Read by QxMD icon Read

Endocrine-related Cancer

Ion Cristobal, Blanca Torrejón, Manuel Pedregal, Federico G Rojo, Jesús García-Foncillas
Dear Editor, We have read with great interest the recent published manuscript by Caiazza et al. (2016), which provides novel exciting findings about the potential therapeutic value of enzalutamide in patients with androgen receptor (AR)-positive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Some previous studies have shown promising antitumor effects of this drug in breast tumors. Thus, enzalutamide-mediated AR inhibition has been reported to reduce proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, and invasion and increases apoptosis of TNBC cells in vitro and decrease viability of TNBC xenografts in vivo (Cochrane et al...
October 20, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Kalina Biernacka, Raj A Persad, Amit Bahl, David Gillatt, Jeff M P Holly, Claire M Perks
The incidence of many common cancers varies between different populations and appears to be affected by a Western lifestyle. Highly proliferative malignant cells require sufficient levels of nutrients for their anabolic activity. Therefore targeting genes and pathways involved in metabolic pathways could yield future therapeutics. A common pathway implicated in energetic and nutritional requirements of a cell is the LKB1/AMPK pathway. Metformin is a widely studied anti-diabetic drug, which improves glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes via targeting this pathway...
October 17, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Elgene Lim, Gerard Tarulli, Neil Portman, Theresa Hickey, Wayne D Tilley, Carlo Palmieri
The estrogen receptor-α (herein called ER) is a nuclear sex steroid receptor (SSR) that is expressed in approximately 75% of breast cancers. Therapies that modulate ER action have substantially improved the survival of patients with ER-positive breast cancer, but resistance to treatment still remains a major clinical problem. Treating resistant breast cancer requires co-targeting of ER and alternate signalling pathways that contribute to resistance to improve the efficacy and benefit of currently available treatments...
October 11, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Patricia Elizalde, Rosalia I Cordo Russo, Maria F Chervo, Roxana Schillaci
Approximately 15-20% of breast cancers (BC) show either membrane overexpression of ErbB-2 (MErbB-2), a member of the ErbBs family of receptor tyrosine kinases, or ErbB-2 gene amplification. Until the development of MErbB-2-targeted therapies, this BC subtype, called ErbB-2-positive, was associated with increased metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Although these therapies have significantly improved overall survival and cure rates, resistance to available drugs is still a major clinical issue. In its classical mechanism, MErbB-2 activates downstream signaling cascades which transduce its effects in BC...
October 7, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Subing Cao, Yang Zhan, Yan Dong
Androgen receptor splice variants are alternatively spliced variants of androgen receptor that are C-terminally truncated and lack the canonical ligand-binding domain. Accumulating evidence has indicated a significant role of androgen receptor splice variants in mediating resistance of castration-resistant prostate cancer to current therapies and in predicting therapeutic responses. As such, there is an urgent need to target androgen receptor splicing variants for more effective treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer...
October 4, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
John Cassidy, Ankita Sati Batra, Wendy Greenwood, Alejandra Bruna
Despite remarkable advances in our understanding of the drivers of human malignancies, new targeted therapies often fail to show sufficient efficacy in clinical trials. Indeed, the cost of bringing a new agent to market has risen substantially in the last several decades, in part fuelled by extensive reliance on preclinical models that fail to accurately reflect tumour heterogeneity. In order to halt unsustainable rates of attrition in the drug discovery process we must develop a new generation of preclinical models capable of reflecting the complex heterogeneity found in human cancers...
October 4, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Simona Falletta, Stefano Partelli, Corrado Rubini, Dominik Nann, Andrea Doria, Ilaria Marinoni, Vanessa Polenta, Carmelina Di Pasquale, Ettore C Degli Uberti, Aurel Perren, Massimo Falconi, Maria Chiara Zatelli
Medical therapy of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (P-NET) may take advantage of Everolimus treatment. However the extent of therapeutic response cannot be predicted. The present study was aimed to identify possible predictive markers of response to Everolimus in P-NET. We found that Everolimus reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in primary cultures of 6 P-NET (P-NET-R), where the proliferative and antiapoptotic effects of IGF1 were blocked by Everolimus. On the contrary, 14 P-NET primary cultures (P-NET-NR) were resistant to Everolimus and IGF1, suggesting an involvement of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in the mechanism of resistance...
October 3, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Kjell E Oberg, Steven Wj Lamberts
Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that arises when the pituitary gland secretes excess growth hormone (GH), which in turn stimulates a concomitant increase in serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NET) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumours that can secrete serotonin and a variety of peptide hormones that may cause characteristic symptoms known as carcinoid syndrome, or other symptoms and hormonal hypersecretion syndromes depending on the tumour's site of origin...
October 3, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Caroline Wilson, Hannah Brown, Ingunn Holen
Multiple factors influence the survival of disseminated breast tumour cells (DTCs) in bone. Whilst gene signature studies have identified genes that predict a propensity of tumours to metastasise to bone, the bone environment is key in determining the fate of these tumour cells. Breast cancer cells locate to specific niches within the bone that support their survival, regulated by host factors within the bone microenvironment including bone cells, cells of the bone micro vasculature, immune cells and the extracellular matrix...
