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Endocrine-related Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062546/the-clinical-importance-of-quantifying-fat-distribution-during-androgen-deprivation
#1
Stephen John Foulkes, Robin M Daly, Steve Fraser
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is now considered a mainstay in the treatment of metastatic and locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Despite well-established benefits of ADT in relation to overall survival, this treatment has been associated with a number of adverse effects, particularly with regard to key cardiometabolic risk factors including the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and increases in total and regional fat mass. In non-ADT populations, increased levels of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are thought to be a key mediator of the increased cardiometabolic risk associated with weight gain, but this has received limited attention in men treated with ADT...
January 6, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062545/a-review-of-estrogen-receptor-androgen-receptor-genomics-in-male-breast-cancer
#2
Tesa M Severson, Wilbert Zwart
Male breast cancer is a rare disease, of which little is known. In contrast to female breast cancer, the very vast majority of all cases are positive for Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα), implicating the function of this steroid hormone receptor in tumor development and progression. Consequently, adjuvant treatment of male breast cancer revolves around inhibition of ERα. In addition, the Androgen Receptor (AR) gradually receives more attention as a relevant novel target in breast cancer treatment. Importantly, the rationale of treatment-decision making is strongly based on parallels with female breast cancer...
January 6, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062544/somatic-mutation-profiling-of-hobnail-variant-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#3
Luca Morandi, Alberto Righi, Francesca Maletta, Paola Rucci, Fabio Pagni, Marco Gallo, Sabrina Rossi, Leonardo Caporali, Anna Sapino, Ricardo Lloyd, Sofia Asioli
Hobnail variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (HPTC) represents a recently described, aggressive and rare group of thyroid tumors with poorly understood pathogenesis. Molecular data about this group of cancers are few and a more detailed molecular characterization of these tumors is needed. The main objective of the study is to define a comprehensive molecular typing of HPTC. Eighteen patients affected by HPTC, including eighteen primary tumors and four lymph node metastases, were screened for NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, BRAF, TP53, PIK3CA, hTERT, PTEN, CDKN2A, EGFR, AKT1, CTNNB1, and NOTCH1 gene mutations...
January 6, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049633/progressive-epigenetic-dysregulation-in-neuroendocrine-tumour-liver-metastasis
#4
Anna Karpathakis, Harpreet Dibra, Christodoulos Pipinikas, Andrew Feber, Tiffany Morris, Joshua M Francis, Dahmane Oukrif, Dalvinder Mandair, Marinos Pericleous, Mullan Mohmaduvesh, Stefano Serra, Olagunju Ogunbiyi, Marco Novelli, Tu Vinh Luong, Sylvia L Asa, Matthew H Kulke, Christos Toumpanakis, Tim Meyer, Martyn Caplin, Stephan Beck, Christina Thirlwell
Dear Editor The incidence of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SINETs) is increasing and distant metastases are present at diagnosis in 70% of cases, the liver being the most common site of metastasis. Despite this, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying metastatic progression of SINETs is currently limited and prior studies of the molecular biology of SINET liver metastases (LM) have been performed predominantly in small cohorts utilising candidate based techniques.
January 3, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049632/paleogenetic-study-of-ancient-dna-suggestive-of-x-linked-acrogigantism
#5
Albert Beckers, Daniel Fernandes, Frederic Fina, Mario Novak, Angelo Abati, Liliya Rostomyan, Albert Thiry, L'Houcine Ouafik, Bertrand Pasture, Ron Pinhasi, Adrian F Daly
Extract: Dear Editor, Pituitary gigantism is caused by chronic growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion by a pituitary lesion before epiphyseal fusion. Genetic causes have been identified in nearly 50% of patients with pituitary gigantism, with germline mutations in the AIP gene being the most frequent cause (Rostomyan et al. 2015). Recently, a new form of pituitary gigantism, X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG), was described (Trivellin et al. 2014). X-LAG is due to chromosome Xq26.3 duplication and GPR101 is the disease-associated gene (Trivellin et al...
January 3, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965278/regression-of-advanced-neuroendocrine-tumors-among-patients-receiving-placebo
#6
Vito Amoroso, Giorgio Maria Agazzi, Elisa Roca, Nicola Fazio, Alessandra Mosca, Marco Ravanelli, Francesca Spada, Roberto Maroldi, Alfredo Berruti
Neuroendocrine tumors have a heterogeneous clinical behavior, many of them having an indolent disease course and some of them depicting an aggressive pattern. Neuroendocrine tumors may even undergo spontaneous remission, but this phenomenon has never been quantified and characterized. In this study, we performed a literature-based meta-analysis of all prospective randomized trials in which an active experimental treatment was compared with a placebo control arm. Our analysis clearly showed that a subset of NET patients (approximately 6% of those randomized to placebo) achieved tumor shrinkage greater than 10% from baseline, and this proportion was similar across the examined studies...
