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Advances in Anatomic Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912718/pulmonary-sarcomatoid-carcinomas-a-review
#1
Annikka Weissferdt
Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas belong to a group of neoplasms that remain incompletely understood. They are rare tumors of the bronchopulmonary system that incorporate a wide range of neoplasms that by definition contain a sarcomatoid component characterized by spindle or giant cells. Such classification has led to a heterogenous tumor category that includes neoplasms with different clinical, morphologic, and prognostic features. To date, the histopathologic diagnosis of pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas does not require the use of ancillary testing and is based on light microscopic criteria alone...
June 15, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912000/neoplasms-of-the-neuroendocrine-pancreas-an-update-in-the-classification-definition-and-molecular-genetic-advances
#2
Julie M Guilmette, Vania Nosé
This review focuses on discussing the main modifications of the recently published 2017 WHO Classification of Neoplasms of the Neuroendocrine Pancreas (panNEN). Recent updates separate pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors into 2 broad categories: well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNET) and poorly differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (panNEC), and incorporates a new subcategory of "well-differentiated high-grade NET (G3)" to the well-differentiated NET category. This new classification algorithm aims to improve the prediction of clinical outcomes and survival and help clinicians select better therapeutic strategies for patient care and management...
June 14, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911999/ewing-sarcoma-and-the-history-of-similar-and-possibly-related-small-round-cell-tumors-from-whence-have-we-come-and-where-are-we-going
#3
Scott E Kilpatrick, John D Reith, Brian Rubin
The diagnosis of small round cell tumors always has been extremely difficult, and our current classification systems continue to evolve. Since its initial discovery by Dr James Ewing, the historical context of what is acceptably included under the designation "Ewing sarcoma" has changed. Although Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor were both initially described in the early 20th century, these tumors were considered likely distinct entities until the end of that same century, almost 75 years later...
June 14, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870405/evolution-in-prostate-cancer-staging-pathology-updates-from-ajcc-8th-edition-and-opportunities-that-remain
#4
Samson W Fine
The Tumor-Nodes-Metastasis system at the core of prognostic staging has been recently updated in the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th edition, published in 2016. For prostate cancer, significant changes in staging of organ-confined disease, inclusion of a new grade grouping, and provision of levels of evidence for these modifications are part of what differentiates the 8th edition AJCC from prior iterations. Herein, the rationale underlying these changes is detailed. In addition, data elements not well represented in the present system are highlighted as opportunities for fresh study that may impact future AJCC classifications...
June 4, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762158/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-pathogenesis-of-neurofibromatosis-type-1-nf1-associated-peripheral-nervous-system-neoplasms
#5
Jody F Longo, Shannon M Weber, Brittany P Turner-Ivey, Steven L Carroll
The diagnosis of a neurofibroma or a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) often raises the question of whether the patient has the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) as well as how this will impact the patient's outcome, what their risk is for developing additional neoplasms and whether treatment options differ for NF1-associated and sporadic peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Establishing a diagnosis of NF1 is challenging as this disorder has numerous neoplastic and non-neoplastic manifestations which are variably present in individual patients...
May 4, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727322/unfavorable-pathology-tissue-biomarkers-and-genomic-tests-with-clinical-implications-in-prostate-cancer-management
#6
Jane Kim Nguyen, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi
Prostate cancer management has traditionally relied upon risk stratification of patients based on Gleason score, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen and clinical tumor stage. However, these factors alone do not adequately reflect the inherent complexity and heterogeneity of prostate cancer. Accurate and individualized risk stratification at the time of diagnosis is instrumental to facilitate clinical decision-making and treatment selection tailored to each patient. The incorporation of tissue and genetic biomarkers into current prostate cancer prediction models may optimize decision-making and improve patient outcomes...
May 3, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727323/selected-case-from-the-arkadi-m-rywlin-international-pathology-slide-club-peritoneal-lipofuscinosis-and-deciduosis-in-pregnancy
#7
Dimuth N Gunawardane, Philip W Allen
Peritoneal lipofuscinosis is a very rarely recognized condition occurring during pregnancy characterized by brown pigmentation of the omentum and peritoneum, a decidual reaction and benign mesothelial cells. The iron negative pigment, which is likely to be confused with hemosiderin in the hematoxylin and eosin stain, is lipofuscin. The seminar case, apparently the third published, arose in a 37-year-old woman who presented in October 2015 at 24 weeks pregnancy with abdominal pain. Investigations revealed a ruptured left ovarian cyst and rising serum carcinoembryonic antige levels...
