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Learning & Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115773/special-issue-covering-the-relationship-between-mechanisms-of-addiction-and-learning
#1
EDITORIAL
Susan Cushman, John H Byrne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115772/beyond-simple-tests-of-value-measuring-addiction-as-a-heterogeneous-disease-of-computation-specific-valuation-processes
#2
Brian M Sweis, Mark J Thomas, A David Redish
Addiction is considered to be a neurobiological disorder of learning and memory because addiction is capable of producing lasting changes in the brain. Recovering addicts chronically struggle with making poor decisions that ultimately lead to relapse, suggesting a view of addiction also as a neurobiological disorder of decision-making information processing. How the brain makes decisions depends on how decision-making processes access information stored as memories in the brain. Advancements in circuit-dissection tools and recent theories in neuroeconomics suggest that neurally dissociable valuation processes access distinct memories differently, and thus are uniquely susceptible as the brain changes during addiction...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115771/reconsolidation-blockade-for-the-treatment-of-addiction-challenges-new-targets-and-opportunities
#3
Marc T J Exton-McGuinness, Amy L Milton
Addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder. The progression to pathological drug-seeking is thought to be driven by maladaptive learning processes which store and maintain associative memory, linking drug highs with cues and actions in the environment. These memories can encode Pavlovian associations which link predictive stimuli (e.g., people, places, and paraphernalia) with a hedonic drug high, as well as instrumental learning about the actions required to obtain drug-associated incentives. Learned memories are not permanent however, and much recent interest has been generated in exploiting the process of reconsolidation to erase or significantly weaken maladaptive memories to treat several mental health disorders, including addictions...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115770/the-long-term-cognitive-consequences-of-adolescent-exposure-to-recreational-drugs-of-abuse
#4
Sean M Mooney-Leber, Thomas J Gould
During adolescence, the brain continues to undergo vital developmental processes. In turn, complex behavioral and cognitive skills emerge. Unfortunately, neurobiological development during adolescence can be influenced by environmental factors such as drug exposure. Engaging in drug use during adolescence has been a long-standing health concern, especially how it predicts or relates to drug using behavior later in life. However, recent findings suggest that other behavioral domains, such as learning and memory, are also vulnerable to adolescent drug use...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115769/the-hot-n-cold-of-cue-induced-drug-relapse
#5
Kyle K Pitchers, Martin Sarter, Terry E Robinson
Environmental cues associated with rewards can acquire motivational properties. However, there is considerable variation in the extent to which a reward cue gains motivational control over behavior, depending on the individual and the form of the cue. When a discrete cue is paired with food reward, it acquires greater control over motivated behavior in some rats (sign-trackers, STs) than others (goal-trackers, GTs) as indicated by the propensity to approach the cue, the willingness to work to obtain it, and its ability to reinstate reward-seeking behavior...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115768/the-impact-of-drugs-of-abuse-on-executive-function-characterizing-long-term-changes-in-neural-correlates-following-chronic-drug-exposure-and-withdrawal-in-rats
#6
Adam T Brockett, Heather J Pribut, Daniela Vázquez, Matthew R Roesch
Addiction has long been characterized by diminished executive function, control, and impulsivity management. In particular, these deficits often manifest themselves as impairments in reversal learning, delay discounting, and response inhibition. Understanding the neurobiological substrates of these behavioral deficits is of paramount importance to our understanding of addiction. Within the cycle of addiction, periods during and after withdrawal represent a particularly difficult point of intervention in that the negative physical symptoms associated with drug removal and drug craving increase the likelihood that the patient will relapse and return to drug use in order to abate these symptoms...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115767/chasing-the-addicted-engram-identifying-functional-alterations-in-fos-expressing-neuronal-ensembles-that-mediate-drug-related-learned-behavior
#7
Leslie R Whitaker, Bruce T Hope
Given that addiction has been characterized as a disorder of maladaptive learning and memory, one critical question is whether there are unique physical adaptations within neuronal ensembles that support addiction-related learned behavior. The search for the physical mechanisms of encoding these and other memories in the brain, often called the engram as a whole, continues despite decades of research. As we develop new technologies and tools that allow us to study cue- and behavior-activated Fos-expressing neuronal ensembles, the possibility of identifying the engrams of learning and memory is moving into the realm of reality rather than speculation...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115766/highway-to-hell-or-magic-smoke-the-dose-dependence-of-%C3%AE-9-thc-in-place-conditioning-paradigms
#8
Rimas A Kubilius, Paul M Kaplick, Carsten T Wotjak
The prerequisites for responsible cannabis use are at the heart of current inquiries into cannabis decriminalization by policy makers as well as academic and nonacademic stakeholders at a global scale. Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), the prime psychoactive compound of the cannabis sativa , as well as cannabimimetics that resemble the pharmacological properties and psychological effects of Δ9 -THC, lend themselves handsomely to the preclinical scrutiny of reward-related behavior because they carry marked translational value...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115765/cannabinoid-disruption-of-learning-mechanisms-involved-in-reward-processing
