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Medical Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526922/advances-in-systemic-therapy-for-metastatic-breast-cancer-future-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
S P Corona, N Sobhani, A Ianza, G Roviello, G Mustacchi, M Bortul, F Zanconati, D Generali
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women worldwide. One in eight women will develop the disease in her lifetime. Notwithstanding the incredible progress made in this field, BC still represents the second most common cause of cancer-related death in women. Targeted drugs have revolutionised breast cancer treatment and improved the prognosis as well as the life expectancy of millions of women. However, the phenomenon of primary and secondary pharmacological resistance is becoming increasingly evident, limiting the efficacy of these agents and calling for a better in-depth knowledge and understanding of the biology as well as the biochemical crosstalk underlying the disease...
July 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500618/prognostic-value-of-abo-blood-types-in-young-patients-with-breast-cancer-a-nationwide-study-in-korean-breast-cancer-society
#2
Sungmin Park, Ku Sang Kim, Jeong-Soo Kim, Wonshik Han, Byeong-Woo Park, Seokwon Lee, Ye Won Jeon, Se Kyung Lee, Jonghan Yu, Jeong Eon Lee, Seok Won Kim, Seok Jin Nam
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between ABO blood types and breast cancer survival in young Korean patients. This was a retrospective study of 115,474 patients who were surgically treated for primary breast cancer between 1987 and 2011 in Korea. All data were collected by the Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) online breast cancer registry. Each hospital serologically examined the ABO blood types of patients before surgery. There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) or breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) among ABO blood types...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500617/post-chemotherapy-pd-l1-expression-correlates-with-clinical-outcomes-in-japanese-bladder-cancer-patients-treated-with-total-cystectomy
#3
Daisuke Noro, Shingo Hatakeyama, Takahiro Yoneyama, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Takuya Koie, Toshiaki Kawaguchi, Chikara Ohyama
Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is a key target molecule of immunotherapy that is frequently overexpressed in bladder cancer. In the present study, we examined whether PD-L1 expression is associated with clinical outcomes in bladder cancer patients. We enrolled 102 bladder cancer patients treated with cystectomy at the Aomori Prefectural Hospital between April 2004 and May 2014. We conducted an immunohistochemical examination of PD-L1 expression using the SP142 assay. PD-L1 expression was scored at three diagnostic levels (0/1/2)...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500616/significance-of-blood-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-for-prognostic-stratification-of-patients-with-gastroesophageal-junction-adenocarcinoma-in-the-era-of-the-8th-edition-of-the-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-ajcc8-staging
#4
Alicia-Marie Conway, Zena Salih, George Papaxoinis, Kimberly Fletcher, Jamie Weaver, Ana Patrao, Robert Noble, Sofia Stamatopoulou, Vikki Owen-Holt, Wasat Mansoor
The prognosis of patients with gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) adenocarcinoma depends mainly on the clinical staging, as described by the new AJCC8 (American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition). Evidence suggests that peripheral blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) may be of prognostic significance in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers. We examined the prognostic significance of NLR in the era of the new AJCC8 staging system. In this single-centre cohort study, retrospective data on patients with operable GOJ adenocarcinoma treated with perioperative chemotherapy were analysed...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477178/antiangiogenics-and-immunotherapies-in-cervical-cancer-an-update-and-future-s-view
#5
REVIEW
Daniela Luvero, Francesco Plotti, Salvatore Lopez, Giuseppe Scaletta, Stella Capriglione, Roberto Montera, Gianina Antonelli, Sara Ciuffreda, Raffaella Carassiti, Alice Oliveti, Roberto Angioli
Despite availability of primary and secondary prevention measures, cervical cancer (CC) persists as one of the most common cancers among women around the world, and more than 70% of cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. Although significant progress has been made in the treatment of CC, around 15-61% of patients develop a recurrence in lymph nodes or distant sites within the first 2 years of completing treatment and the prognosis for these patients remains poor. During the last decades, in an attempt to improve the outcome in these patients, novel agents as combination therapy that target known dysfunctional molecular pathways have been developed with the most attention to the inhibitors of the angiogenesis process...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470536/flt3-itd-and-its-current-role-in-acute-myeloid-leukaemia
#6
REVIEW
Francisco Alejandro Lagunas-Rangel, Venice Chávez-Valencia
FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is a proto-oncogene involved in crucial steps of haematopoiesis such as proliferation, differentiation and survival. In recent years, FLT3 has been an important marker in different haematological malignancies, highlighting in acute myeloid leukaemia, where FLT3 mutations have been associated with the clinical prognosis, treatment and survival of patients. The most common form of FLT3 mutation is an internal tandem duplication (ITD) that promotes ligand-independent auto-phosphorylation and constitutive activation of the receptor...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470535/clinical-impact-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography-on-iterative-treatment-planning-during-ultrasound-guided-percutaneous-ablation-of-liver-malignancies
