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Learning & Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202719/sleep-enhances-knowledge-of-routes-and-regions-in-spatial-environments
#1
Hannes Noack, Wiebke Schick, Hanspeter Mallot, Jan Born
Sleep is thought to preferentially consolidate hippocampus-dependent memory, and as such, spatial navigation. Here, we investigated the effects of sleep on route knowledge and explicit and implicit semantic regions in a virtual environment. Sleep, compared with wakefulness, improved route knowledge and also enhanced awareness of the semantic regionalization within the environment, whereas signs of implicit regionalization remained unchanged. Results support the view that sleep specifically enhances explicit aspects of memory, also in the spatial domain...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202718/incidental-context-information-increases-recollection
#2
Kamar E Ameen-Ali, Liam J Norman, Madeline J Eacott, Alexander Easton
The current study describes a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) task for human participants based on the spontaneous recognition memory paradigms typically used with rodents. Recollection was significantly higher when an object was in the same location and background as at encoding, a combination used to assess episodic-like memory in animals, but not when only one of these task-irrelevant cues was present. The results show that incidentally encoded cue information can determine the degree of recollection, and opens up the possibility of assessing recollection across species in a single experimental paradigm, allowing better understanding of the cognitive and biological mechanisms at play...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202717/%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-activation-enhances-l-type-calcium-channel-currents-in-anterior-piriform-cortex-pyramidal-cells-of-neonatal-mice-implication-for-odor-learning
#3
Abhinaba Ghosh, Bandhan Mukherjee, Xihua Chen, Qi Yuan
Early odor preference learning occurs in one-week-old rodents when a novel odor is paired with a tactile stimulation mimicking maternal care. β-Adrenoceptors and L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) are critically involved in this learning. However, whether β-adrenoceptors interact directly with LTCCs in aPC pyramidal cells is unknown. Here we show that pyramidal cells expressed significant LTCC currents that declined with age. β-Adrenoceptor activation via isoproterenol age-dependently enhanced LTCC currents...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202716/pattern-separation-and-goal-directed-behavior-in-the-aged-canine
#4
Shikha Snigdha, Michael A Yassa, Christina deRivera, Norton W Milgram, Carl W Cotman
The pattern separation task has recently emerged as a behavioral model of hippocampus function and has been used in several pharmaceutical trials. The canine is a useful model to evaluate a multitude of hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks that parallel those in humans. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the suitability of pattern separation task(s) for detecting age-related changes in canines. We also assessed the dogs' ability to show pattern separation and discrimination reversal, which provides a novel extension of the pattern separation learning literature...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202715/updating-of-aversive-memories-after-temporal-error-detection-is-differentially-modulated-by-mtor-across-development
#5
Lucille Tallot, Lorenzo Diaz-Mataix, Rosemarie E Perry, Kira Wood, Joseph E LeDoux, Anne-Marie Mouly, Regina M Sullivan, Valérie Doyère
The updating of a memory is triggered whenever it is reactivated and a mismatch from what is expected (i.e., prediction error) is detected, a process that can be unraveled through the memory's sensitivity to protein synthesis inhibitors (i.e., reconsolidation). As noted in previous studies, in Pavlovian threat/aversive conditioning in adult rats, prediction error detection and its associated protein synthesis-dependent reconsolidation can be triggered by reactivating the memory with the conditioned stimulus (CS), but without the unconditioned stimulus (US), or by presenting a CS-US pairing with a different CS-US interval than during the initial learning...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202714/recollection-dependent-memory-for-event-duration-in-large-scale-spatial-navigation
#6
Iva K Brunec, Jason D Ozubko, Morgan D Barense, Morris Moscovitch
Time and space represent two key aspects of episodic memories, forming the spatiotemporal context of events in a sequence. Little is known, however, about how temporal information, such as the duration and the order of particular events, are encoded into memory, and if it matters whether the memory representation is based on recollection or familiarity. To investigate this issue, we used a real world virtual reality navigation paradigm where periods of navigation were interspersed with pauses of different durations...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096499/when-eye-movements-express-memory-for-old-and-new-scenes-in-the-absence-of-awareness-and-independent-of-hippocampus
#7
Christine N Smith, Larry R Squire
Eye movements can reflect memory. For example, participants make fewer fixations and sample fewer regions when viewing old versus new scenes (the repetition effect). It is unclear whether the repetition effect requires that participants have knowledge (awareness) of the old-new status of the scenes or if it can occur independent of knowledge about old-new status. It is also unclear whether the repetition effect is hippocampus-dependent or hippocampus-independent. A complication is that testing conscious memory for the scenes might interfere with the expression of unconscious (unaware), experience-dependent eye movements...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096498/differential-changes-in-hippocampal-camkii-and-glua1-activity-after-memory-training-involving-different-levels-of-adaptive-forgetting
