safety-and-efficacy-in-the-telecast-phase-3-trial
#3
Marianne E Pavel, David J Gross, Marta Benavent, Petros Perros, Raj Srirajaskanthan, Richard R P Warner, Matthew H Kulke, Lowell Anthony, Pamela Kunz, Dieter Hörsch, Martin O Weickert, Pablo Lapuerta, Wenjun Jiang, Kenneth Kassler-Taub, Suman Wason, Rosanna Fleming, Douglas Fleming, Rocio García-Carbonero
Telotristat ethyl, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, was efficacious and well tolerated in the Phase 3 TELESTAR study in patients with carcinoid syndrome (CS) experiencing ≥4 bowel movements per day (BMs/day) while on somatostatin analogs (SSAs). TELECAST, a Phase 3 companion study, assessed safety and efficacy of telotristat ethyl in patients with CS (diarrhea, flushing, abdominal pain, nausea, or elevated urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid [u5-HIAA]) with <4 BMs/day on SSAs (or ≥1 symptom or ≥4 BMs/day if not on SSAs) during a 12-week double-blind treatment period followed by a 36-week open-label extension (OLE)...
January 12, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326364/inflammation-and-pd-l1-expression-in-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-tumors
#4
Atsuko Kasajima, Yuichi Ishikawa, Ayaka Iwata, Katja Steiger, Naomi Oka, Hirotaka Ishida, Akira Sakurada, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Toru Kameya, Björn Konukiewitz, Gunter Kloppel, Yoshinori Okada, Hironobu Sasano, Wilko Weichert
In the light of novel cancer immune therapies, the status of antitumor inflammatory response and its regulation has gained much attention in patients with lung cancer. Ample datasets exist for non-small cell lung cancer, but those for pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are scarce and controversial. Here, tumor-associated inflammation, CD8+ cell infiltration and PD-L1 status were evaluated in a cohort of 57 resected carcinoids and 185 resected neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung (58 large cell carcinomas and 127 small cell carcinomas)...
January 11, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321183/ptgs2-polymorphism-rs689466-favors-breast-cancer-recurrence-in-obese-patients
#5
Daniely Regina Freitas-Alves, Hayra de Andrade Vieira-Monteiro, Diogo Nascimento Piranda, Marcelo Sobral-Leite, Taiana Sousa Lopes da Silva, Anke Bergmann, Samuel Dos Santos Valença, Jamila Alessandra Perini, Rosane Vianna-Jorge
Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women, and its increasing incidence is a challenge worldwide. Estrogen exposure is the main risk factor, but obesity among postmenopausal women has been shown to favor disease onset and progression. The link between obesity and mammary carcinogenesis involves elevated estrogen production and pro-inflammatory stimuli within the adipose tissue, with activation of the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway. Here, we evaluate the impact of the four most common cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms (rs689465, rs689466, rs20417 and rs20417), in combination with obesity, on the risk of breast cancer progression in a cohort of Brazilian breast cancer patients (N = 1038)...
January 10, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317481/iaps-cause-resistance-to-trail-dependent-apoptosis-in-follicular-thyroid-cancer
#6
Thomas Artur Werner, Inga Nolten, Levent Dizdar, Jasmin Riemer, Sina Christin Schütte, Pablo Emilio Verde, Katharina Raba, Matthias Schott, Wolfram Trudo Knoefel, Andreas Krieg
Follicular thyroid cancer's (FTC) excellent long-term prognosis is mainly dependent on complete surgical removal and postoperative radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment. However, once the tumour becomes RAI refractory the 10-year disease specific survival rate drops below 10 %. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic and biological role of the TRAIL system in FTC and to elucidate the influence of small molecule mediated antagonization of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) on TRAIL-sensitivity in vitro...
January 9, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317480/mir-205-targets-angiogenesis-and-emt-concurrently-in-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma
#7
Haleh Vosgha, Armin Ariana, Robert Smith, Alfred Lam
The current study aims to evaluate for the first time the inhibitory roles of miR-205 in the pathogenesis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. In addition, we investigated the mechanisms by which miR-205 regulates angiogenesis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer. Two anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines were transfected with the expression vector pCMV-MIR-205. Selected markers of angiogenesis and EMT including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) were investigated by Western blot...
January 9, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317479/sex-steroids-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-prostate-cancer-progression
#8
Clovis Boibessot, Paul Toren
Prostate cancer is uniquely dependent on androgens. Despite years of research on the relationship between androgens and prostate cancer, many questions remain as to the biological effects of androgens and other sex steroids during prostate cancer progression. This article reviews the clinical and basic research on the influence of sex steroids such as androgens, estrogens and progesterone within the prostate tumor microenvironment on the progression of prostate cancer. We review clinical studies to date evaluating serum sex steroids as prognostic biomarkers and discuss their respective biological effects within the prostate tumor microenvironment...
