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Ophthalmic Epidemiology

Bonnielin K Swenor, Xinxing Guo, Michael V Boland, Judith E Goldstein
PURPOSE: To use electronic health record (EHR) data to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of low-vision (LV) patients. METHODS: EHR data were obtained for all patients at the nine clinical locations of the Wilmer Eye Institute in 2014. LV status at each visit was defined as visual acuity (VA) worse than 20/40 in the better-seeing eye. Prevalence and incidence estimates were determined over a 12-month period. Demographic and clinical data were used to compare the characteristics of patients with and without LV...
October 16, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Jing Zhang, Lei Wan, Yunhai Dai
PURPOSE: To review the demography and etiology of pediatric enucleation over time. METHODS: Pediatric ophthalmic inpatients recruited and recorded (aged 0-14 years) at Shandong Eye Institute from January 2001 to December 2015 were reviewed. Changes during the three periods from 2001 to 2005, 2006 to 2010, and 2011 to 2015 were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 9307 pediatric inpatients were reviewed. Of these, 71 patients (71 eyes) who had been treated by enucleation were analyzed; 46 were boys (64...
October 16, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Uchenna C Atowa, Samuel O Wajuihian, Rekha Hansraj
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of non-strabismic vergence anomalies and their relationship with age, gender, and school level in children aged 10-16 years Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 537 children (255 male, 282 females; mean age 13.0 ± 2.0, years) selected from nine schools using stratified, cluster, and random sampling. The participants completed a Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) and eye examinations, including the measurement of visual acuity, non-cycloplegic refraction, cover test, near point of convergence, fusional vergences, accommodative functions, and ocular health evaluation...
October 10, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Ian McCormick, Priya Morjaria, Islay Mactaggart, Catey Bunce, Covadonga Bascaran, Maipelo Jeremiah, Allen Foster
PURPOSE: The effectiveness of school eye health programmes relies on many factors, including compliance with spectacle wear. The objectives of this study were to determine spectacle compliance in a school vision screening pilot programme in Botswana, and investigate factors predictive of compliance. METHODS: The study was an observational, cross-sectional follow-up of a pilot school screening programme. Unannounced compliance checks were completed after 3-4 months in a convenience sample of 19 schools...
October 9, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Maya G Pandova, Jamal I Al-Merjan, Nadia A Sadeq
PURPOSE: Incidence rate of registered blindness and low vision (IR) among the Kuwaitis from 2005 to 2014 and longitudinal changes since 2000. METHODS: Data of newly certified Kuwaitis with best-corrected visual acuity 0.1 or less or visual field constriction to 20 ° or less in their better eye, aggregated in intervals from 2005 to 2009 and 2010 to 2014 and presented as IR per 100 000 person years of observation by age, gender, severity and leading cause. RESULTS: Delayed certification resulted in rise of IR from 2005...
October 4, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Jasmina Bajric, Gregory J Griepentrog, Brian G Mohney
PURPOSE: To report the incidence, clinical findings, and surgical outcomes of periocular dermoid cysts diagnosed among children over a 20-year period. METHODS: All patients ≤5 years of age, who were diagnosed with a periocular dermoid cyst in Olmsted County, Minnesota from 1986 to 2005 were reviewed to determine the population incidence, clinical presentation, and management outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 54 children were diagnosed with a periocular dermoid cyst during the 20-year period, yielding a birth incidence of 1 in 638 live births...
September 27, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Eunbi Kim, Dong Gyu Choi
PURPOSE: To compare surgical outcomes between bilateral medial rectus recession (BMR) and unilateral medial rectus recession-lateral rectus resection (RR) for infantile esotropia. METHODS: In this retrospective study, BMR was performed on 57 patients (BMR group) and RR on 23 (RR group) for treatment of infantile esotropia with the postoperative follow-up period of 6 months or more. The main outcome measures were angle of esodeviation, rate of surgical success, rate of reoperation, rate of postoperative development of DVD, and postoperative sensory status...
