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Ophthalmic Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532291/using-key-informant-method-to-determine-the-prevalence-and-causes-of-childhood-blindness-in-south-eastern-nigeria
#1
Ada E Aghaji, Ifeoma R Ezegwui, Jude O Shiweobi, Cyril C Mamah, Mary N Okoloagu, Ernest N Onwasigwe
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and causes of childhood blindness in an underserved community in south-eastern Nigeria using the key informant method. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Key informants (KI) appointed by their respective communities received 1-day training on identification of blind children in their communities. Two weeks later, the research team visited the agreed sites within the community and examined the identified children...
May 22, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532208/the-burden-of-and-risk-factors-for-trachoma-in-selected-districts-of-zimbabwe-results-of-16-population-based-prevalence-surveys
#2
Isaac Phiri, Portia Manangazira, Colin K Macleod, Takafira Mduluza, Tinashe Dhobbie, Shorai Grace Chaora, Chriswell Chigwena, Joshua Katiyo, Rebecca Willis, Ana Bakhtiari, Peter Bare, Paul Courtright, Boniface Macheka, Nicholas Midzi, Anthony W Solomon
BACKGROUND: Trachoma, a leading cause of blindness, is targeted for global elimination as a public health problem by 2020. In order to contribute to this goal, countries should demonstrate reduction of disease prevalence below specified thresholds, after implementation of the SAFE strategy in areas with defined endemicity. Zimbabwe had not yet generated data on trachoma endemicity and no specific interventions against trachoma have yet been implemented. METHODS: Two trachoma mapping phases were successively implemented in Zimbabwe, with eight districts included in each phase, in September 2014 and October 2015...
May 22, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532207/tutorial-on-biostatistics-statistical-analysis-for-correlated-binary-eye-data
#3
Gui-Shuang Ying, Maureen G Maguire, Robert Glynn, Bernard Rosner
PURPOSE: To describe and demonstrate methods for analyzing correlated binary eye data. METHODS: We describe non-model based (McNemar's test, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test) and model-based methods (generalized linear mixed effects model, marginal model) for analyses involving both eyes. These methods were applied to: (1) CAPT (Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial) where one eye was treated and the other observed (paired design); (2) ETROP (Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity) where bilaterally affected infants had one eye treated conventionally and the other treated early and unilaterally affected infants had treatment assigned randomly; and (3) AREDS (Age-Related Eye Disease Study) where treatment was systemic and outcome was eye-specific (both eyes in the same treatment group)...
May 22, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441120/prevalence-of-trachoma-in-northern-benin-results-from-11-population-based-prevalence-surveys-covering-26-districts
#4
Amadou Alfa Bio, Pelagie M Boko, Yannelle A Dossou, Jean-Jacques Tougoue, Achille Kabore, Ignace Sounouvou, Jean-Eudes Biaou, Lionel Nizigama, Paul Courtright, Anthony W Solomon, Lisa Rotondo, Wilfrid Batcho, Dorothée Kinde-Gazard
AIMS: We sought to evaluate trachoma prevalence in all suspected-endemic areas of Benin. METHODS: We conducted population-based surveys covering 26 districts grouped into 11 evaluation units (EUs), using a two-stage, systematic and random, cluster sampling design powered at EU level. In each EU, 23 villages were systematically selected with population proportional to size; 30 households were selected from each village using compact segment sampling. In selected households, we examined all consenting residents aged one year or above for trichiasis, trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF), and trachomatous inflammation - intense...
April 25, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426334/myopigenic-activity-change-and-its-risk-factors-in-urban-students-in-beijing-three-year-report-of-beijing-myopia-progression-study
#5
Zhong Lin, Balamurali Vasudevan, Kenneth J Ciuffreda, Hong Jia Zhou, Guang Yun Mao, Ning Li Wang, Yuan Bo Liang
PURPOSE: To investigate the myopigenic activity change and its risk factors in urban students in Beijing. METHODS: A total of 241 primary or secondary students aged 6-17 years from the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) were re-examined 3 years after their baseline enrollment. A detailed questionnaire was administered to assess myopigenic activities at both baseline and at the 3-year follow-up. Altogether, 217 students (90.0%) with completed data were included in the analysis...
April 20, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422552/rapid-assessment-of-avoidable-blindness-and-diabetic-retinopathy-in-gilan-province-iran
#6
Marzieh Katibeh, Hassan Behboudi, Siamak Moradian, Yousef Alizadeh, Ramin Beiranvand, Hamideh Sabbaghi, Hamid Ahmadieh
PURPOSE: To conduct an assessment of avoidable blindness and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Gilan, 2014. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed on a representative sample of urban and rural individuals aged ≥50 years of the province. Blindness was defined as presenting visual acuity (PVA) <3/60 in the better eye. Moderate visual impairment (MVI) and severe visual impairment (SVI) were defined as 6/60 ≤ PVA <6/18 and 3/60 ≤ PVA <6/60 in the better eye, respectively...
