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Journal of Viral Hepatitis

Jasmine Schulkind, Brian Stephens, Farsana Ahmad, Linda Johnston, Sharon Hutchinson, Donna Thain, Zoe Ward, Peter Vickerman, Matt Hickman, John F Dillon
To achieve WHO Hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination targets by 2030, mathematical models suggest there needs to be significant scale-up of treatment among people who inject drugs (PWID). We tested whether people who actively inject drugs can be recruited and treated successfully through a community needle and syringe programme (NSP), and assessed rates of re-infection. 105 HCV RNA positive participants were enrolled prospectively. Participants were recruited from the largest NSP in Dundee over 42 months. 94/105 individuals commenced treatment...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Steven Flamm, David Mutimer, Armen Asatryan, Stanley Wang, Jurgen Rockstroh, Yves Horsmans, Paul Y Kwo, Ola Weiland, Erica Villa, Jeong Heo, Edward Gane, Stephen D Ryder, Tania M Welzel, Peter J Ruane, Kosh Agarwal, Teresa I Ng, Zhenyi Xue, Sandra S Lovell, Preethi Krishnan, Sarah Kopecky-Bromberg, Roger Trinh, Federico J Mensa, David L Wyles
Glecaprevir coformulated with pibrentasvir (G/P) is approved to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and was highly efficacious in phase 2 and 3 studies. Treating HCV genotype (GT) 3 infection remains a priority, as these patients are harder to cure and at a greater risk for liver steatosis, fibrosis progression, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Data were pooled from five phase 2 or 3 trials that evaluated 8-, 12-, and 16-week G/P in patients with chronic HCV GT3 infection. Patients without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis were either treatment-naïve or experienced with interferon- or sofosbuvir-based regimens...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Jiahui Song, Fan Yang, Shuo Wang, Sakinatou Tikande, Yang Deng, Weina Tang, Guangwen Cao
Nucleo(t)side analogues (NAs) have been administered as adjunctive therapy to interrupt the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The efficacy and safety of this method remain controversial. A Meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NAs treatment during pregnancy. The differences among different agents and initiation trimesters were analysed. A total of 9228 mother-infant-pairs in 59 studies (32 RCTs and 27 non-RCTs) were included in this meta-analysis. NAs significantly reduced the risk of MTCT, as indicated by seropositivity of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (risk ratio (RR)=0...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Upkar S Gill, Patrick T F Kennedy
Despite the availability of a preventative vaccine, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains a global healthcare challenge with the risk of disease progression due to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although current treatment strategies, Interferon and nucleos(t)ide analogues have contributed to reducing morbidity and mortality related to CHB, these therapies are limited in providing functional cure. The treatment paradigm in CHB is rapidly evolving with a number of new agents in the developmental pipeline...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Lawrence Serfaty, Ira Jacobson, Jürgen Rockstroh, Frederick L Altice, Peggy Hwang, Eliav Barr, Michael Robertson, Barbara Haber
European treatment guidelines for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection recommend that people with genotype (GT)1a infection and baseline viral load ≤800,000 IU/mL receive elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) for 12 weeks, and those with baseline viral load >800,000 IU/mL receive EBR/GZR plus ribavirin for 16 weeks. This analysis was conducted to clarify whether baseline viral load can serve as an accurate, sensitive, or specific stratification factor for defining EBR/GZR regimens. In this post hoc, integrated analysis, participants with GT1a infection who received EBR 50 mg/GZR 100 mg for 12 weeks were stratified according to baseline viral load...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Kellie Young, Benny Liu, Taft Bhuket, Robert G Gish, Robert J Wong
Direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapies for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection achieve high cure rates, reducing HCV-related disease progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We aim to evaluate the impact of DAAs on U.S. liver transplant (LT) waitlist outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated U.S. adults (age >18) with and without chronic HCV listed for LT before and after the widespread use of sofosbuvir, allowing a 6-month period after approval (Era 1: 1/1/2002-5/31/2014 vs Era 2: 6/1/2014-12/31/2016) using the United Network for Organ Sharing registry...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Cody Orr, Johannes Aartun, Henry Masur, Shyam Kottilil, Eric G Meissner
Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) results in a sustained virologic response (SVR) in most patients. While highly efficacious, ~3-5% of patients do not achieve SVR despite having virus that appears susceptible. It is unclear whether host factors contribute to treatment failures, although innate and adaptive immunity may play a role. Previous studies showed that after DAA treatment, the composition of intrahepatic immune cells does not normalize relative to healthy volunteers, even in cases where SVR is achieved...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Segolene Brichler, Pierre Nahon, Fabien Zoulim, Richard Layese, Valerie Bourcier, Etienne Audureau, Angela Sutton, Eric Letouze, Carole Cagnot, Patrick Marcellin, Dominique Guyader, Dominique Roulot, Stanislas Pol, Victor de Ledinghen, Jean-Pierre Zarski, Paul Calès, Albert Tran, Jean-Marie Peron, Ariane Mallat, Ghassan Riachi, Jean-Didier Grange, Jean-Frederic Blanc, Yannick Bacq, Denis Ouzan, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Philippe Mathurin, Dominique Larrey, Laurent Alric, Pierre Attali, Lawrence Serfaty, Christophe Pilette, Marc Bourlière, Dominique Thabut, Christine Silvain, Claire Wartelle, David Zucman, Christos Christidis, Françoise Roudot-Thoraval, Nathalie Ganne-Carrie