September 25, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Alisha Kamboj, Henry A Spiller, Marcel J Casavant, Thitphalak Chounthirath, Gary A Smith
PURPOSE: To investigate the epidemiology of ocular exposures reported to poison control centers in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of ocular exposures from 2000 to 2016 was conducted using National Poison Data System data. RESULTS: United States poison control centers received 1,436,683 reports of ocular exposures during 2000-2016, averaging 7,043 exposures per month. The annual frequency of ocular exposures declined significantly by 37...
September 21, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Gordon T Barker, Steven L Mansberger
PURPOSE: To measure the psychometric properties of a reduced, 27-statement version of the Glaucoma Treatment Compliance Assessment Tool (GTCAT). METHODS: We administered the GTCAT to 183 participants who were using a single bottle of an ocular hypotensive agent, and objectively measured adherence with Medication Event Monitoring System devices over 60 days. Adherence was the number of days with correctly timed bottle openings divided by the total number of study days...
September 11, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Viktor V Chirikov, Ruchit Shah, Youngmin Kwon, Dipen Patel
PURPOSE: This study causally examined the dose-response relationship between oral corticosteroids (OCS) exposure and long-term complications among noninfectious uveitis adult patients in the United States. METHODS: The study design was longitudinal, retrospective cohort using Truven Health MarketScan claims database years 2000-2015. The index date was the first day after diagnosis on which OCS≥ 5 mg prednisone equivalent was administered. The period following the index date was parsed into quarters for tracking OCS-related complications; follow-up time was censored when patients switched off of OCS monotherapy...
September 10, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Peter Glick, Jill Luoto, Mark S Orrs, Matthew S Oliva, Geoffrey C Tabin, David S Sanders, Benjamin J Thomas, Sanduk Ruit, Tefera Belachew, Alemu Kerie Tasfaw
PURPOSE: To comprehensively measure the impacts of cataract surgery on patients' activities and mental and physical health, caregivers' well-being, and household incomes in a resource-poor setting Methods: One thousand two hundred thirty-four bilaterally blind older adults in Amhara region, Ethiopia, were interviewed at baseline and 1030 (83%) re-interviewed at follow-up 1 year later. Six hundred ninety three (45%) at baseline were diagnosed with cataracts and offered free surgery, of which 484 (73%) were operated...
September 7, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Diana H Kim, Victoria M Addis, Wei Pan, Brian L VanderBeek
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to determine the comparative effectiveness of generic latanoprost (GL) to its branded (BL) counterpart and other brand-name prostaglandin analogs (bPGAs) in preventing the need for additional therapy in the treatment of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using US commercial medical claims data. All new POAG patients from 2000 to 2015 who initiated treatment with either GL or BL were included...
September 6, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Daniel P Morberg, Wondu Alemayehu, Muluken Melese, Takele Lakew, Alemayehu Sisay, Zhaoxia Zhou, Vicky Cevallos, Catherine E Oldenburg, Travis C Porco, Thomas M Lietman, Jeremy D Keenan
BACKGROUND: Mass azithromycin distributions are effective for clearing ocular strains of Chlamydia trachomatis, yet infection frequently returns in areas with hyperendemic trachoma. A better understanding of the factors associated with chlamydial reinfection could be helpful to plan trachoma elimination strategies. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a trachoma-hyperendemic region of Ethiopia in 2003. As part of a larger cluster-randomized trial, 21 villages were treated with a single mass azithromycin distribution and all children 5 years and younger were monitored for ocular chlamydia and clinically active trachoma at baseline and at 2 and 6 months following the treatment...
August 28, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Jun Wang, Ling Jin, Qing Lu, Rishi Raj Borah, Rahul Ali, Junhong Li, Chandni Chakraborti, Manish Kumar, Jessica Pan, Clare Gilbert, Nathan Congdon
PURPOSE: To better understand barriers of costs and attitudes toward pediatric cataract surgery in China and India. METHODS: From January 2014 to June 2015, families of children ≤ 10 years old about to undergo or having completed surgery for bilateral, non-traumatic cataract at two tertiary centers in China and India completed questionnaires regarding their demographic characteristics, financial status, living environment, health seeking behaviors, and medical burden...
