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Learning & Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620079/starvation-promotes-odor-feeding-time-associations-in-flies
#1
Nitin Singh Chouhan, Reinhard Wolf, Martin Heisenberg
Starvation causes a motivational state that facilitates diverse behaviors such as feeding, walking, and search. Starved Drosophila can form odor/feeding-time associations but the role of starvation in encoding of "time" is poorly understood. Here we show that the extent of starvation is correlated with the fly's ability to establish odor/feeding-time memories. Prolonged starvation promotes odor/feeding-time associations after just a single cycle of reciprocal training. We also show that starvation is required for acquisition but is dispensable for retrieval of odor/feeding-time memory...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620078/role-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-the-retrieval-of-novel-object-recognition-memory-after-a-long-delay
#2
Marie A Pezze, Hayley J Marshall, Kevin Cf Fone, Helen J Cassaday
Previous in vivo electrophysiological studies suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACgx) is an important substrate of novel object recognition (NOR) memory. However, intervention studies are needed to confirm this conclusion and permanent lesion studies cannot distinguish effects on encoding and retrieval. The interval between encoding and retrieval tests may also be a critical determinant of the role of the ACgx. The current series of experiments used micro-infusion of the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol, into ACgx to reversibly inactivate the area and distinguish its role in encoding and retrieval...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620077/the-influence-of-recollection-and-familiarity-in-the-formation-and-updating-of-associative-representations
#3
Jason D Ozubko, Morris Moscovitch, Gordon Winocur
Prior representations affect future learning. Little is known, however, about the effects of recollective or familiarity-based representations on such learning. We investigate the ability to reuse or reassociate elements from recollection- and familiarity-based associations to form new associations. Past neuropsychological research suggests that hippocampal, and presumably recollective, representations are more flexible than extra-hippocampal, presumably familiarity-based, representations. We therefore hypothesize that the elements of recollective associations, as opposed to familiarity-based representations, may be more easily manipulated and decoupled from each other, and facilitate the formation of new associations...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620076/superior-long-term-synaptic-memory-induced-by-combining-dual-pharmacological-activation-of-pka-and-erk-with-an-enhanced-training-protocol
#4
Rong-Yu Liu, Curtis Neveu, Paul Smolen, Leonard J Cleary, John H Byrne
Developing treatment strategies to enhance memory is an important goal of neuroscience research. Activation of multiple biochemical signaling cascades, such as the protein kinase A (PKA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, is necessary to induce long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF), a correlate of long-term memory (LTM). Previously, a computational model was developed which correctly predicted a novel enhanced training protocol that augmented LTF by searching for the protocol with maximal overlap of PKA and ERK activation...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620075/experience-dependent-epigenomic-reorganization-in-the-hippocampus
#5
Corey G Duke, Andrew J Kennedy, Cristin F Gavin, Jeremy J Day, J David Sweatt
Using a hippocampus-dependent contextual threat learning and memory task, we report widespread, coordinated DNA methylation changes in CA1 hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats specific to threat learning at genes involved in synaptic transmission. Experience-dependent alternations in gene expression and DNA methylation were observed as early as 1 h following memory acquisition and became more pronounced after 24 h. Gene ontology analysis revealed significant enrichment of functional categories related to synaptic transmission in genes that were hypomethylated at 24 h following threat learning...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620074/regulatory-bc1-rna-in-cognitive-control
#6
Anna Iacoangeli, Aderemi Dosunmu, Taesun Eom, Dimitre G Stefanov, Henri Tiedge
Dendritic regulatory BC1 RNA is a non-protein-coding (npc) RNA that operates in the translational control of gene expression. The absence of BC1 RNA in BC1 knockout (KO) animals causes translational dysregulation that entails neuronal phenotypic alterations including prolonged epileptiform discharges, audiogenic seizure activity in vivo, and excessive cortical oscillations in the γ frequency band. Here we asked whether BC1 RNA control is also required for higher brain functions such as learning, memory, or cognition...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507036/medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorsomedial-striatum-are-necessary-for-the-trial-unique-delayed-nonmatching-to-location-tunl-task-in-rats-role-of-nmda-receptors
#7
Don A Davies, Jessica L Hurtubise, Quentin Greba, John G Howland
