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Ophthalmic Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657409/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-age-related-cataract
#1
Sangshin Park, Nam-Kyong Choi
PURPOSE: Cataract and insufficient vitamin D intake are both increasing worldwide concerns, yet little is known about the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and age-related cataract. We performed this study to determine the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and age-related cataract in adults. METHODS: Study participants comprised 16,086 adults aged 40 years or older who had never been diagnosed with or undergone surgery for cataract using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2008 to 2012...
June 28, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532291/using-key-informant-method-to-determine-the-prevalence-and-causes-of-childhood-blindness-in-south-eastern-nigeria
#2
Ada E Aghaji, Ifeoma R Ezegwui, Jude O Shiweobi, Cyril C Mamah, Mary N Okoloagu, Ernest N Onwasigwe
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and causes of childhood blindness in an underserved community in south-eastern Nigeria using the key informant method. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Key informants (KI) appointed by their respective communities received 1-day training on identification of blind children in their communities. Two weeks later, the research team visited the agreed sites within the community and examined the identified children...
May 22, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532208/the-burden-of-and-risk-factors-for-trachoma-in-selected-districts-of-zimbabwe-results-of-16-population-based-prevalence-surveys
#3
Isaac Phiri, Portia Manangazira, Colin K Macleod, Takafira Mduluza, Tinashe Dhobbie, Shorai Grace Chaora, Chriswell Chigwena, Joshua Katiyo, Rebecca Willis, Ana Bakhtiari, Peter Bare, Paul Courtright, Boniface Macheka, Nicholas Midzi, Anthony W Solomon
BACKGROUND: Trachoma, a leading cause of blindness, is targeted for global elimination as a public health problem by 2020. In order to contribute to this goal, countries should demonstrate reduction of disease prevalence below specified thresholds, after implementation of the SAFE strategy in areas with defined endemicity. Zimbabwe had not yet generated data on trachoma endemicity and no specific interventions against trachoma have yet been implemented. METHODS: Two trachoma mapping phases were successively implemented in Zimbabwe, with eight districts included in each phase, in September 2014 and October 2015...
May 22, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532207/tutorial-on-biostatistics-statistical-analysis-for-correlated-binary-eye-data
#4
Gui-Shuang Ying, Maureen G Maguire, Robert Glynn, Bernard Rosner
PURPOSE: To describe and demonstrate methods for analyzing correlated binary eye data. METHODS: We describe non-model based (McNemar's test, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test) and model-based methods (generalized linear mixed effects model, marginal model) for analyses involving both eyes. These methods were applied to: (1) CAPT (Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial) where one eye was treated and the other observed (paired design); (2) ETROP (Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity) where bilaterally affected infants had one eye treated conventionally and the other treated early and unilaterally affected infants had treatment assigned randomly; and (3) AREDS (Age-Related Eye Disease Study) where treatment was systemic and outcome was eye-specific (both eyes in the same treatment group)...
May 22, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441120/prevalence-of-trachoma-in-northern-benin-results-from-11-population-based-prevalence-surveys-covering-26-districts
#5
Amadou Alfa Bio, Pelagie M Boko, Yannelle A Dossou, Jean-Jacques Tougoue, Achille Kabore, Ignace Sounouvou, Jean-Eudes Biaou, Lionel Nizigama, Paul Courtright, Anthony W Solomon, Lisa Rotondo, Wilfrid Batcho, Dorothée Kinde-Gazard
AIMS: We sought to evaluate trachoma prevalence in all suspected-endemic areas of Benin. METHODS: We conducted population-based surveys covering 26 districts grouped into 11 evaluation units (EUs), using a two-stage, systematic and random, cluster sampling design powered at EU level. In each EU, 23 villages were systematically selected with population proportional to size; 30 households were selected from each village using compact segment sampling. In selected households, we examined all consenting residents aged one year or above for trichiasis, trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF), and trachomatous inflammation - intense...
April 25, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665742/the-economic-impact-of-blindness-in-europe
#6
Usha Chakravarthy, Eliana Biundo, Rasit Omer Saka, Christina Fasser, Rupert Bourne, Julie-Anne Little
PURPOSE: To estimate the annual loss of productivity from blindness and moderate to severe visual impairment (MSVI) in the population aged >50 years in the European Union (EU). METHODS: We estimated the cost of lost productivity using three simple models reported in the literature based on (1) minimum wage (MW), (2) gross national income (GNI), and (3) purchasing power parity-adjusted gross domestic product (GDP-PPP) losses. In the first two models, assumptions included that all individuals worked until 65 years of age, and that half of all visual impairment cases in the >50-year age group would be in those aged between 50 and 65 years...