December 13, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965277/treatment-of-metastatic-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-relevance-of-enets-2016-guidelines
#7
Margaux Foulfoin, Emmanuelle Graillot, Mustapha Adham, Pascal Rousset, Julien Forestier, Valerie Hervieu, Philip Robinson, Jean Yves Scoazec, Catherine Lombard-Bohas, Thomas Walter
PURPOSE: The choice of first-line treatment for metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (mP-NET) is mainly based on prognostic factors. ENETS-2016 guidelines stratified treatment according to 3 groups: Group-1, patients in whom all lesions could be removed; Group-2, patients with Ki67<10%, low tumor burden, no symptoms, and stable disease, for whom a watch-and-wait strategy or somatostatin analogs are proposed; Group-3, symptomatic patients or with Ki67>10% or significant tumor burden or progressive disease, for whom a systemic chemotherapy is proposed...
December 13, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965276/thyroid-nodules-and-cancer-management-guidelines-comparisons-and-controversies
#8
Fadi Nabhan, Matthew D Ringel
Thyroid cancer is an increasingly prevalent malignancy throughout the world. Management guidelines for both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer have been published and updated by a number of societies internationally. All of these guidelines recognize this increasing incidence, particularly of small papillary thyroid cancers, due in part to improved technology enabling early or even "over" diagnosis. Recent advances in molecular imaging and molecular methods have been developed to better characterize thyroid nodules, and a number of studies that have clarified risk stratification systems that can be modified over time allow for individualization of diagnosis, initial treatment, and subsequent follow-up strategies...
December 13, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895137/successful-response-to-pegylated-interferon-alpha-in-a-recurrent-paraganglioma
#9
Thibault Bahougne, Alessio Imperiale, Gerlinde Averous, Gerard Chabrier, Nelly Burnichon, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, Nassim Dali-Youcef, Rossella Libé, Eric Baudin, Catherine Roy, Herve Lang, Laurence Kessler
INTRODUCTION: Early and accurate identification of recurrences in patients with aggressive paraganglioma (PGL) poses significant challenges. Moreover, the most appropriate therapeutic strategy for recurrent PGL remains to be established. RESULTS: We report the case of 52-year-old man with a history of recurrent, sporadic, left retroperitoneal PGL that relapsed twice (at eight and nine years after the first surgical intervention). At the time of the second recurrence, 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) demonstrated a pathologically increased tracer uptake in multiple nodular lesions (10-15 mm in size) located close to the remnant of the left renal pedicle and in the left lombar paravertebral region...
November 28, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811202/targeting-pi3k-mtor-signaling-exerts-potent-antitumor-activity-in-pheochromocytoma-in-vivo
#10
Misu Lee, Ninelia Minaskan, Tobias Wiedemann, Martin Irmler, Johannes Backers, Behrooz H Yousefi, Georgios Kaissis, Rickmer Braren, Iina Laitinen, Natalia S Pellegata
Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are mostly benign tumors, amenable to complete surgical resection. However, 10-17% of cases can become malignant, and once metastasized, there is no curative treatment for this disease. Given the need to identify effective therapeutic approaches for PCC, we evaluated the antitumor potential of the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 against these tumors. We employed an in vivo model of endogenous PCCs (MENX mutant rats), which closely recapitulate the human tumors. Mutant rats with PCCs were treated with 2 doses of BEZ235 (20 and 30 mg/kg), or with placebo, for 2 weeks...
November 3, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799362/animal-models-of-medullary-thyroid-cancer-state-of-the-art-and-view-to-the-future
#11
Giovanni Vitale, Germano Gaudenzi, Luisa Circelli, Marco Federico Manzoni, Andrea Bassi, Niccolò Fioritti, Antongiulio Faggiano, Annamaria Al Colao
Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a neuroendocrine tumour originating from parafollicular C cells accounting for 5-10% of thyroid cancers. Increased understanding of disease-specific molecular targets of therapy has led to the regulatory approval of two drugs (vandetanib and cabozantinib) for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma. These drugs increase progression free survival, however, they are often poorly tolerated and most treatment responses are transient. Animal models are indispensable tools for investigating the pathogenesis, mechanisms for tumour invasion and metastasis, and new therapeutic approaches for cancer...