The trial-unique, delayed nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task is a recently developed behavioral task that measures spatial working memory and a form of pattern separation in touchscreen-equipped operant conditioning chambers. Limited information exists regarding the neurotransmitters and neural substrates involved in the task. The present experiments tested the effects of systemic and intracranial injections of NMDA receptor antagonists on the TUNL task. After training, male Long Evans rats systemically injected with the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CPP (10 mg/kg) had impaired accuracy regardless of the degree of stimuli separation or length of delay between the sample and test phases...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507035/long-term-sensitization-training-in-aplysia-decreases-the-excitability-of-a-decision-making-neuron-through-a-sodium-dependent-mechanism
#8
John S Hernandez, Marcy L Wainwright, Riccardo Mozzachiodi
In Aplysia, long-term sensitization (LTS) occurs concurrently with a suppression of feeding. At the cellular level, the suppression of feeding is accompanied by decreased excitability of decision-making neuron B51. We examined the contribution of voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channels to B51 decreased excitability. In a pharmacologically isolated Na(+) channels environment, LTS training significantly increased B51 firing threshold, compared with untrained controls. Conversely, in a pharmacologically isolated K(+) channels environment, no differences were observed between trained and untrained animals in either amplitude or area of B51 K(+)-dependent depolarizations...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507034/sleep-supports-inhibitory-operant-conditioning-memory-in-aplysia
#9
Albrecht P A Vorster, Jan Born
Sleep supports memory consolidation as shown in mammals and invertebrates such as bees and Drosophila. Here, we show that sleep's memory function is preserved in Aplysia californica with an even simpler nervous system. Animals performed on an inhibitory conditioning task ("learning that a food is inedible") three times, at Training, Retrieval 1, and Retrieval 2, with 17-h intervals between tests. Compared with Wake animals, remaining awake between Training and Retrieval 1, Sleep animals with undisturbed post-training sleep, performed significantly better at Retrieval 1 and 2...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507033/response-specific-sex-difference-in-the-retention-of-fear-extinction
#10
Meagan E Voulo, Ryan G Parsons
Fear conditioning studies in rodents allow us to assess vulnerability factors which might underlie fear-based psychopathology such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite PTSD being more prevalent in females than males, very few fear conditioning studies in rodents have tested females. Our study assessed fear conditioning and extinction in male and female rats using both fear-potentiated startle and freezing behavior as measures. Rats were trained to fear cues that predicted the occurrence of shock and then subsequently exposed to an extinction training procedure where the cue was presented repeatedly in the absence of shock...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507032/%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-influence-hippocampus-dependent-learning-and-memory-in-adolescent-mice
#11
Shahrdad Lotfipour, Celina Mojica, Sakura Nakauchi, Marcela Lipovsek, Sarah Silverstein, Jesse Cushman, James Tirtorahardjo, Andrew Poulos, Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Katumi Sumikawa, Michael S Fanselow, Jim Boulter
The absence of α2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) GABAergic interneurons ablate the facilitation of nicotine-induced hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation and impair memory. The current study delineated whether genetic mutations of α2* nAChRs (Chrna2(L9'S/L9'S) and Chrna2(KO)) influence hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and CA1 synaptic plasticity. We substituted a serine for a leucine (L9'S) in the α2 subunit (encoded by the Chrna2 gene) to make a hypersensitive nAChR...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507031/memory-consolidation-within-the-central-amygdala-is-not-necessary-for-modulation-of-cerebellar-learning
#12
Adam B Steinmetz, Ka H Ng, John H Freeman
Amygdala lesions impair, but do not prevent, acquisition of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning suggesting that the amygdala modulates cerebellar learning. Two-factor theories of eyeblink conditioning posit that a fast-developing memory within the amygdala facilitates slower-developing memory within the cerebellum. The current study tested this hypothesis by impairing memory consolidation within the amygdala with inhibition of protein synthesis, transcription, and NMDA receptors in rats. Rats given infusions of anisomycin or DRB into the central amygdala (CeA) immediately after each eyeblink conditioning session were severely impaired in contextual and cued fear conditioning, but were completely unimpaired in eyeblink conditioning...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416633/intrusions-in-episodic-memory-reconsolidation-or-interference
#13
Angela Klingmüller, Jeremy B Caplan, Tobias Sommer
It would be profoundly important if reconsolidation research in animals and other memory domains generalized to human episodic memory. A 3-d-list-discrimination procedure, based on free recall of objects, with a contextual reminder cue (the testing room), has been thought to demonstrate reconsolidation of human episodic memory (as noted in a previous study). Our goal was to replicate the central result, a high intrusion rate during recall of the target list, and evaluate the reconsolidation account relative to an alternative account, based on state-dependent learning and interference...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416632/null-epac-mutants-reveal-a-sequential-order-of-versatile-camp-effects-during-drosophila-aversive-odor-learning
