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Learning & Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142062/the-serine-protease-inhibitor-neuroserpin-is-required-for-normal-synaptic-plasticity-and-regulates-learning-and-social-behavior
#1
Rebecca Reumann, Ricardo Vierk, Lepu Zhou, Frederice Gries, Vanessa Kraus, Julia Mienert, Eva Romswinkel, Fabio Morellini, Isidre Ferrer, Chiara Nicolini, Margaret Fahnestock, Gabriele Rune, Markus Glatzel, Giovanna Galliciotti
The serine protease inhibitor neuroserpin regulates the activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in the nervous system. Neuroserpin expression is particularly prominent at late stages of neuronal development in most regions of the central nervous system (CNS), whereas it is restricted to regions related to learning and memory in the adult brain. The physiological expression pattern of neuroserpin, its high degree of colocalization with tPA within the CNS, together with its dysregulation in neuropsychiatric disorders, suggest a role in formation and refinement of synapses...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142061/effects-of-regulatory-bc1-rna-deletion-on-synaptic-plasticity-learning-and-memory
#2
Ain Chung, Nessy Dahan, Juan Marcos Alarcon, André A Fenton
Nonprotein coding dendritic BC1 RNA regulates translation of mRNAs in neurons. We examined two lines of BC1 knockout mice and report that loss of BC1 RNA exaggerates group I mGluR-stimulated LTD of the Schaffer collateral synapse, with one of the lines showing a much more enhanced DHPG-induced LTD than the other. When the animals were given the hippocampus-synaptic plasticity-dependent active place avoidance task, learning and memory were impaired in the BC1-KO line with the more severely altered DHPG-induced LTD...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142060/sleep-increases-explicit-solutions-and-reduces-intuitive-judgments-of-semantic-coherence
#3
Thea Zander, Kirsten G Volz, Jan Born, Susanne Diekelmann
Sleep fosters the generation of explicit knowledge. Whether sleep also benefits implicit intuitive decisions about underlying patterns is unclear. We examined sleep's role in explicit and intuitive semantic coherence judgments. Participants encoded sets of three words and after a sleep or wake period were required to judge the potential convergence of these words on a common fourth associate. Compared with wakefulness, sleep increased the number of explicitly named common associates and decreased the number of intuitive judgments...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142059/recovery-of-attention-with-renewal
#4
James Byron Nelson, Paul Craddock, Mikael Molet, Charlotte Renaux
One experiment determined the relationship between renewed associative strength and attention. Following cue1-outcome pairings in Context A, cue1 was extinguished in Context B while cue2 was conditioned. On test cue2 was chosen as a predictor of the outcome in Context B. Both cues were chosen equally often as predictors in Context A. Consistent with attributing attention to effective associative strength (as noted in a previous study), participants could locate only cue2 in Context B while both were located in Context A, regardless of having been chosen as a predictor...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142058/juvenile-female-rats-but-not-male-rats-show-renewal-reinstatement-and-spontaneous-recovery-following-extinction-of-conditioned-fear
#5
Chun Hui J Park, Despina E Ganella, Jee Hyun Kim
Anxiety disorders emerge early, and girls are significantly more likely to develop anxiety compared to boys. However, sex differences in fear during development are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated juvenile male and female rats in the relapse behaviors following extinction of conditioned fear. In all experiments, 18-d-old rats first received three white-noise-footshock pairings on day 1. On day 2, extinction involved 60 white-noise alone trials. In experiment 1, we examined renewal by testing the rats in either the same or different context as extinction on day 3...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142057/morphofunctional-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-the-honeybee-brain
#6
Mara Andrione, Benjamin F Timberlake, Giorgio Vallortigara, Renzo Antolini, Albrecht Haase
Repeated or prolonged exposure to an odorant without any positive or negative reinforcement produces experience-dependent plasticity, which results in habituation and latent inhibition. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera), it has been demonstrated that, even if the absolute neural representation of an odor in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), is not changed by repeated presentations, its relative representation with respect to unfamiliar stimuli is modified. In particular, the representation of a stimulus composed of a 50:50 mixture of a familiar and a novel odorant becomes more similar to that of the novel stimulus after repeated stimulus preexposure...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142056/familiarity-with-a-vocal-category-biases-the-compartmental-expression-of-arc-arg3-1-in-core-auditory-cortex
#7
Tamara N Ivanova, Christina Gross, Rudolph C Mappus, Yong Jun Kwon, Gary J Bassell, Robert C Liu
