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Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546068/commentary-on-vascular-distensibilities-have-minor-effects-on-intracardiac-shunt-patterns-in-reptiles-by-filogonio-et-al-2017
#1
Stanley S Hillman, Michael S Hedrick, Zachary F Kohl
The recent study by Filogonio et al. (2017) suggested that net cardiac shunt patterns in two species of reptiles (Trachemys scripta and Crotalus durissus) were not significantly influenced by the vascular distensibilities of the systemic and pulmonary vasculatures. This is in contrast to a previously published study (Hillman et al., 2014) in the toad (Rhinella marina) in which net cardiac shunts were predicted primarily by the physical properties of vascular distensibility rather than physiological control of resistance of the systemic and pulmonary vasculature...
May 17, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546067/are-there-consistent-behavioral-differences-between-sexes-and-male-color-morphs-in-pelvicachromis-pulcher
#2
Cheryl M Sedlak Seaver, Peter L Hurd
Adult sex ratios in the kribensis cichlid (Pelvicachromis pulcher) are influenced by environmental conditions during early development. These environmental sex-determining factors may also organize life-long variation in social behavior within each sex. If this is true, then individual differences in behavior may be, at least in part, expressions of the relative strength of sexual differentiation of that individual. As adults, kribensis males take on one of four alternative color morphs. Males of the yellow morph tend toward breeding monogamously and are produced at higher frequency under female-biasing environmental conditions, while males of the red morph tend more towards breeding polygynously and are produced more frequently by male-biasing early environments...
May 10, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536006/silk-gene-expression-of-theridiid-spiders-implications-for-male-specific-silk-use
#3
Sandra M Correa-Garhwal, R Crystal Chaw, Thomas H Clarke, Nadia A Ayoub, Cheryl Y Hayashi
Spiders (order Araneae) rely on their silks for essential tasks, such as dispersal, prey capture, and reproduction. Spider silks are largely composed of spidroins, members of a protein family that are synthesized in silk glands. As needed, silk stored in silk glands is extruded through spigots on the spinnerets. Nearly all studies of spider silks have been conducted on females; thus, little is known about male silk biology. To shed light on silk use by males, we compared silk gene expression profiles of mature males to those of females from three cob-web weaving species (Theridiidae)...
April 26, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495052/geographic-variation-in-factors-that-influence-timing-of-moult-and-breeding-in-waterfowl
#4
Mduduzi Ndlovu, Philip A R Hockey, Graeme S Cumming
Waterfowl flight-feather moult is expected to occur when energy is not needed for breeding and when a suitable safe habitat is available. Flight-feather regrowth is an energetically costly stage in the annual cycle of waterfowls. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that moult will coincide with the time of year when food and aquatic habitats are most abundant. We investigated how the timing of rainfall relates to the timing of breeding and flight-feather moult in five common southern African waterfowl at two sites in South Africa with opposite rainfall regimes (one summer, one winter)...
April 23, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495051/bone-histological-correlates-of-soaring-and-high-frequency-flapping-flight-in-the-furculae-of-birds
#5
Jessica Mitchell, Lucas J Legendre, Christine Lefèvre, Jorge Cubo
The furcula is a specialized bone in birds involved in flight function. Its morphology has been shown to reflect different flight styles from soaring/gliding birds, subaqueous flight to high-frequency flapping flyers. The strain experienced by furculae can vary depending on flight type. Bone remodeling is a response to damage incurred from different strain magnitudes and types. In this study, we tested whether a bone microstructural feature, namely Haversian bone density, differs in birds with different flight styles, and reassessed previous work using phylogenetic comparative methods that assume an evolutionary model with additional taxa...
March 20, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499702/prespermatogenesis-and-early-spermatogenesis-in-frogs
#6
Katarzyna Haczkiewicz, Beata Rozenblut-Kościsty, Maria Ogielska
Spermatogenesis in frogs was for the first time divided into two phases: prespermatogenesis, when gonocytes proliferate in developing tadpole testes, and active spermatogenesis when spermatogonial stem cells (i.e. descendants of gonocytes), either self-renew or enter into meiotic cycles within cysts formed by Sertoli cells. We argue that amphibian larval gonocytes are homologues to mammalian gonocytes, whereas spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in adult frogs are homologous to mammalian single spermatogonia (As)...
March 12, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365231/embryonic-yolk-removal-affects-neither-morphology-nor-escape-performance-of-larval-axolotls
#7
Charity Brain, Tobias Landberg
Maternal effects, the influences of maternal phenotype on the phenotypes of her offspring, mediate early ontogenetic traits through maternal investment. In amphibians, provisioning eggs with yolk is the main source of maternal investment. While larger eggs generally result in larger, higher-quality offspring, the relationship between egg size and offspring phenotype is complicated because offspring can evolve to be more or less responsive to variation in yolk provisions. Previous studies of several ambystomatid salamanders suggest that the effects of embryonic yolk reserve reduction on hatchling life history traits increase with egg size...
