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Advances in Anatomic Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328559/up-to-date-proposal-for-a-histologic-subcategorization-of-thin-melanomas
#1
Luca Roncati, Teresa Pusiol, Francesco Piscioli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291056/perspectives-on-low-grade-sarcomas-the-extraordinary-contributions-of-sharon-w-weiss-md
#2
Hope Hastings, John R Goldblum
Soft-tissue pathology encompasses a wide spectrum of neoplasms that represent some of the most challenging and problematic tumors in surgical pathology. Owing to the intensive work of dedicated pathologists, this once esoteric field has become increasingly well defined. In this review, Dr Sharon Weiss' monumental contributions to low-grade sarcomas, including low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma/so-called hyalinizing spindle cell tumor, atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with fibrosarcomatous transformation will be discussed...
March 13, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277421/pediatric-type-follicular-lymphoma-and-pediatric-nodal-marginal-zone-lymphoma-recent-clinical-morphologic-immunophenotypic-and-genetic-insights
#3
Matthew Koo, Robert S Ohgami
Pediatric-type follicular lymphoma and pediatric nodal marginal zone lymphoma are 2 of the rarest B-cell lymphomas. Although they are both predominantly seen in children, they can manifest in the adult population as well. Our understanding of these lymphomas has advanced rapidly in recent years such that we not only have a firm grasp of the morphologic and immunophenotypic findings, but also have a deeper insight into critical genetic and molecular pathways of these diseases. This review will cover the clinical and pathologic characteristics, treatment, prognosis, and important differential diagnoses of these entities...
March 8, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181954/nobel-prize-and-surgical-pathology
#4
Badr AbdullGaffar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181953/immunohistochemistry-and-special-stains-in-medical-liver-pathology
#5
REVIEW
Ian Clark, Michael S Torbenson
Histochemical and immunostains are routinely used to evaluate medical liver biopsy specimens. The use of these special stains allows the identification of more clinically important information than is available on hematoxylin and eosin stains alone. These special stains are important for evaluating active and chronic injury and for establishing a specific diagnosis. The skillful use of these stains greatly improves patient care. Information on the use of special stains can be scattered in different sources, making the information hard to access...
March 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181952/perineural-pseudoinvasion-an-unusual-phenomenon-in-nonmalignancies
#6
REVIEW
Mansour Moghimi, Fatemeh Joukar, Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Mohammad-Reza Mozayan, Amir Aryanfar
Perineural invasion (PNI) is characterized as tumoral or nontumoral cells invading in or around the nerves. The neural invasion is considered as a histopathologic characteristic for malignancy and is considered a mechanism for its spread. Both of these patterns usually portend a poor prognosis and very often are markers to prompt additional treatment. There are also some nonmalignancies representing PNI, including benign neoplasms, mimicking lesions, and disorders, such as chronic pancreatitis and endometriosis...
March 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181951/can-the-misinterpretation-amendment-rate-be-used-as-a-measure-of-interpretive-error-in-anatomic-pathology-implications-of-a-survey-of-the-directors-of-anatomic-and-surgical-pathology
#7
REVIEW
Vinita Parkash, Oluwole Fadare, Rajan Dewar, Raouf Nakhleh, Kumarasen Cooper
A repeat survey of the Association of the Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology, done 10 years after the original was used to assess trends and variability in classifying scenarios as errors, and the preferred post signout report modification for correcting error by the membership of the Association of the Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology. The results were analyzed to inform on whether interpretive amendment rates might act as surrogate measures of interpretive error in pathology. An analyses of the responses indicated that primary level misinterpretations (benign to malignant and vice versa) were universally qualified as error; secondary-level misinterpretations or misclassifications were inconsistently labeled error...
March 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181950/clinicopathologic-and-molecular-pathology-of-collecting-duct-carcinoma-and-related-renal-cell-carcinomas
#8
REVIEW
An Na Seo, Ghilsuk Yoon, Jae Y Ro
Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) and related tumors [ie, renal medullary carcinoma (RMC)] are rare types of highly aggressive renal cell carcinomas (RCC) with poor prognosis. Because of the rarity and diagnostic uncertainty of them, their molecular pathology and significance have not yet been fully elucidated. CDC, RMC, fumarate hydratase-deficient RCC (including hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC-associated RCC HLRCC-RCC), and recently reported anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearrangement RCC have significant morphologic overlaps, but they are separately distinct entities having different molecular pathway and clinical settings...
