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Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268048/factors-affecting-egg-production-in-the-selfing-mangrove-rivulus-kryptolebias-marmoratus
#1
Justin L Lomax, Rachel E Carlson, Judson W Wells, Patrice M Crawford, Ryan L Earley
The mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is one of two known vertebrate species with preferentially self-fertilizing hermaphrodites. Males also exist, and can outcross with hermaphrodites. Outcrossing events vary across wild populations and occur infrequently in laboratory settings. This study sought to add dimension to our understanding of mangrove rivulus reproductive habits by probing the effects of male presence on hermaphroditic unfertilized egg production. Specifically, we quantified egg production of solitary hermaphrodites compared to hermaphrodites exposed to males and exposed to other hermaphrodites...
February 20, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268047/gross-anatomy-and-histology-of-the-olfactory-rosette-of-the-shark-heptranchias-perlo
#2
Sara Ferrando, Lorenzo Gallus, Andrea Amaroli, Chiara Gambardella, Baradi Waryani, Davide Di Blasi, Marino Vacchi
Sharks belonging to the family Hexanchidae have six or seven gill slits, unlike all other elasmobranchs, which have five gill slits. Their olfactory organs have a round shape, which is common for holocephalans, but not for elasmobranchs. Thus, the shape of the olfactory organ represents a further, less striking, peculiarity of this family among elasmobranchs. Despite that, the microscopic anatomy and histology of the olfactory organ have not yet been studied in any species of this family. Here, an anatomical and histological description of the olfactory organ of the sharpnose sevengill shark Heptranchias perlo is given...
February 17, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236504/scaling-of-dentition-and-prey-size-in-the-california-moray-gymnothorax-mordax
#3
Jacob S Harrison, Benjamin A Higgins, Rita S Mehta
Scaling patterns of tooth morphology can provide insights on prey capture strategy and dietary patterns as species grow through ontogeny. We report the scaling of dentition and diet and how it relates to body size in the California moray, Gymnothorax mordax. We sampled lengths, widths, and curvature for teeth lining five distinct regions of the oral jaws across 21 G. mordax individuals ranging from 383 to 1110mm total length. Absolute tooth length in relation to moray size shows positive allometry only for the outer maxillary teeth, while teeth lining the inner maxilla display positive allometry in tooth base width...
February 12, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274515/kinematic-response-in-limb-and-body-posture-to-sensory-feedback-from-carpal-sinus-hairs-in-the-rat-rattus-norvegicus
#4
Sandra J Niederschuh, Thomas Helbig, Klaus Zimmermann, Hartmut Witte, Manuela Schmidt
One of the most challenging adaptations within the therians has been to ensure dynamic stability of the trunk during rapid locomotion in highly structured environments. A reorganization of limb mechanics and development of new sensors has taken place within their stem lineage. Rats, which have a similar lifestyle to the first therians, possess sinus hairs specialized for tactile sensing. It is supposed that carpal sinus hairs have a role in sensing substrate properties and can thus induce adjustments in limb kinematics and body posture according to the different surface diameters and structures detected...
February 10, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254160/how-does-a-viviparous-semifossorial-lizard-reproduce-ophiodes-intermedius-squamata-anguidae-from-subtropical-climate-in-the-wet-chaco-region-of-argentina
#5
Martín A Ortiz, Jorgelina M Boretto, Nora R Ibargüengoytía
The best predictors of reproductive patterns are commonly associated with climate factors, but evolutionary history also plays an important role. The semifossorial and viviparous lizard Ophiodes intermedius from the Wet Chaco region of Argentina showed an annual cycle with asynchrony between males and females and an unusual pattern for subtropical climates, with vitellogenesis beginning in autumn, ovulation and copulation in spring, and births occurring in summer. Males exhibited annual variation of testicular size associated with spermatogenic activity, reaching their maximum gonadal activity in late summer (March), but sperm storage in the epididymis and/or deferent duct occurred throughout the year...
January 16, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065498/consumption-of-leaves-by-platyrrhinus-lineatus-chiroptera-stenodermatinae-are-these-bats-primarily-frugivorous-or-broadly-phytophagous
#6
Patrício A da Rocha, Arivania S Pereira, Saulo M Silvestre, José Paulo Santana, Raone Beltão-Mendes, Marlon Zortéa, Stephen F Ferrari
Until now, the consumption of leaves by bats has been considered rare or sporadic, even among the herbivorous families Pteropodidae and Phyllostomidae. Among the phyllostomids there are reports of folivory in the genera Artibeus and Platyrrhinus, based on opportunistic observations. Here, we conducted behavioural sampling using camera-trapping in the roost of a colony of Platyrrhinus lineatus already known to consume leaves during the dry and wet seasons, in order to investigate the frequency of leaf consumption, as well as eventual seasonal differences...