#7
Chiara Floridi, Alessandro Radaelli, Filippo Pesapane, Enrico Maria Fumarola, Michela Lecchi, Andrea Agostini, Andrea Giovagnoni, Gianpaolo Carrafiello, Bradford Wood
A standardized cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) protocol may impact optimal ablation probe(s) positioning during ultrasound-guided microwave ablation (MWA). To evaluate this hypothesis, 15 patients underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous MWA of 15 liver lesions (10 hepatocellular carcinomas, 5 metastasis ranging 11-41 mm) with the ultrasound guidance assisted by a dedicated CBCT protocol. Pre-procedural enhanced CBCT (ceCBCT) was performed after intravenous contrast administration to visualize the lesion and determine the optimal approach using CBCT-based ablation planning software...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466296/t-independent-response-mediated-by-oncolytic-tanapoxvirus-recombinants-expressing-interleukin-2-and-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-suppresses-human-triple-negative-breast-tumors
#8
Yogesh R Suryawanashi, Tiantian Zhang, Helene M Woyczesczyk, John Christie, Emily Byers, Steven Kohler, Robert Eversole, Charles Mackenzie, Karim Essani
Human triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive disease, associated with a high rate of recurrence and metastasis. Current therapeutics for TNBC are limited, highly toxic and show inconsistent efficacy due to a high degree of intra-tumoral and inter-tumoral heterogeneity. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are an emerging treatment option for cancers. Several OVs are currently under investigation in preclinical and clinical settings. Here, we examine the oncolytic potential of two tanapoxvirus (TPV) recombinants expressing mouse monocyte chemoattractant protein (mMCP)-1 [also known as mCCL2] and mouse interleukin (mIL)-2, in human TNBC, in vitro and in vivo...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456993/linoleic-acid-induces-migration-and-invasion-through-ffar4-and-pi3k-akt-dependent-pathway-in-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells
#9
Nathalia Serna-Marquez, Ricardo Diaz-Aragon, Emmanuel Reyes-Uribe, Pedro Cortes-Reynosa, Eduardo Perez Salazar
An increased risk of developing breast cancer has been associated with high levels of dietary fat intake. Linoleic acid (LA) is an essential fatty acid and the major ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid in occidental diets, which is able to induce inappropriate inflammatory responses that contribute to several chronic diseases including cancer. In breast cancer cells, LA induces migration. However, the signal transduction pathways that mediate migration and whether LA induces invasion in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells have not been studied in detail...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456992/progress-and-challenges-in-the-treatment-of-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Alfredo Tartarone, Pasqualina Giordano, Rosa Lerose, Maria Grazia Rodriquenz, Raffaele Conca, Michele Aieta
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a very aggressive malignancy characterized by high cellular proliferation and early metastatic spread. In fact, although SCLC is a chemosensitive and radiosensitive disease, the initial responsiveness to chemotherapy is usually followed by development of resistance and the prognosis remains poor with a median survival of less than 12 months in patients with extensive disease (ED-SCLC). Furthermore, no significant progress has been made over the last years, with no newly approved drug...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455833/article-on-ketogenic-dietary-regimes-for-cancer-highly-misleading
#11
LETTER
Ulrike Gonder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452037/need-for-new-review-of-article-on-ketogenic-dietary-regimes-for-cancer%C3%A2-patients
#12
LETTER
Rainer J Klement, Richard D Feinman, Elena C Gross, Colin E Champ, Dominic P D'Agostino, Eugene J Fine, Ulrike Kämmerer, Angela Poff, Jong M Rho, Thomas N Seyfried, Adrienne C Scheck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452036/role-of-egfr-as-prognostic-factor-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-treated-with-surgery-and-postoperative-radiotherapy-proposal-of-a-new-approach-behind-the-egfr-overexpression
#13
Daniela Alterio, Giulia Marvaso, Fausto Maffini, Sara Gandini, Susanna Chiocca, Annamaria Ferrari, Lorenzo Preda, Maria Cossu Rocca, Daniela Lepanto, Cristiana Fodor, Stefania Volpe, Samantha Dicuonzo, Antonio Laudati, Gioacchino Giugliano, Mohssen Ansarin, Barbara A Jereczek-Fossa
In an era of personalized treatment, there is a great interest in identifying factors which might predict patient response to radiotherapy (RT). The role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains still controversial. We performed a retrospective analysis on the prognostic value of EGFR in HNSCC patients treated with surgery and postoperative RT through a semiquantitative immunohistochemical analysis of EGFR membrane expression. We retrospectively analyzed 65 HNSCC patients treated in our Institute from 1997 to 2003 who underwent adjuvant RT after surgery...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444625/confused-reference-in-the-article-entitle-pharmacogenomics-of-platinum-based-chemotherapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-focusing-on-dna-repair-systems
#14
LETTER