Learning to recognize a stimulus category requires experience with its many natural variations. However, the mechanisms that allow a category's sensorineural representation to be updated after experiencing new exemplars are not well understood, particularly at the molecular level. Here we investigate how a natural vocal category induces expression in the auditory system of a key synaptic plasticity effector immediate early gene, Arc/Arg3.1, which is required for memory consolidation. We use the ultrasonic communication system between mouse pups and adult females to study whether prior familiarity with pup vocalizations alters how Arc is engaged in the core auditory cortex after playback of novel exemplars from the pup vocal category...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038223/modulation-of-target-recollection-and-recollection-rejection-networks-due-to-retrieval-facilitation-and-interference
#8
Caitlin R Bowman, Shalome L Sine, Nancy A Dennis
To better understand neural recollection processing, we induced interference in target recollection by presenting related lures before their respective targets and facilitated recollection rejection of lures by presenting targets before their related lures. Target recollection following interference recruited visual and prefrontal cortices, showing that these regions support recollection when related information has disrupted target representations. Recollection rejection following target presentation recruited angular gyrus, indicating that this region supports recollection rejection when target representations are strong and highly accessible...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038222/post-training-reversible-disconnection-of-the-ventral-hippocampal-basolateral-amygdaloid-circuits-impairs-consolidation-of-inhibitory-avoidance-memory-in-rats
#9
Gong-Wu Wang, Jian Liu, Xiao-Qin Wang
The ventral hippocampus (VH) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are both crucial in inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory. However, the exact role of the VH-BLA circuit in IA memory consolidation is unclear. This study investigated the effect of post-training reversible disconnection of the VH-BLA circuit in IA memory consolidation. Male Wistar rats with implanted guide cannulae were trained with a one-trial IA task, then received immediate intracerebral injections of muscimol or saline, and were tested 24 h later...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038221/prazosin-during-threat-discrimination-boosts-memory-of-the-safe-stimulus
#10
Philipp Homan, Qi Lin, James W Murrough, Laili Soleimani, Dominik R Bach, Roger L Clem, Daniela Schiller
The α-1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin has shown promise in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, but its mechanisms are not well understood. Here we administered prazosin or placebo prior to threat conditioning (day 1) and tested subsequent extinction (day 2) and reextinction (day 3) in healthy human participants. Prazosin did not affect threat conditioning but augmented stimulus discrimination during extinction and reextinction, via lower responding to the safe stimulus. These results suggest that prazosin during threat acquisition may have influenced encoding or consolidation of safety processing in particular, subsequently leading to enhanced discrimination between the safe and threatening stimuli...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038220/context-memory-formation-requires-activity-dependent-protein-degradation-in-the-hippocampus
#11
Patrick K Cullen, Nicole C Ferrara, Shane E Pullins, Fred J Helmstetter
Numerous studies have indicated that the consolidation of contextual fear memories supported by an aversive outcome like footshock requires de novo protein synthesis as well as protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Context memory formed in the absence of an aversive stimulus by simple exposure to a novel environment requires de novo protein synthesis in both the dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) hippocampus. However, the role of UPS-mediated protein degradation in the consolidation of context memory in the absence of a strong aversive stimulus has not been investigated...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038219/the-l-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-cav1-2-mediates-fear-extinction-and-modulates-synaptic-tone-in-the-lateral-amygdala
#12
Stephanie J Temme, Geoffrey G Murphy
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) have been implicated in both the formation and the reduction of fear through Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. Despite the implication of LVGCCs in fear learning and extinction, studies of the individual LVGCC subtypes, CaV1.2 and CaV1.3, using transgenic mice have failed to find a role of either subtype in fear extinction. This discontinuity between the pharmacological studies of LVGCCs and the studies investigating individual subtype contributions could be due to the limited neuronal deletion pattern of the CaV1...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038218/experiential-learning-in-rodents-past-experience-enables-rapid-learning-and-localized-encoding-in-hippocampus
#13
Conor D Cox, Linda C Palmer, Danielle T Pham, Brian H Trieu, Christine M Gall, Gary Lynch
Humans routinely use past experience with complexity to deal with novel, challenging circumstances. This fundamental aspect of real-world behavior has received surprisingly little attention in animal studies, and the underlying brain mechanisms are unknown. The present experiments tested for transfer from past experience in rats and then used quantitative imaging to localize synaptic modifications in hippocampus. Six daily exposures to an enriched environment (EE) caused a marked enhancement of short- and long-term memory encoded during a 30-min session in a different and complex environment relative to rats given extensive handling or access to running wheels...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038217/hippocampal-area-ca1-and-remote-memory-in-rats
#14