August 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658589/the-prevalence-of-age-related-eye-disease-in-an-elderly-population
#7
Hassan Hashemi, Mehdi Khabazkhoob, Payam Nabovati, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Shokrolah Shafaee, Asgar Doostdar, AbbasAli Yekta
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of cataracts, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Iranians over the age of 54 years. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study using randomized cluster sampling, 60 clusters were selected in Sari, a city in the North of Iran. In each cluster, 20 people over 54 years of age were chosen systematically and were invited to participate in the study. After enrollment, all participants had optometric and ophthalmologic exams including slit lamp biomicroscopy and fundoscopy...
August 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658588/utility-of-1-tropicamide-in-improving-the-quality-of-images-for-tele-screening-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-patients-with-dark-irides
#8
Touka Banaee, Mohammad-Reza Ansari-Astaneh, Hamidreza Pourreza, Fatemeh Faal Hosseini, Maryam Vatanparast, Nasser Shoeibi, Vajihe Jami
PURPOSE: To compare the quality of fundus photographs taken before and after instillation of one drop of tropicamide. METHODS: The 45º fundus photographs were taken with a non-mydriatic fundus camera in three conditions of the pupil; pre-mydriatic, 10 minutes after one drop of tropicamide, and fully dilated. Two photographs were taken in each condition; one centered on the macula and the other on the optic disc. Two vitreoretinal specialists graded the images. RESULTS: A total of 1768 fundus photographs of 149 diabetic patients with dark irides were included...
August 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657422/vision-profile-and-ocular-characteristics-of-special-olympics-athletes-report-from-india
#9
Vijaya K Gothwal, Rebecca Sumalini, Asa Narasaiah, Soumya Panda
PURPOSE: Previous reports, albeit isolated, of vision and ocular screening of athletes with intellectual disability participating in the Special Olympics, UK, indicated high rates of refractive error and ocular morbidity; however, there have been no reports of similar sports events for this population from India. This study set out to evaluate the vision profile and ocular characteristics of athletes with intellectual disability attending the Special Olympics Lions Club International Opening Eyes (SOLCIOE) event in 2012 in India...
August 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657394/epidemiology-a-major-focus-of-a-new-national-academies-report
#10
Steven Teutsch, Rohit Varma, Edwin Marshall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296523/the-brazilian-amazon-region-eye-survey-design-and-methods
#11
Solange R Salomão, João Marcello Furtado, Adriana Berezovsky, Nívea N Cavascan, Alberto N Ferraz, Jacob M Cohen, Sergio Muñoz, Rubens Belfort
PURPOSE: To describe the study design, operational strategies, procedures, and baseline characteristics of the Brazilian Amazon Region Eye Survey (BARES), a population-based survey of the prevalence and causes of distance and near visual impairment and blindness in older adults residing in the city of Parintins. METHODS: Cluster sampling, based on geographically defined census sectors, was used for cross-sectional random sampling of persons 45 years and older from urban and rural areas...
August 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287861/association-of-skin-intrinsic-fluorescence-with-retinal-microvascular-complications-of-long-term-type-1-diabetes-in-the-wisconsin-epidemiologic-study-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#12
Barbara E K Klein, Kayla L Horak, John D Maynard, Kristine E Lee, Ronald Klein
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between skin intrinsic fluorescence (SIF), a noninvasive measure of advanced glycation endproducts and oxidative stress in skin, and retinal microvascular complications of long duration type 1 diabetes, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and macular edema. METHODS: A cross-sectional cohort study of persons with type 1 diabetes in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy (WESDR) who participated in a 32-year follow-up examination in 2012-2014...
August 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287859/a-mixed-methods-evaluation-of-a-community-based-glaucoma-check-service-in-hackney-london-uk
#13
Elizabeth Holdsworth, Jessica Datta, Dalya Marks, Hannah Kuper, Helen Lee, Shaun Leamon, Robert Lindfield, Richard Wormald, Jonathan Clarke, Ahmed Elkarmouty, Wendy Macdowall
PURPOSE: To evaluate the uptake, feasibility and acceptability of a general practice-based optometrist-led glaucoma check service. The service targeted people of black Caribbean and black African descent aged 40-65 years, resident in Hackney, London, United Kingdom. METHODS: The study used a mixed-method design, including analysis of service data, prospective audit of secondary care referrals patient survey, cost-consequence analysis, and interviews with staff involved in developing and implementing the service...
