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Learning & Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416633/intrusions-in-episodic-memory-reconsolidation-or-interference
#1
Angela Klingmüller, Jeremy B Caplan, Tobias Sommer
It would be profoundly important if reconsolidation research in animals and other memory domains generalized to human episodic memory. A 3-d-list-discrimination procedure, based on free recall of objects, with a contextual reminder cue (the testing room), has been thought to demonstrate reconsolidation of human episodic memory (as noted in a previous study). Our goal was to replicate the central result, a high intrusion rate during recall of the target list, and evaluate the reconsolidation account relative to an alternative account, based on state-dependent learning and interference...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416632/null-epac-mutants-reveal-a-sequential-order-of-versatile-camp-effects-during-drosophila-aversive-odor-learning
#2
Antje Richlitzki, Philipp Latour, Martin Schwärzel
Here, we define a role of the cAMP intermediate EPAC in Drosophila aversive odor learning by means of null epac mutants. Complementation analysis revealed that EPAC acts downstream from the rutabaga adenylyl cyclase and in parallel to protein kinase A. By means of targeted knockdown and genetic rescue we identified mushroom body Kenyon cells (KCs) as a necessary and sufficient site of EPAC action. We provide mechanistic insights by analyzing acquisition dynamics and using the "performance increment" as a means to access the trial-based sequential organization of odor learning...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416631/mutation-of-neuron-specific-chromatin-remodeling-subunit-baf53b-rescue-of-plasticity-and-memory-by-manipulating-actin-remodeling
#3
Annie Vogel Ciernia, Enikö A Kramár, Dina P Matheos, Robbert Havekes, Thekla J Hemstedt, Christophe N Magnan, Keith Sakata, Ashley Tran, Soraya Azzawi, Alberto Lopez, Richard Dang, Weisheng Wang, Brian Trieu, Joyce Tong, Ruth M Barrett, Rebecca J Post, Pierre Baldi, Ted Abel, Gary Lynch, Marcelo A Wood
Recent human exome-sequencing studies have implicated polymorphic Brg1-associated factor (BAF) complexes (mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes) in several intellectual disabilities and cognitive disorders, including autism. However, it remains unclear how mutations in BAF complexes result in impaired cognitive function. Post-mitotic neurons express a neuron-specific assembly, nBAF, characterized by the neuron-specific subunit BAF53b. Subdomain 2 of BAF53b is essential for the differentiation of neuronal precursor cells into neurons...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416630/common-microbehavioral-footprint-of-two-distinct-classes-of-conditioned-aversion
#4
Emmanouil Paisios, Annabell Rjosk, Evren Pamir, Michael Schleyer
Avoiding unfavorable situations is a vital skill and a constant task for any animal. Situations can be unfavorable because they feature something that the animal wants to escape from, or because they do not feature something that it seeks to obtain. We investigate whether the microbehavioral mechanisms by which these two classes of aversion come about are shared or distinct. We find that larval Drosophila avoid odors either previously associated with a punishment, or previously associated with the lack of a reward...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416629/individual-differences-in-fear-extinction-and-anxiety-like-behavior
#5
Gabrielle King, Elliot Scott, Bronwyn M Graham, Rick Richardson
There is growing appreciation for the substantial individual differences in the acquisition and inhibition of aversive associations, and the insights this might give into identifying individuals particularly vulnerable to stress and psychopathology. We examined whether animals that differed in rate of extinction (i.e., Fast versus Slow) were different in their response to an acute stress in adulthood or following a chronic stress that occurred either early or later in life. We found that Slow Extinguishers had significantly poorer extinction retention than Fast Extinguishers, but an acute stressor did not differentially affect anxiety-like behavior in the two groups...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331016/brain-wide-maps-of-fos-expression-during-fear-learning-and-recall
#6
Jin-Hyung Cho, Sam D Rendall, Jesse M Gray
Fos induction during learning labels neuronal ensembles in the hippocampus that encode a specific physical environment, revealing a memory trace. In the cortex and other regions, the extent to which Fos induction during learning reveals specific sensory representations is unknown. Here we generate high-quality brain-wide maps of Fos mRNA expression during auditory fear conditioning and recall in the setting of the home cage. These maps reveal a brain-wide pattern of Fos induction that is remarkably similar among fear conditioning, shock-only, tone-only, and fear recall conditions, casting doubt on the idea that Fos reveals auditory-specific sensory representations...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298555/low-lifetime-stress-exposure-is-associated-with-reduced-stimulus-response-memory
#7
Elizabeth V Goldfarb, Grant S Shields, Nathaniel D Daw, George M Slavich, Elizabeth A Phelps