#8
Nicolas Fraize, Al Mahdy Hamieh, Mickaël Antoine Joseph, Monique Touret, Régis Parmentier, Paul Antoine Salin, Gaël Malleret
Phosphorylation of CaMKII and AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit has been shown to play a major role in hippocampal-dependent long-term/reference memory (RM) and in the expression of long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP). In contrast, it has been proposed that dephosphorylation of these proteins could be involved in the opposite phenomenon of hippocampal long-term synaptic depression (LTD) and in adaptive forgetting. Adaptive forgetting allows interfering old memories to be forgotten to give new ones the opportunity to be stored in memory, and in particular in short-term/working memory (WM) that was shown to be very sensitive to proactive interference...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096497/bdnf-regains-function-in-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-deficits-caused-by-diencephalic-damage
#9
Lindsey C Vedder, Lisa M Savage
Thiamine deficiency (TD), commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, leads to diencephalic damage, hippocampal dysfunction, and spatial learning and memory deficits. We show a decrease in the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at CA3-CA1 synapses, independent of sex, following diencephalic damage induced by TD in rats. Thus, despite a lack of extensive hippocampal cell loss, diencephalic brain damage down-regulates plastic processes within the hippocampus, likely contributing to impaired hippocampal-dependent behaviors...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096496/a-reminder-of-extinction-reduces-relapse-in-an-animal-model-of-voluntary-behavior
#10
Javier Nieto, Metin Uengoer, Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa
One experiment with rats explored whether an extinction-cue prevents the recovery of extinguished lever-pressing responses. Initially, rats were trained to perform one instrumental response (R1) for food in Context A, and a different instrumental response (R2) in Context B. Then, responses were extinguished each in the alternate context (R1 in Context B; R2 in Context A). For one group, extinction of both responses was conducted in the presence of an extinction-cue, whereas in a second group, the extinction-cue only accompanied extinction of R1...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096495/memory-disrupting-effects-of-nonmuscle-myosin-ii-inhibition-depend-on-the-class-of-abused-drug-and-brain-region
#11
Sherri B Briggs, Ashley M Blouin, Erica J Young, Gavin Rumbaugh, Courtney A Miller
Depolymerizing actin in the amygdala through nonmuscle myosin II inhibition (NMIIi) produces a selective, lasting, and retrieval-independent disruption of the storage of methamphetamine-associated memories. Here we report a similar disruption of memories associated with amphetamine, but not cocaine or morphine, by NMIIi. Reconsolidation appeared to be disrupted with cocaine. Unlike in the amygdala, methamphetamine-associated memory storage was not disrupted by NMIIi in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, or orbitofrontal cortex...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980078/reward-retroactively-enhances-memory-consolidation-for-related-items
#12
Anuya Patil, Vishnu P Murty, Joseph E Dunsmoor, Elizabeth A Phelps, Lila Davachi
Reward motivation has been shown to modulate episodic memory processes in order to support future adaptive behavior. However, for a memory system to be truly adaptive, it should enhance memory for rewarded events as well as for neutral events that may seem inconsequential at the time of encoding but can gain importance later. Here, we investigated the influence of reward motivation on retroactive memory enhancement selectively for conceptually related information. We found behavioral evidence that reward retroactively enhances memory at a 24-h memory test, but not at an immediate memory test, suggesting a role for post-encoding mechanisms of consolidation...
January 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980077/role-of-proteasome-dependent-protein-degradation-in-long-term-operant-memory-in-aplysia
#13
Lisa C Lyons, Jacob S Gardner, Catherine E Gandour, Harini C Krishnan
We investigated the in vivo role of protein degradation during intermediate (ITM) and long-term memory (LTM) in Aplysia using an operant learning paradigm. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 inhibited the induction and molecular consolidation of LTM with no effect on ITM. Remarkably, maintenance of steady-state protein levels through inhibition of protein synthesis using either anisomycin or rapamycin in conjunction with proteasome inhibition permitted the formation of robust 24 h LTM. Our studies suggest a primary role for proteasomal activity in facilitation of gene transcription for LTM and raise the possibility that synaptic mechanisms are sufficient to sustain 24 h memory...
January 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980076/primary-auditory-cortex-regulates-threat-memory-specificity
#14
Mattis B Wigestrand, Hillary C Schiff, Marianne Fyhn, Joseph E LeDoux, Robert M Sears
Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used muscimol infusions in rats to show that discriminatory threat learning requires Au1 activity specifically during memory acquisition and retrieval, but not during consolidation...