Worldwide, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs mainly in Asian patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to decipher the environmental and virological factors associated with HCC occurrence and validate risk scoring systems in a French multicenter prospective cohort of HBV-cirrhotic patients. Patients with biopsy-proven Child-Pugh A viral cirrhosis included in the ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort who were HBsAg(+) without hepatitis C co-infection were selected for: i) interview through a standardized questionnaire reporting coffee consumption and HCC familial history; ii) HBsAg quantification using baseline and sequential two-year frozen sera; iii) baseline HBV genotype determination; and iv) assessment of risk factors and applicability of HCC risk scores (Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox models)...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Xiao-Qin Dong, Zhao Wu, Hong Zhao, Gui-Qiang Wang
The limitations of liver biopsy have led to the development of indirect non-invasive models for liver fibrosis assessment. We aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of 30 non-invasive models to predict fibrosis stage in treatment-naïve and treated chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. 576 Chinese treatment-naïve CHB patients and 236 treated CHB patients who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy were included in the analysis. Histological grading and staging was assessed by the Ishak scoring system...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Dong-Bo Wu, Wei Jiang, Yong-Hong Wang, Bin Chen, Meng-Lan Wang, Ya-Chao Tao, En-Qiang Chen, Hong Tang
Optional treatments for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 6 infection have not been extensively studied. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir (SOF)-based direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for HCV GT6. We performed a retrospective study at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University in Southwest China from January 2016 to May 2017. Our study screened 130 treatment-naïve patients with chronic HCV GT6 and without liver cirrhosis. A total of 60 HCV GT6 patients were ultimately enrolled...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Zhao Wu, Xiaoqin Dong, Guiqiang Wang, Hong Zhao, China HepB Related Fibrosis Assessment Research Group
Liver biopsy is the reference method for antiviral therapy decision making in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) when alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is less than two times of upper limit of normal (<2ULN). Our aim was to explore noninvasive markers for antiviral therapy decision in CHB with ALT <2ULN. 452 treatment naïve CHB patients with ALT<2ULN who had undergone liver biopsy were analyzed in this prospective multi-center study. If liver biopsy showed moderate or severe inflammation (Histology activity index≥5) or significant fibrosis (Ishak fibrosis score≥3), antiviral treatment was recommended...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Tawhida Y Abdel Ghaffar, Suzan El Naghi, Manal Abdel Gawad, Sarah Helmy, Aisha Abdel Ghaffar, Medhat Yousef, Mohamad Moafy
Direct-acting antivirals have become available for treating chronic HCV (hepatitis C virus) infection in adults and, recently, in children at least 12 years old. Our aim was to investigate the safety and efficacy of combined sofosbuvir (SOF)/daclatasvir (DCV) for HCV Genotype 4 in children aged 8 to 18 years or weighing 17 kg or more. 40 chronic HCV infected, treatment-naïve children with well compensated livers were recruited from two sites. Patients received combined therapy of SOF (400 mg/day for patients weighing greater than 45 kg; 200 mg/day for patients weighing 17 to 45 kg) and DCV (60 mg/day for patients weighing greater than 45 kg; 30 mg/day for patients weighing 17 to 45 kg) for 12 weeks...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
J Huang, P Yin, L Zhang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of major cause of liver diseases worldwide. Claudin-1 (CLDN1), CLDN6 and CLDN9 have been identified as COPII cargoes and co-receptors for HCV. However, whether CLDN12 is a COPII cargo and whether CLDN12 promotes HCV entry remain to be elucidated. Although CLDN12 does not contain a critical valine residue the carboxy terminus, CLDN 12 was found to associate with Sec24C, a key cargo sorting component of COPII transport machinery. Perturbation of Sec24C reduced the surface level of CLDN12...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Monika Sarkar, Jennifer C Lai, Deirdre Sawinski, Toni E Zeigler, Marcelle Cedars, Kimberly A Forde