December 29, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057410/out-of-the-ground-two-coexisting-fossorial-toad-species-differ-in-their-emergence-and-movement-patterns
#7
Diana Székely, Dan Cogălniceanu, Paul Székely, Mathieu Denoël
Understanding the way species with similar niches can coexist is a challenge in ecology. The niche partitioning hypothesis has received much support, positing that species can exploit available resources in different ways. In the case of secretive species, behavioural mechanisms of partitioning are still poorly understood. This is especially true for fossorial frogs because individuals hide underground by day and are active only during the night. We investigated the nocturnal activity and tested the niche partitioning hypothesis in two syntopic fossorial spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus and Pelobates syriacus) by examining interspecific variation in emergence from the soil...
December 19, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109659/fighting-for-the-web-competition-between-female-feather-legged-spiders-uloborus-plumipes
#8
Anna-Christin Joel, Anne Habedank, Jonas Hausen, Jörg Mey
Most spider species are solitary, and among the few social interactions among them, resource competition between females has received little attention. We discovered that females of the feather-legged spider Uloborus plumipes invade the orb webs of conspecifics and compete for webs. Following observations in the wild, intruder-defender interactions were studied in a terrarium and in controlled laboratory experiments. We found that contests for orb webs occurred spontaneously between adult females. Competitive interactions in U...
December 14, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094083/unmasking-evolutionary-diversity-among-two-closely-related-south-african-legless-skink-species-acontinae-acontias-using-molecular-data
#9
Theo Busschau, Werner Conradie, Adriaan Jordaan, Savel R Daniels
We examined species boundaries among two phylogenetically closely related and morphologically similar South African fossorial legless skink species, Acontias breviceps and Acontias gracilicauda. Samples of these two species were collected throughout their distribution ranges and sequenced for three DNA loci (two mitochondrial loci, 16S rRNA and cytochrome b (Cyt b), plus the nuclear locus prolactin). Phylogenetic relationships were determined using maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of the combined DNA sequence data set...
December 10, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089345/the-insect-spermatheca-an-overview
#10
REVIEW
Tales V Pascini, Gustavo F Martins
In the female insect, the spermatheca is an ectodermal organ responsible for receiving, maintaining, and releasing sperm to fertilize eggs. The number and morphology of spermathecae vary according to species. Within the spermathecal lumen, substances in the semen and secretions from the spermathecal gland nourish the sperm. Thus, the spermatheca provides an appropriate environment that ensures the long-term viability of sperm. Maintaining sperm viability for long periods within the spermatheca is crucial for insect reproductive success; however, the details of this process remain poorly understood...
December 5, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955955/what-s-in-this-crab-mri-providing-high-resolution-three-dimensional-insights-into-recent-finds-and-historical-collections-of-brachyura
#11
Stephanie Köhnk, Jürgen Baudewig, Dirk Brandis, Susann Boretius
Museum collections may be viewed as a unique window onto the diversity and the functional evolution of species on earth. Detailed information about the inner structure of many precious collectors' items is, however, difficult to gain without destruction of the objects of interest. Here we applied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to freshly fixed as well as century-old museum specimens and compared the effects of fixative (formalin, ethanol, mercury chloride) on the image quality. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of MRI was exemplarily used to non-invasively visualize anatomical structures of the brachyuran species Ilia nucleus, Ozius guttatus and Austinograea williamsi...
November 24, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939816/light-reflection-from-crystal-platelets-in-iridophores-determines-green-or-brown-skin-coloration-in-takydromus-lizards
#12
Takeo Kuriyama, Jyunko Esashi, Masami Hasegawa
Brown and green are the most commonly imitated colors in prey animals because both colors occur in a range of habitats. Many researchers have evaluated survival with respect to background color matching, but the pigment cell mechanisms underlying such coloration are not known. Dorsal coloration of East Asian Takydromus lizards has shifted from green to brown or from brown to green on multiple occasions during the diversification of the genus, thus giving us an opportunity to examine the cellular mechanisms of background color matching...
November 21, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894827/prehensile-and-non-prehensile-tails-among-syngnathid-fishes-what-s-the-difference
#13
Céline Neutens, Bart de Dobbelaer, Peter Claes, Dominique Adriaens
All syngnathid fishes are characterized by a tail with a vertebral column that is surrounded by dermal Plates - four per vertebra. Seahorses and pipehorses have prehensile tails, a unique characteristic among teleosts that allows them to grasp and hold onto substrates. Pipefishes, in contrast, possess a more rigid tail. Previous research (Neutens et al., 2014) showed a wide range of variation within the skeletal morphology of different members in the syngnathid family. The goal of this study is to explore whether the diversity in the three-dimensional (3D) shape of different tail types reflects grasping performance, and to what degree grasping tails occupy a different and more constrained diversity...