January 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980075/effects-of-context-preexposure-and-delay-until-anxiety-retrieval-on-generalization-of-contextual-anxiety
#15
Marta Andreatta, Dorothea Neueder, Evelyn Glotzbach-Schoon, Andreas Mühlberger, Paul Pauli
Animal studies suggest that time delay between acquisition and retrieval of contextual anxiety increases generalization. Moreover, such generalization is prevented by preexposure to the context (CTX), presumably due to an improved representation of such context. We investigated whether preexposure and time-passing modulate generalization of contextual anxiety, in humans. On Day 1, 42 participants (preexposure group) explored two virtual offices, while 41 participants (no-preexposure group) explored a virtual stadium...
January 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980074/vagus-nerve-stimulation-reduces-cocaine-seeking-and-alters-plasticity-in-the-extinction-network
#16
Jessica E Childs, Jaime DeLeon, Emily Nickel, Sven Kroener
Drugs of abuse cause changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and associated regions that impair inhibitory control over drug-seeking. Breaking the contingencies between drug-associated cues and the delivery of the reward during extinction learning reduces rates of relapse. Here we used vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) to induce targeted synaptic plasticity to facilitate extinction of appetitive behaviors and to reduce relapse. Rats self-administered cocaine and were given VNS during extinction. Relapse to drug-seeking was assessed in a cued reinstatement session...
January 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980073/respective-role-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-and-the-entorhinal-cortex-during-the-recombination-of-previously-learned-olfactory-tactile-associations-in-the-rat
#17
Lise Boisselier, Barbara Ferry, Rémi Gervais
The hippocampal formation has been extensively described as a key component for object recognition in conjunction with place and context. The present study aimed at describing neural mechanisms in the hippocampal formation that support olfactory-tactile (OT) object discrimination in a task where space and context were not taken into account. The task consisted in discriminating one baited cup among three, each of them presenting overlapping olfactory or tactile elements. The experiment tested the involvement of the entorhinal cortex (EC) and the dorsal hippocampus (DH) in the acquisition of this cross-modal task, either with new items or with familiar but recombined items...
January 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980072/memory-trace-reactivation-and-behavioral-response-during-retrieval-are-differentially-modulated-by-amygdalar-glutamate-receptors-activity-interaction-between-amygdala-and-insular-cortex
#18
Daniel Osorio-Gómez, Kioko Guzmán-Ramos, Federico Bermúdez-Rattoni
The insular cortex (IC) is required for conditioned taste aversion (CTA) retrieval. However, it remains unknown which cortical neurotransmitters levels are modified upon CTA retrieval. Using in vivo microdialysis, we observed that there were clear elevations in extracellular glutamate, norepinephrine, and dopamine in and around the center of the gustatory zone of the IC during CTA retrieval. Additionally, it has been reported that the amygdala-IC interaction is highly involved in CTA memory establishment. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of infusions of an AMPA receptor antagonist (CNQX) and a NMDA receptor antagonist (APV) into the amygdala on CTA retrieval and IC neurotransmitter levels...
January 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980071/a-pkm-generated-by-calpain-cleavage-of-a-classical-pkc-is-required-for-activity-dependent-intermediate-term-facilitation-in-the-presynaptic-sensory-neuron-of-aplysia
#19
Carole A Farah, Margaret H Hastings, Tyler W Dunn, Katrina Gong, Danay Baker-Andresen, Wayne S Sossin
Atypical PKM, a persistently active form of atypical PKC, is proposed to be a molecular memory trace, but there have been few examinations of the role of PKMs generated from other PKCs. We demonstrate that inhibitors used to inhibit PKMs generated from atypical PKCs are also effective inhibitors of other PKMs. In contrast, we demonstrate that dominant-negative PKMs show isoform-specificity. A dominant-negative PKM from the classical PKC Apl I blocks activity-dependent intermediate-term facilitation (a-ITF) when expressed in the sensory neuron, while a dominant-negative PKM from the atypical PKC Apl III does not...
January 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918278/pi3-kinase-cascade-has-a-differential-role-in-acquisition-and-extinction-of-conditioned-fear-memory-in-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#20
Ilana Slouzkey, Mouna Maroun
The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuit, plays a crucial role in acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Extinction of aversive memories is mediated, at least in part, by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in adult rats. There is recent interest in the neural mechanisms that mediate fear and extinction in juvenile animals and whether these mechanisms are distinctive from those in adult animals. In the present study, we examined (1) changes in phosphorylation of Akt in the BLA and mPFC after fear conditioning and extinction in juvenile and adult rats and (2) the effect of BLA and mPFC localized inhibition of the PI3K following acquisition and extinction of contextual fear memory...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
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