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Ophthalmic Epidemiology

Arash Delavar, D Michal Freedman, Raquel Velazquez-Kronen, Mark P Little, Cari M Kitahara, Bruce H Alexander, Martha S Linet, Elizabeth K Cahoon
PURPOSE: We examine the risk of cataract and cataract surgery with measures of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and UVR sensitivity in a large, nationwide population of indoor workers. METHODS: Participants from the US Radiologic Technologists Study were followed from age at baseline survey (2003-2005) to age at earliest of cataract diagnosis, cataract surgery, or completion of last survey (2012-2013). UVR-related factors included satellite-based ambient UVR linked to lifetime residences, time spent outdoors across various age periods, history of blistering sunburns, prior diagnosis of keratinocyte carcinoma, and iris color...
August 10, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Cristobal Loezar, Eva Madrid, Catalina Jahr, Antonio Daviu, Herman Ahumada, Hector Pardo-Hernandez, Eva Keller, Xavier Bonfill
PURPOSE: Properly conducted controlled clinical trials (CCTs) provide the highest level of evidence for optimising decision-making in healthcare. Electronic search strategies do not exhaustively retrieve them, because of issues related to indexing, exclusion of journals in languages other than English, among others. A handsearch approach is therefore warranted. We aimed to identify all CCTs published in Ophthalmology journals in Spain, to describe their main features, and to submit them to the Cochrane Register of CCTs (CENTRAL)...
August 6, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Antonio Lopez-Ramos, Pedro Arnulfo Gomez-Bastar, Van Charles Lansingh, Jaime Arturo Rodriguez-Gomez, Veronica Vargas-Fragoso, Felipe Andres Soria-Arellano, Santos Horacio Silva-Camacho, Javier Castillo-Velazquez, Luz Consuelo Zepeda-Romero, Hans Limburg
PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, diabetes mellitus, and diabetic retinopathy in patients aged 50 years and older in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. METHODS: Ninety-one clusters of 60 people aged 50+ were selected randomly and a rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) was conducted. Participants had their visual acuity and cause of visual impairment assessed, underwent a random glucose test and fundoscopy under mydriasis if they had diabetes...
August 6, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Allison J Chen, Vicky Hwang, Pui Yee Law, Jay M Stewart, Daniel L Chao
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of preventable blindness in working-aged adults, and compliance in ophthalmic follow-up appointments is critical to prevent vision loss. However, barriers to follow-up care have not been well studied, especially in socio-economically disadvantaged groups. We investigated the risk factors for non-compliance to DR follow-up appointments in a safety-net county hospital. METHODS: Two hundred and nine patients who were treated for DR at the Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital retina clinic between 1 July 2015 and 30 January 2016 were enrolled in the study...
August 6, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Anthony W Solomon, Richard T Le Mesurier, William J Williams
The SAFE strategy (Surgery for trichiasis, mass treatment with Antibiotics to clear ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection, and Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement to reduce transmission) is being used to eliminate trachoma as a public health problem. Decisions on whether or not to implement the A, F, and E components of SAFE are made on the basis of the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in 1-9-year-olds. TF has a precise definition: at least five follicles, each of which is at least 0...
August 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Jacqueline Ramke, Anna Palagyi, Hannah Kuper, Clare E Gilbert
PURPOSE: Findings from cross-sectional blindness prevalence surveys are at risk of several biases that cause the study estimate to differ from the 'true' population prevalence. For example, response bias occurs when people who participate ('responders') differ from those who do not ('non-responders') in ways that affect prevalence estimates. This study aimed to assess the extent to which response bias is considered and occurs in blindness prevalence surveys in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
July 30, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Andrew F Smith, Guy Negretti, Aaron Mascaro, Desta Bokre, Helen Baker, Kazim Dhalla, Ian E Murdoch
PURPOSE: A review of the effectiveness, costs, and cost-effectiveness of detection and treatment strategies for glaucoma control in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was conducted. METHODS: Detailed searches were performed using the Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and LILACS databases up to September 2016. The key Medical Subject Heading search terms used included glaucoma, diagnosis, treatment, effectiveness, costs, cost-effectiveness, and Sub-Saharan Africa...