January 9, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298817/circulating-mir-375-as-a-novel-prognostic-marker-for-metastatic-medullary-thyroid-cancer-patients
#9
Paola Romeo, Carla Colombo, Roberta Granata, Giuseppina Calareso, Ambra V Gualeni, Matteo Dugo, Loris De Cecco, Maria Grazia Rizzetti, Angela Zanframundo, Antonella Aiello, Maria Luisa Carcangiu, Annunziata Gloghini, Stefano Ferrero, Lisa Licitra, Angela Greco, Laura Fugazzola, Laura D Locati, Maria Grazia Borrello
This study aimed to identify circulating miRNAs as novel non-invasive biomarkers for prognosis and vandetanib response in advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) patients. We prospectively recruited two independent cohorts of locally advanced/metastatic MTC patients including a subgroup of vandetanib-treated subjects: a discovery cohort (n = 20), including matched plasma/tissue samples (n = 17/20), and a validation cohort, yielding only plasma samples (n = 17). Plasma samples from healthy subjects (n = 36) and MTC patients in remission (n = 9) were used as controls...
January 3, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295822/runx2-overexpression-compromises-bone-quality-in-acromegalic-patients
#10
Maria Teresa Valenti, Monica Mottes, Samuele Cheri, Michela Deiana, Valentina Micheletti, Elisa Cosaro, Maria Vittoria Davì, Giuseppe Francia, Luca Dalle Carbonare
Acromegalic patients, characterized by excessive secretion of GH and IGF-1, show a high fracture risk but Bone Mineral Density is a poor predictor for bone fractures in these patients. The effects of an excess of GH/IGF1 on skeleton as well as on osteogenic progenitors, i.e. mesenchymal stem cells, have not been investigated in these patients. We aimed to elucidate the skeletal conditions of acromegalic patients by means of bone microarchitecture analysis and evaluation of MSCs osteogenic commitment. In particular, we performed histomorphometric analyses and we quantified the expression levels of the osteogenic transcription factor RUNX2 in circulating MSCs...
January 2, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295821/anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma-review-of-treatment-protocols
#11
Vera Tiedje, Martin Stuschke, Frank Weber, Henning Dralle, Laura Moss, Dagmar Führer
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an orphan disease and in most patients fatal. So far no established treatment is available that prolongs survival. Several large retrospective studies have identified negative prognostic markers, analyzed efficacy of multimodal approaches such as radiotherapy with and without concurrent chemotherapy and chemotherapy protocols. Recently, single case reports have suggested some effectiveness of newer therapies targeting single somatic alterations in ATC. All in all, the conclusions that can be drawn from published retrospective studies and the scarce prospective approaches is that new treatment protocols should be developed including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy approaches and combinational therapy with immunotherapies...
January 2, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255096/tetrac-downregulates-%C3%AE-catenin-and-hmga2-to-promote-the-effect-of-resveratrol-in-colon-cancer
#12
André Wendindondé Nana, Yu-Tang Chin, Chi Yu Lin, Yih Ho, James A Bennett, Ya-Jung Shih, Yi-Ru Chen, Chun A Changou, Jens Z Pedersen, Sandra Incerpi, Leroy Fung Liu, Jacqueline Whang Peng, Earl Fu, Wen Shan Li, Shaker A Mousa, Hung-Yun Lin, Paul J Davis
The molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer encompasses the activation of several oncogenic signaling pathways that include the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the overexpression of high mobility group protein A2 (HMGA2). Resveratrol - the polyphenolic phytoalexin - binds to integrin αvβ3 to induce apoptosis in cancer cells via COX-2 nuclear accumulation and p53-dependent apoptosis. Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) is a de-aminated derivative of L-thyroxine (T4), which - in contrast to the parental hormone - impairs cancer cell proliferation...
December 18, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255095/mesenteric-fibrosis-and-palliative-surgery-in-small-intestinal-neuroendocrine-tumours
#13
Anela Blazevic, Wouter T Zandee, Gaston J H Franssen, Johannes Hofland, Marie-Louise F Van Velthuysen, Leo Hofland, R A Feelders, Wouter W de Herder
Mesenteric fibrosis (MF) surrounding a mesenteric mass is a hallmark feature of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs). Since this can induce intestinal obstruction, oedema and ischaemia, prophylactic resection of the primary tumour and mesenteric mass is often recommended. This study assessed predictors for mesenteric metastasis and fibrosis and the effect of MF and palliative surgery on survival. This study is a retrospective analysis of 559 patients with pathologically proven SI-NET and available CT-imaging data was performed...
December 18, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255094/genetic-testing-for-indeterminate-thyroid-cytology-meta-analysis-and-review
#14
Sergio Vargas-Salas, Jose Rodrigo Martínez, Maria Soledad Urra, Jose Miguel Dominguez, Natalia Mena, Thomas Uslar, Marcela Lagos, Marcela Henriquez, Hernan E Gonzalez
Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine malignancy, and its incidence is increasing. A current limitation of cytological evaluation of thyroid nodules is that 20-25% are reported as indeterminate. Therefore, an important challenge for clinicians is to determine whether an indeterminate nodule is malignant, and should undergo surgery, or benign, and should be recommended to follow-up. The emergence of precision medicine has offered a valuable solution for this problem, with four tests currently available for the molecular diagnosis of indeterminate nodules...