October 31, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799360/androgen-receptor-signaling-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-a-lesson-in-persistence
#12
Isabel Coutinho, Tanya Day, Wayne D Tilley, Luke A Selth
The androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis drives all stages of prostate cancer, including the lethal, drug-resistant form of the disease termed castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which arises following failure of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Persistent AR activity in spite of ADT and the second-generation AR-targeting agents enzalutamide and abiraterone is achieved in many cases via direct alterations to the AR. Indeed, the role of AR in prostate cancer represents an archetype of therapy-mediated selection pressure and oncogene addiction...
October 31, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998958/bisphenol-a-and-its-analogues-disrupt-centrosome-cycle-and-microtubule-dynamics-in-prostate-cancer
#13
Shuk-Mei Ho, Rahul Rao, Sarah To, Emma Schoch, Pheruza Tarapore
Humans are increasingly exposed to structural analogues of bisphenol A (BPA), as BPA is being replaced by these compounds in BPA-free consumer products. We have previously shown that chronic and developmental exposure to BPA is associated with increased prostate cancer (PCa) risk in human and animal models. Here, we examine whether exposure of PCa cells (LNCaP, C4-2) to low-dose BPA and its structural analogues (BPS, BPF, BPAF, TBBPA, DMBPA and TMBPA) affects centrosome amplification (CA), a hallmark of cancer initiation and progression...
February 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875244/a-six-genotype-genetic-prognostic-model-for-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#14
Xiaopei Shen, Rengyun Liu, Mingzhao Xing
A unique prognostic role of the genetic duet of BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has been recently established, but the role of RAS mutation in this genetic interplay remains to be established. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data of patients with PTC from 19 medical centers, we investigated the interactions among the three mutations in clinical outcomes of PTC. We found that BRAF and RAS mutations were mutually exclusive, but both were associated with TERT promoter mutations, with the genetic duet of BRAF/RAS and TERT mutations occurring in 34/388 (8...
January 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872206/acknowledgement-to-reviewers
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872141/differential-roles-of-ret-isoforms-in-medullary-and-papillary-thyroid-carcinomas
#16
Eric Y Lian, Sarah M Maritan, Jessica G Cockburn, Katayoon Kasaian, Mathieu J F Crupi, David Hurlbut, Steven J M Jones, Sam M Wiseman, Lois M Mulligan
The RET receptor tyrosine kinase mediates cell proliferation, survival and migration in embryogenesis and is implicated in the transformation and tumour progression in multiple cancers. RET is frequently mutated and constitutively activated in familial and sporadic thyroid carcinomas. As a result of alternative splicing, RET is expressed as two protein isoforms, RET9 and RET51, which differ in their unique C-terminal amino acids. These isoforms have distinct intracellular trafficking and associated signalling complexes, but functional differences are not well defined...
January 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803029/prkar1a-gene-knockout-in-the-pancreas-leads-to-neuroendocrine-tumorigenesis
#17
Emmanouil Saloustros, Paraskevi Salpea, Matthew Starost, Sissi Liu, Fabio R Faucz, Edra London, Eva Szarek, Woo-Jin Song, Mehboob Hussain, Constantine A Stratakis
Carney complex (CNC) is a rare disease associated with multiple neoplasias, including a predisposition to pancreatic tumors; it is caused most frequently by the inactivation of the PRKAR1A gene, a regulator of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent kinase (PKA). The method used was to create null alleles of prkar1a in mouse cells expressing pdx1 (Δ-Prkar1a). We found that these mice developed endocrine or mixed endocrine/acinar cell carcinomas with 100% penetrance by the age of 4-5 months. Malignant behavior of the tumors was seen as evidenced by stromal invasion and metastasis to locoregional lymph nodes...
January 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799361/de-novo-mutation-in-men1-is-not-associated-with-parental-somatic-mosaicism
#18
LETTER
Yael Laitman, Anat Jaffe, Hagit Schayek, Eitan Friedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765801/targeting-pp2a-to-overcome-enzalutamide-resistance-in-ar-breast-tumors
#19
LETTER
Ion Cristóbal, Blanca Torrejón, Manuel Pedregal, Federico Rojo, Jesús García-Foncillas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754854/hyperglycaemia-induced-resistance-to-docetaxel-is-negated-by-metformin-a-role-for-igfbp-2
#20
K M Biernacka, R A Persad, A Bahl, D Gillatt, J M P Holly, C M Perks
The incidence of many common cancers varies between different populations and appears to be affected by a Western lifestyle. Highly proliferative malignant cells require sufficient levels of nutrients for their anabolic activity. Therefore, targeting genes and pathways involved in metabolic pathways could yield future therapeutics. A common pathway implicated in energetic and nutritional requirements of a cell is the LKB1/AMPK pathway. Metformin is a widely studied anti-diabetic drug, which improves glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes by targeting this pathway...
January 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
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