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Advances in Anatomic Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787279/myxoid-mesenchymal-tumors-of-the-uterus-an-update-on-classification-definitions-and-differential-diagnosis
#1
Aurelia Busca, Carlos Parra-Herran
Tumors with a predominant myxoid stroma are rare in the uterus. When encountered, however, they pose a diagnostic challenge. Traditionally myxoid leiomyosarcoma has been the most important consideration in this category, given its adverse prognosis and deceptively bland morphology. Conventional features of malignancy are variably present; in contrast, an infiltrative tumor border is a consistent pathologic characteristic. More recently, previously under-recognized lesions have been identified, in part due to our growing knowledge of their underlying molecular alterations: uterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor frequently harbors ALK rearrangements and a novel ZC3H7B-BCOR gene fusion has been described in a subset of myxoid high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas...
August 4, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777143/assessing-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-solid-tumors-a-practical-review-for-pathologists-and-proposal-for-a-standardized-method-from-the-international-immuno-oncology-biomarkers-working-group-part-2-tils-in-melanoma-gastrointestinal-tract-carcinomas-non
#2
Shona Hendry, Roberto Salgado, Thomas Gevaert, Prudence A Russell, Tom John, Bibhusal Thapa, Michael Christie, Koen van de Vijver, M V Estrada, Paula I Gonzalez-Ericsson, Melinda Sanders, Benjamin Solomon, Cinzia Solinas, Gert G G M Van den Eynden, Yves Allory, Matthias Preusser, Johannes Hainfellner, Giancarlo Pruneri, Andrea Vingiani, Sandra Demaria, Fraser Symmans, Paolo Nuciforo, Laura Comerma, E A Thompson, Sunil Lakhani, Seong-Rim Kim, Stuart Schnitt, Cecile Colpaert, Christos Sotiriou, Stefan J Scherer, Michail Ignatiadis, Sunil Badve, Robert H Pierce, Giuseppe Viale, Nicolas Sirtaine, Frederique Penault-Llorca, Tomohagu Sugie, Susan Fineberg, Soonmyung Paik, Ashok Srinivasan, Andrea Richardson, Yihong Wang, Ewa Chmielik, Jane Brock, Douglas B Johnson, Justin Balko, Stephan Wienert, Veerle Bossuyt, Stefan Michiels, Nils Ternes, Nicole Burchardi, Stephen J Luen, Peter Savas, Frederick Klauschen, Peter H Watson, Brad H Nelson, Carmen Criscitiello, Sandra O'Toole, Denis Larsimont, Roland de Wind, Giuseppe Curigliano, Fabrice André, Magali Lacroix-Triki, Mark van de Vijver, Federico Rojo, Giuseppe Floris, Shahinaz Bedri, Joseph Sparano, David Rimm, Torsten Nielsen, Zuzana Kos, Stephen Hewitt, Baljit Singh, Gelareh Farshid, Sibylle Loibl, Kimberly H Allison, Nadine Tung, Sylvia Adams, Karen Willard-Gallo, Hugo M Horlings, Leena Gandhi, Andre Moreira, Fred Hirsch, Maria V Dieci, Maria Urbanowicz, Iva Brcic, Konstanty Korski, Fabien Gaire, Hartmut Koeppen, Amy Lo, Jennifer Giltnane, Marlon C Rebelatto, Keith E Steele, Jiping Zha, Kenneth Emancipator, Jonathan W Juco, Carsten Denkert, Jorge Reis-Filho, Sherene Loi, Stephen B Fox
Assessment of the immune response to tumors is growing in importance as the prognostic implications of this response are increasingly recognized, and as immunotherapies are evaluated and implemented in different tumor types. However, many different approaches can be used to assess and describe the immune response, which limits efforts at implementation as a routine clinical biomarker. In part 1 of this review, we have proposed a standardized methodology to assess tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in solid tumors, based on the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group guidelines for invasive breast carcinoma...