July 30, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Mika Siuko, Tero T Kivelä, Kirsi Setälä, Pentti J Tienari
PURPOSE: To estimate the population-based incidence of acute idiopathic optic neuritis (ON) and analyse its differential diagnosis in patients referred with symptoms suggestive of ON. METHODS: Patients with suspected ON referred to the Helsinki University Hospital, serving a population of 1.5 million in Southern Finland, were reviewed between 1st May 2008 and 14th April 2012. Brain and optic nerve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed within 24 hours in 83% of patients...
July 24, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Geetha Srinivasan, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana Murthy, Shalini Mohan, Kalaivani Mani, Praveen Vashist, Nina John, Viney Gupta, Ramanjit Sihota
PURPOSE: To study optic nerve head (ONH) characteristics using scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT), in an elderly population. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study included 1460 eyes of 1460 consecutive, subjects >60 years, in North India. All subjects underwent a detailed ophthalmic evaluation and imaged on HRT. Stereometric parameters, Moorfields regression analysis (MRA) and discriminant function analysis were analyzed...
July 17, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Barbara E K Klein, Kayla L Horak, Kristine E Lee, Stacy M Meuer, Michael D Abramoff, Elsayed Z Soliman, Mary Rechek, Ronald Klein
OBJECTIVE: To determine associations of microvascular and neuropathic complications of diabetes cross-sectionally and longitudinally in persons with long-term type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Persons receiving care for T1D in South Central Wisconsin were identified in 1979-1980 and examined approximately every 5 years. Associations between neuropathic and microvascular complications were examined at most prior visits, when information on several neuropathic complications was collected...
July 9, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Sandra C Ganesh, Kalpana Narendran, Jeyanthi Nirmal, Vijayakumar Valaguru, Sangeetha Shanmugam, Nish Patel, Prabha Narayanaswamy, David C Musch, Joshua R Ehrlich
PURPOSE: To report the prevalence and causes of functional low vision (FLV) in school-age children in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India and to report our experience using the key informant (KI) method in this setting. METHODS: Children suspected of having low vision were identified by KIs or Aravind Eye Hospital personnel in Coimbatore District. All identified children underwent a cycloplegic refraction and full eye exam. A primary cause of decreased vision was determined for each child...
July 3, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Jeffrey R Willis, Quan V Doan, Michelle Gleeson, Zdenka Haskova, Pradeep Ramulu, Lawrence Morse, Ronald A Cantrell
PURPOSE: To assess healthcare utilization patterns across diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity levels in the United States (US). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 699 adults, participating in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys. METHODS: Diagnosis of DR was based on fundus photographs and categorized as: (1) no DR; (2) mild/moderate nonproliferative DR (NPDR); and (3) severe NPDR/proliferative DR (PDR). Healthcare utilization patterns were assessed during a household questionnaire where survey participants self-reported: (1) awareness that diabetes had affected their eyes; (2) pupil-dilation during the past year; and (3) visits to a diabetes education/nutrition specialist during the past year...
June 29, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Iheukwumere Duru, Maria Napier, Abdus Samad Ansari, Sinead Coyle, Srikandan Kamalarajah, Stephen White, A Jonathan Jackson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to establish an up-to-date baseline of the profile of patients using the National Artificial Eye Service in Northern Ireland and to understand key areas of service provision, to contribute to patient and health-care provider education, and thus to improve patient outcomes for future researchers. METHODS: A prospective audit of artificial eye wearers attending the Northern Ireland National Artificial Eye Service between May 18, 2015 and June 26, 2015 was conducted...
June 19, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Islam Elbieh, Covadonga Bascaran, Karl Blanchet, Allen Foster
PURPOSE: To describe cataract services in Egypt and explore resources and practices in public and private sectors. METHODS: The study was conducted between June and August 2015. All facilities in the country providing cataract services were contacted to obtain information on surgeries performed in 2014. Hospitals performing eye surgery in Quena, Sharkia, and Fayoum regions were visited and a questionnaire on resources for cataract surgery was completed. RESULTS: Cataract surgery was offered in the public sector by 64 government and 16 university teaching hospitals and in the private sector by 101 hospitals...
