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Journal of Viral Hepatitis

L Lafferty, C Treloar, J Guthrie, G M Chambers, T Butler
Prisoner populations are characterized by high rates of hepatitis C (HCV), up to thirty times that of the general population in Australia. Within Australian prisons, less than 1% of eligible inmates access treatment. Public health strategies informed by social capital could be important in addressing this inequality in access to HCV treatment. Twenty-eight male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three correctional centres in New South Wales, Australia. All participants had recently tested as HCV RNA positive or were receiving HCV treatment...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
S Lee, S H Ahn, K S Jung, D Y Kim, B K Kim, S U Kim, O Baatarkhuu, H J Ku, K Han, J Y Park
We compared the viral suppressive efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) mono-rescue therapy (TDF group) and TDF plus entecavir (ETV) combination-rescue therapy (TDF + ETV group) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with lamivudine resistance and entecavir resistance. One hundred and thirty-three CHB patients with lamivudine and entecavir resistance were investigated. Ninety-six patients were treated with TDF and 37 with TDF + ETV for at least 6 months. We compared the virologic response rate (HBV DNA level <20 IU/mL) between the two groups and identified the predictive factors of treatment outcome...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
E B Tapper, B R Bacon, M P Curry, D T Dieterich, S L Flamm, L E Guest, K V Kowdley, Y Lee, N C Tsai, Z M Younossi, N H Afdhal
Early data regarding the "real-world" experience with novel therapies for hepatitis C (HCV) are encouraging. Data are still limited, however, regarding real-world rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) for ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (LDV-SOF), particularly for patients with prior treatment failure. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1597 patients with chronic genotype 1 HCV who were treated using 12 weeks of the following regimens LDV-SOF±ribavirin (RBV) (n=1521 without RBV, n=76 with RBV). The primary outcome was SVR-determined at 12 weeks in an intention-to-treat design...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
D Crisan, C Radu, A Suciu, N Leach, H Stefanescu, L Avram, N Crisan, M Grigorescu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
M Schemmerer, C Rauh, W Jilg, J J Wenzel
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in industrialized countries, but there is a lack of knowledge on individual and overall antibody concentration dynamics. The aim of this study was to characterize longitudinal concentration changes of anti-HEV immunoglobulin G (anti-HEV IgG) by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). In total, 199 serum samples collected from 45 subjects over 18 years were analysed. A wide range of anti-HEV IgG levels was found. Overall, anti-HEV IgG significantly decreased after an observation period of at least 5 years...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
P Sultanik, A Ginguay, J Vandame, T Popovici, J-F Meritet, L Cynober, S Pol, P-N Bories
The increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Western countries requests reliable tumour markers for preclinical diagnosis. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP), in comparison with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in a French cohort using a new analyser. One hundred and sixty-two patients with virus-related cirrhosis (46 HCC patients and 116 controls) were recruited in this retrospective proof-of-concept study. DCP was measured on new Lumipulse(®) G600 analyzer and AFP on usual Cobas e602 analyzer in serum samples that were collected at the time of HCC diagnosis for HCC patients or during follow-up for controls...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
B Fevery, T Verbinnen, M Peeters, K Janssen, J Witek, W Jessner, S De Meyer, O Lenz
Simeprevir is a hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibitor. Hepatitis C virus baseline NS3/4A polymorphisms and emerging mutations were characterized in treatment-naїve and treatment-experienced genotype 4-infected patients treated with simeprevir+peginterferon/ribavirin in the RESTORE study. Population sequencing of the NS3/4A region was performed and in vitro simeprevir activity against site-directed mutants or chimeric replicons with patient-derived NS3 protease sequences was assessed in a transient replicon assay...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
K-Q Shi, Y-Y Zhou, H-D Yan, H Li, F-L Wu, Y-Y Xie, M Braddock, X-Y Lin, M-H Zheng