August 2, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777142/assessing-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-solid-tumors-a-practical-review-for-pathologists-and-proposal-for-a-standardized-method-from-the-international-immunooncology-biomarkers-working-group-part-1-assessing-the-host-immune-response-tils-in-invasive-breast
#3
Shona Hendry, Roberto Salgado, Thomas Gevaert, Prudence A Russell, Tom John, Bibhusal Thapa, Michael Christie, Koen van de Vijver, M V Estrada, Paula I Gonzalez-Ericsson, Melinda Sanders, Benjamin Solomon, Cinzia Solinas, Gert G G M Van den Eynden, Yves Allory, Matthias Preusser, Johannes Hainfellner, Giancarlo Pruneri, Andrea Vingiani, Sandra Demaria, Fraser Symmans, Paolo Nuciforo, Laura Comerma, E A Thompson, Sunil Lakhani, Seong-Rim Kim, Stuart Schnitt, Cecile Colpaert, Christos Sotiriou, Stefan J Scherer, Michail Ignatiadis, Sunil Badve, Robert H Pierce, Giuseppe Viale, Nicolas Sirtaine, Frederique Penault-Llorca, Tomohagu Sugie, Susan Fineberg, Soonmyung Paik, Ashok Srinivasan, Andrea Richardson, Yihong Wang, Ewa Chmielik, Jane Brock, Douglas B Johnson, Justin Balko, Stephan Wienert, Veerle Bossuyt, Stefan Michiels, Nils Ternes, Nicole Burchardi, Stephen J Luen, Peter Savas, Frederick Klauschen, Peter H Watson, Brad H Nelson, Carmen Criscitiello, Sandra O'Toole, Denis Larsimont, Roland de Wind, Giuseppe Curigliano, Fabrice André, Magali Lacroix-Triki, Mark van de Vijver, Federico Rojo, Giuseppe Floris, Shahinaz Bedri, Joseph Sparano, David Rimm, Torsten Nielsen, Zuzana Kos, Stephen Hewitt, Baljit Singh, Gelareh Farshid, Sibylle Loibl, Kimberly H Allison, Nadine Tung, Sylvia Adams, Karen Willard-Gallo, Hugo M Horlings, Leena Gandhi, Andre Moreira, Fred Hirsch, Maria V Dieci, Maria Urbanowicz, Iva Brcic, Konstanty Korski, Fabien Gaire, Hartmut Koeppen, Amy Lo, Jennifer Giltnane, Marlon C Rebelatto, Keith E Steele, Jiping Zha, Kenneth Emancipator, Jonathan W Juco, Carsten Denkert, Jorge Reis-Filho, Sherene Loi, Stephen B Fox
Assessment of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in histopathologic specimens can provide important prognostic information in diverse solid tumor types, and may also be of value in predicting response to treatments. However, implementation as a routine clinical biomarker has not yet been achieved. As successful use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and other forms of immunotherapy become a clinical reality, the need for widely applicable, accessible, and reliable immunooncology biomarkers is clear. In part 1 of this review we briefly discuss the host immune response to tumors and different approaches to TIL assessment...
September 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777141/cytologic-histologic-discrepancies-in-pathology-of-the-uterine-cervix-analysis-of-the-clinical-and-pathologic-factors
#4
Fadi W Abdul-Karim, Bin Yang
Cytologic-histologic correlation (CHC) represents a documented effort to obtain and compare, when available, gynecologic cytology reports with an interpretation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, with the subsequent histopathology report, and to determine the possible cause of any discrepancy. The correlation is influenced by multiple closely interdependent clinical and pathologic factors. Many of these factors including the sensitivity and accuracy of colposcopy-directed biopsy, the diligence of the colposcopist, and the attributes of the cervical lesion represent "preanalytical" factors which can significantly affect the CHC outcome, but are often less emphasized during CHC process...
September 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777140/the-molecular-landscape-of-noninvasive-follicular-thyroid-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features-niftp-a-literature-review
#5
Fulvio Basolo, Elisabetta Macerola, Clara Ugolini, David N Poller, Zubair Baloch
The encapsulated and noninvasive follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma has been recently reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). These tumors demonstrate indolent behavior. This change in nomenclature will have great clinical impact by avoiding overtreatment of patients with NIFTP lesions who in the past were diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma and typically received completion thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine ablation. The pathologic diagnosis of NIFTP requires surgical removal of the thyroid lesion or the lobe harboring it, and thorough sampling of the complete interface between the tumor capsule and the thyroid parenchyma, to exclude foci of invasion...
September 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719442/social-media-and-pathology-where-are-we-now-and-why-does-it-matter
#6
James Isom, Meggen Walsh, Jerad M Gardner
Social media has exploded in popularity in recent years. It is a powerful new tool for networking, collaborating, and for the communication and evolution of ideas. It has been increasingly used for business purposes and is now being embraced by physicians including pathologists. Pathology professional organizations and even peer-reviewed pathology journals are now beginning to use social media, as well. There are multiple social media platforms, including Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, and others. Each platform has different audiences and different ways to share content and interact with other users...
