Read by QxMD icon Read

Advances in Anatomic Pathology

José E Velázquez Vega, Daniel J Brat
Recent advances in molecular pathology have reshaped the practice of brain tumor diagnostics. The classification of gliomas has been restructured with the discovery of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 mutations in the vast majority of lower grade infiltrating gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBM), with IDH-mutant astrocytomas further characterized by TP53 and ATRX mutations. Whole-arm 1p/19q codeletion in conjunction with IDH mutations now define oligodendrogliomas, which are also enriched for CIC, FUBP1, PI3K, NOTCH1, and TERT-p mutations...
March 8, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Mohammed Akhtar, Issam A Al-Bozom, Turki Al Hussain
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogenous group of tumors, >70% of which belong to the category of clear cell carcinoma. In recent years, crucial advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis of clear cell carcinoma. This tumor manifests significant alterations in the cellular metabolism, so that the tumor cells preferentially induce the hypoxia response pathway using aerobic glycolysis, rather than the normal oxidative phosphorylation for energy. Most of the clear cell carcinomas (sporadic as well as familial) have mutations and deletions in the VHL gene located at 3p (p3...
February 20, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Eric U Yee, Enoch Kuo, Jeffrey D Goldsmith
This manuscript presents a review of infectious causes of gastritis aimed at the practicing anatomic pathologist. We shall highlight unique histologic findings and clinical attributes that will assist those analyzing endoscopically obtained mucosal biopsies of the stomach or resection specimens.
February 20, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Lisa Buckley, Louise Jackett, Jonathan Clark, Ruta Gupta
There has been a sharp increase in the incidence of the human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, partly due to the increasingly widespread awareness and recognition of this entity. This review assimilates the recent histopathologic classifications, staging systems, rapidly expanding research base and developments in management of human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and summarizes their implications for routine diagnostic practice. Differential diagnoses and their cytologic appearances are detailed and the utility of p16 staining and other immunohistochemistry testing is discussed...
February 1, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Meryl C Nath, Lori A Erickson
Papillary thyroid carcinomas are the most common endocrine cancer and are usually associated with good survival. However, some variants of papillary thyroid carcinomas may behave more aggressively than classic papillary thyroid carcinomas. The tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common aggressive variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The aggressive behavior has been ascribed to the histologic subtype and/or to the clinicopathologic features, an issue that remains controversial. The columnar variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma can be aggressive, particularly in older patients, with larger tumors showing a diffusely infiltrative growth pattern and extrathyroidal extension...
January 18, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Yael K Heher, Suzanne M Dintzis
Harmful error is an infrequent but serious challenge in the pathology laboratory. Regulatory bodies and advocacy groups have mandated and encouraged disclosure of error to patients. Many pathologists are interested in participating in disclosure of harmful error but are ill-equipped to do so. This review of the literature with recommendations examines the current state of the patient safety movement and error disclosure as it pertains to pathology and provides a practical and explicit guide for pathologists for who, when, and how to disclose harmful pathology error to patients...
March 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
W Glenn McCluggage
Accurate staging of cancers is an important determinant of prognosis and guides optimal patient treatment. Although the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting recommends that endometrial cancers (including carcinosarcomas) are pathologically staged using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 system, in many areas TNM [American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) or Union for International Cancer Control (UICC)] staging is used or even mandated; these latter systems are based on FIGO 2009...
March 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Andrew P Norgan, Bobbi S Pritt
A variety of arthropods, protozoa, and helminths infect the skin and subcutaneous tissues and may be identified by anatomic pathologists in standard cytology and histology preparations. The specific organisms seen vary greatly with the patient's exposure history, including travel to or residence in endemic countries. Arthropods are the most commonly encountered parasites in the skin and subcutaneous tissues and include Sarcoptes scabei, Demodex species, Tunga penetrans, and myiasis-causing fly larvae. Protozoal parasites such as Leishmania may also be common in some settings...
March 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Matthäus Felsenstein, Ralph H Hruban, Laura D Wood
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease with a dismal prognosis in dire need of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of data on the genetic alterations that occur in pancreatic cancer, as comprehensive next-generation sequencing analyses have been performed on samples from large cohorts of patients. These studies have defined the genomic landscape of this disease and identified novel candidates whose mutations contribute to pancreatic tumorigenesis. They have also clarified the genetic alterations that underlie multistep tumorigenesis in precursor lesions and provided insights into clonal evolution in pancreatic neoplasia...
March 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Sara Monaco, Mitra Mehrad, Sanja Dacic
Mesothelial proliferations can be diagnostically challenging in small specimens, such as body fluid cytology and small tissue biopsies. A great morphologic challenge for pathologists is the separation of benign reactive mesothelial proliferations from malignant mesotheliomas. Reactive mesothelial proliferations may have histologic features that resemble malignancy including increased cellularity, cytologic atypia, and mitoses. Recent advances in mesothelioma genetics resulted in identification of BAP1 mutations and p16 deletions as features of malignant mesotheliomas...
January 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Mark A Valasek, Reetesh K Pai
Despite advances in our understanding of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms and their relationship to the pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome, the classification of mucinous tumors of the appendix is still confusing. This review will provide an update on the various classification systems that have been recently proposed for appendiceal mucinous neoplasia, with a particular emphasis on how to handle and report the histologic findings for these tumors using the newly published Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) eighth edition guidelines...
