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Journal of Viral Hepatitis

A Brown, C Hézode, E Zuckerman, G R Foster, A Zekry, S K Roberts, F Lahser, C Durkan, C Badshah, B Zhang, M Robertson, J Wahl, E Barr, B Haber
People with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection other than genotype 1 represent a heterogeneous group. The aim of the phase 2 C-SCAPE study was to evaluate elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR), with or without ribavirin (RBV), in participants with HCV genotype 2, 4, 5 or 6 infection. This was a part randomized, open-label, parallel-group study (NCT01932762; PN047-03) of treatment-naive, non-cirrhotic participants. Participants with HCV genotype 2 infection received GZR 100 mg+RBV±EBR 50 mg for 12 weeks and those with genotype 4, 5 or 6 infection were randomized to receive EBR/GZR±RBV for 12 weeks...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Léa Duchesne, Karine Lacombe
According to the Global Burden of Diseases, chronic viral hepatitis B and C are one of the most challenging global health conditions that rank among the first causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low and middle income countries are particularly affected by the health burden associated with HBV or HCV infection. One major gap in efficiently addressing the issue of viral hepatitis is universal screening. However, the costs and chronic lack of human resources for using traditional screening strategies based on serology and molecular biology preclude any scaling-up...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Neeru Bhardwaj, Manon Ragonnet-Cronin, Ben Murrell, Krishna Chodavarapu, Ross Martin, Silvia Chang, Michael D Miller, Jordan J Feld, Mark Sulkowski, Alessandra Mangia, Joel O Wertheim, Anu Osinusi, John McNally, Diana Brainard, Hongmei Mo, Evguenia S Svarovskaia
Treatment with the direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA) sofosbuvir (SOF), an NS5B inhibitor, and velpatasvir (VEL), an NS5A inhibitor, demonstrates viral cure rates of ≥95% in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes (GT) 1-6. Here we investigated intrapatient HCV diversity in NS5A and NS5B using Shannon entropy to examine the relationship between viral diversity and treatment outcome. At baseline, HCV diversity was lowest in patients infected with HCV GT3 as compared to the other GTs, and viral diversity was greater in NS5A than NS5B (p<0...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Mario U Mondelli, Mojca Maticic, Joop E Arends
This review aimed to examine mid-term liver complications and extra-hepatic clinical syndromes in addition to quality of life benefits associated with achieving HCV cure. Also to review the few safety issues that have been associated with the use of oral direct acting antivirals (DAAs) and discuss the potential benefits of the reduction of the burden of HCV infection at the population level. HCV cure is possible with DAAs in more than 95% of the patients treated. The blockage of liver inflammation and halting of fibrosis progression translates in both hepatic and extra-hepatic beneficial improvements and in reduction in the need for liver transplantation secondary to HCV...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Hannah Brownstein, Peter Higgs
In their recent review, O'Keefe et al. (2017) describe the ways in which people who inject drugs (PWID) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are confronted with particular challenges compared to PWID in upper-middle-income countries, including the increased risk of HIV and hepatitis C, greater stigma and discrimination, and greater interaction with the justice system.(1) To help manage the HIV burden among PWID and to help strengthen the public health responses to injecting drug use, LMICs have relied on substantial funding from international donors (PEPFAR, World Bank, DFID, and Global Fund)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Hiromi Hikita, Masaya Sato, Mamiko Sato, Yoko Soroida, Tamaki Kobayashi, Hiroaki Gotoh, Tomomi Iwai, Ryo Nakagomi, Ryosuke Tateishi, Takako Komuro, Shinji Sone, Kazuhiko Koike, Yutaka Yatomi, Hitoshi Ikeda
Perihepatic lymph node enlargement (PLNE) which has been shown to be negatively associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence is frequently observed in chronic liver disease, however, changes in the state of perihepatic lymph nodes after eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have not been investigated yet. We aimed to evaluate this issue. We enrolled 472 patients with chronic HCV who achieved viral eradication with direct-acting antivirals (DAA). We investigated whether the status of perihepatic lymph nodes changed before and after HCV eradication (primary endpoint)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Elvira Stefania Cannizzo, Camilla Tincati, Francesca Binda, Paola Ronzi, Federico Angelo Cazzaniga, Spinello Antinori, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti, Laura Milazzo
HBV eradication in Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) subjects is rarely achieved with either nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) or pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN), which both have a limited effect in restoring immune responses. 30 CHB subjects on long-term treatment with tenofovir (TDF) and HBV suppression were enrolled and randomized 1:2 to either receive Peg-IFN-α-2a add-on therapy or continue TDF alone. We studied γδT and iNKT frequency and function (by flow cytometry) at baseline, at 12 weeks and 12 weeks after the end of treatment...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Jiaqian Pan, Shuangmei Tong, Jing Tang
