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Advances in Anatomic Pathology

Lauren Penn, Lisa Rothman, Angela M Sutton, Nooshin K Brinster, Claudia I Vidal
Inflammatory skin diseases encompass a vast array of conditions. The field continues to expand and evolve with resurgence of conditions, through newly recognized medication adverse effects, and via more detailed descriptions of known dermatoses. The importance of clinicopathologic correlation and an up to date knowledge of dermatologic conditions cannot be overstated. This review focuses on an array of recent important developments in the histologic diagnosis of inflammatory conditions that affect the skin.
November 8, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Mohammed Akhtar, Abdulrazzaq Haider, Sameera Rashid, Ajayeb Dakhilalla M H Al-Nabet
The concept that the pattern of metastatic spread of cancer is not random and that cancer cells exhibit preferences when metastasizing to organs, dates back to 1889 when Steven Paget published his "seed and soil" hypothesis. He proposed that the spread of tumor cells is governed by interaction and cooperation between the cancer cells (seed) and the host organ (soil). Extensive studies during the last several decades have provided a better understanding of the process of metastatic spread of cancer and several stages such as intravasation, extravasation, tumor latency, and development of micrometastasis and macrometastasis have been defined...
October 18, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Kaitlin E Sundling, Alarice C Lowe
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have long been assumed to be the substrate of cancer metastasis. However, only in recent years have we begun to leverage the potential of CTCs found in minimally invasive peripheral blood specimens to improve care for cancer patients. Currently, CTC enumeration is an accepted prognostic indicator for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer; however, CTC enumeration remains largely a research tool. More recently, the focus has shifted to CTC characterization and isolation which holds great promise for predictive testing...
October 15, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
David Suster, Howard D Epstein, Daryl Pearlstein, Saul Suster
Thymic epithelial neoplasms with foci of rhabdomyomatous differentiation are rare. A case is presented of a primary thymic epithelial neoplasm showing the features of an atypical spindle cell thymoma that contained foci of bland-appearing rhabdomyomatous cells. The histologic and immunohistochemical features of this tumor are discussed along with a review of the literature and the comments from the AMR members to the case.
October 8, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Seung-Mo Hong, Michaël Noë, Carolyn A Hruban, Elizabeth D Thompson, Laura D Wood, Ralph H Hruban
Although pathologic lesions in the pancreas are 3-dimensional (3D) complex structures, we currently use thin 2D hematoxylin and eosin stained slides to study and diagnose pancreatic pathology. Two technologies, tissue clearing and advanced microscopy, have recently converged, and when used together they open the remarkable world of 3D anatomy and pathology to pathologists. Advances in tissue clearing and antibody penetration now make even dense fibrotic tissues amenable to clearing, and light sheet and confocal microscopies allow labeled cells deep within these cleared tissues to be visualized...
September 25, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Scott Robertson, Deepa T Patil
As in other organ systems, immunohistochemistry (IHC) serves as an ancillary diagnostic tool for a wide variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disorders, including infections, work-up of inflammatory conditions, and subtyping neoplasms of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In addition, IHC is also used to detect a variety of prognostic and predictive molecular biomarkers for carcinomas of the GI tract. The purpose of this review is to highlight the use of IHC in common diagnostic scenarios throughout the tubular GI tract...
September 18, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Edyta C Pirog, Kay J Park, Takako Kiyokawa, Xun Zhang, Wen Chen, David Jenkins, Wim Quint
Gastric-type endocervical adenocarcinoma (GAS) is a recently described diagnostic entity originally characterized as a tumor with (1) voluminous cytoplasm that is (2) clear or pale eosinophilic, and (3) cells showing distinct cell borders. Since the initial tumor description there has been accumulating experience that the neoplasm, in addition to classic features, may show a wide spectrum of morphologic appearances. This paper describes and illustrates cases of GAS with focal or diffuse findings that include: densely eosinophilic cytoplasm, foamy cytoplasm, goblet cells, glands with elongated, stratified nuclei, glands with small cuboidal cells, glands with flattened cells, papillary growth, single cell infiltration and infiltration with microcystic elongated and fragmented pattern...
September 18, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Michele Bisceglia, Elena Minenna, Andrea Altobella, Francesca Sanguedolce, Gaetano Panniello, Stefano Bisceglia, David J Ben-Dor
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a peculiar tumor of viral etiology, with the HHV8 rhadinovirus playing a fundamental role in its development. Several epidemiological categories of KS have been identified, of which the sporadic, endemic, iatrogenic, and the epidemic are the main ones. Several histologic disease morphologies have been described, such as inflammatory, angiomatous, spindle cell, mixed, and the anaplastic (sarcomatous) subtypes. The skin of the limbs is most commonly affected, but any other organ or site may be involved...
September 12, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Uma Sundram
Cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders remain a challenging aspect of dermatopathology, in part due to the rarity of the entities and extreme variability in clinical outcomes. Although many of the entities remain unchanged, the approach to some of them has changed in the new 2016 classification scheme of the World Health Organization. Chief among these are Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders such as Epstein-Barr virus-associated mucocutaneous ulcer and hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder, primary cutaneous CD8+ aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma, primary cutaneous acral CD8+ T-cell lymphoma, primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, and breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma...