Exposure to stress throughout life can cumulatively influence later health, even among young adults. The negative effects of high cumulative stress exposure are well-known, and a shift from episodic to stimulus-response memory has been proposed to underlie forms of psychopathology that are related to high lifetime stress. At the other extreme, effects of very low stress exposure are mixed, with some studies reporting that low stress leads to better outcomes, while others demonstrate that low stress is associated with diminished resilience and negative outcomes...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298554/learned-interval-time-facilitates-associate-memory-retrieval
#8
Vincent van de Ven, Sarah Kochs, Fren Smulders, Peter De Weerd
The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue-time-target associations between cue-target pairs and specific cue-target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying matching cue-target pairs if the time interval during testing matched the implicitly learned interval. A control experiment showed that participants had no explicit knowledge about the cue-time associations...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298553/dissociation-between-complete-hippocampal-context-memory-formation-and-context-fear-acquisition
#9
Jessica Leake, Raphael Zinn, Laura Corbit, Bryce Vissel
Rodents require a minimal time period to explore a context prior to footshock to display plateau-level context fear at test. To investigate whether this rapid fear plateau reflects complete memory formation within that short time-frame, we used the immediate-early gene product Arc as an indicator of hippocampal context memory formation-related activity. We found that hippocampal Arc expression continued to increase well past the minimal time required for plateau-level fear. This raises the possibility that context fear conditioning occurs more rapidly than complete memory formation...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298552/dynamic-expression-of-fkbp5-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-resiliency-to-conditioned-fear
#10
Marangelie Criado-Marrero, Roberto J Morales Silva, Bethzaly Velazquez, Anixa Hernández, María Colon, Emmanuel Cruz, Omar Soler-Cedeño, James T Porter
The factors influencing resiliency to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain to be elucidated. Clinical studies associate PTSD with polymorphisms of the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5). However, it is unclear whether changes in FKBP5 expression alone could produce resiliency or susceptibility to PTSD-like symptoms. In this study, we used rats as an animal model to examine whether FKBP5 in the infralimbic (IL) or prelimbic (PL) medial prefrontal cortex regulates fear conditioning or extinction...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202719/sleep-enhances-knowledge-of-routes-and-regions-in-spatial-environments
#11
Hannes Noack, Wiebke Schick, Hanspeter Mallot, Jan Born
Sleep is thought to preferentially consolidate hippocampus-dependent memory, and as such, spatial navigation. Here, we investigated the effects of sleep on route knowledge and explicit and implicit semantic regions in a virtual environment. Sleep, compared with wakefulness, improved route knowledge and also enhanced awareness of the semantic regionalization within the environment, whereas signs of implicit regionalization remained unchanged. Results support the view that sleep specifically enhances explicit aspects of memory, also in the spatial domain...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202718/incidental-context-information-increases-recollection
#12
Kamar E Ameen-Ali, Liam J Norman, Madeline J Eacott, Alexander Easton
The current study describes a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) task for human participants based on the spontaneous recognition memory paradigms typically used with rodents. Recollection was significantly higher when an object was in the same location and background as at encoding, a combination used to assess episodic-like memory in animals, but not when only one of these task-irrelevant cues was present. The results show that incidentally encoded cue information can determine the degree of recollection, and opens up the possibility of assessing recollection across species in a single experimental paradigm, allowing better understanding of the cognitive and biological mechanisms at play...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202717/%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-activation-enhances-l-type-calcium-channel-currents-in-anterior-piriform-cortex-pyramidal-cells-of-neonatal-mice-implication-for-odor-learning
#13
Abhinaba Ghosh, Bandhan Mukherjee, Xihua Chen, Qi Yuan
Early odor preference learning occurs in one-week-old rodents when a novel odor is paired with a tactile stimulation mimicking maternal care. β-Adrenoceptors and L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) are critically involved in this learning. However, whether β-adrenoceptors interact directly with LTCCs in aPC pyramidal cells is unknown. Here we show that pyramidal cells expressed significant LTCC currents that declined with age. β-Adrenoceptor activation via isoproterenol age-dependently enhanced LTCC currents...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202716/pattern-separation-and-goal-directed-behavior-in-the-aged-canine
#14
Shikha Snigdha, Michael A Yassa, Christina deRivera, Norton W Milgram, Carl W Cotman