September 29, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Roland Darr, Joan Nambuba, Jaydira Del Rivero, Ingo Janssen, Maria Merino, Milena Todorovic, Bela Balint, Ivana Jochmanova, Josef T Prchal, Ronald Lechan, Arthur S Tischler, Vera Popovic, Dragana Miljic, Karen T Adams, F Ryan Prall, Alexander Ling, Meredith R Golomb, Michael Ferguson, Naris Nilubol, Clara Chen, Emily Chew, David Taieb, Constantine A Stratakis, Antonio Fojo, Chunzhang Yang, Electron Kebebew, Zhengping Zhuang, Karel Pacak
The syndrome of paraganglioma (PGL), somatostatinoma (SOM), and early childhood polycythemia in patients with somatic mutations in the hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha (HIF2A) gene is described in only a few patients worldwide. The present study provides detailed information about the clinical aspects and course of 7 patients with this syndrome and brings these experiences into perspective with the pertinent literature. Six females and one male presented at a median age of 28 years (range 11-46). Two were found to have HIF2A somatic mosaicism...
September 27, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Pedro Weslley Rosario, Gabriela Franco Mourão, Mauricio Buzelin Nunes, Marcelo Saldanha Nunes, Maria Regina Calsolari
Recently, it was proposed that some papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) will no longer receive the name 'cancer' and start to be called 'noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features' (NIFTP). Since this is a recent definition, little information is available about NIFTP. The objective of this study was to report the frequency, ultrasonographic appearance, cytology result, and long-term evolution of cases of NIFTP seen at our institution. We excluded tumors ≤ 1 cm. The sample consisted of 129 patients...
September 22, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Zsofia Kiss, Paramita M Ghosh
The androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (CaP). Since the mid-1990s, reports in the literature pointed out higher incidences of CaP in some select groups, such as airline pilots and night shift workers in comparison to those working regular hours. The common finding in these 'high-risk' groups was that they all experienced a deregulation of the body's internal circadian rhythm. Here we discuss how the circadian rhythm affects androgen levels and modulates CaP development and progression...
September 22, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Marianne Pavel, Christine Sers
Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a group of heterogenous neoplasms. Evidence-based treatment options for antiproliferative therapy include somatostatin analogs, the mTOR inhibitor everolimus, the multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with 177-Lu-octreotate. In the absence of definite predictive markers therapeutic decision making follows clinical and pathological criteria. Since objective reponse rates with targeted drugs are rather low, and response duration is limited in most patients, numerous combination therapies targeting multiple pathways have been explored in the field...
September 20, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Damien A Leach, Suzanne M Powell, Charlotte Bevan
Prostate cancer has, for decades, been treated by inhibiting androgen signalling. This is effective in the majority of patients, but inevitably resistance develops and patients progress to life-threatening metastatic disease - hence the quest for new effective therapies for "castrate-resistant" prostate cancer (CRPC). Studies into what pathways can drive tumour recurrence under these conditions has identified several other nuclear receptor signalling pathways as potential drivers or modulators of CRPC. The nuclear receptors constitute a large (48 members) superfamily of transcription factors sharing a common modular functional structure...
September 19, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Marianne Pavel
Extract: During my medical studies at the Georg August University of Göttingen in the late 1980's, I was truly inspired early by my mentor and University teacher Werner Creutzfeldt to begin working in the field of neuroendocrine Tumors (NET). Werner Creutzfeldt was a leader of excellence in the field of gastrointestinal endocrinology, neuroendocrine tumors and the entero-insulinar axis/incretin system in Germany. At this time, treatment of NET, i.e. pancreatic NET was reduced to the use of chemotherapeutics like streptozotocin and others with less success...
September 19, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Hannah Rachael Nieto, Kristien Boelaert
Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and the incidence is increasing rapidly worldwide. Appropriate diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with thyroid tumours is critical. Fine needle aspiration cytology remains the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid cancer and whilst there have been significant refinements to this technique, diagnostic surgery is often required for patients suspected to have malignancy. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is raised in patients with malignant thyroid nodules compared to those with benign disease, and TSH is proportionally higher in more aggressive tumours...
September 15, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Kristien Boelaert
Extract: I am the oldest of three girls in a Belgian family. I was born in the US in 1970, whilst my parents were studying at the University of Wisconsin. Upon completion of their postgraduate studies, my parents returned to their native country Belgium when I was aged one. From a young age I was fascinated by medicine and in secondary school, human biology was my favourite subject. Whilst neither of my parents is medically trained, they always encouraged me and my sisters to have an inquisitive spirit and fuelled a thirst for knowledge and discovery...
September 15, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Iman Azimi, Gregory Raymond Monteith
A variety of studies have suggested that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be important in the progression of cancer in patients through metastasis and/or therapeutic resistance. A number of pathways have been investigated in EMT in cancer cells. Recently, changes in plasma membrane ion channel expression as a consequence of EMT have been reported. Other studies have identified specific ion channels able to regulate aspects of EMT induction. The utility of plasma membrane ion channels as targets for pharmacological modulation make them attractive for therapeutic approaches to target EMT...
September 12, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Thomas J Sweet, Angela Ting
Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies in men worldwide. Current clinical screening ensures most prostate cancer is diagnosed while still organ-confined, but disease outcome is highly variable. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular features contributing to prostate cancer aggressiveness is being sought. For many cancers, aberrant genome-wide patterns of cytosine DNA methylation in CpG dinucleotides distinguish tumor from normal tissue and contribute to disease progression by altering the transcriptome...
September 7, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Angela Ting
Extract: Halfway through my third year in college, I still had not decided on a career path. I toyed with the idea of going to law school to become an intellectual property lawyer. I considered further training to become a genetic counselor. I also attended several career opportunity seminars by notable consulting firms. None of these possibilities really excited me. Coincidentally, I had started attending a superb journal club led by Dr. Carl Douglas at the University of British Columbia. By far, it was one of the most enjoyable classes I had taken because we were reading and discussing research studies that were pushing the frontiers of knowledge...
September 7, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"