August 24, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Andrew S Camp, Thomas S Shane, Julia Kang, Benjamin Thomas, Cameron Pole, Richard K Lee
PURPOSE: Uncorrected refractive error is the leading cause of visual impairment worldwide and has significant quality of life and economic implications. Treatment with subjective refraction and custom-made spectacles requires expensive equipment and highly trained personnel. We examine several alternatives. METHODS: Patients were taught to self-refract using two devices: AdSpecs and the I-test Vision Screener. Ready-made spectacles were fit to the self-refraction and visual acuity (VA) was measured...
August 17, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Jennifer Lee, Richard A Bilonick, Eric G Romanowski, Regis P Kowalski
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to measure the seasonal trends of adenovirus conjunctivitis. METHODS: A total of 926 positive cases of HAdV conjunctivitis were reviewed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) in Pittsburgh (Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA) from 11th March 1987 to 15th December 2016. To determine seasonal variation, daily counts were adjusted for yearly changes in Allegheny County population size, modelled as a function of long-term trend using Basis-spline (B-spline), and analysed for seasonal trend by quarter (1Q = January to March, 2Q = April to June, 3Q = July to September, 4Q = October to December)...
August 17, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Arash Delavar, D Michal Freedman, Raquel Velazquez-Kronen, Mark P Little, Cari M Kitahara, Bruce H Alexander, Martha S Linet, Elizabeth K Cahoon
PURPOSE: We examine the risk of cataract and cataract surgery with measures of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and UVR sensitivity in a large, nationwide population of indoor workers. METHODS: Participants from the US Radiologic Technologists Study were followed from age at baseline survey (2003-2005) to age at earliest of cataract diagnosis, cataract surgery, or completion of last survey (2012-2013). UVR-related factors included satellite-based ambient UVR linked to lifetime residences, time spent outdoors across various age periods, history of blistering sunburns, prior diagnosis of keratinocyte carcinoma, and iris color...
August 10, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Cristobal Loezar, Eva Madrid, Catalina Jahr, Antonio Daviu, Herman Ahumada, Hector Pardo-Hernandez, Eva Keller, Xavier Bonfill
PURPOSE: Properly conducted controlled clinical trials (CCTs) provide the highest level of evidence for optimising decision-making in healthcare. Electronic search strategies do not exhaustively retrieve them, because of issues related to indexing, exclusion of journals in languages other than English, among others. A handsearch approach is therefore warranted. We aimed to identify all CCTs published in Ophthalmology journals in Spain, to describe their main features, and to submit them to the Cochrane Register of CCTs (CENTRAL)...
August 6, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Antonio Lopez-Ramos, Pedro Arnulfo Gomez-Bastar, Van Charles Lansingh, Jaime Arturo Rodriguez-Gomez, Veronica Vargas-Fragoso, Felipe Andres Soria-Arellano, Santos Horacio Silva-Camacho, Javier Castillo-Velazquez, Luz Consuelo Zepeda-Romero, Hans Limburg
PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, diabetes mellitus, and diabetic retinopathy in patients aged 50 years and older in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. METHODS: Ninety-one clusters of 60 people aged 50+ were selected randomly and a rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) was conducted. Participants had their visual acuity and cause of visual impairment assessed, underwent a random glucose test and fundoscopy under mydriasis if they had diabetes...
August 6, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Allison J Chen, Vicky Hwang, Pui Yee Law, Jay M Stewart, Daniel L Chao
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of preventable blindness in working-aged adults, and compliance in ophthalmic follow-up appointments is critical to prevent vision loss. However, barriers to follow-up care have not been well studied, especially in socio-economically disadvantaged groups. We investigated the risk factors for non-compliance to DR follow-up appointments in a safety-net county hospital. METHODS: Two hundred and nine patients who were treated for DR at the Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital retina clinic between 1 July 2015 and 30 January 2016 were enrolled in the study...
August 6, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
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