June 8, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Shaohui Gan, Xiaojun Zhou, Jingzhen Yan, Xiaojun Liu, Jinglin Yi, Xueqing Zhou, Denglai Liu, Qinghong Xie, Jiacheng Geng, Yuanan Lu
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to assess the prevalence of visual impairment (PVI) among rural residents aged 50 years and above in Yugan county, China. Researchers analyzed risk factors and obtained scientific baseline information for blindness prevention and control. METHODS: Stratified cluster random sampling was used in randomly selecting 5540 rural residents aged ≥50 in Yugan county. Eligible residents were invited to receive visual acuity measurement via ophthalmic examinations...
May 29, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Yu-Hao Lin, Tzu-Yang Tai, Cheng-Yun Pu, De-Kuang Hwang, Yu-Mei Chung, Yiing-Jeng Chou
PURPOSE: To study the incidence and epidemiology of Behcet's disease in Taiwan. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using the nationwide reimbursement database in Taiwan. One million registered beneficiaries of the Taiwan National Health Insurance system in 2000 were randomly selected. All medical claims of these persons were collected. The definition of having Behcet's disease was based on diagnostic codes. Persons who had incomplete registry data or diagnoses prior to 2001 were excluded...
August 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Catherine E Oldenburg, N Venkatesh Prajna, Tiruvengada Krishnan, Revathi Rajaraman, Muthiah Srinivasan, Kathryn J Ray, Kieran S O'Brien, M Maria Glymour, Travis C Porco, Nisha R Acharya, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer, Thomas M Lietman
PURPOSE: We compare results from regression discontinuity (RD) analysis to primary results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) utilizing data from two contemporaneous RCTs for treatment of fungal corneal ulcers. METHODS: Patients were enrolled in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trials I and II (MUTT I & MUTT II) based on baseline visual acuity: patients with acuity ≤ 20/400 (logMAR 1.3) enrolled in MUTT I, and >20/400 in MUTT II. MUTT I investigated the effect of topical natamycin versus voriconazole on best spectacle-corrected visual acuity...
August 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Jaya Devi Chidambaram, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh Prajna, Palepu Srikanthi, Shruti Lanjewar, Manisha Shah, Shanmugam Elakkiya, Prajna Lalitha, Matthew J Burton
PURPOSE: Here, we report risk factors associated with outcome in severe bacterial keratitis (BK), fungal keratitis (FK), and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in India. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study conducted in Aravind Eye Hospital, India. Adults presenting with severe microbial keratitis (MK) were enrolled (size ≥3 mm) and followed to 21 days post-enrolment. Ulcer clinical features were recorded at presentation. Outcomes by final visit were classified as good (completely healed or reduced infiltrate size) or poor (enlarged infiltrate size, perforated, or surgery performed)...
August 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Roberta McKean-Cowdin, Alicia Fairbrother-Crisp, Mina Torres, Carlos Lastra, Farzana Choudhury, Xuejuan Jiang, Bruce Burkemper, Rohit Varma
PURPOSE: To describe the study design, operational and recruitment strategies, procedures, and baseline characteristics of the African American Eye Disease Study (AFEDS), a population-based assement of the prevalence of visual impairment, ocular disease, visual function, and health-related quality of life in African Americans. METHODS: This population-based, cross-sectional study included over 6000 African Americans 40 years and older residing in and around Inglewood, California...
August 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Mahdi Afshari, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Saeed Barzegari, Ehsan Abedini, Seyedeh Sakineh Salimi
PURPOSE: Visual impairment is responsible for medical, mental, and socio-economic problems. Several studies have investigated the prevalence of blindness and low vision in different parts of Iran. This study aims to estimate the pooled results of these studies to estimate the total prevalence of this problem in Iran. METHODS: National and international databases were searched using specific keywords. The selected primary studies were quality assessed using STROBE checklist...
August 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
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