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Ophthalmic Epidemiology

Nana Wilson, Brook Goodhew, Harran Mkocha, Kahaliah Joseph, Claudiu Bandea, Carolyn Black, Joseph Igietseme, Beatriz Munoz, Sheila K West, Patrick Lammie, Mabula Kasubi, Diana L Martin
PURPOSE: Trachoma, caused by repeated ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide and is targeted for elimination as a public health problem. We sought to determine whether a one-time azithromycin mass treatment would reduce trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) levels below the elimination threshold of 5% in communities with disease prevalence between 5 and 9.9%. METHODS: The study was conducted in 96 sub-village units (balozis) in the Kongwa district of Tanzania which were predicted from prior prevalence surveys to have TF between 5 and 9...
December 13, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Nkiru N Kizor-Akaraiwe
PURPOSE: To determine uptake, adherence and influencing factors to follow-up care by newly diagnosed glaucoma patients from free eye screening exercise. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional survey of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients during free eye screenings carried out in March and October, 2016 in Enugu, Nigeria. Data on participants were analyzed after a minimum of 6 months from the screening for uptake and adherence to follow-up care. Qualifying patients had questionnaires administered to them by phone interview...
December 6, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Durga S Borkar, Lucia Sobrin, Rebecca A Hubbard, John H Kempen, Brian L VanderBeek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Uday Kumar Addepalli, Ganesh B Jonnadula, Chandra Sekhar Garudadri, Rohit C Khanna, Eric B Papas
PURPOSE: To report the prevalence of primary glaucoma as identified by study optometrists of the L. V. Prasad Eye Institute - Glaucoma Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (LVPEI-GLEAMS). METHODS: Two study optometrists and a total number of 3833 individuals participated in the LVPEI-GLEAMS. All subjects underwent a complete medical history and comprehensive eye examination including slit lamp photography, imaging of anterior and posterior segment, frequency doubling technology and standard automated perimetry including gonioscopy with a Sussman 4 mirror goniolens, post dilated evaluation of the optic disc and fundus was done with a 90 D lens by the study optometrist...
November 29, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Bonnielin K Swenor, Xinxing Guo, Michael V Boland, Judith E Goldstein
PURPOSE: To use electronic health record (EHR) data to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of low-vision (LV) patients. METHODS: EHR data were obtained for all patients at the nine clinical locations of the Wilmer Eye Institute in 2014. LV status at each visit was defined as visual acuity (VA) worse than 20/40 in the better-seeing eye. Prevalence and incidence estimates were determined over a 12-month period. Demographic and clinical data were used to compare the characteristics of patients with and without LV...
October 16, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Jing Zhang, Lei Wan, Yunhai Dai
PURPOSE: To review the demography and etiology of pediatric enucleation over time. METHODS: Pediatric ophthalmic inpatients recruited and recorded (aged 0-14 years) at Shandong Eye Institute from January 2001 to December 2015 were reviewed. Changes during the three periods from 2001 to 2005, 2006 to 2010, and 2011 to 2015 were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 9307 pediatric inpatients were reviewed. Of these, 71 patients (71 eyes) who had been treated by enucleation were analyzed; 46 were boys (64...
October 16, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Uchenna C Atowa, Samuel O Wajuihian, Rekha Hansraj
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of non-strabismic vergence anomalies and their relationship with age, gender, and school level in children aged 10-16 years Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 537 children (255 male, 282 females; mean age 13.0 ± 2.0, years) selected from nine schools using stratified, cluster, and random sampling. The participants completed a Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) and eye examinations, including the measurement of visual acuity, non-cycloplegic refraction, cover test, near point of convergence, fusional vergences, accommodative functions, and ocular health evaluation...