Bo Yuan Wang, Qiu Shi Zhang, Ying Luo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444624/targeting-ntrk-fusion-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-rationale-and-clinical-evidence
#15
REVIEW
Biagio Ricciuti, Marta Brambilla, Giulio Metro, Sara Baglivo, Roberta Matocci, Matteo Pirro, Rita Chiari
In the era of personalized medicine, the identification of targetable genetic alterations represented a major step forward in anticancer therapy. NTRK rearrangements represent the molecular driver of a subset of solid tumors, including 3% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Preliminary data indicate that molecularly selected NSCLC patients harboring NTRK fusions derive an unprecedented clinical benefit from Trk-directed targeted therapies. The aim of this review is to describe the molecular biology of NTRK signaling pathway and to summarize the preclinical data on novel Trk inhibitors, touching upon the clinical development of these inhibitors for the treatment of advanced NSCLC, which have already shown encouraging anticancer activity and acceptable safety profile in early phase I clinical trials...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444623/treatment-adherence-in-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia-patients-receiving-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#16
Anna Rychter, Piotr Jerzmanowski, Adam Hołub, Zofia Specht-Szwoch, Violetta Kalinowska, Urszula Tęgowska, Ilona Seferyńska, Agnieszka Kołkowska-Leśniak, Ewa Lech-Marańda, Joanna Góra-Tybor
Failure to comply with treatment recommendations is very common in patients, but still poorly recognised by doctors. The current practice of using oral therapy on a large scale has been increasingly adopted for cancer patients. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is just such an example, where the introduction of taking new oral medications, the tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL inhibitors (TKI), has now revolutionised the treatment. The aim of our study was to assess treatment adherence in a group of Polish CML patients (a survey was conducted on 140 patient aged ≥18 years) treated with oral TKI (imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib) taking into account the following variables: gender, age, education, place of residence, family circumstances and duration of therapy...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444622/a-brief-review-of-the-management-of-platinum-resistant-platinum-refractory-ovarian-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Bryan Oronsky, Carolyn M Ray, Alexander I Spira, Jane B Trepel, Corey A Carter, Hope M Cottrill
Ovarian cancer, which ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common histologic type, with the 5-year survival for all stages estimated at 45.6%. This rate increases to more than 70% in the minority of patients who are diagnosed at an early stage, but declines to 35% in the vast majority of patients diagnosed at advanced stage. Recurrent EOC is incurable. Platinum sensitivity (or lack thereof) is a major determinant of prognosis...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439842/controversies-in-the-multimodality-management-of-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Robert Díaz Beveridge, Dilara Akhoundova, Gema Bruixola, Jorge Aparicio
Neoadjuvant radiotherapy previous to radical surgery, both as short-course radiotherapy and as long-course radiotherapy combined with 5-FU-based chemotherapy (LCRCT), is routinely used in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer, with consistent benefits in the reduction in the local relapse risk. Unfortunately, survival benefits have been elusive to demonstrate with this approach, especially in the setting of radical surgery in the form of total mesorectal excision (TME). Concerns about over-treating early-stage patients and about the possible long-term side effects have also cast more doubts in a blanket approach of treating all patients with neoadjuvant radiotherapy, especially with LCRCT...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432618/the-identification-of-key-genes-and-pathways-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-bioinformatics-analysis-of-high-throughput-data
#19
Chaoyang Zhang, Li Peng, Yaqin Zhang, Zhaoyang Liu, Wenling Li, Shilian Chen, Guancheng Li
Liver cancer is a serious threat to public health and has fairly complicated pathogenesis. Therefore, the identification of key genes and pathways is of much importance for clarifying molecular mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) initiation and progression. HCC-associated gene expression dataset was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Statistical software R was used for significance analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between liver cancer samples and normal samples. Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, based on R software, were applied for the identification of pathways in which DEGs significantly enriched...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432617/prognostic-significance-of-histologic-subtype-in-pstage-i-lung-adenocarcinoma
#20
Nozomu Motono, Takuma Matsui, Yuichiro Machida, Katsuo Usuda, Hidetaka Uramoto
The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) proposed a new histologic classification of lung adenocarcinoma in 2011. While several studies have already validated the prognostic value of this new classification of lung adenocarcinoma, we conducted own investigation in the present study. This study included 197 patients with invasive lung adenocarcinoma who underwent complete resection. Pathologic diagnoses were made in accordance with the new IASLC/ATS/ERS classification for lung adenocarcinoma...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
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