March 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098572/metastatic-organotropism-an-intrinsic-property-of-breast-cancer-molecular-subtypes
#9
REVIEW
Shi Wei, Gene P Siegal
It has long been known that some cancers have the propensity to metastasize to certain organs thus creating a nonrandom distribution of sites for distant relapse, a phenomenon known as "metastatic organotropism." Some of these examples include ovary primary to abdominal cavity, prostate primary to bone, and pancreas primary to liver. In contrast, other tumor types, such as mammary and renal cell carcinoma, can relapse in multiple organs although approximately half of advanced breast cancers metastasize to bone...
March 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941542/pathophysiology-of-iga-nephropathy
#10
REVIEW
Turki Al Hussain, Maged H Hussein, Hadeel Al Mana, Mohammed Akhtar
Immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy is the most prevalent primary chronic glomerular disease in the world. Studies of molecular and cellular interactions involved in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy have revealed several inherent abnormalities in the production and subsequent handling of IgA1. In patients with this disease, altered glycan structures in the unique hinge region of the heavy chains of IgA1 molecules lead to the exposure of antigenic determinants, which are recognized by naturally occurring antiglycan antibodies of the IgG and/or IgA1 isotype...
January 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941541/cytopathology-of-follicular-cell-nodules
#11
REVIEW
Esther D Rossi, Tommaso Bizzarro, Maurizio Martini, Luigi M Larocca, Fernando Schmitt, Philippe Vielh
The detection of thyroid nodules, consisting of different diseases, represents a common finding in population. Their evaluation and diagnosis are mostly achieved with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Even though the majority of thyroid nodules are correctly diagnosed, a total of 25% to 30% of them are classified "indeterminate" comprising lesions with varying risk of malignancy and different types of management. Although the number of thyroid FNACs, including small lesions, is increasing due to the reliance upon sonographic and cytologic interpretations, there are issues concerning cytomorphologic interpretation and interobserver reproducibility...
January 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941540/new-and-emerging-diagnostic-and-prognostic-immunohistochemical-biomarkers-in-prostate-pathology
#12
REVIEW
Giovanna A Giannico, Shanna A Arnold, Lan L Gellert, Omar Hameed
The diagnosis of minimal prostatic adenocarcinoma can be challenging on prostate needle biopsy, and immunohistochemistry may be used to support the diagnosis of cancer. The International Society of Urologic Pathology currently recommends the use of the basal cell markers high-molecular-weight cytokeraratin and p63, and α-methylacyl-coenzyme-A racemase. However, there are caveats associated with the interpretation of these markers, particularly with benign mimickers. Another issue is that of early detection of presence and progression of disease and prediction of recurrence after clinical intervention...
January 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941539/primary-salivary-gland-type-tumors-of-the-thymus
#13
REVIEW
Neda Kalhor, Annikka Weissferdt, Cesar A Moran
The existence of primary salivary gland type tumors (SGTs), similar to those occurring in the major salivary glands, is well known in the thoracic cavity. When they occur in this anatomic area, these tumors more commonly arise from the lung. However, the existence of these tumors primarily affecting the thymus, although recognized in the literature, is rather not well documented or known. In addition, contrary to the primary lung SGTs, which are predominantly of the malignant type, these tumors when occur in thymus encompass a wider spectrum of biology ranging from benign to low grade, and high grade malignancy...
January 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941538/nf1-and-neurofibromin-emerging-players-in-the-genetic-landscape-of-desmoplastic-melanoma
#14
REVIEW
Meera Mahalingam
Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), a monogenic disorder with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, is caused by alterations in the NF1 gene which codes for the protein neurofibromin. Functionally, NF1 is a tumor suppressor as it is GTPase-activating protein that negatively regulates the MAPK pathway. More recently, much attention has focused on the role of NF1 and neurofibromin in melanoma as mutations in NF1 have been found to constitute 1 of the 4 distinct genomic categories of melanoma, with the other 3 comprising BRAF, NRAS, and "triple-wild-type" subtypes...
January 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677082/podocyte-and-parietal-epithelial-cell-interactions-in-health-and-disease
#15
Turki Al Hussain, Hadeel Al Mana, Maged H Hussein, Mohammed Akhtar
The glomerulus has 3 resident cells namely mesangial cells that produce the mesangial matrix, endothelial cells that line the glomerular capillaries, and podocytes that cover the outer surface of the glomerular basement membrane. Parietal epithelial cells (PrECs), which line the Bowman's capsule are not part of the glomerular tuft but may have an important role in the normal function of the glomerulus. A significant progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of the role and function of these cells in normal kidney and in kidneys with various types of glomerulopathy...