#14
Antje Richlitzki, Philipp Latour, Martin Schwärzel
Here, we define a role of the cAMP intermediate EPAC in Drosophila aversive odor learning by means of null epac mutants. Complementation analysis revealed that EPAC acts downstream from the rutabaga adenylyl cyclase and in parallel to protein kinase A. By means of targeted knockdown and genetic rescue we identified mushroom body Kenyon cells (KCs) as a necessary and sufficient site of EPAC action. We provide mechanistic insights by analyzing acquisition dynamics and using the "performance increment" as a means to access the trial-based sequential organization of odor learning...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416631/mutation-of-neuron-specific-chromatin-remodeling-subunit-baf53b-rescue-of-plasticity-and-memory-by-manipulating-actin-remodeling
#15
Annie Vogel Ciernia, Enikö A Kramár, Dina P Matheos, Robbert Havekes, Thekla J Hemstedt, Christophe N Magnan, Keith Sakata, Ashley Tran, Soraya Azzawi, Alberto Lopez, Richard Dang, Weisheng Wang, Brian Trieu, Joyce Tong, Ruth M Barrett, Rebecca J Post, Pierre Baldi, Ted Abel, Gary Lynch, Marcelo A Wood
Recent human exome-sequencing studies have implicated polymorphic Brg1-associated factor (BAF) complexes (mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes) in several intellectual disabilities and cognitive disorders, including autism. However, it remains unclear how mutations in BAF complexes result in impaired cognitive function. Post-mitotic neurons express a neuron-specific assembly, nBAF, characterized by the neuron-specific subunit BAF53b. Subdomain 2 of BAF53b is essential for the differentiation of neuronal precursor cells into neurons...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416630/common-microbehavioral-footprint-of-two-distinct-classes-of-conditioned-aversion
#16
Emmanouil Paisios, Annabell Rjosk, Evren Pamir, Michael Schleyer
Avoiding unfavorable situations is a vital skill and a constant task for any animal. Situations can be unfavorable because they feature something that the animal wants to escape from, or because they do not feature something that it seeks to obtain. We investigate whether the microbehavioral mechanisms by which these two classes of aversion come about are shared or distinct. We find that larval Drosophila avoid odors either previously associated with a punishment, or previously associated with the lack of a reward...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416629/individual-differences-in-fear-extinction-and-anxiety-like-behavior
#17
Gabrielle King, Elliot Scott, Bronwyn M Graham, Rick Richardson
There is growing appreciation for the substantial individual differences in the acquisition and inhibition of aversive associations, and the insights this might give into identifying individuals particularly vulnerable to stress and psychopathology. We examined whether animals that differed in rate of extinction (i.e., Fast versus Slow) were different in their response to an acute stress in adulthood or following a chronic stress that occurred either early or later in life. We found that Slow Extinguishers had significantly poorer extinction retention than Fast Extinguishers, but an acute stressor did not differentially affect anxiety-like behavior in the two groups...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331016/brain-wide-maps-of-fos-expression-during-fear-learning-and-recall
#18
Jin-Hyung Cho, Sam D Rendall, Jesse M Gray
Fos induction during learning labels neuronal ensembles in the hippocampus that encode a specific physical environment, revealing a memory trace. In the cortex and other regions, the extent to which Fos induction during learning reveals specific sensory representations is unknown. Here we generate high-quality brain-wide maps of Fos mRNA expression during auditory fear conditioning and recall in the setting of the home cage. These maps reveal a brain-wide pattern of Fos induction that is remarkably similar among fear conditioning, shock-only, tone-only, and fear recall conditions, casting doubt on the idea that Fos reveals auditory-specific sensory representations...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298555/low-lifetime-stress-exposure-is-associated-with-reduced-stimulus-response-memory
#19
Elizabeth V Goldfarb, Grant S Shields, Nathaniel D Daw, George M Slavich, Elizabeth A Phelps
Exposure to stress throughout life can cumulatively influence later health, even among young adults. The negative effects of high cumulative stress exposure are well-known, and a shift from episodic to stimulus-response memory has been proposed to underlie forms of psychopathology that are related to high lifetime stress. At the other extreme, effects of very low stress exposure are mixed, with some studies reporting that low stress leads to better outcomes, while others demonstrate that low stress is associated with diminished resilience and negative outcomes...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298554/learned-interval-time-facilitates-associate-memory-retrieval
#20
Vincent van de Ven, Sarah Kochs, Fren Smulders, Peter De Weerd
The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue-time-target associations between cue-target pairs and specific cue-target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying matching cue-target pairs if the time interval during testing matched the implicitly learned interval. A control experiment showed that participants had no explicit knowledge about the cue-time associations...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
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