December 18, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237712/receptor-activities-of-persistent-pollutant-serum-mixtures-and-breast-cancer-risk
#15
Maria Wielsøe, Christian Bjerregaard-Olesen, Peder Kern, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen
Studies on associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. The majority of studies have evaluated the effect of single compounds, without considering multiple exposures to and interactions between different POPs. The present study aimed at evaluating breast cancer risk related to combined effects of serum POP mixtures on cellular receptor functions. Data on breast cancer cases (n=77) and controls (n=84) was collected among Greenlandic Inuit women. Serum mixtures of lipophilic POPs (lipPOPs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), and dioxin-like POPs were extracted...
December 13, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233841/small-intestinal-neuroendocrine-tumours-and-fibrosis-an-entangled-conundrum
#16
Anela Blazevic, Johannes Hofland, Leo Hofland, R A Feelders, Wouter W de Herder
Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are neoplasms characterized by their ability to secrete biogenic amines and peptides. These cause distinct clinical pathology including carcinoid syndrome, marked by diarrhoea and flushing, as well as fibrosis, notably mesenteric fibrosis. Mesenteric fibrosis often results in significant morbidity by causing intestinal obstruction, oedema and ischemia. Although advancements have been made to alleviate symptoms of carcinoid syndrome and prolong the survival of patients with SI-NETs, therapeutic options for patients with mesenteric fibrosis are still limited...
December 12, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233840/microbiome-in-pten-hamartoma-tumor-syndrome
#17
Victoria Byrd, Ted M Getz, Roshan Padmanabhan, Hans Arora, Charis Eng
Germline PTEN mutations defining PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome [PHTS] confer heritable predisposition to breast, endometrial, thyroid, and other cancers with known age-related risks, but it remains impossible to predict if any individual will develop cancer. In the general population, gut microbial dysbiosis has been linked to cancer, yet is unclear whether these are associated in PHTS patients. In this pilot study, we aimed to characterize microbial composition of stool, urine, and oral wash from 32 PTEN mutation-positive individuals using 16S rRNA-gene sequencing...
December 12, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233839/genetics-of-tumors-of-the-adrenal-cortex
#18
Fidéline Bonnet-Serrano, Jerome Bertherat
This review describes the molecular alterations observed in the various types of tumors of the adrenal cortex, excluding Conn adenomas, especially the alterations identified by genomic approaches these last five years. Two main forms of bilateral adrenocortical tumors can be distinguished according to size and aspect of the nodules: primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease (PPNAD) which can be sporadic or part of Carney complex, and primary bilateral macro nodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH). The bilateral nature of tumors suggests the existence of an underlying genetic predisposition...
December 12, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217518/enhancement-of-mammary-tumor-growth-by-igfbp-3-involves-impaired-t-cell-accumulation
#19
Tiffany Scully, Carolyn Scott, Sue Mei Firth, Lisa M Sedger, John E Pintar, Stephen Twigg, Robert C Baxter
Epidemiological studies show an association between obesity and poor breast cancer prognosis. We previously demonstrated that global IGFBP-3 deficiency, in IGFBP-3-null mice, resulted in a 50% reduction in mammary tumor growth over 3 weeks relative to tumors in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. This growth reduction was ameliorated by high-fat feeding-induced obesity. This study aimed to examine how IGFBP-3 promotes tumor growth by influencing the immune tumor microenvironment in healthy and obese mice. Syngeneic EO771 cells, which lack detectable IGFBP-3 expression, were grown as orthotopic tumors in wild-type and IGFBP-3-null C57BL/6 mice placed on either a control chow or high-fat diet, and examined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry...
December 7, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212777/detection-and-monitoring-of-circulating-tumor-dna-in-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#20
Simon Garinet, Juliette Nectoux, Mario Neou, Eric Pasmant, Anne Jouinot, Mathilde Sibony, Lucie Orhant, Juliana Pipoli da Fonseca, Karine Hecale-Perlemoine, Leopoldine Bricaire, Lionel Groussin, Olivier Soubrane, Bertrand Dousset, Rossella Libé, Franck Letourneur, Jerome Bertherat, Guillaume Assié
Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are aggressive tumors with limited prognostic and follow-up biomarkers. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging biomarker, now used for several cancer types. This study aimed to reliably detect and quantify ctDNA in ACC patients; to identify parameters impacting detection of ctDNA. A prospective monocentric study conducted in Cochin Hospital and Cochin Institute, Paris, France. Eleven ACC patients were included with either primary tumor or relapse or metastases from 2015 to 2016...
December 6, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
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