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Ophthalmic Epidemiology

Ngy Meng, Do Seiha, Pok Thorn, Rebecca Willis, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Michael Dejene, Susan Lewallen, Paul Courtright, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: To determine whether trachoma is a public health problem requiring intervention in Cambodia. METHODS: Based on historical evidence and reports, 14 evaluation units (EUs) in Cambodia, judged to be most likely to harbor trachoma, were selected. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology was used to carry out rigorous surveys to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis in each EU. RESULTS: The EU-level prevalence of TF among 25,801 1-9-year-old children examined ranged from 0% to 0...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Khumbo Kalua, Alvin Chisambi, David Chinyanya, Zachariah Kamwendo, Michael Masika, Rebecca Willis, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Alexandre L Pavluck, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: Following a first phase of trachoma mapping in Malawi with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we identified and mapped trachoma districts previously suspected to be non-endemic, although adjacent to districts with estimated trachoma prevalences indicating a public health problem. METHODS: We conducted population-based surveys in eight evaluation units (EUs) comprising eight districts in Malawi (total population 3,230,272). A 2-stage cluster random sampling design allowed us to select 30 households from each of 30 clusters per EU; all residents aged 1 year and older in selected households were examined for evidence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trachomatous trichiasis (TT)...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Anne E Heggen, Anthony W Solomon, Paul Courtright
PURPOSE: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect people living in the poorest regions of the world and their debilitating effects perpetuate the poverty cycle. Understanding the distribution of NTDs is crucial for effective intervention delivery. In 2012, the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) was initiated to map >1800 suspected trachoma endemic districts by March 2015. This research was carried out to better understand the implementation experience and identify lessons which might inform the GTMP and similar initiatives...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Caleb Mpyet, Nasiru Muhammad, Mohammed Dantani Adamu, Habila Muazu, Murtala Muhammad Umar, Joel Alada, Uwazoeke Onyebuchi, Fracisca Olamiju, Sunday Isiyaku, Adamani William, Rebecca Willis, Rebecca Mann Flueckiger, Alexandre Pavluck, Brian K Chu, Danjuma Mohammed, Nicholas Olobio, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: To determine the need or otherwise for establishment of a trachoma elimination program in Gombe State, Nigeria, by estimating the population-based prevalence of trachoma in each Local Government Area (LGA) of Gombe. METHODS: Using a multi-stage, systematic, random, and quasi-random sampling approach and Global Trachoma Mapping Project support, we selected 25 clusters in each LGA. In each cluster, we selected 25 households and all consenting residents aged 1 year and older were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis, using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Joowon Kim, Yunji Hwang, Hyeong Gon Yu, Sue K Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
S M J Mortazavi, S A R Mortazavi, Maryam Paknahad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Xinling Xu, Joshua R Mann, Suzanne W McDermott, Chelsea B Deroche, Erin Gustafson, James W Hardin
PURPOSE: To investigate whether women with visual impairment (VI) receive mammography and Pap testing to the same extent as women without VI among the low income population or those aged 65+ years. METHODS: We analyzed the 2000-2010 Medicaid and Medicare data for South Carolina women. Women with VI were identified on the basis of a qualifying diagnosis in billing data. We assessed women's adherence (full adherence, partial adherence and no screening) with two United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cancer screening recommendations (mammography and Pap testing) throughout the course of the study period...
August 23, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Paul B Greenberg, Allison J Chen, Wen-Chih Wu
PURPOSE: It is unknown whether sudden vision loss (SVL) is an independent marker for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in African Americans. We examined the hazard of future stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality associated with self-reported SVL lasting 24 hours or longer in a cohort of African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). METHODS: The study sample comprised 4670 African Americans aged 20-95 years enrolled in the JHS without previous coronary heart disease or stroke at baseline...
October 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
P Paul, T Kuriakose, J John, R Raju, K George, A Amritanand, P A Doss, J Muliyil
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of cataract surgery and postoperative vision-related outcomes, especially with respect to sex, socioeconomic status (SES) and site of first contact with eye care, in a rural area of South India. METHODS: In a population-based cross-sectional survey of 5530 individuals aged 50 years or older from 10 villages selected by cluster sampling, individuals who had undergone cataract surgery in one or both eyes were identified. Consenting participants were administered a questionnaire, underwent vision assessment and ophthalmic examination...
October 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Laura Roos, Hanne Jensen, Karen Grønskov, René Holst, Zeynep Tümer
PURPOSE: This study aims to quantify the occurrence of the congenital eye malformations anophthalmia (AO), microphthalmia (MO) and coloboma among liveborn infants in Denmark, and to estimate the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in this group of patients. METHODS: A cohort of patients born in 1995-2012 with diagnoses of MO/AO or coloboma was identified from the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR), and their ocular and extra-ocular diagnoses were reviewed. In order to assess the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in the cohort, the data were cross-referenced with the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry (DCCR)...