March 9, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372850/effects-of-prey-characteristics-on-the-feeding-behaviors-of-an-apex-marine-predator-the-california-moray-gymnothorax-mordax
#8
Amber R Diluzio, Vikram B Baliga, Benjamin A Higgins, Rita S Mehta
Moray eels comprise a large radiation of elongate marine predators that are thought to swallow large prey whole but also circumvent gape constraints by manipulating prey into more manageable pieces. Prey manipulation behaviors include shaking, rotation, knotting, and ramming prey against another object to assist in swallowing. Most morays feed on a wide variety of prey that vary in mechanical properties such as stiffness and toughness, which could potentially affect feeding behaviors. There is little diet data informing us of the maximum prey size morays can swallow whole and whether maximum prey size differs between prey types...
March 8, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390664/vascular-distensibilities-have-minor-effects-on-intracardiac-shunt-patterns-in-reptiles
#9
Renato Filogonio, Cléo Alcantara Costa Leite, Tobias Wang
The different vascular distensibilities of systemic and pulmonary circuits were recently proposed as an important mechanism defining the direction of cardiac shunt and the distribution of cardiac output in vertebrates with undivided cardiac ventricles. In short, the more distensible pulmonary vascular bed was proposed to accommodate a larger portion of the blood ejected from the heart when cardiac output increases. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed a meta-analysis based on fourteen previously published studies in two species of reptiles (the freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta, and the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus) to describe how cardiac shunt patterns change when cardiac output increases...
February 20, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363806/novel-role-of-insulin-in-the-regulation-of-glucose-excretion-by-mourning-doves-zenaida-macroura
#10
Karen L Sweazea, Eldon J Braun, Richard Sparr
In mammals, insulin primarily lowers plasma glucose (PGlu) by increasing its uptake into tissues. Studies have also shown that insulin lowers PGlu in mammals by modulating glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Birds have naturally high PGlu and, although insulin administration significantly decreases glucose concentrations, birds are resistant to insulin-mediated glucose uptake into tissues. Since prior work has not examined the effects of insulin on GFR in birds, the purpose of the present study was to assess whether insulin can augment renal glucose excretion and thereby lower PGlu...
February 20, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268048/factors-affecting-egg-production-in-the-selfing-mangrove-rivulus-kryptolebias-marmoratus
#11
Justin L Lomax, Rachel E Carlson, Judson W Wells, Patrice M Crawford, Ryan L Earley
The mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is one of two known vertebrate species with preferentially self-fertilizing hermaphrodites. Males also exist, and can outcross with hermaphrodites. Outcrossing events vary across wild populations and occur infrequently in laboratory settings. This study sought to add dimension to our understanding of mangrove rivulus reproductive habits by probing the effects of male presence on hermaphroditic unfertilized egg production. Specifically, we quantified egg production of solitary hermaphrodites compared to hermaphrodites exposed to males and exposed to other hermaphrodites...
February 20, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268047/gross-anatomy-and-histology-of-the-olfactory-rosette-of-the-shark-heptranchias-perlo
#12
Sara Ferrando, Lorenzo Gallus, Andrea Amaroli, Chiara Gambardella, Baradi Waryani, Davide Di Blasi, Marino Vacchi
Sharks belonging to the family Hexanchidae have six or seven gill slits, unlike all other elasmobranchs, which have five gill slits. Their olfactory organs have a round shape, which is common for holocephalans, but not for elasmobranchs. Thus, the shape of the olfactory organ represents a further, less striking, peculiarity of this family among elasmobranchs. Despite that, the microscopic anatomy and histology of the olfactory organ have not yet been studied in any species of this family. Here, an anatomical and histological description of the olfactory organ of the sharpnose sevengill shark Heptranchias perlo is given...
February 17, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236504/scaling-of-dentition-and-prey-size-in-the-california-moray-gymnothorax-mordax
#13
Jacob S Harrison, Benjamin A Higgins, Rita S Mehta
Scaling patterns of tooth morphology can provide insights on prey capture strategy and dietary patterns as species grow through ontogeny. We report the scaling of dentition and diet and how it relates to body size in the California moray, Gymnothorax mordax. We sampled lengths, widths, and curvature for teeth lining five distinct regions of the oral jaws across 21 G. mordax individuals ranging from 383 to 1110mm total length. Absolute tooth length in relation to moray size shows positive allometry only for the outer maxillary teeth, while teeth lining the inner maxilla display positive allometry in tooth base width...