We previously identified a novel inhibitor of La protein, H11, which inhibited hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication by inhibiting the interaction between La protein and HBV RNA. However, the other cellular factors involved in this process remain unclear. To investigate the mechanism of H11-mediated inhibition of HBV infection, a lncRNA microarray analysis was performed using H11-treated and untreated stable HBV-expressing human hepatoblastoma HepG2.2.15 cells. The profiles of differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs were generated and analyzed using Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
João Marcello de Araujo Neto, Henrique Sérgio Moraes Coelho, Maria Chiara Chindamo, Guilherme Ferreira da Motta Rezende, Vera Lúcia Nunes Pannain, Adriana Marques Caroli de Freitas Bottino, Luiz Fernando Bruzzi Porto, Ronir Raggio Luiz, Cristiane Alves Villela-Nogueira, Renata M Perez
Chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus induces liver fibrosis, but it is unknown why some patients progress to advanced fibrosis while others remain with mild disease. Recently, an inverse association between serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was described and it was postulated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has anti-fibrotic effects. Our aim was to compare serum DHEA-S levels with liver fibrosis in hepatitis C patients...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Leandro C Mendes, Paulo A Ferreira, Noelle Miotto, Letícia Zanaga, Eduardo S L Gonçales, Marcelo N Pedro, Maria S Lazarini, Fernando L G Júnior, Raquel S B Stucchi, Alive G Vigani
Vibration controlled transient elastography (VCTE) is widely used for non-invasive fibrosis staging in chronic hepatitis C. However, internal validation is based solely on variability and success rate and lack reproducible quality indicators. We analysed the graphic representation of shear wave propagation in comparison with morphometric results of liver biopsy liver biopsy, eliminating observer variability bias. Individual elastograms were classified according to two morphologic criteria: extension of wave propagation (length of the graphic representation) and shear wave dispersal (level of parallelism displayed in the elastogram)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Xiaomei Yue, Congcong Ge, Shurui Zhuge, Hao He, Hui Yang, Hongmei Xu, Ailong Huang, Yao Zhao
Immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine is the most effective measure to prevent Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in antibody levels induced by administration of the hepatitis B vaccine in children aged 1-16 year-old in a large sample sized investigation. HBV markers were determined in 93,326 1-16 year-old hospitalized children who completed primary immunization as infants from southwest China, Chongqing. Analyses were performed on anti-HBs titer changes with increasing age, and the revaccination effect was evaluated in children aged 7-14...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Benedetta Campana, Diego Calabrese, Matthias S Matter, Luigi M Terracciano, Stefan F Wieland, Markus H Heim
Steatosis is a frequent histological feature of HCV infection. Cohort studies of patients with chronic hepatitis C identified HCV genotype 3 (HCV GT3) as the prevalent steatotic genotype. Moreover, Huh-7 cells over-expressing HCV GT3 core protein accumulate more triglyceride in larger lipid droplets than cells expressing core proteins of other HCV genotypes. However, little is known about the relationship of steatosis and HCV infection at the cellular level in vivo. In this study we used highly sensitive multiplex in situ hybridization methodology together with lipid staining to investigate HCV induced lipid droplet accumulation at the cellular level in liver biopsies...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Xieer Liang, Qing Xie, Deming Tan, Qin Ning, Junqi Niu, Xuefan Bai, Shijun Chen, Jun Cheng, Yanyan Yu, Hao Wang, Min Xu, Guangfeng Shi, Mobin Wan, Xinyue Chen, Hong Tang, Jifang Sheng, Xiaoguang Dou, Junping Shi, Hong Ren, Maorong Wang, Hongfei Zhang, Zhiliang Gao, Chengwei Chen, Hong Ma, Yongpeng Chen, Fan Rong, Jian Sun, Jidong Jia, Jinlin Hou
Liver biopsy is not routinely performed in treated chronic hepatitis B. Liver stiffness measurement has been validated for non-invasive liver fibrosis assessment in pre-treatment chronic hepatitis B but has not been assessed for fibrosis monitoring during antiviral therapy. Liver stiffness was systemically monitored by Fibroscan(®) every 6 months in a cohort of patients with hepatitis B receiving antiviral therapy and compared with liver biopsies at baseline and week 104. A total of 534 hepatitis B e antigen positive treatment-naive patients receiving telbivudine based therapy with qualified liver stiffness measurement at baseline and week 104 were analyzed, 164 of which had adequate paired liver biopsies...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Ning Ma, Xiaolin Zhang, Lei Yang, Jin Zhou, Wenxuan Liu, Xia Gao, Fengxue Yu, Wencheng Zheng, Shurong Ding, Ping Gao, Meina Yuan, Dianwu Liu