The pattern separation task has recently emerged as a behavioral model of hippocampus function and has been used in several pharmaceutical trials. The canine is a useful model to evaluate a multitude of hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks that parallel those in humans. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the suitability of pattern separation task(s) for detecting age-related changes in canines. We also assessed the dogs' ability to show pattern separation and discrimination reversal, which provides a novel extension of the pattern separation learning literature...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202715/updating-of-aversive-memories-after-temporal-error-detection-is-differentially-modulated-by-mtor-across-development
#15
Lucille Tallot, Lorenzo Diaz-Mataix, Rosemarie E Perry, Kira Wood, Joseph E LeDoux, Anne-Marie Mouly, Regina M Sullivan, Valérie Doyère
The updating of a memory is triggered whenever it is reactivated and a mismatch from what is expected (i.e., prediction error) is detected, a process that can be unraveled through the memory's sensitivity to protein synthesis inhibitors (i.e., reconsolidation). As noted in previous studies, in Pavlovian threat/aversive conditioning in adult rats, prediction error detection and its associated protein synthesis-dependent reconsolidation can be triggered by reactivating the memory with the conditioned stimulus (CS), but without the unconditioned stimulus (US), or by presenting a CS-US pairing with a different CS-US interval than during the initial learning...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202714/recollection-dependent-memory-for-event-duration-in-large-scale-spatial-navigation
#16
Iva K Brunec, Jason D Ozubko, Morgan D Barense, Morris Moscovitch
Time and space represent two key aspects of episodic memories, forming the spatiotemporal context of events in a sequence. Little is known, however, about how temporal information, such as the duration and the order of particular events, are encoded into memory, and if it matters whether the memory representation is based on recollection or familiarity. To investigate this issue, we used a real world virtual reality navigation paradigm where periods of navigation were interspersed with pauses of different durations...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096499/when-eye-movements-express-memory-for-old-and-new-scenes-in-the-absence-of-awareness-and-independent-of-hippocampus
#17
Christine N Smith, Larry R Squire
Eye movements can reflect memory. For example, participants make fewer fixations and sample fewer regions when viewing old versus new scenes (the repetition effect). It is unclear whether the repetition effect requires that participants have knowledge (awareness) of the old-new status of the scenes or if it can occur independent of knowledge about old-new status. It is also unclear whether the repetition effect is hippocampus-dependent or hippocampus-independent. A complication is that testing conscious memory for the scenes might interfere with the expression of unconscious (unaware), experience-dependent eye movements...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096498/differential-changes-in-hippocampal-camkii-and-glua1-activity-after-memory-training-involving-different-levels-of-adaptive-forgetting
#18
Nicolas Fraize, Al Mahdy Hamieh, Mickaël Antoine Joseph, Monique Touret, Régis Parmentier, Paul Antoine Salin, Gaël Malleret
Phosphorylation of CaMKII and AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit has been shown to play a major role in hippocampal-dependent long-term/reference memory (RM) and in the expression of long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP). In contrast, it has been proposed that dephosphorylation of these proteins could be involved in the opposite phenomenon of hippocampal long-term synaptic depression (LTD) and in adaptive forgetting. Adaptive forgetting allows interfering old memories to be forgotten to give new ones the opportunity to be stored in memory, and in particular in short-term/working memory (WM) that was shown to be very sensitive to proactive interference...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096497/bdnf-regains-function-in-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-deficits-caused-by-diencephalic-damage
#19
Lindsey C Vedder, Lisa M Savage
Thiamine deficiency (TD), commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, leads to diencephalic damage, hippocampal dysfunction, and spatial learning and memory deficits. We show a decrease in the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at CA3-CA1 synapses, independent of sex, following diencephalic damage induced by TD in rats. Thus, despite a lack of extensive hippocampal cell loss, diencephalic brain damage down-regulates plastic processes within the hippocampus, likely contributing to impaired hippocampal-dependent behaviors...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096496/a-reminder-of-extinction-reduces-relapse-in-an-animal-model-of-voluntary-behavior
#20
Javier Nieto, Metin Uengoer, Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa
One experiment with rats explored whether an extinction-cue prevents the recovery of extinguished lever-pressing responses. Initially, rats were trained to perform one instrumental response (R1) for food in Context A, and a different instrumental response (R2) in Context B. Then, responses were extinguished each in the alternate context (R1 in Context B; R2 in Context A). For one group, extinction of both responses was conducted in the presence of an extinction-cue, whereas in a second group, the extinction-cue only accompanied extinction of R1...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
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