#9
Carl R Lupica, Alexander F Hoffman
The increasing use of cannabis, its derivatives, and synthetic cannabinoids for medicinal and recreational purposes has led to burgeoning interest in understanding the addictive potential of this class of molecules. It is estimated that ∼10% of marijuana users will eventually show signs of dependence on the drug, and the diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (CUD) is increasing in the United States. The molecule that sustains the use of cannabis is Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), and our knowledge of its effects, and those of other cannabinoids on brain function has expanded rapidly in the past two decades...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115764/synaptic-plasticity-mechanisms-common-to-learning-and-alcohol-use-disorder
#10
David M Lovinger, Karina P Abrahao
Alcohol use disorders include drinking problems that span a range from binge drinking to alcohol abuse and dependence. Plastic changes in synaptic efficacy, such as long-term depression and long-term potentiation are widely recognized as mechanisms involved in learning and memory, responses to drugs of abuse, and addiction. In this review, we focus on the effects of chronic ethanol (EtOH) exposure on the induction of synaptic plasticity in different brain regions. We also review findings indicating that synaptic plasticity occurs in vivo during EtOH exposure, with a focus on ex vivo electrophysiological indices of plasticity...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115763/heterogeneous-dopamine-signals-support-distinct-features-of-motivated-actions-implications-for-learning-and-addiction
#11
Michael P Saddoris, Kayla A Siletti, Katherine J Stansfield, Maria Florencia Bercum
Despite decades of research, investigations into effective neural and pharmacological therapies for many drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, have produced no FDA-approved approaches. This difficulty derives from the complexity of substance use disorders, which encompass a variety of behavioral, psychological, and neural circuit-based changes that occur as a result of repeated experience with the drug. Dopamine signaling has been demonstrated to play a key role in several aspects of drug abuse-from mediating its reinforcing properties and drug-seeking to triggering relapse-while also mediating a number of important aspects of normal (nondrug related) motivated behaviors and actions...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115762/chemogenetic-activation-of-the-perirhinal-cortex-reverses-methamphetamine-induced-memory-deficits-and-reduces-relapse
#12
Jamie Peters, Michael D Scofield, Carmela M Reichel
Prolonged use of methamphetamine (meth) has been associated with episodic memory deficits in humans, and preclinical rat models of meth self-administration indicate the memory deficits are a consequence of meth use. Others have suggested that the meth-induced memory deficits may promote a cyclical pattern of drug use, abstinence, and relapse, although preclinical evidence for this relationship is somewhat lacking. The memory deficits in preclinical models manifest as a loss of novel object recognition (NOR) memory...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115761/repeated-cocaine-exposure-dysregulates-cognitive-control-over-cue-evoked-reward-seeking-behavior-during-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer
#13
Andrew T Marshall, Sean B Ostlund
Drug-paired cues acquire powerful motivational properties, but only lead to active drug-seeking behavior if they are potent enough to overwhelm the cognitive control processes that serve to suppress such urges. Studies using the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) task have shown that rats pretreated with cocaine or amphetamine exhibit heightened levels of cue-motivated food-seeking behavior, suggesting that exposure to these drugs sensitizes the incentive motivational system. However, the PIT testing protocol can also create conflict between two competing behavioral responses to the reward-paired cue: active reward seeking (e...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115760/the-role-of-nonmuscle-myosin-ii-in-polydrug-memories-and-memory-reconsolidation
#14
Sherri B Briggs, Madalyn Hafenbreidel, Erica J Young, Gavin Rumbaugh, Courtney A Miller
Using pharmacologic and genetic approaches targeting actin or the actin-driving molecular motor, nonmuscle myosin II (NMII), we previously discovered an immediate, retrieval-independent, and long-lasting disruption of methamphetamine- (METH-) and amphetamine-associated memories. A single intrabasolateral amygdala complex infusion or systemic administration of the NMII inhibitor Blebbistatin (Blebb) is sufficient to produce this disruption, which is selective, having no retrieval-independent effect on memories for fear, food reward, cocaine, or morphine...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012883/the-posterior-parietal-cortex-and-subjectively-perceived-confidence-during-memory-retrieval
#15
Syanah C Wynn, Marc P H Hendriks, Sander M Daselaar, Roy P C Kessels, Dennis J L G Schutter
Functional neuroimaging studies suggest a role for the left angular gyrus (AG) in processes related to memory recognition. However, results of neuropsychological and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have been inconclusive regarding the specific contribution of the AG in recollection, familiarity, and the subjective experience of memory. To obtain further insight into this issue, 20 healthy right-handed volunteers performed a memory task in a single-blind within-subject controlled TMS study. Neuronavigated inhibitory repetitive TMS (rTMS) was applied over the left AG and the vertex in a randomized and counterbalanced order...