September 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654444/lichenoid-dermatitis-of-the-vulva-diagnosis-and-differential-diagnosis-for-the-gynecologic-pathologist
#7
Marc R Lewin, Ryan W Hick, Maria A Selim
Inflammatory processes affecting the vulva may present a unique challenge due to location specific changes. Different factors are behind the intricacy in the presentation of vulvar dermatoses. First, the vulva is lined by different epithelia (hair-bearing keratinized epithelium, modified mucosa, and mucosa). Furthermore, among other factors, this organ is exposed to friction, occlusion, and trauma. Lastly, as there is a tendency to look for health care advice at an advanced stage of the disease, the lesion may be modified by secondary changes due to self-treatment...
September 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632504/what-is-new-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor
#8
Inga-Marie Schaefer, Adrián Mariño-Enríquez, Jonathan A Fletcher
The classification "gastrointestinal stromal tumor" (GIST) became commonplace in the 1990s and since that time various advances have characterized the GIST lineage of origin, tyrosine kinase mutations, and mechanisms of response and resistance to targeted therapies. In addition to tyrosine kinase mutations and their constitutive activation of downstream signaling pathways, GISTs acquire a sequence of chromosomal aberrations. These include deletions of chromosomes 14q, 22q, 1p, and 15q, which harbor putative tumor suppressor genes required for stepwise progression from microscopic, preclinical forms of GIST (microGIST) to clinically relevant tumors with malignant potential...
September 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375867/hemosiderotic-fibrolipomatous-tumor-pleomorphic-hyalinizing-angiectatic-tumor-and-myxoinflammatory-fibroblastic-sarcoma-related-or-not
#9
Jennifer M Boland, Andrew L Folpe
Hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor is an unusual, distinctive soft tissue neoplasm with locally recurring potential, which most commonly occurs in the ankle and foot. Morphologic evidence strongly suggests that hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor is related to another rare, locally aggressive tumor of the distal extremities, pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor, with areas identical to hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor seen at the periphery in most if not all pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor...
September 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590954/current-valuation-of-pathology-service
#10
Jonathan L Myles, Diana M Cardona, Todd Klemp, Ayanna Wooding, W Stephen Black-Schaffer
Health care reform has accelerated as the existing health care system undergoes continuing financial stress. Medicare's new value-based payment system, commonly referred to as MACRA, provides opportunities for physicians to participate in this new system in a variety of ways. However, many of the value-based adjustments are based on existing valuations of services through traditional mechanisms. To achieve appropriate valuation of pathologist's services in the new payment models, it is imperative that we continue to achieve proper valuation of services through the traditional mechanisms...
July 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590953/clinical-applications-of-whole-slide-imaging-in-anatomic-pathology
#11
Zoya Volynskaya, Andrew J Evans, Sylvia L Asa
The development of whole-slide imaging has paved the way for digitizing of glass slides that are the basis for surgical pathology. This transformative technology has changed the landscape in research applications and education but despite its tremendous potential, its adoption for clinical use has been slow. We review the various niche applications that initiated awareness of this technology, provide examples of clinical use cases, and discuss the requirements and challenges for full adoption in clinical diagnosis...
July 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590952/role-of-human-papillomavirus-in-vulvar-cancer
#12
Natalia Rakislova, Adela Saco, Adriana Sierra, Marta Del Pino, Jaume Ordi
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved in one of the at least 2 pathways leading to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). Inactivation of p53 and retinoblastoma by the viral products E6 and E7 is involved in malignant transformation. The percentage of HPV-positive VSCCs ranges from 18% to 75%, depending on the geographical area. HPV-associated tumors affect relatively young women and arise from high-grade intraepithelial lesions, identical to other HPV-associated premalignant lesions of the anogenital tract...
July 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590951/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-review-of-the-eighth-edition-of-the-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-staging-guidelines-prognostic-factors-and-histopathologic-variants
#13
Kiran Motaparthi, Jyoti P Kapil, Elsa F Velazquez
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer after basal cell carcinoma and accounts for the majority of nonmelanoma skin cancer-related deaths. In 2017, the American Joint Committee on Cancer revised the staging guidelines of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma to reflect recent evidence concerning high-risk clinicopathologic features. This update reviews the literature on prognostic features and staging, including the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual...
July 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537941/pathophysiology-of-anca-associated-vasculitis
#14
Turki Al-Hussain, Maged H Hussein, Walter Conca, Hadeel Al Mana, Mohammed Akhtar
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is characterized as inflammation of small-sized to medium-sized blood vessels and encompasses several clinicopathologic entities including granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and renal-limited ANCA-associated vasculitis. Over the past several decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Although neutrophils contain a multitude of granular proteins, clinically significant autoantibodies are only recognized against myeloperoxidase and proteinase 3, both of which are present in the azurophilic granules...
