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Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS

Alison L Deary, Eric J Hilton
Drums (family Sciaenidae) are common in tropical to temperate coastal and estuarine habitats worldwide and present a broad spectrum of morphological diversity. The anatomical variation in this family is particularly evident in their feeding apparatus, which may reflect the partitioning of adult foraging habitats. Adult and early life history stage sciaenids may display ecomorphological patterns in oral and pharyngeal jaw elements but because sciaenids are hierarchically related, the morphological variation of the feeding apparatus cannot be analyzed as independent data...
August 25, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Jayne M Gardiner, Jelle Atema, Robert E Hueter, Philip J Motta
The ability of predators to modulate prey capture in response to the size, location, and behavior of prey is critical to successful feeding on a variety of prey types. Modulating in response to changes in sensory information may be critical to successful foraging in a variety of environments. Three shark species with different feeding morphologies and behaviors were filmed using high-speed videography while capturing live prey: the ram-feeding blacktip shark, the ram-biting bonnethead, and the suction-feeding nurse shark...
August 25, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
André Luis da Cruz, Marisa Narciso Fernandes
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphometric respiratory potential of gills compared to the stomach in obtaining oxygen for aerobic metabolism in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, a facultative air-breathing fish. The measurements were done using stereological methods. The gills showed greater total volume, volume-to-body mass ratio, potential surface area, and surface-to-volume ratio than the stomach. The water-blood diffusion barrier of the gills is thicker than the air-blood diffusion barrier of the stomach...
August 23, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Janek von Byern, Norbert Cyran, Waltraud Klepal, Marie Therese Nödl, Lisa Klinger
Bio-adhesion is a common and crucial process in nature and is used by several different species for camouflage, prey capture, hatching or to avoid drifting. Four genera of cephalopods belonging to four different families (Euprymna, Sepiolidae; Idiosepius, Idiosepiidae; Nautilus, Nautilidae; and Sepia, Sepiidae) produce glue for temporary attachment. Euprymna species live in near-shore benthic habitats of the Indo-Pacific Ocean, are nocturnal and bury into the seafloor during the day. The animals secrete adhesives through their epithelial glands to completely coat themselves with sand...
August 22, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Yoko Matsumura, Jan Michels, Esther Appel, Stanislav N Gorb
The peculiar phenomenon of hyper-elongation of intromittent organs is well known in a number of insect groups. However, the unresolved questions of how and why such a phenomenon originated independently many times continue to attract biologists' attention. To be able to detect the evolutionary driving mechanisms that enabled insects to repeatedly acquire such a peculiarity, first of all the structural key features and the mechanics of these organs have to be determined. In the present study, the morphology of the reproductive organs of two species of the beetle genus Cassida, with a special focus on the male structures, was scrutinised in detail during copulation and at rest using different microscopy techniques...
August 8, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Andrew M Durso, Stephen J Mullin
Wild snake diets are difficult to study using traditional methods, but stable isotopes offer several advantages, including integrating dietary information over time, providing data from individuals that have not fed recently, and avoiding bias towards slowly-digesting prey items. We used stable isotope signatures of carbon and nitrogen from scale tissue, red blood cells, and blood plasma to assess the diet of wild plains hog-nosed snakes (Heterodon nasicus) in Illinois. We developed Bayesian mixing models which, taken together, predicted that H...
July 25, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
The transfer of immunity from parents to offspring (trans-generational immune priming (TGIP)) boosts offspring immune defence and parasite resistance. TGIP is usually a maternal trait. However, if fathers have a physical connection to their offspring, and if offspring are born in the paternal parasitic environment, evolution of paternal TGIP can become adaptive. In Syngnathus typhle, a sex-role reversed pipefish with male pregnancy, both parents invest into offspring immune defence. To connect TGIP with parental investment, we need to know how parents share the task of TGIP, whether TGIP is asymmetrically distributed between the parents, and how the maternal and paternal effects interact in case of biparental TGIP...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Gerrit Joop, Andreas Vilcinskas
Parasitic fungi and their insect hosts provide an intriguing model system for dissecting the complex co-evolutionary processes, which result in Red Queen dynamics. To explore the genetic basis behind host-parasite coevolution we chose two parasitic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, representing the most important entomopathogenic fungi used in the biological control of pest or vector insects) and two established insect model hosts (the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum) for which sequenced genomes or comprehensive transcriptomes are available...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Joachim Kurtz, Hinrich Schulenburg, Thorsten B H Reusch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Jenny M Greenwood, Alberto López Ezquerra, Sarah Behrens, Antoine Branca, Ludovic Mallet
Among the most common forms of interaction between species are those between hosts and their parasites and they have important implications for evolutionary theory. Understanding both the phenotypic and genotypic processes governing such interactions is a major endeavour in biology, but is a complex and challenging task. The development of next generation sequencing technologies has recently opened up this field from a molecular perspective, allowing us access to the genomic data underlying laboratory or wild phenotypes...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Joy Bose, Michaela H Kloesener, Rebecca D Schulte