October 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Claude Pinnock, Jennifer L Y Yip, Anthony P Khawaja, Robert Luben, Shabina Hayat, David C Broadway, Paul J Foster, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nick Wareham
PURPOSE: To determine if topical beta-blocker use is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, particularly among people with self-reported glaucoma. METHODS: All participants who participated in the first health check (N = 25,639) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort (1993-2013) were included in this prospective cohort study, with a median follow-up of 17.0 years. We determined use of topical beta-blockers at baseline through a self-reported questionnaire and prescription check at the first clinical visit...
October 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Khakima Karim-Zade, Christopher Leak, Bakhtovar Karim-Zade
PURPOSE: Pediatric eye injury (PEI) is the leading cause of preventable monocular vision loss in children, with an estimated prevalence of 5.7 million cases. Epidemiological information on PEI is rare, skewed towards high-income countries, and commonly overlooked by non-governmental ophthalmological organizations. This study aims to quantitatively and qualitatively determine incidence of PEI in the Republic of Tajikistan. METHODS: Data were collected from all pediatric eye injury records (N = 454) admitted to three pediatric ophthalmology hospitals in two regions of Tajikistan between 2010 and 2012...
October 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Nazanin Ebrahimiadib, Ramak Roohipour, Reza Karkhaneh, Afsar Farahani, Mohammad Riazi Esfahani, Alireza Khodabande, Mohammad Zarei, Arash Taheri, Marjan Imani Fouladi, Mehdi Yaseri, Bobeck S Modjtahedi
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of an internet-based versus traditional referral system for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening in Iran. METHODS: Two referral screening systems were compared in this prospective observational study. Group A (internet-based) comprised premature babies who were registered into an online system for screening. Their appointments were scheduled automatically based on standardized criteria. Group B (conventional) comprised premature babies whose referrals were based on oral or written recommendations...
October 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Samuel Otabor Wajuihian, Rekha Hansraj
PURPOSE: Accommodative anomalies cause asthenopia and affect student reading efficiency and academic performance. The aim of conducting this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of accommodative anomalies (insufficiency, excess and infacility) in relation to demographic variables (sex, age, school grade level and study location). METHODS: Study participants comprised 1,211 children (481 male and 730 female), with age range 13-19 years. Visual functions evaluated included refractive error, accommodative amplitude, accuracy, facility and relative accommodation...
October 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Hassan Hashemi, Mehdi Khabazkhoob, Mohammad Hassan Emamian, Ali Jafari, Saman Mohazeb-Torabi, Akbar Fotouhi
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and some of its related factors in an Iranian population aged 45-69 years. METHODS: In the first phase of the Shahroud Eye Cohort Study, 5190 people in 300 clusters from Shahroud city in the northeast of Iran participated in the study. The second phase of the study was conducted 5 years later in 2014. Vision testing, refraction, slit lamp examination, and fundus examination were performed for all participants...
October 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Soa Kim, Su-Ho Lim, Kyung Rim Sung, Sung-Cheol Yun, Chan Yun Kim, Ki Ho Park, Soon Cheol Cha
PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS) and factors associated with PXS in South Koreans by analyzing data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). METHODS: Using the KNHANES database of 2009-2012, 13,223 participants aged 50 years or older were included. Participants underwent standardized interviews and systemic and ocular examinations. Systemic factors analyzed included age, sex, daily length of sun exposure, presence of Raynaud phenomenon or migraine, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, serum lipid profile, duration and frequency of smoking, and alcohol consumption...
October 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Ratnesh Ranjan, Raj Nath Kushwaha, Perwez Khan, Shalini Mohan, Ramesh Chandra Gupta
PURPOSE: To analyze the correlation between subjective symptoms and clinical signs of dry eye among tannery workers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, three classic clinical tests, namely the fluorescein tear film break-up time (FTBUT) test, the fluorescein staining (FS) test, and the Schirmer test (ST), were performed to assess the clinical signs of dry eye disease in 246 tanners who were found symptomatic for dry eye in a prior ocular surface disease index survey...
October 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Charumathi Sabanayagam, WanFen Yip, Daniel S W Ting, Gavin Tan, Tien Y Wong
PURPOSE: Diabetes is a major public health problem affecting 415 million people worldwide. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is emerging as the leading cause of avoidable blindness worldwide. METHODS: We reviewed previous and recent literature to provide an overview of emerging trends on the burden, epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention of DR. RESULTS: First, there is clear evidence of a global increase in the prevalence of diabetes...
August 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Alexander Pleet, Melanie Sulewski, Rebecca J Salowe, Raymond Fertig, Julia Salinas, Allison Rhodes, William Merritt Iii, Vikas Natesh, Jiayan Huang, Harini V Gudiseva, David W Collins, Venkata Ramana Murthy Chavali, Paul Tapino, Amanda Lehman, Meredith Regina-Gigiliotti, Eydie Miller-Ellis, Prithvi Sankar, Gui-Shuang Ying, Joan M O'Brien
PURPOSE: To determine the risk factors associated with progression to blindness from primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in an African-American population. METHODS: This study examined 2119 patients enrolled in the Primary Open-Angle African-American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) study. A total of 59 eyes were identified as legally blind as a result of POAG (cases) and were age-and sex-matched to 59 non-blind eyes with glaucoma (controls). Chart reviews were performed to record known and suspected risk factors...
August 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
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