July 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291056/perspectives-on-low-grade-sarcomas-the-extraordinary-contributions-of-sharon-w-weiss-md
#15
Hope Hastings, John R Goldblum
Soft-tissue pathology encompasses a wide spectrum of neoplasms that represent some of the most challenging and problematic tumors in surgical pathology. Owing to the intensive work of dedicated pathologists, this once esoteric field has become increasingly well defined. In this review, Dr Sharon Weiss' monumental contributions to low-grade sarcomas, including low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma/so-called hyalinizing spindle cell tumor, atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with fibrosarcomatous transformation will be discussed...
July 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398953/s100p-as-a-marker-for-urothelial-histogenesis-a-critical-review-and-comparison-with-novel-and-traditional-urothelial-immunohistochemical-markers
#16
REVIEW
Moushumi Suryavanshi, Julian Sanz-Ortega, Deepika Sirohi, Mukul K Divatia, Chisato Ohe, Claudia Zampini, Daniel Luthringer, Steven C Smith, Mahul B Amin
S100P, or placental S100, is a member of a large family of S100 proteins and considered to be a promising immunohistochemical marker to support urothelial differentiation. This review synthesizes published data regarding the expression of S100P in urothelial carcinoma across histological grade and variant patterns, and in other malignancies, in an effort to summarize the state of understanding of this marker and evaluate its potential. We provide also a broad comparison of S100P with other contemporary and traditional urothelial markers and outline the potential utility of S100P in various diagnostically challenging scenarios...
May 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398952/vulvar-and-anal-intraepithelial-neoplasia-terminology-diagnosis-and-ancillary-studies
#17
REVIEW
Eric J Yang, Christina S Kong, Teri A Longacre
Currently, it is recognized that there is an HPV-related and an HPV-independent pathway to developing squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in the anus and vulva. The majority of precursor lesions and SCC in the anus and vulva are high-risk HPV-associated, with HPV16 the most common type. Given the morphologic overlap and biological equivalence of HPV-related preinvasive squamous lesions of the lower anogenital tract, a unified, 2-tiered histopathologic nomenclature is now recommended. In contrast, mutations in the TP53 gene have been associated with HPV-independent vulvar and anal SCC...
May 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398951/challenges-in-pathologic-staging-of-bladder-cancer-proposals-for-fresh-approaches-of-assessing-pathologic-stage-in-light-of-recent-studies-and-observations-pertaining-to-bladder-histoanatomic-variances
#18
REVIEW
Gladell P Paner, Rodolfo Montironi, Mahul B Amin
The paradigm of pathologic stage (pT) categorization in bladder cancer remains the depth of invasion into the different histologic layers of the bladder wall. However, the approaches to assigning pT stage category toward an enhanced outcome stratification have been marked by challenges and innovations, due in part to our growing appreciation of the surprisingly perplexing bladder histoanatomy. Upstaging of pT1 tumors after radical cystectomy is substantial and underscores the potential value of pT1 substaging in transurethral resection (TUR) specimens...
May 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338500/differential-diagnosis-in-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-of-the-larynx
#19
REVIEW
Jennifer L Hunt, Alfio Ferlito, Henrik Hellquist, Alessandra Rinaldo, Alena Skálová, Pieter J Slootweg, Stefan M Willems, Antonio Cardesa
The differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx is broad and includes lesions of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal origin. These lesions have overlapping clinical and pathologic aspects and must be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal neoplasms. The prognosis and treatment are also different among these tumor types, which necessitates making these distinctions clinically. The current literature was reviewed to provide updated information regarding the epithelial-derived tumors, including carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine component...
May 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277421/pediatric-type-follicular-lymphoma-and-pediatric-nodal-marginal-zone-lymphoma-recent-clinical-morphologic-immunophenotypic-and-genetic-insights
#20
Matthew Koo, Robert S Ohgami
Pediatric-type follicular lymphoma and pediatric nodal marginal zone lymphoma are 2 of the rarest B-cell lymphomas. Although they are both predominantly seen in children, they can manifest in the adult population as well. Our understanding of these lymphomas has advanced rapidly in recent years such that we not only have a firm grasp of the morphologic and immunophenotypic findings, but also have a deeper insight into critical genetic and molecular pathways of these diseases. This review will cover the clinical and pathologic characteristics, treatment, prognosis, and important differential diagnoses of these entities...
May 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
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