August 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012882/surprise-and-destabilize-prediction-error-influences-episodic-memory-reconsolidation
#16
Alyssa H Sinclair, Morgan D Barense
Through the process of "reconsolidation," reminders can temporarily destabilize memories and render them vulnerable to change. Recent rodent research has proposed that prediction error, or the element of surprise, is a key component of this process; yet, this hypothesis has never before been extended to complex episodic memories in humans. In our novel paradigm, we used naturalistic stimuli to demonstrate that prediction error enables adaptive updating of episodic memories. In Study 1, participants ( N = 48) viewed 18 videos, each depicting an action-outcome event...
August 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012881/bfgf-expression-is-differentially-regulated-by-cocaine-seeking-versus-extinction-in-learning-related-brain-regions
#17
Elizabeth M Doncheck, Madalyn Hafenbreidel, Sarah A Ruder, Michael K Fitzgerald, Lilith Torres, Devin Mueller
In cocaine use disorder, relapse can be elicited by drug-associated cues despite long periods of abstinence. The persistence of drug-associated cues in eliciting drug seeking suggests enduring changes in structural and functional plasticity, which may be mediated by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF2). Stimulant drug use increases bFGF expression in reward- and learning-related brain regions, such as the infralimbic medial-prefrontal cortex (IL-mPFC), and we previously found that this increase was reversed by extinction...
August 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012880/beneficial-and-detrimental-effects-of-schema-incongruence-on-memory-for-contextual-events
#18
Darya Frank, Daniela Montaldi, Bianca Wittmann, Deborah Talmi
Mental schemas provide a framework into which new information can easily be integrated. In a series of experiments, we examined how incongruence that stems from a prediction error modulates memory for multicomponent events that instantiated preexisting schemas as noted in a previous study. Each event consisted of four stimulus pairs with overlapping components, presented in four blocks (A-B, B-C, C-D, D-A). A-B pairs elicited contextual expectations (A: Farm, B: Tractor) that were either met by a congruent C component (C: Farmer) or violated by an incongruent one (C: Lawyer)...
August 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012879/preserved-capacity-for-scene-construction-and-shifts-in-perspective-after-hippocampal-lesions
#19
Nuttida Rungratsameetaweemana, Larry R Squire
The hippocampus has long been recognized as important for the formation of long-term memory. Recent work has suggested that the hippocampus might also be important for certain kinds of spatial operations, as in constructing scenes, shifting perspective, or perceiving the geometry of scenes and their boundaries. We explored this proposal using a task similar to one used previously that related hippocampal activity to scenes and their boundaries. In our study, participants viewed scenes from above that displayed walls and towers...
August 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012878/predictability-matters-role-of-the-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-in-disambiguation-of-overlapping-sequences
#20
Justine E Cohen, Robert S Ross, Chantal E Stern
Previous research has demonstrated that areas in the medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex (PFC) show increased activation during retrieval of overlapping sequences. In this study, we designed a task in which degree of overlap varied between conditions in order to parse out the contributions of hippocampal and prefrontal subregions as overlap between associations increased. In the task, participants learned sequential associations consisting of a picture frame, a face within the picture frame, and an outdoor scene...
August 2018: Learning & Memory
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