August 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287849/survival-bias-when-assessing-risk-factors-for-age-related-macular-degeneration-a-tutorial-with-application-to-the-exposure-of-smoking
#14
Myra B McGuinness, Amalia Karahalios, Jessica Kasza, Robyn H Guymer, Robert P Finger, Julie A Simpson
PURPOSE: We illustrate the effect of survival bias when investigating risk factors for eye disease in elderly populations for whom death is a competing risk. Our investigation focuses on the relationship between smoking and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in an observational study impacted by censoring due to death. METHODS: Statistical methodology to calculate the survivor average causal effect (SACE) as a sensitivity analysis is described, including example statistical computing code for Stata and R...
August 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287899/retinal-vascular-caliber-and-kidney-function-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#15
Stuart Keel, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Konstandina Koklanis, Meri Vukicevic, Fergus Cameron, Laima Brazionis
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular caliber and kidney function in a cohort of Australian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 483 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes, aged 7-18 years. An audit of medical files of participants who attended the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, between January 2009 and March 2014 was performed. Albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) was acquired through spot urine samples and microalbuminuria was classified as ACR >3...
June 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287870/the-use-of-key-informant-method-for-identifying-children-with-blindness-and-severe-visual-impairment-in-developing-countries
#16
REVIEW
Rènée du Toit, Paul Courtright, Susan Lewallen
PURPOSE: An estimated 19 million children are visually impaired; of these, 1.4 million are irreversibly blind. A key challenge is to identify them early in life to benefit maximally from visual rehabilitation, and/or treatment. This aggregative review and structured literature analysis summarizes evidence of what it is about the key informant (KI) approach that works to identify children with blindness or severe visual impairment (B/SVI) in the community (for whom, to what extent, in what circumstances, in what respect, how and why)...
June 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276757/prevalence-awareness-and-risk-factors-of-diabetic-retinopathy-among-adults-with-known-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-an-urban-community-in-china
#17
Chen-Wei Pan, Shan Wang, Deng-Juan Qian, Cailian Xu, E Song
PURPOSE: To understand the prevalence, awareness, and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) among Chinese with known type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in eastern China communities. METHODS: A community-based survey including 913 patients with known T2DM was conducted in Suzhou, China. Diabetes was defined as hemoglobin A1c (hbA1c) ≥6.5%, use of diabetic medication or a physician diagnosis of diabetes. Retinal photographs were graded for the presence of DR using the Airlie House classification system...
June 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276756/prevalence-of-dry-eye-in-uyghur-and-han-ethnic-groups-in-western-china
#18
Ying-Ying Gong, Fan Zhang, Jin Zhou, Jing Li, Guang-Hui Zhang, Jun-Liang Wang, Zhen-Sheng Gu
PURPOSE: To describe and compare the prevalence and characteristics of dry eye among Han and Uyghur persons living in Kashi, the most inland city of China. METHODS: A total of 1015 residents of Kashi participated in this 2013 cross-sectional study. To evaluate clinical characteristics, each subject completed (1) a dry-eye questionnaire detailing symptoms of dry eye, (2) Schirmer's I-test (SIT), (3) tear-film break-up time (BUT) test, and fluorescein staining of the cornea...
June 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276755/prevalence-of-trachoma-in-kano-state-nigeria-results-of-44-local-government-area-level-surveys
#19
Caleb Mpyet, Nasiru Muhammad, Mohammed Dantani Adamu, Habila Muazu, Murtala Muhammad Umar, Musa Goyol, Hadi Bala Yahaya, Uwazoeke Onyebuchi, Chris Ogoshi, Tijjani Hussaini, Sunday Isiyaku, Adamani William, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Brian K Chu, Rebecca Willis, Alexandre L Pavluck, Nicholas Olobio, Sophie Phelan, Colin Macleod, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachoma in 44 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kano State, Nigeria. METHODS: A population-based prevalence survey was conducted in each Kano LGA. We used a two-stage systematic and quasi-random sampling strategy to select 25 households from each of 25 clusters in each LGA. All consenting household residents aged 1 year and above were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) and trichiasis...
June 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139151/age-related-macular-degeneration-and-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Myra B McGuinness, Amalia Karahalios, Robert P Finger, Robyn H Guymer, Julie A Simpson
PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe, irreversible vision loss in older adults. Evidence for an association between AMD and mortality remains inconclusive despite evidence for an association with cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. We aim to compare all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality between those with early or late AMD and control study participants. METHODS: A protocol was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42015020622)...
June 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
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