February 12, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274515/kinematic-response-in-limb-and-body-posture-to-sensory-feedback-from-carpal-sinus-hairs-in-the-rat-rattus-norvegicus
#14
Sandra J Niederschuh, Thomas Helbig, Klaus Zimmermann, Hartmut Witte, Manuela Schmidt
One of the most challenging adaptations within the therians has been to ensure dynamic stability of the trunk during rapid locomotion in highly structured environments. A reorganization of limb mechanics and development of new sensors has taken place within their stem lineage. Rats, which have a similar lifestyle to the first therians, possess sinus hairs specialized for tactile sensing. It is supposed that carpal sinus hairs have a role in sensing substrate properties and can thus induce adjustments in limb kinematics and body posture according to the different surface diameters and structures detected...
February 10, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254160/how-does-a-viviparous-semifossorial-lizard-reproduce-ophiodes-intermedius-squamata-anguidae-from-subtropical-climate-in-the-wet-chaco-region-of-argentina
#15
Martín A Ortiz, Jorgelina M Boretto, Nora R Ibargüengoytía
The best predictors of reproductive patterns are commonly associated with climate factors, but evolutionary history also plays an important role. The semifossorial and viviparous lizard Ophiodes intermedius from the Wet Chaco region of Argentina showed an annual cycle with asynchrony between males and females and an unusual pattern for subtropical climates, with vitellogenesis beginning in autumn, ovulation and copulation in spring, and births occurring in summer. Males exhibited annual variation of testicular size associated with spermatogenic activity, reaching their maximum gonadal activity in late summer (March), but sperm storage in the epididymis and/or deferent duct occurred throughout the year...
January 16, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065498/consumption-of-leaves-by-platyrrhinus-lineatus-chiroptera-stenodermatinae-are-these-bats-primarily-frugivorous-or-broadly-phytophagous
#16
Patrício A da Rocha, Arivania S Pereira, Saulo M Silvestre, José Paulo Santana, Raone Beltão-Mendes, Marlon Zortéa, Stephen F Ferrari
Until now, the consumption of leaves by bats has been considered rare or sporadic, even among the herbivorous families Pteropodidae and Phyllostomidae. Among the phyllostomids there are reports of folivory in the genera Artibeus and Platyrrhinus, based on opportunistic observations. Here, we conducted behavioural sampling using camera-trapping in the roost of a colony of Platyrrhinus lineatus already known to consume leaves during the dry and wet seasons, in order to investigate the frequency of leaf consumption, as well as eventual seasonal differences...
December 29, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057410/out-of-the-ground-two-coexisting-fossorial-toad-species-differ-in-their-emergence-and-movement-patterns
#17
Diana Székely, Dan Cogălniceanu, Paul Székely, Mathieu Denoël
Understanding the way species with similar niches can coexist is a challenge in ecology. The niche partitioning hypothesis has received much support, positing that species can exploit available resources in different ways. In the case of secretive species, behavioural mechanisms of partitioning are still poorly understood. This is especially true for fossorial frogs because individuals hide underground by day and are active only during the night. We investigated the nocturnal activity and tested the niche partitioning hypothesis in two syntopic fossorial spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus and Pelobates syriacus) by examining interspecific variation in emergence from the soil...
December 19, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109659/fighting-for-the-web-competition-between-female-feather-legged-spiders-uloborus-plumipes
#18
Anna-Christin Joel, Anne Habedank, Jonas Hausen, Jörg Mey
Most spider species are solitary, and among the few social interactions among them, resource competition between females has received little attention. We discovered that females of the feather-legged spider Uloborus plumipes invade the orb webs of conspecifics and compete for webs. Following observations in the wild, intruder-defender interactions were studied in a terrarium and in controlled laboratory experiments. We found that contests for orb webs occurred spontaneously between adult females. Competitive interactions in U...
December 14, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094083/unmasking-evolutionary-diversity-among-two-closely-related-south-african-legless-skink-species-acontinae-acontias-using-molecular-data
#19
Theo Busschau, Werner Conradie, Adriaan Jordaan, Savel R Daniels
We examined species boundaries among two phylogenetically closely related and morphologically similar South African fossorial legless skink species, Acontias breviceps and Acontias gracilicauda. Samples of these two species were collected throughout their distribution ranges and sequenced for three DNA loci (two mitochondrial loci, 16S rRNA and cytochrome b (Cyt b), plus the nuclear locus prolactin). Phylogenetic relationships were determined using maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of the combined DNA sequence data set...
December 10, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089345/the-insect-spermatheca-an-overview
#20
REVIEW
Tales V Pascini, Gustavo F Martins
In the female insect, the spermatheca is an ectodermal organ responsible for receiving, maintaining, and releasing sperm to fertilize eggs. The number and morphology of spermathecae vary according to species. Within the spermathecal lumen, substances in the semen and secretions from the spermathecal gland nourish the sperm. Thus, the spermatheca provides an appropriate environment that ensures the long-term viability of sperm. Maintaining sperm viability for long periods within the spermatheca is crucial for insect reproductive success; however, the details of this process remain poorly understood...
December 5, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
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