January 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740962/endometrial-endometrioid-carcinoma-with-large-cystic-growth-configuration-and-deceptive-pattern-of-invasion-associated-with-abundant-nodular-fasciitis-like-stroma-a-unique-hitherto-unreported-histology-in-endometrioid-carcinoma
#16
Marián Švajdler, Michael Michal, Pavol Dubinský, Peter Švajdler, Ondrej Ondič, Michal Michal
We describe a case of an unusual endometrial endometrioid carcinoma occurring in a 67-year-old woman. The tumor involved uterine corpus as well as lower uterine segment and presented as polypoid tumor protruding through the cervical orifice. Microscopically, the tumor was characterized by broad zones of cytologically bland fibromyxoid stroma resembling nodular fasciitis, showing vaguely nodular architecture. Neoplastic glands were characterized by interconnected elongated slit-like and large cystic profiles, mostly lined by flattened epithelium with variable squamous differentiation, whereas typical columnar endometrioid cells were only focally present...
November 2016: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740961/basic-molecular-pathology-and-cytogenetics-for-practicing-pathologists-correlation-with-morphology-and-with-a-focus-on-aspects-of-diagnostic-or-therapeutic-utility
#17
REVIEW
Georgia Karpathiou, Anna Batistatou, Fabien Forest, Alix Clemenson, Michel Peoc'h
Morphology, as confronted in the everyday practice, often correlates with specific molecular features, which have important implications not only in pathogenesis and in diagnosis but also in prognosis and therapy. Thus, it is important that the classical pathology includes a sound knowledge of molecular aspects of disease. These molecular concepts are complex and not easily understood by all engaged in the routine practice of histopathology. Thus, the aim of this review is to present a summary of most of the necessary concepts for pathologists involving molecular pathology and genetics, beginning from basic definitions and mechanisms to major abnormalities and the methodology to detect them, correlating at the same time, the specific morphologic features associated with every abnormality...
November 2016: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740960/-omics-approaches-in-breast-cancer-research-and-clinical-practice
#18
REVIEW
Priyakshi Kalita-de Croft, Fares Al-Ejeh, Amy E McCart Reed, Jodi M Saunus, Sunil R Lakhani
Our understanding of the natural history of breast cancer has evolved alongside technologies to study its genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomics landscapes. These technologies have helped decipher multiple molecular pathways dysregulated in breast cancer. First-generation 'omics analyses considered each of these dimensions individually, but it is becoming increasingly clear that more holistic, integrative approaches are required to fully understand complex biological systems. The 'omics represent an exciting era of discovery in breast cancer research, although important issues need to be addressed to realize the clinical utility of these data through precision cancer care...
November 2016: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677083/starry-sky-pattern-in-hematopoietic-neoplasms-a-review-of-pathophysiology-and-differential-diagnosis
#19
REVIEW
Janelyn L Dy-Ledesma, Joseph D Khoury, Rose Lou Marie C Agbay, Mar Garcia, Roberto N Miranda, L Jeffrey Medeiros
The starry sky pattern is a distinctive histologic feature wherein a rapidly proliferating hematolymphoid neoplasm contains scattered histiocytes with abundant pale cytoplasm in a background of monomorphic neoplastic cells. The cytoplasm of these histiocytes typically contains cellular remnants, also known as tingible bodies, incorporated through active phagocytosis. Although common and widely recognized, relatively little is known about the pathophysiological underpinnings of the starry sky pattern. Its resemblance to a similar pattern seen in the germinal centers of secondary follicles suggests a possible starting point for understanding the molecular basis of the starry sky pattern and potential routes for its exploitation for therapeutic purposes...
November 2016: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441757/primary-mediastinal-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma
#20
REVIEW
Sergio Piña-Oviedo, Cesar A Moran
Primary mediastinal Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is rare. Nodular sclerosis CHL (NS-CHL) is the most common subtype involving the anterior mediastinum and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. Primary thymic CHL is exceedingly rare. The disease typically affects young women and is asymptomatic in 30% to 50% of patients. Common symptoms include fatigue, chest pain, dyspnea and cough, but vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. B-symptoms develop in 30% of cases. By imaging, primary mediastinal CHL presents as mediastinal widening/mediastinal mass that does not invade adjacent organs but may compress vital structures as bulky disease...
September 2016: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
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