October 10, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Ian McCormick, Priya Morjaria, Islay Mactaggart, Catey Bunce, Covadonga Bascaran, Maipelo Jeremiah, Allen Foster
PURPOSE: The effectiveness of school eye health programmes relies on many factors, including compliance with spectacle wear. The objectives of this study were to determine spectacle compliance in a school vision screening pilot programme in Botswana, and investigate factors predictive of compliance. METHODS: The study was an observational, cross-sectional follow-up of a pilot school screening programme. Unannounced compliance checks were completed after 3-4 months in a convenience sample of 19 schools...
October 9, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Maya G Pandova, Jamal I Al-Merjan, Nadia A Sadeq
PURPOSE: Incidence rate of registered blindness and low vision (IR) among the Kuwaitis from 2005 to 2014 and longitudinal changes since 2000. METHODS: Data of newly certified Kuwaitis with best-corrected visual acuity 0.1 or less or visual field constriction to 20 ° or less in their better eye, aggregated in intervals from 2005 to 2009 and 2010 to 2014 and presented as IR per 100 000 person years of observation by age, gender, severity and leading cause. RESULTS: Delayed certification resulted in rise of IR from 2005...
October 4, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Jasmina Bajric, Gregory J Griepentrog, Brian G Mohney
PURPOSE: To report the incidence, clinical findings, and surgical outcomes of periocular dermoid cysts diagnosed among children over a 20-year period. METHODS: All patients ≤5 years of age, who were diagnosed with a periocular dermoid cyst in Olmsted County, Minnesota from 1986 to 2005 were reviewed to determine the population incidence, clinical presentation, and management outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 54 children were diagnosed with a periocular dermoid cyst during the 20-year period, yielding a birth incidence of 1 in 638 live births...
September 27, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Eunbi Kim, Dong Gyu Choi
PURPOSE: To compare surgical outcomes between bilateral medial rectus recession (BMR) and unilateral medial rectus recession-lateral rectus resection (RR) for infantile esotropia. METHODS: In this retrospective study, BMR was performed on 57 patients (BMR group) and RR on 23 (RR group) for treatment of infantile esotropia with the postoperative follow-up period of 6 months or more. The main outcome measures were angle of esodeviation, rate of surgical success, rate of reoperation, rate of postoperative development of DVD, and postoperative sensory status...
September 25, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Alisha Kamboj, Henry A Spiller, Marcel J Casavant, Thitphalak Chounthirath, Gary A Smith
PURPOSE: To investigate the epidemiology of ocular exposures reported to poison control centers in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of ocular exposures from 2000 to 2016 was conducted using National Poison Data System data. RESULTS: United States poison control centers received 1,436,683 reports of ocular exposures during 2000-2016, averaging 7,043 exposures per month. The annual frequency of ocular exposures declined significantly by 37...
September 21, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Eleftherios Anastasopoulos, Anna Bettina Haidich, Anne Louise Coleman, M Roy Wilson, Alon Harris, Fei Yu, Archimides Koskosas, Theofanis Pappas, Christina Keskini, Pelagia Kalouda, Georgia Karkamanis, Fotis Topouzis
PURPOSE: To assess the association of potential risk factors with early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Thessaloniki Eye Study (TES) population Design: Population-based, cross-sectional study of subjects over age of 60 living in Thessaloniki, Greece Methods: Subjects without any AMD features and subjects with early and late AMD (neovascular AMD or geographic atrophy) were identified in the TES cohort using standardized procedures and masked grading of stereo color fundus photos...
October 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Sandra C Ganesh, Kalpana Narendran, Jeyanthi Nirmal, Vijayakumar Valaguru, Sangeetha Shanmugam, Nish Patel, Prabha Narayanaswamy, David C Musch, Joshua R Ehrlich
PURPOSE: To report the prevalence and causes of functional low vision (FLV) in school-age children in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India and to report our experience using the key informant (KI) method in this setting. METHODS: Children suspected of having low vision were identified by KIs or Aravind Eye Hospital personnel in Coimbatore District. All identified children underwent a cycloplegic refraction and full eye exam. A primary cause of decreased vision was determined for each child...