At present, there is no ideal model for predicting the short-term outcome of patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF). This study aimed to establish and validate a prognostic model by using the classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. A total of 1047 patients from two separate medical centres with suspected ACHBLF were screened in the study, which were recognized as derivation cohort and validation cohort, respectively. CART analysis was applied to predict the 3-month mortality of patients with ACHBLF...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
R J Wong, M T Nguyen, H N Trinh, A Huynh, M T Ly, H A Nguyen, K K Nguyen, J Yang, R T Garcia, B Levitt, E da Silveira, R G Gish
Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) is the first all-oral ribavirin-free treatment approved for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6, offering a safe and highly efficacious treatment option. Large studies evaluating real-world outcomes of this regimen are lacking. We aim to evaluate real-world treatment outcomes for HCV genotype 6. A retrospective cohort study evaluated 65 adults (age ≥18) with chronic HCV genotype 6 treated with SOF/LDV without ribavirin at a community gastroenterology clinic in the United States from November 2014 to May 2016...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
B Emmanuel, N Sidique, X Zhang, B Poonia, M C Sneller, S Kottilil
Mixed cryoglobulinemic vasculitis is associated with the monoclonal expansion of pathognomonic B cells in chronic hepatitis C. Recently, treatment with B-cell depletion, including rituximab, a CD20 monoclonal antibody, has been successful in achieving remission from the active disease. We investigated whether B-cell depletion therapy has an impact on activation of non-B cells in the periphery. Results demonstrated that B-cell depletion therapy is associated with a statistically significant decline in activated T cells, from pretherapy to follow-up while on rituximab therapy: CD4+ CD38+ HLA-DR+ (DR+), CD8+ CD38, CD8+ CD38+ DR+, and CD8+ DR+...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
A A Eltahla, C Rodrigo, B Betz-Stablein, J Grebely, T Applegate, F Luciani, J Schinkel, G J Dore, K Page, J Bruneau, M D Morris, A L Cox, A Y Kim, N H Shoukry, G M Lauer, L Maher, M Hellard, M Prins, A R Lloyd, R A Bull
Several direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, opening the door to highly effective interferon-free treatment regimens. Resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) have been reported both in treatment-naïve patients and following treatment with protease (NS3), phosphoprotein (NS5A) and polymerase (NS5B) inhibitors. The prevalence of naturally occurring RASs in untreated HCV-infected individuals has mostly been analysed in those infected with genotype 1 (GT1), in the late phase of infection, and only within limited regions of the genome...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
X Li, C Gou, L Yao, Z Lei, T Gu, F Ren, T Wen
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is the most common type of liver failure and associated with grave consequences. Systemic inflammation has been linked to its pathogenesis and outcome, but the identifiable triggers are absent. Recently, extracellular histones, especially H4, have been recognized as important mediators of cell damage in various inflammatory conditions. This study aimed to investigate whether extracellular histones have clinical implications in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related ACLF...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Y Liu, A C Corsa, M Buti, A L Cathcart, J F Flaherty, M D Miller, K M Kitrinos, P Marcellin, E J Gane
A major hurdle in the long-term treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is to maintain viral suppression in the absence of drug resistance. To date, no evidence of resistance to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been observed. A cumulative evaluation of CHB patients who qualified for resistance surveillance over 8 years of TDF treatment was conducted. Patients in studies GS-US-174-0102 (HBeAg-) and GS-US-174-0103 (HBeAg+) were randomized 2:1 to receive TDF or adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for 48 weeks followed by open-label TDF through year 8...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
C Trigo, P E A A do Brasil, M J M Costa, L de Castro
Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is characterized by the absence of HBsAg and persistence of the virus genome (HBV-DNA) in liver tissue and/or blood. OBI has been reported in several clinical contexts. However, the clinical significance of OBI in tuberculosis (TB) treatment is unknown. We investigated the OBI prevalence and its impact on the risk of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) during TB treatment. This was a prospective cohort study with one hundred patients who were treated for TB from 2008 to 2015...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