Cirrhosis is associated with hormonal dysregulation, as evidenced by secondary amenorrhea in reproductive-aged women, and feminization of cirrhotic men. Whether hormone levels vary by severity of cirrhosis in women is not known. If identified, such changes may have important clinical relevance, particularly as low sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) are known to promote metabolic and cardiovascular disease in women. In a cohort of post-menopausal women with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we compared comprehensive sex hormone levels by presence of cirrhosis, as well as across Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Stéphane Chevaliez, Christophe Rodriguez, Lila Poiteau, Alexandre Soulier, Flora Donati, Mélanie Mercier-Darty, Corinne Pioche, Vincent Leroy, Valérie Brodard, Fabien Zoulim, Cécile Brouard, Christine Larsen, Caroline Semaille, Françoise Roudot-Thoraval, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky
Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues (NUCs) targeting hepatitis B virus are capable of selecting resistant viruses upon long-term administration as monotherapies. To evaluate the prevalence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) and fitness-associated substitutions at baseline of NUC therapy and their impact on treatment responses. 232 treatment-naïve patients chronically infected with HBV consecutively referred for the first time to one of French reference centers were included. The nearly full-length HBV reverse transcriptase was sequenced by means of deep sequencing and the sequences were analyzed...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Meng Wang, Yu Ping, Zhiqin Li, Jieyao Li, Zhen Zhang, Dongli Yue, Xinfeng Chen, Liping Wang, Lan Huang, Jianmin Huang, Li Yang, Xuan Zhao, Shuangning Yang, Hong Li, Jijing Shi, Jiansheng Li, Yi Zhang
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been described as suppressors of T-cell function in many malignancies. Impaired T-cell responses have been observed in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection (CHC), which is reportedly associated with the establishment of persistent HCV infection. Therefore, we hypothesized that MDSCs also play a role in chronic HCV infection. MDSCs in the peripheral blood of 206 patients with CHC and 20 healthy donors were analyzed by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy donors cultured with hepatitis C core protein (HCVc) were stimulated with or without interleukin 10 (IL-10)...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Arash Vaziri, Alexander Gimson, Kosh Agarwal, Mark Aldersley, Andrew Bathgate, Douglas MacDonald, Stuart McPherson, David Mutimer, William Gelson
Following the introduction of direct acting antivirals (DAA), there have been reports of declining incidence of hepatitis C (HCV) related liver disease as a liver transplantation indication. In this study we assessed the impact of DAA on liver transplant indications in the UK and waiting list outcomes for patients with HCV. We assessed UK adult elective liver transplant registrants between 2006 and 2017. The aetiology of liver disease at registration was reclassified using an accepted hierarchical system and changes were assessed over time and compared before and after the introduction of DAA...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
François Girardin, Natalie Hearmon, Francesco Negro, Lucy Eddowes, Philip Bruggmann, Erika Castro
People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key high-risk group for HCV infection due to the sharing of needles and drug-preparation equipment. However, only approximately 50% of PWID are currently screened for HCV in Switzerland. At present, screening of PWID occurs in general practice via venepuncture. Compared to venepuncture, screening via rapid antibody saliva and dried blood spot (DBS) tests is well adapted to PWID, who typically have difficult venous access. The cost-effectiveness of an increased access screening programme of PWID (increased screening using rapid antibody saliva tests and DBS tests [semi-quantitative viraemia and viral genotype]) was analysed through a decision tree screening model combined with the outputs of a Markov treatment model...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Viola Knop, Wolf Peter Hofmann, Peter Buggisch, Hartwig Klinker, Stefan Mauss, Rainer Günther, Holger Hinrichsen, Dietrich Hüppe, Heike Pfeiffer-Vornkahl, Karl-Georg Simon, Thomas Berg, Michael P Manns, Mireen Friedrich-Rust, German Hepatitis C-Registry
Treatment decisions are based on extent of fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Non-invasive diagnostic tools may help to avoid liver biopsy. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of non-commercial serum scores in comparison to transient elastography (TE).Data analysis was undertaken based on 2458 patients enrolled in the German Hepatitis C Registry, in a prospective, observational study. Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), FORNS index and FIB-4 score were calculated and the diagnostic accuracy was compared to TE...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Sarah Morey, Abi Hamoodi, Dee Jones, Tina Young, Craig Thompson, Julie Dhuny, Emma Buchanan, Carolyn Miller, Margaret Hewett, Manoj Valappil, Ewan Hunter, Stuart McPherson
With recent advances in anti-viral therapy there is an opportunity to eliminate HCV from the UK population. HCV is common in incarcerated individuals, with previous estimates suggesting ~7% of the UK prison population is anti-HCV antibody positive. Increasing diagnosis and treatment of HCV in prison is a priority in seeking to eliminate transmission in the general population. Thus the study aimed, to assess the impact implementation of: 1. A universal offer of blood borne virus testing (UOBBVT) using dry blood spot testing for prisoners at reception to increase diagnosis; 2...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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