October 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Jeffrey R Willis, Quan V Doan, Michelle Gleeson, Zdenka Haskova, Pradeep Ramulu, Lawrence Morse, Ronald A Cantrell
PURPOSE: To assess healthcare utilization patterns across diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity levels in the United States (US). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 699 adults, participating in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys. METHODS: Diagnosis of DR was based on fundus photographs and categorized as: (1) no DR; (2) mild/moderate nonproliferative DR (NPDR); and (3) severe NPDR/proliferative DR (PDR). Healthcare utilization patterns were assessed during a household questionnaire where survey participants self-reported: (1) awareness that diabetes had affected their eyes; (2) pupil-dilation during the past year; and (3) visits to a diabetes education/nutrition specialist during the past year...
October 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Gordon T Barker, Steven L Mansberger
PURPOSE: To measure the psychometric properties of a reduced, 27-statement version of the Glaucoma Treatment Compliance Assessment Tool (GTCAT). METHODS: We administered the GTCAT to 183 participants who were using a single bottle of an ocular hypotensive agent, and objectively measured adherence with Medication Event Monitoring System devices over 60 days. Adherence was the number of days with correctly timed bottle openings divided by the total number of study days...
September 11, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Viktor V Chirikov, Ruchit Shah, Youngmin Kwon, Dipen Patel
PURPOSE: This study causally examined the dose-response relationship between oral corticosteroids (OCS) exposure and long-term complications among noninfectious uveitis adult patients in the United States. METHODS: The study design was longitudinal, retrospective cohort using Truven Health MarketScan claims database years 2000-2015. The index date was the first day after diagnosis on which OCS≥ 5 mg prednisone equivalent was administered. The period following the index date was parsed into quarters for tracking OCS-related complications; follow-up time was censored when patients switched off of OCS monotherapy...
September 10, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Peter Glick, Jill Luoto, Mark S Orrs, Matthew S Oliva, Geoffrey C Tabin, David S Sanders, Benjamin J Thomas, Sanduk Ruit, Tefera Belachew, Alemu Kerie Tasfaw
PURPOSE: To comprehensively measure the impacts of cataract surgery on patients' activities and mental and physical health, caregivers' well-being, and household incomes in a resource-poor setting Methods: One thousand two hundred thirty-four bilaterally blind older adults in Amhara region, Ethiopia, were interviewed at baseline and 1030 (83%) re-interviewed at follow-up 1 year later. Six hundred ninety three (45%) at baseline were diagnosed with cataracts and offered free surgery, of which 484 (73%) were operated...
September 7, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Diana H Kim, Victoria M Addis, Wei Pan, Brian L VanderBeek
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to determine the comparative effectiveness of generic latanoprost (GL) to its branded (BL) counterpart and other brand-name prostaglandin analogs (bPGAs) in preventing the need for additional therapy in the treatment of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using US commercial medical claims data. All new POAG patients from 2000 to 2015 who initiated treatment with either GL or BL were included...
September 6, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Daniel P Morberg, Wondu Alemayehu, Muluken Melese, Takele Lakew, Alemayehu Sisay, Zhaoxia Zhou, Vicky Cevallos, Catherine E Oldenburg, Travis C Porco, Thomas M Lietman, Jeremy D Keenan
BACKGROUND: Mass azithromycin distributions are effective for clearing ocular strains of Chlamydia trachomatis, yet infection frequently returns in areas with hyperendemic trachoma. A better understanding of the factors associated with chlamydial reinfection could be helpful to plan trachoma elimination strategies. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a trachoma-hyperendemic region of Ethiopia in 2003. As part of a larger cluster-randomized trial, 21 villages were treated with a single mass azithromycin distribution and all children 5 years and younger were monitored for ocular chlamydia and clinically active trachoma at baseline and at 2 and 6 months following the treatment...
August 28, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
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