M El-Bendary, M Neamatallah, G Esmat, E Kamel, H Elalfy, T Besheer, D Eldeib, A-H Eladl, M El-Setouhy, A-H El-Gilany, A El-Waseef
Hepatitis C infection is a global pandemic. HLA-DQB1 alleles are believed to have an effective role in immune response against HCV including susceptibility to or protection from this infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of HLA-DQB1 alleles in the outcome of HCV genotype-4 infection through a family-based association study. Egyptian families with HCV (324) were recruited for this study (324 index positive for RNA-HCV, 225 positive relatives representing chronic hepatitis C cases and 582 family members negative for HCV-RNA [control], 63 of whom spontaneously cleared the virus...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
E Keoshkerian, M Hunter, B Cameron, N Nguyen, P Sugden, R Bull, A Zekry, L Maher, N Seddiki, J Zaunders, A Kelleher, A R Lloyd
Clearance of primary hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with strong and broadly targeted cellular immune responses. This study aimed to characterize HCV-specific CD4+ effector and regulatory T-cell numbers and cytokine production during primary infection. Antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell responses were investigated in a longitudinal cohort of subjects from pre-infection to postoutcome, including subjects who cleared [n=12] or became chronically infected [n=17]. A cross-sectional cohort with previously cleared, or chronic infection [n=15 for each], was also studied...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
N Prabdial-Sing, T Chirwa, J Thaver, H Smuts, M Vermeulen, M Suchard, A J Puren
There are limited molecular epidemiological studies of hepatitis C at a national level in South Africa. The introduction of newer treatment modalities for hepatitis C requires knowledge of the genotypes as these may have different prognostic and therapeutic implications. This retrospective study describes genotype distributions of patients attending specialist clinics and a blood donor group studied during the period 2008-2012 in South Africa. Residual samples from diagnostic viral load testing from specialist clinics in South Africa (n=941) and from the South African National Blood Service (n=294) were analysed quantitatively by real-time PCR and genotyped using the Versant line probe assay or sequencing...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
E J Aspinall, W Mitchell, J Schofield, A Cairns, S Lamond, P Bramley, S E Peters, H Valerio, J Tomnay, D J Goldberg, P R Mills, S T Barclay, A Fraser, J F Dillon, N K Martin, M Hickman, S J Hutchinson
Prisoners are a priority group for hepatitis C (HCV) treatment. Although treatment durations will become shorter using directly acting antivirals (DAAs), nearly half of prison sentences in Scotland are too short to allow completion of DAA therapy prior to release. The purpose of this study was to compare treatment outcomes between prison- and community-based patients and to examine the impact of prison release or transfer during therapy. A national database was used to compare treatment outcomes between prison treatment initiates and a matched community sample...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
N Allard, A Dev, J Dwyer, G Srivatsa, A Thompson, B Cowie
Antiviral therapy for hepatitis B is effective and reduces the risk of progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer but is often required for an indefinite duration. Treatment adherence is important to prevent the development of resistance and optimize outcomes. Pharmacy adherence measures can be used to assess treatment adherence, with the medication possession ratio being less susceptible to bias than physician- or self-reported adherence. The aim of this study was to measure adherence in public hospital outpatients over a 3-year period and to examine factors associated with nonadherence...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
M Brahmania, W P Brouwer, T Hansen, T Mazzulli, J Feld, D Wong, M Kowgier, H L A Janssen
The clinical relevance of viral blipping during nucleos (t) ide analogue (NA) treatment is unclear in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We investigated the prevalence, risk factors and clinical outcomes for those with viral blipping during NA treatment. A retrospective cohort study investigated consecutively treated CHB patients from May 2008 to February 2015 on the NAs such as entecavir (ETV), tenofovir (TDF) and lamivudine (LAM). Included patients were previously treatment naive. Viral blipping was defined as serum HBV DNA >20 IU/mL on one occasion, and not >200 IU/mL, with subsequent measurement returning to undetectable levels, that is <20 IU/mL...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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