January 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Oluwole Fadare, Andres A Roma, Vinita Parkash, Wenxin Zheng, Vighnesh Walavalkar
An aberrant p53 immunophenotype may be identified in several histotypes of endometrial carcinoma, and is accordingly recognized to lack diagnostic specificity in and of itself. However, based on the high frequency with which p53 aberrations have historically been identified in endometrial serous carcinoma, a mutation-type immunophenotype is considered to be highly sensitive for the histotype. Using an illustrative case study and a review of the literature, we explore a relatively routine diagnostic question: whether the negative predictive value of a wild-type p53 immunophenotype for serous carcinoma is absolute, that is, whether a p53-wild type immunophenotype is absolutely incompatible with a diagnosis of serous carcinoma...
January 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Judith A Ferry
Immunohistochemistry is a powerful tool for the diagnosis and subclassification of hematolymphoid neoplasms. However, the expression of certain markers is not always as expected, and unusual patterns of staining can lead to misdiagnosis. CD20 and CD3 are our most commonly used markers for identification of B cells and T cells, respectively, and they almost always yield reliable, specific staining. This discussion focuses on diagnostic pitfalls related to the use of immunohistochemistry for CD20 and CD3 in hematopathology, and specifically on diagnostic challenges that arise when (1) CD20 is not expressed in B-cell lymphomas, when (2) CD20 is expressed in plasma cell neoplasms and T-cell lymphomas, and when (3) CD3 is expressed in B-cell lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphoma...
January 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Christophe Rosty
Polyps of the gastrointestinal tract are very common lesions and most frequently sporadic in nature. Some polyp subtypes are associated with rare hereditary polyposis syndromes, including juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and Cowden syndrome. However, many sporadic benign lesions of the gastrointestinal tract can mimic some of these syndromic hamartomatous polyps. The role of the surgical pathologist is to raise the possibility of a hereditary condition in case of suggestive polyp histology and to look for clinical information to support the suspected diagnosis...
January 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Kenneth A Iczkowski, Gladell P Paner, Theodorus Van der Kwast
Data from the past 6 years have shown that the presence of any amount of cribriform (or more comprehensively, large acinar cribriform to papillary) pattern of invasive prostate cancer is associated with adverse pathologic features and leads to uniquely adverse outcomes. Sixteen papers and numerous abstracts have reached these conclusions concordantly. Not only does this justify removal of all cribriform cancer from Gleason grade 3, it shows that cribriform cancer has pathologic, outcome, and molecular features distinct from noncribriform Gleason grade 4...
January 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Michele Bisceglia, Lucia A Muscarella, Carlos A Galliani, Nina Zidar, David Ben-Dor, Gianandrea Pasquinelli, Annamaria la Torre, Angelo Sparaneo, Julie C Fanburg-Smith, Janez Lamovec, Michal Michal, Carlos E Bacchi
Extraneuraxial hemangioblastoma occurs in nervous paraneuraxial structures, somatic tissues, and visceral organs, as part of von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHLD) or in sporadic cases. The VHL gene plausibly plays a key role in the initiation and tumorigenesis of both central nervous system and extraneuraxial hemangioblastoma, therefore, the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms of the tumor growth are initially reviewed. The clinical criteria for the diagnosis of VHLD are summarized, with emphasis on the distinction of sporadic hemangioblastoma from the form fruste of VHLD (eg, hemangioblastoma-only VHLD)...
November 20, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Murat Gokden
As its historical name glioblastoma multiforme implies, glioblastoma is a histologically diverse, World Health Organization grade IV astrocytic neoplasm. In spite of its simple definition of presence of vascular proliferation and/or necrosis in a diffuse astrocytoma, the wide variety of cytohistomorphologic appearances overlap with many other neoplastic or non-neoplastic lesions. Here, after a brief review of glioblastoma is provided, the differential diagnostic possibilities with an emphasis on mimics and pitfalls are discussed...
November 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
John Wojcik, Kumarasen Cooper
Human malignancies are driven by heritable alterations that lead to unchecked cellular proliferation, invasive growth and distant spread. Heritable changes can arise from changes in DNA sequence, or, alternatively, through altered gene expression rooted in epigenetic mechanisms. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing of tumor genomes has revealed a central role for mutations in epigenetic regulatory complexes in oncogenic processes. Through interactions with or direct modifications of chromatin, these proteins help control the accessibility of genes, and thus the transcriptional profile of a cell...
November 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Amanda S Bruegl, Annessa Kernberg, Russell R Broaddus
Lynch syndrome (LS) is a hereditary cancer syndrome caused by a germline mutation in a DNA mismatch repair gene, usually MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2. The most common cancers associated with LS are colorectal adenocarcinoma and endometrial carcinoma. Identification of women with LS-associated endometrial cancer is important, as these women and their affected siblings and children are at-risk of developing these same cancers. Germline testing of all endometrial cancer patients is not cost effective, and screening using young age of cancer diagnosis and/or presence of family history of syndrome-associated is underutilized and ineffective...
November 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Gregory W Charville, Teri A Longacre
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract, exhibits diverse histologic and clinical manifestations. With its putative origin in the gastrointestinal pacemaker cell of Cajal, GIST can arise in association with any portion of the tubular gastrointestinal tract. Morphologically, GISTs are classified as spindled or epithelioid, though each of these subtypes encompasses a broad spectrum of microscopic appearances, many of which mimic other histologic entities...
November 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"