April 30, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870512/disclosure-of-harmful-medical-error-to-patients-a-review-with-recommendations-for-pathologists-erratum
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762157/recent-advances-in-the-classification-of-low-grade-papillary-like-thyroid-neoplasms-and-aggressive-papillary-thyroid-carcinomas-evolution-of-diagnostic-criteria
#9
Zhenying Guo, Minghua Ge, Ying-Hsia Chu, Sofia Asioli, Ricardo V Lloyd
Papillary thyroid carcinomas account for ∼80% of well-differentiated thyroid tumors. During the past decade, several new variants of papillary-like thyroid neoplasms and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been recognized. Some of these neoplasms that were previously classified as malignant have been reclassified as low-grade neoplasms, as the diagnostic criteria have evolved. Similarly, some of the papillary thyroid carcinomas that were previously classified as conventional or classic papillary thyroid carcinomas have now been recognized as more aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinomas...
July 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727321/fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization-in-surgical-pathology-practice
#10
Ruta Gupta, Wendy A Cooper, Christina Selinger, Annabelle Mahar, Lyndal Anderson, Michael E Buckland, Sandra A O'Toole
There have been rapid and significant advances in diagnostic and predictive molecular techniques in recent years with profound impact on patient care. In situ hybridization (ISH) studies have become well entrenched in surgical pathology practice and their role in the evaluation of HER2 in breast carcinoma and their diagnostic utility in soft tissue pathology are well known. Fluorescent ISH is being increasingly used in other sites such as the head and neck and the gynecologic tract. Like most tests in surgical pathology, ISH studies require good quality tissue, correlation with clinical and histopathologic findings, and adherence to guidelines for optimal assay performance and interpretation...
July 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697415/an-update-on-the-clinicopathologic-features-and-pathologic-diagnosis-of-hepatitis-e-in-liver-specimens
#11
Daniela Lenggenhager, Achim Weber
Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is globally seen a leading cause of hepatitis. Now increasingly recognized also in industrialized countries, hepatitis E constitutes a significant health problem worldwide. The patient's immune status determines the clinical course and histopathology of hepatitis E. In immunocompetent patients, hepatitis E usually follows an asymptomatic or subclinical course, but may also present with acute hepatitis. In contrast, immunocompromised patients may develop chronic hepatitis, and patients with preexisting liver diseases are at risk for liver decompensation with potentially fatal outcome...
July 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668499/tumor-syndromes-predisposing-to-osteosarcoma
#12
Meera Hameed, Diana Mandelker
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor affecting predominantly adolescents and young adults. It accounts for about 5% of all childhood cancers. Although the majority of OSs are sporadic, a small percentage occur as a component of hereditary cancer syndromes. Early onset, bilateral, multifocal, and metachronous tumors suggest genetic predisposition. The inheritance patterns can be autosomal dominant or recessive. These syndromes predispose to a wide variety of mesenchymal and epithelial cancers with propensity for certain mutations being prevalent in specific cancer subtypes...
July 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649005/cutaneous-smooth-muscle-tumors-a-review
#13
Sean K Lau, Stephen S Koh
Smooth muscle tumors occur infrequently in the skin. They consist of a diverse group of lesions representing hamartomas as well as benign and malignant neoplasms. They may arise from arrector pili muscle, specialized smooth muscle of the genitalia, or vascular smooth muscle. Although rare, accurate diagnosis and classification of cutaneous smooth muscle proliferations is important as they can exhibit a range of clinical behavior and may be associated with underlying syndromes. This review summarizes the clinicopathologic spectrum of smooth muscle tumors involving the skin...
July 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649004/atypical-hepatocellular-neoplasms-review-of-clinical-morphologic-immunohistochemical-molecular-and-cytogenetic-features
#14
Won-Tak Choi, Sanjay Kakar
The distinction of hepatocellular adenoma from well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be difficult in some cases, especially on biopsy specimens. These borderline cases often occur in men or older patients and may have β-catenin activation or focal atypical morphologic features (such as small cell change, prominent pseudoacinar formation, cytologic atypia, focally thick plates, and/or focal reticulin loss) that are insufficient for an unequivocal diagnosis of HCC. The term "atypical hepatocellular neoplasm" has been advocated for these tumors, but a number of other terms, including "atypical adenoma," "hepatocellular neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential," and "well-differentiated hepatocellular neoplasm with atypical or borderline features" have also been proposed...