Amber C Ocampo, Larry R Squire, Robert E Clark
Hippocampal lesions often produce temporally graded retrograde amnesia (TGRA), whereby recent memory is impaired more than remote memory. This finding has provided support for the process of systems consolidation. However, temporally graded memory impairment has not been observed with the watermaze task, and the findings have been inconsistent with context fear conditioning. One possibility is that large hippocampal lesions indirectly disrupt (by retrograde degeneration) the function of areas that project to the hippocampus that are important for task performance or thought to be important for storing consolidated memories...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916631/experience-during-early-adulthood-shapes-the-learning-capacities-and-the-number-of-synaptic-boutons-in-the-mushroom-bodies-of-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#15
Amélie Cabirol, Rufus Brooks, Claudia Groh, Andrew B Barron, Jean-Marc Devaud
The honey bee mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain centers required for specific learning tasks. Here, we show that environmental conditions experienced as young adults affect the maturation of MB neuropil and performance in a MB-dependent learning task. Specifically, olfactory reversal learning was selectively impaired following early exposure to an impoverished environment lacking some of the sensory and social interactions present in the hive. In parallel, the overall number of synaptic boutons increased within the MB olfactory neuropil, whose volume remained unaffected...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916630/false-memories-for-shape-activate-the-lateral-occipital-complex
#16
Jessica M Karanian, Scott D Slotnick
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has shown that false memories arise from higher-level conscious processing regions rather than lower-level sensory processing regions. In the present study, we assessed whether the lateral occipital complex (LOC)-a lower-level conscious shape processing region-was associated with false memories for shape. During encoding, participants viewed intact or scrambled colored abstract shapes. During retrieval, colored disks were presented and participants indicated whether the corresponding item was previously "intact" or "scrambled...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916629/histone-deacetylase-inhibition-induces-odor-preference-memory-extension-and-maintains-enhanced-ampa-receptor-expression-in-the-rat-pup-model
#17
Sriya Bhattacharya, Bandhan Mukherjee, Jules J E Doré, Qi Yuan, Carolyn W Harley, John H McLean
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) plays a role in synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. We hypothesized that trichostatin-A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, would promote long-term odor preference memory and maintain enhanced GluA1 receptor levels that have been hypothesized to support memory. We used an early odor preference learning model in neonate rat pups that normally produces only 24-h memory to test behavior and examine receptor protein expression. Our behavioral studies showed that intrabulbar infusion of TSA, prior to pairing of the conditioned stimulus (peppermint odor) with the unconditioned stimulus (tactile stimulation), prolonged 24-h odor preference memory for at least 9 d...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916628/the-impact-of-threat-of-shock-induced-anxiety-on-memory-encoding-and-retrieval
#18
Sorcha Bolton, Oliver J Robinson
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders, and daily transient feelings of anxiety (or "stress") are ubiquitous. However, the precise impact of both transient and pathological anxiety on higher-order cognitive functions, including short- and long-term memory, is poorly understood. A clearer understanding of the anxiety-memory relationship is important as one of the core symptoms of anxiety, most prominently in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is intrusive reexperiencing of traumatic events in the form of vivid memories...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916627/interactions-between-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorsomedial-striatum-are-necessary-for-odor-span-capacity-in-rats-role-of-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptors
#19
Don A Davies, Quentin Greba, Jantz C Selk, Jillian K Catton, Landon D Baillie, Sean J Mulligan, John G Howland
Working memory is involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information essential for complex cognition. While the neural substrates underlying working memory capacity have been studied in humans, considerably less is known about the circuitry mediating working memory capacity in rodents. Therefore, the present experiments tested the involvement of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal striatum (STR) in the odor span task (OST), a task proposed to assay working memory capacity in rodents. Initially, Long Evans rats were trained to dig in scented sand for food following a serial delayed nonmatching-to-sample rule...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916626/contextual-fear-conditioning-in-zebrafish
#20
Justin W Kenney, Ian C Scott, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development of a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using an electric shock as the aversive stimulus. We find that contextual fear conditioning is modulated by shock intensity, prevented by an established amnestic agent (MK-801), lasts at least 14 d, and exhibits extinction...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
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