September 7, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Yin P Hung, Lynette M Sholl
Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) accounts for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, with most patients diagnosed at advanced stages and managed increasingly with targeted therapies and immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss diagnostic and predictive immunohistochemical markers in NSCLC, one of the most common tumors encountered in surgical pathology. We highlight 2 emerging diagnostic markers: nuclear protein in testis (NUT) for NUT carcinoma; SMARCA4 for SMARCA4-deficient thoracic tumors. Given their highly aggressive behavior, proper recognition facilitates optimal management...
November 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Jesse K McKenney, Jason L Hornick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Sara E Higgins, Justine A Barletta
The role of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in endocrine pathology is similar to that in other organ systems in that it can aid in the subclassification of tumors within an organ, confirm site of primary in metastatic disease, provide prognostic information, identify underlying genetic alterations, and predict response to treatment. Although most endocrine tumors do not require IHC to render a diagnosis, there are certain scenarios in which IHC can be extremely helpful. For example, in thyroid, IHC can be used to support tumor dedifferentiation, in the adrenal it can aid in the diagnosis of low-grade adrenocortical carcinomas, and in paragangliomas it can help identify tumors arising as part of an inherited tumor syndrome...
November 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Roni M Cox, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Jesse K McKenney
Immunohistochemistry may be a very useful adjunct to morphologic diagnosis in many areas of surgical pathology, including genitourinary pathology. In this review, we address common diagnostic dilemmas where immunophenotypic analysis may be utilized and we highlight pitfalls specific to each scenario. For prostate, we review the diagnosis of limited prostatic adenocarcinoma and the distinction of high-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma from urothelial carcinoma. We also cover markers of urothelial lineage in the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary site...
November 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Inga-Marie Schaefer, Jason L Hornick
Although some soft tissue and bone tumors can be identified based on histologic features alone, immunohistochemistry plays a critical diagnostic role for most mesenchymal tumor types. The discovery of recurrent genomic alterations in many benign and malignant mesenchymal neoplasms has added important biologic insights and expanded the spectrum of some diagnostic subgroups. Some tumors are defined by unique genomic alterations, whereas others share abnormalities that are not tumor-specific and can be observed in a sometimes broad range of biologically unrelated neoplasms...
November 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Jonathan L Myles, Mark Synovec, Todd Klemp, William S Black-Schaffer
Immunohistology is essential to the practice of modern surgical and cytopathology. There are 3 major types of immunohistologic services provided in clinical practice: traditional immunohistochemistry, morphometric analysis of tumor immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Proper Current Procedural Terminology coding for these services has been updated to reflect current medical practice. Subsequent to changes in the Current Procedural Terminology coding structure for these services, the valuation of these services have been reviewed by the American Medical Association/Specialty Society Relative Value Update Committee and new valuations instituted by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services...
November 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Stephen M Bonsib
The kidney is one of the most complicated organs in development and is susceptible to more types of diseases than other organs. The disease spectrum includes developmental and cystic diseases, involvement by systemic diseases, iatrogenic complications, ascending infections and urinary tract obstruction, and neoplastic diseases. The diagnosis of kidney disease is unique involving 2 subspecialties, urologic pathology and renal pathology. Both renal and urologic pathologists employ the renal biopsy as a diagnostic modality...
September 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Annikka Weissferdt
Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas belong to a group of neoplasms that remain incompletely understood. They are rare tumors of the bronchopulmonary system that incorporate a wide range of neoplasms that by definition contain a sarcomatoid component characterized by spindle or giant cells. Such classification has led to a heterogenous tumor category that includes neoplasms with different clinical, morphologic, and prognostic features. To date, the histopathologic diagnosis of pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas does not require the use of ancillary testing and is based on light microscopic criteria alone...
September 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Scott E Kilpatrick, John D Reith, Brian Rubin
The diagnosis of small round cell tumors always has been extremely difficult, and our current classification systems continue to evolve. Since its initial discovery by Dr James Ewing, the historical context of what is acceptably included under the designation "Ewing sarcoma" has changed. Although Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor were both initially described in the early 20th century, these tumors were considered likely distinct entities until the end of that same century, almost 75 years later...
September 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Samson W Fine
The Tumor-Nodes-Metastasis system at the core of prognostic staging has been recently updated in the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th edition, published in 2016. For prostate cancer, significant changes in staging of organ-confined disease, inclusion of a new grade grouping, and provision of levels of evidence for these modifications are part of what differentiates the 8th edition AJCC from prior iterations. Herein, the rationale underlying these changes is detailed. In addition, data elements not well represented in the present system are highlighted as opportunities for fresh study that may impact future AJCC classifications...
September 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Jody F Longo, Shannon M Weber, Brittany P Turner-Ivey, Steven L Carroll
The diagnosis of a neurofibroma or a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) often raises the question of whether the patient has the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) as well as how this will impact the patient's outcome, what their risk is for developing additional neoplasms and whether treatment options differ for NF1-associated and sporadic peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Establishing a diagnosis of NF1 is challenging as this disorder has numerous neoplastic and non-neoplastic manifestations which are variably present in individual patients...
September 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
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