Multiple infections are common. Although in recent years our understanding of multiple infections has increased significantly, it has also become clear that a diversity of aspects has to be considered to understand the interplay between co-infecting parasite genotypes of the same species and its implications for virulence and epidemiology, resulting in high complexity. Here, we review different interaction mechanisms described for multiple infections ranging from competition to cooperation. We also list factors influencing the interaction between co-infecting parasite genotypes and their influence on virulence...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
David Haase, Jenny K Rieger, Anika Witten, Monika Stoll, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Martin Kalbe, Alexander Schmidt-Drewello, Jörn P Scharsack, Thorsten B H Reusch
Immune systems of vertebrates are much more diverse than previously thought, in particular at the base of the vertebrate clade. RNA-seq was used to describe in detail the transcriptomic response of stickleback hosts to infection by two helminth parasites, the trematode Diplostomum pseudospathaceum (2 genotypes plus a genotype mix) and the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Based on a global transcription profiling, we present immune genes that are active during chronic or multiple repeated infection. We found that the transcription profiles of D...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Marieke E Feis, M Anouk Goedknegt, David W Thieltges, Christian Buschbaum, K Mathias Wegner
Host-parasite coevolution has rarely been observed in natural systems. Its study often relies on microparasitic infections introducing a potential bias in the estimation of the evolutionary change of host and parasite traits. Using biological invasions as a tool to study host-parasite coevolution in nature can overcome these biases. We demonstrate this with a cross-infection experiment in the invasive macroparasite Mytilicola intestinalis and its bivalve host, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. The invasion history of the parasite is well known for the southeastern North Sea and is characterised by two separate invasion fronts that reached opposite ends of the Wadden Sea (i...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Megan A M Kutzer, Sophie A O Armitage
Tolerance, the ability of a host to limit the negative fitness effects of a given parasite load, is now recognised as an important host defence strategy in animals. Together with resistance, the ability of a host to limit parasite load, these two host strategies represent two disparate host responses to parasites, each with different predicted evolutionary consequences: resistance is predicted to reduce parasite prevalence, whereas tolerance could be neutral towards, or increase, parasite prevalence in a population...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Wentao Yang, Katja Dierking, Philip C Rosenstiel, Hinrich Schulenburg
Invertebrate defence against pathogens exclusively relies on components of the innate immune system. Comprehensive information has been collected over the last years on the molecular components of invertebrate immunity and the involved signalling processes, especially for the main invertebrate model species, the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Yet, the exact regulation of general and specific defences is still not well understood. In the current study, we take advantage of a recently established database, WormExp, which combines all available gene expression studies for C...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Anna K Rahn, Elisabeth Eßer, Stephanie Reher, Flora Ihlow, Andrew D C MacColl, Theo C M Bakker
Analysing spatial differences among macroparasite communities is an important tool in the study of host-parasite interactions. Identifying patterns can shed light on the underlying causes of heterogeneity of parasite distribution and help to better understand ecological constraints and the relative importance of host and parasite adaptations. In the present study, we aimed to find correlational evidence that the macroparasite distribution patterns on the Scottish island of North Uist, which had been described by de Roij and MacColl (2012), are indicative of local processes rather than an unspecific influence of habitat characteristics...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Barbara Milutinović, Robert Peuß, Kevin Ferro, Joachim Kurtz
Immune priming has now been demonstrated in a wide range of invertebrate species. Studies testing this phenomenon largely differ in terms of experimental design, host-parasite combinations, agents used for priming, and in particular the degree of demonstrated specificity of the primed response. This review provides an overview of known and putative mechanisms underlying broad-spectrum and specific immune priming in arthropods. We focus on insects and particularly the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, where priming has been demonstrated within and across generations...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Andreas Vilcinskas
Recent studies addressing experimental host-parasite coevolution and transgenerational immune priming in insects provide evidence for heritable shifts in host resistance or parasite virulence. These rapid reciprocal adaptations may thus be transferred to offspring generations by either genetic changes or mechanisms that do not involve changes in the germline DNA sequence. Epigenetic inheritance refers to changes in gene expression that are heritable across generations and mediated by epigenetic modifications passed from parents to offspring...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Jörn P Scharsack, Frederik Franke, Noémi I Erin, Andra Kuske, Janine Büscher, Hendrik Stolz, Irene E Samonte, Joachim Kurtz, Martin Kalbe
Recent research provides accumulating evidence that the evolutionary dynamics of host-parasite adaptations strongly depend on environmental variation. In this context, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has become an important research model since it is distributed all over the northern hemisphere and lives in very different habitat types, ranging from marine to freshwater, were it is exposed to a huge diversity of parasites. While a majority of studies start from explorations of sticklebacks in the wild, only relatively few investigations have continued under laboratory conditions...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Franziska S Brunner, Christophe Eizaguirre
Parasitism can be a driver of species divergence and thereby significantly alter species formation processes. While we still need to better understand how parasite-mediated speciation functions, it is even less clear how this process is affected by environmental change. Both rapid and gradual changes of the environment can modify host immune responses, parasite virulence and the specificity of their interactions. They will thereby change host-parasite evolutionary trajectories and the potential for speciation in both hosts and parasites...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
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