April 19, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402722/prevalence-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-urban-slums-the-aditya-jyot-diabetic-retinopathy-in-urban-mumbai-slums-study-report-2
#7
Mohan Sunita, Arvind Kumar Singh, Ashwini Rogye, Manish Sonawane, Ravina Gaonkar, Radhika Srinivasan, Sundaram Natarajan, Fred C J Stevens, A J J A Scherpbier, Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel, Catherine McCarty
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and enumerate history-based risk factors in the urban slums of Western India. METHODS: The population-based study was conducted in seven wards of Mumbai urban slums, where we screened 6569 subjects of ≥ 40 years age, with a response rate of 98.4%, for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on American Diabetes Association criteria. All subjects with T2DM underwent dilated 30° seven-field stereo-fundus-photography for DR severity grading based on modified Airlie House classification...
April 12, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402694/serum-phosphate-and-retinal-microvascular-changes-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-and-the-beaver-dam-eye-study
#8
Rupal Mehta, Alexander Hodakowski, Xuan Cai, Kris E Lee, Bryan R Kestenbaum, Ian H de Boer, Amani Fawzi, Tien Yin Wong, Joachim Ix, Barbara Klein, Ronald Klein, Tamara Isakova
PURPOSE: Higher levels of serum phosphate are strongly linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and therapies aimed to lower serum phosphate are employed in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data are limited, however, on serum phosphate as a risk factor for microvascular disease in community-based populations. It is important to determine the impact of novel risk factors, such as phosphate, on the microvasculature. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 3919 individuals in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and 3544 individuals in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES) to test the associations of serum phosphate with retinopathy and retinal vessel caliber, and change in retinopathy severity and change in retinal vessel caliber...
April 12, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362137/magnitude-and-determinants-of-the-ratio-between-prevalence-of-low-vision-and-blindness-in-rapid-assessment-of-avoidable-blindness-surveys
#9
Dinesh Kaphle, Susan Lewallen
PURPOSE: To determine the magnitude and determinants of the ratio between prevalence of low vision and prevalence of blindness in rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) surveys globally. METHODS: Standard RAAB reports were downloaded from the repository or requested from principal investigators. Potential predictor variables included prevalence of uncorrected refractive error (URE) as well as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, health expenditure per capita of the country across World Bank regions...
March 31, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346038/recruitment-and-testing-protocol-in-the-national-eye-health-survey-a-population-based-eye-study-in-australia
#10
Joshua Foreman, Stuart Keel, Peter van Wijngaarden, Hugh R Taylor, Mohamed Dirani
PURPOSE: To present the recruitment and testing methodology of the National Eye Health Survey (NEHS), a population-based study that aimed to determine the prevalence and causes of vision impairment and blindness in Australia. METHODS: Non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older and Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and older were recruited using a door-to-door approach from 30 randomly selected geographical areas, stratified by remoteness. Participants underwent a vision examination, anterior segment assessment, intraocular pressure testing, perimetry, and fundus photography...
March 27, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346032/presence-of-vision-impairment-and-risk-of-hospitalization-among-elderly-medicare-beneficiaries
#11
Sila Bal, Jibby E Kurichi, Pui L Kwong, Dawei Xie, Sean Hennessy, Ling Na, Liliana E Pezzin, Joel E Streim, Hillary R Bogner
PURPOSE: To examine the association between vision impairment and all-cause hospitalization among elderly Medicare beneficiaries. METHODS: A population-based study (N = 22,681) of community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older who participated in the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey for the years 2001-2007. Beneficiaries were classified into self-reported presence of vision impairment versus no vision impairment. Inpatient hospitalizations were identified using Medicare claims data...
March 27, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332910/association-between-dietary-xanthophyll-lutein-and-zeaxanthin-intake-and-early-age-related-macular-degeneration-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#12
Henry Lin, Julie A Mares, Michael J LaMonte, William E Brady, Michelle W Sahli, Ronald Klein, Barbara E K Klein, Jing Nie, Amy E Millen
PURPOSE: To examine the association between xanthophyll intake and prevalent early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n = 10,295). Potential effect modification by genetic polymorphisms and biomarkers of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism was explored. METHODS: Xanthophyll intake was assessed at visit 1 (1987-1989) using food frequency questionnaires. Prevalent early AMD was assessed at visit 3 (1993-1995) via retinal photographs...
March 23, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332896/the-distribution-of-macular-thickness-and-its-determinants-in-a-healthy-population
#13
Hassan Hashemi, Mehdi Khabazkhoob, AbbasAli Yekta, Mohammad Hassan Emamian, Payam Nabovati, Akbar Fotouhi
PURPOSE: To determine the distribution of macular thickness in a healthy Iranian population aged 45-69 years and its association with certain determinants. METHODS: All participants underwent optometric examinations including measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, objective refraction by retinoscopy, and subjective refraction. Subsequently, all participants underwent slit-lamp biomicroscopy followed by fundus examination through direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging under pupil dilation...