Recent studies show that variants in some interferon genes together with interferon receptor genes are associated with the outcome of infectious diseases. We examined the association between the risk of Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease and the functional polymorphisms within IFNL4, IFNLR1, IFNA1, IFNA2, IFNA5 and IFNAR2 genes (14 loci in all) in a Han Chinese population. A total of 3128 people participated and were divided into 5 groups: healthy controls, natural clearance, chronic hepatitis B(CHB), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Hwa Young Choi, Yeerae Kim, Hyunsoon Cho, Bo Hyun Kim, Moran Ki
While the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and diabetes has been established, the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and diabetes remains unclear. Therefore, we compared the association between diabetes development in HBV, HCV and co-infected (HBV/HCV) patients to that in non-infected participants by using population-based cohort data. We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, which consists of 514,791 randomly selected persons among those who underwent health check-ups from 2002 to 2003 aged 40-79 years...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Fabienne Marcellin, Philippe Morlat, Linda Wittkop, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Maria Patrizia Carrieri
Dirks et al.(1) 's recent study provides greater insight into the neuropsychiatric symptoms experienced by HCV infected patients and questions how these symptoms are associated with HCV clearance. The authors show that in HCV infected patients with mild liver disease, none of the following outcomes depend on HCV clearance: cognitive function, mood alteration, health-related quality of life (HRQL) and fatigue (FIS scores). However, these results may not be generalizable to HIV-HCV co-infected patients and cirrhotic patients, who were excluded from the study and who are generally more concerned by fatigue and neuropsychiatric symptoms...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Ding Xiang-Chun, Yang Xiao-Qing, Yan Ting-Ting, Lu Zhen-Hui, Liu Xiao-Yan, Luo Xia, Hu Yan-Chao, Yang Yi-Xuan, Ma Li-Na
Persistent chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor for the development of HBV-related diseases. The molecular mechanisms that underlie HBV infection and associated carcinogenesis are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore the role of ENO1 in HBV replication processes.Here,we examined ENO1 expression levels in HBV-infected and non-HBV-infected liver tissues and cells by Western blot analysis, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HBsAg and HBeAg in the media of transfected HepG2...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
M M Ow, D Hegazy, U M Warshow, M E Cramp
A minority of injecting drug users, termed exposed uninfected, are resistant to hepatitis C (HCV) infection despite repeated low-dose exposures. We identify for the first time a cohort of blood recipients who remained uninfected despite large-dose exposure to HCV-contaminated blood and characterize immune factors that may confer protection. Of 1340 blood recipients from the English Look Back database who were transfused HCV-contaminated blood, we identified 8 who remained uninfected. In these 8 exposed uninfecteds, we characterized their natural killer (NK) cell populations and HCV-specific T-cell responses...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
V Saludes, C Folch, A Morales-Carmona, L Ferrer, L Fernández, R Muñoz, M Jiménez, E Loureiro, P Fernández-Dávila, E Bascuñana, J Casabona, E Martró
Alternative strategies are required to enhance the diagnosis of silent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hard-to-reach key populations at risk. Among them, HCV prevalence and bio-behavioural data is scarce for HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) and men and trans-women sex workers. We sought to describe and assess the potential benefits of a community-based one-step HCV screening and confirmatory strategy for these populations in Barcelona. The screening strategy based on a real-time RT-PCR assay for HCV-RNA detection in dried-blood spots (DBS) was validated and implemented in addition to an antibody point-of-care test in a community centre...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Zobair M Younossi, Henry Lik Yuen Chan, Yock Young Dan, Mei Hsuan Lee, Young-Suk Lim, Eliza Kruger, Seng Chuen Tan
Chronic, untreated hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with a poor clinical prognosis and a detrimental impact on patients' lives, including on work productivity. To estimate the value of productivity losses due to genotype 1 (GT1) HCV infection in Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan and to estimate the potential productivity gains associated with treating patients with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) therapy,an economic model was developed with a time horizon of one year. HCV patients entered the model at 12 weeks post-treatment, having achieved or not achieved sustained virological response (SVR)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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