November 18, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889104/three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-the-embryonic-pancreas-in-the-grass-snake-natrix-natrix-l-lepidosauria-serpentes-based-on-histological-studies
#14
Magdalena Kowalska, Mateusz Hermyt, Weronika Rupik
The aim of this study was to evaluate two research hypotheses: H0-the embryonic pancreas in grass snakes develops in the same manner as in all previously investigated amniotes (from three buds) and its topographical localization within the adult body has no relation to its development; H1-the pancreas develops in a different manner and is related to the different topography of internal organs in snakes. For the evaluation of these hypotheses we used histological methods and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the position of the pancreatic buds and surrounding organs at particular developmental stages and of the final position and shape of the pancreatic gland...
November 11, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461910/deep-water-feeding-and-behavioral-plasticity-in-manta-birostris-revealed-by-archival-tags-and-submersible-observations
#15
Joshua D Stewart, Edgar Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Katherine R Kumli, Robert D Rubin
Foraging drives many fundamental aspects of ecology, and an understanding of foraging behavior aids in the conservation of threatened species by identifying critical habitats and spatial patterns relevant to management. The world's largest ray, the oceanic manta (Manta birostris) is poorly studied and threatened globally by targeted fisheries and incidental capture. Very little information is available on the natural history, ecology and behavior of the species, complicating management efforts. This study provides the first data on the diving behavior of the species based on data returned from six tagged individuals, and an opportunistic observation from a submersible of a manta foraging at depth...
October 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421679/theoretical-and-computational-fluid-dynamics-of-an-attached-remora-echeneis-naucrates
#16
Michael Beckert, Brooke E Flammang, Erik J Anderson, Jason H Nadler
Remora fishes have a unique dorsal suction pad that allows them to form robust, reliable, and reversible attachment to a wide variety of host organisms and marine vessels. Although investigations of the suction pad have been performed, the primary force that remoras must resist, namely fluid drag, has received little attention. This work provides a theoretical estimate of the drag experienced by an attached remora using computational fluid dynamics informed by geometry obtained from micro-computed tomography...
October 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353191/breeding-biology-of-a-winter-breeding-procellariiform-in-the-north-atlantic-the-macaronesian-shearwater-puffinus-lherminieri-baroli
#17
Ana Isabel Fagundes, Jaime A Ramos, Urtelinda Ramos, Renata Medeiros, Vitor H Paiva
The breeding success of burrow-nesting seabirds may be influenced by both nest site characteristics and oceanographic conditions influencing food availability at sea. In this study we describe the breeding biology of the winter-breeding Macaronesian shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri baroli), including nest site characteristics and interspecific competition. We also evaluate the possible effects of changing oceanographic conditions on breeding phenology and breeding success. The study was carried out over two breeding seasons on two islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, Cima Islet and Selvagem Grande...
October 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291816/functional-morphology-and-hydrodynamics-of-backward-swimming-in-bluegill-sunfish-lepomis-macrochirus
#18
Brooke E Flammang, George V Lauder
Most teleost fishes, like the bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus, have multiple flexible fins that are used as modifiable control surfaces. This helps to make fish highly maneuverable, permitting behaviors like reversing direction of motion and swimming backwards without having to rotate body position. To answer the question of how fish swim backwards we used high-speed videography and electromyography to determine the kinematics and muscle activity necessary to produce reverse-direction propulsion in four bluegill sunfish...
October 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27267147/locomotor-flexibility-of-polypterus-senegalus-across-various-aquatic-and-terrestrial-substrates
#19
Emily M Standen, Trina Y Du, Philippe Laroche, Hans C E Larsson
Amphibious fishes show wide variation in form and function. Examination of terrestrial locomotion in fishes has largely focused on highly specialized taxa. From an evolutionary perspective we are interested in how relatively unspecialized fishes locomote when exposed to different terrestrial environments. In this study, we explore the locomotory repertoire of the basal actinopterygian Polypterus senegalus. We describe its terrestrial locomotory strategies on different surfaces and compare them with steady aquatic locomotion...
October 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27267146/vertebral-shape-and-body-elongation-in-triturus-newts
#20
Aleksandar Urošević, Maja D Slijepčević, Jan W Arntzen, Ana Ivanović
Body elongation in vertebrates is often related to a lengthening of the vertebrae and an increase in their number. Changes in the number and shape of vertebrae are not necessarily linked. In tailed amphibians, a change in body shape is mostly associated with an increase in the number of trunk and tail vertebrae. Body elongation without a numerical change of vertebrae is rare. In Triturus aquatic salamanders body elongation is achieved by trunk elongation through an increase in the number of trunk vertebrae...
October 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
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