March 23, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332894/incidence-and-progression-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-urban-india-sankara-nethralaya-diabetic-retinopathy-epidemiology-and-molecular-genetics-study-sn-dreams-ii-report-1
#14
Rajiv Raman, Suganeswari Ganesan, Swakshyar Saumya Pal, Laxmi Gella, Vaitheeswaran Kulothungan, Tarun Sharma
PURPOSE: To evaluate the 4-year incidence and progression of and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in an Indian population. METHODS: From a cross-sectional study of 1425 subjects with diabetes, 911 (63.9%) returned for 4-year follow-up. After excluding 21 with ungradable retinal images, data from 890 subjects were analyzed. Participants underwent examinations based on a standard protocol, which included grading of retinal photographs. RESULTS: The incidences of DR, diabetic macular edema (DME), and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) were 9...
March 23, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319450/retinal-and-choroidal-thickness-in-adult-patients-with-familial-mediterranean-fever
#15
Tolga Bicer, Osman Celikay, Mustafa Kosker, Muhammed Yunus Alp, Cem Ozisler, Ahmet Yesilyurt, Burcu Kucuk Bicer, Canan Gurdal
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate changes in retinal, choroidal, ganglion cell complex (GCC) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses in genetically diagnosed adult patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). METHODS: A total of 50 eyes of 50 genetically diagnosed patients with FMF and 50 eyes of controls were analyzed. Patients were recruited from the Genetic Diagnostic Center of Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Research and Training Hospital, Turkey. Retinal and choroidal thicknesses were obtained using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography from choroid, retina, GCC, and RNFL...
March 20, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319442/evaluation-of-patients-with-facial-palsy-and-ophthalmic-sequelae-a-23-year-retrospective-review
#16
Shannon S Joseph, Andrew W Joseph, Jane I Smith, Leslie M Niziol, David C Musch, Christine C Nelson
PURPOSE: Facial palsy (FP) can result in serious ophthalmic sequelae including loss of vision. We describe the clinical characteristics of FP patients presenting for ophthalmologic evaluation and the timing for initiating ophthalmologic care. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 96 consecutive FP patients presenting between 1992 and 2015 at a tertiary eye center. The main outcome measures were time interval from the diagnosis of FP and onset of ocular symptoms to the initial ophthalmologic evaluation (IOE), and the severity of exposure keratopathy and eyelid malposition on IOE...
March 20, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296523/the-brazilian-amazon-region-eye-survey-design-and-methods
#17
Solange R Salomão, João Marcello Furtado, Adriana Berezovsky, Nívea N Cavascan, Alberto N Ferraz, Jacob M Cohen, Sergio Muñoz, Rubens Belfort
PURPOSE: To describe the study design, operational strategies, procedures, and baseline characteristics of the Brazilian Amazon Region Eye Survey (BARES), a population-based survey of the prevalence and causes of distance and near visual impairment and blindness in older adults residing in the city of Parintins. METHODS: Cluster sampling, based on geographically defined census sectors, was used for cross-sectional random sampling of persons 45 years and older from urban and rural areas...
March 15, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296516/eye-disorders-among-adult-people-diagnosed-with-infantile-autism-in-childhood-a-longitudinal-case-control-study
#18
Svend Erik Mouridsen, Bente Rich, Torben Isager
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and types of eye disorders in a clinical sample of 118 adult people diagnosed with infantile autism (IA) during childhood with 336 sex- and age-matched controls from the general population. METHODS: All participants were screened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register. The average observation time of both groups was 37.2 years, and mean age was 49.6 years, by the end of the observation period...
March 15, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287861/association-of-skin-intrinsic-fluorescence-with-retinal-microvascular-complications-of-long-term-type-1-diabetes-in-the-wisconsin-epidemiologic-study-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#19
Barbara E K Klein, Kayla L Horak, John D Maynard, Kristine E Lee, Ronald Klein
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between skin intrinsic fluorescence (SIF), a noninvasive measure of advanced glycation endproducts and oxidative stress in skin, and retinal microvascular complications of long duration type 1 diabetes, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and macular edema. METHODS: A cross-sectional cohort study of persons with type 1 diabetes in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy (WESDR) who participated in a 32-year follow-up examination in 2012-2014...
March 13, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287859/a-mixed-methods-evaluation-of-a-community-based-glaucoma-check-service-in-hackney-london-uk
#20
Elizabeth Holdsworth, Jessica Datta, Dalya Marks, Hannah Kuper, Helen Lee, Shaun Leamon, Robert Lindfield, Richard Wormald, Jonathan Clarke, Ahmed Elkarmouty, Wendy Macdowall
PURPOSE: To evaluate the uptake, feasibility and acceptability of a general practice-based optometrist-led glaucoma check service. The service targeted people of black Caribbean and black African descent aged 40-65 years, resident in Hackney, London, United Kingdom. METHODS: The study used a mixed-method design, including analysis of service data, prospective audit of secondary care referrals patient survey, cost-consequence analysis, and interviews with staff involved in developing and implementing the service...
March 13, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
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