July 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465420/pathologic-features-of-infectious-gastritis
#15
Eric U Yee, Enoch Kuo, Jeffrey D Goldsmith
This manuscript presents a review of infectious causes of gastritis aimed at the practicing anatomic pathologist. We shall highlight unique histologic findings and clinical attributes that will assist those analyzing endoscopically obtained mucosal biopsies of the stomach or resection specimens.
July 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521646/incorporating-advances-in-molecular-pathology-into-brain-tumor-diagnostics
#16
José E Velázquez Vega, Daniel J Brat
Recent advances in molecular pathology have reshaped the practice of brain tumor diagnostics. The classification of gliomas has been restructured with the discovery of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 mutations in the vast majority of lower grade infiltrating gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBM), with IDH-mutant astrocytomas further characterized by TP53 and ATRX mutations. Whole-arm 1p/19q codeletion in conjunction with IDH mutations now define oligodendrogliomas, which are also enriched for CIC, FUBP1, PI3K, NOTCH1, and TERT-p mutations...
May 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465421/molecular-and-metabolic-basis-of-clear-cell-carcinoma-of-the-kidney
#17
Mohammed Akhtar, Issam A Al-Bozom, Turki Al Hussain
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogenous group of tumors, >70% of which belong to the category of clear cell carcinoma. In recent years, crucial advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis of clear cell carcinoma. This tumor manifests significant alterations in the cellular metabolism, so that the tumor cells preferentially induce the hypoxia response pathway using aerobic glycolysis, rather than the normal oxidative phosphorylation for energy. Most of the clear cell carcinomas (sporadic as well as familial) have mutations and deletions in the VHL gene located at 3p (p3...
May 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394171/hpv-related-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-a-review-of-clinical-and-pathologic-features-with-emphasis-on-updates-in-clinical-and-pathologic-staging
#18
Lisa Buckley, Louise Jackett, Jonathan Clark, Ruta Gupta
There has been a sharp increase in the incidence of the human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, partly due to the increasingly widespread awareness and recognition of this entity. This review assimilates the recent histopathologic classifications, staging systems, rapidly expanding research base and developments in management of human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and summarizes their implications for routine diagnostic practice. Differential diagnoses and their cytologic appearances are detailed and the utility of p16 staining and other immunohistochemistry testing is discussed...
May 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351089/aggressive-variants-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-hobnail-tall-cell-columnar-and-solid
#19
Meryl C Nath, Lori A Erickson
Papillary thyroid carcinomas are the most common endocrine cancer and are usually associated with good survival. However, some variants of papillary thyroid carcinomas may behave more aggressively than classic papillary thyroid carcinomas. The tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common aggressive variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The aggressive behavior has been ascribed to the histologic subtype and/or to the clinicopathologic features, an issue that remains controversial. The columnar variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma can be aggressive, particularly in older patients, with larger tumors showing a diffusely infiltrative growth pattern and extrathyroidal extension...
May 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189208/extraneuraxial-hemangioblastoma-clinicopathologic-features-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Michele Bisceglia, Lucia A Muscarella, Carlos A Galliani, Nina Zidar, David Ben-Dor, Gianandrea Pasquinelli, Annamaria la Torre, Angelo Sparaneo, Julie C Fanburg-Smith, Janez Lamovec, Michal Michal, Carlos E Bacchi
Extraneuraxial hemangioblastoma occurs in nervous paraneuraxial structures, somatic tissues, and visceral organs, as part of von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHLD) or in sporadic cases. The VHL gene plausibly plays a key role in the initiation and tumorigenesis of both central nervous system and extraneuraxial hemangioblastoma, therefore, the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms of the tumor growth are initially reviewed. The clinical criteria for the diagnosis of VHLD are summarized, with emphasis on the distinction of sporadic hemangioblastoma from the form fruste of VHLD (eg, hemangioblastoma-only VHLD)...
May 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
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