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Medical Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143133/association-of-dna-repair-genes-polymorphisms-and-mutations-with-increased-risk-of-head-and-neck-cancer-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Agata Dylawerska, Wojciech Barczak, Anna Wegner, Wojciech Golusinski, Wiktoria Maria Suchorska
DNA repair mechanisms allow maintain genomic stability and proper functioning within the cells. Any aberrations may cause an increased risk of many diseases such as cancer. The most crucial risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma are behavioral factors, predominantly chronic exposure to tobacco, alcohol addiction, and infection with human papillomavirus or Epstein-Barr virus. These agents can induce DNA damage; therefore, cells must activate appropriate mechanisms in order to function correctly...
November 15, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124478/the-role-of-rna-binding-protein-tristetraprolin-in-cancer-and-immunity
#2
REVIEW
Jian Guo, Huiheng Qu, Ye Chen, Jiazeng Xia
RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) plays a fundamental role in various physiological and pathological processes including differentiation, reprogramming, metabolism, proliferation, pluripotency, tumorigenesis and immunity. Due to its ability to bind and target ARE-containing mRNAs for rapid degradation, TTP down-regulates the expression of a mass of critical genes, thereby functioning as cancer suppressor gene. The loss of TTP has been reported in several human cancers and is relevant to poor prognosis...
November 9, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124473/severity-and-predictive-factors-of-adverse-events-in-pemetrexed-containing-chemotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
Tsuyoshi Miyahara, Naoko Sueoka-Aragane, Kentaro Iwanaga, Norio Ureshino, Kazutoshi Komiya, Tomomi Nakamura, Chiho Nakashima, Tomonori Abe, Hisashi Matsunaga, Shinya Kimura
Pemetrexed is a key anticancer agent for treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pemetrexed is generally well tolerated, but individual-patient differences exist in severity of adverse events. Our study aimed to characterize the adverse events of pemetrexed that result in discontinuation of chemotherapy and to identify risk factors associated with those adverse events. We retrospectively studied the incidence of adverse events in 257 patients with NSCLC who received pemetrexed (P) with or without bevacizumab (B) and/or carboplatin (C): P, PB, CP, or CPB...
November 9, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116422/progranulin-and-its-biological-effects-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Fabian Arechavaleta-Velasco, Carlos Eduardo Perez-Juarez, George L Gerton, Laura Diaz-Cueto
Cancer cells have defects in regulatory mechanisms that usually control cell proliferation and homeostasis. Different cancer cells share crucial alterations in cell physiology, which lead to malignant growth. Tumorigenesis or tumor growth requires a series of events that include constant cell proliferation, promotion of metastasis and invasion, stimulation of angiogenesis, evasion of tumor suppressor factors, and avoidance of cell death pathways. All these events in tumor progression may be regulated by growth factors produced by normal or malignant cells...
November 7, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103187/real-world-treatment-patterns-and-effectiveness-among-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-treated-with-ziv-aflibercept-in-community-oncology-practices-in-the-usa
#5
Jasmina I Ivanova, Kimberly R Saverno, Jennifer Sung, Mei Sheng Duh, Chen Zhao, Sean Cai, Francis Vekeman, Aaron Peevyhouse, Ravinder Dhawan, Charles S Fuchs
Routine clinical practice data often differ from clinical trials. This study describes real-world treatment patterns and effectiveness among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) receiving ziv-aflibercept in non-academic, community oncology practices in the USA. De-identified electronic medical records from Vector Oncology and Altos Solutions databases were analysed. We identified 218 patients diagnosed with mCRC who had received prior oxaliplatin therapy and initiated ziv-aflibercept as part of second-line or later-line therapy...
November 4, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098441/communicative-reprogramming-non-curative-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-low-dose-metronomic-chemotherapy-cox-2-inhibitor-and-ppar-gamma-agonist-a-phase-ii-trial
#6
I Walter, U Schulz, M Vogelhuber, K Wiedmann, E Endlicher, F Klebl, R Andreesen, W Herr, L Ghibelli, C Hackl, R Wiest, A Reichle
Systemic therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still challenging. A biomodulatory therapy approach targeting the communicative infrastructure of HCC, including metronomic low-dose chemotherapy with capecitabine, pioglitazone and rofecoxib, has been evaluated in patients with non-curative HCC. Altogether 38 patients were evaluable in this one-arm, multicenter phase II trial. The primary endpoint, median progression-free survival was 2.7 months (95% CI: 1.6-3.79) for all evaluable patients and 8...
November 2, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094224/primary-metastatic-osteosarcoma-results-of-a-prospective-study-in-children-given-chemotherapy-and-interleukin-2
#7
Cristina Meazza, Graziella Cefalo, Maura Massimino, Primo Daolio, Ugo Pastorino, Paolo Scanagatta, Carlo Morosi, Marta Podda, Andrea Ferrari, Monica Terenziani, Filippo Spreafico, Michela Casanova, Antonina Parafioriti, Paola Collini, Lorenza Gandola, Stefano Bastoni, Veronica Biassoni, Elisabetta Schiavello, Stefano Chiaravalli, Nadia Puma, Luca Bergamaschi, Roberto Luksch
To improve the poor prognosis for children with metastatic osteosarcoma (OS), interleukin-2 (IL-2) was added to the standard treatment due to its capacity to activate lymphocytes and differentiate lymphocyte subsets into lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells that are capable of recognizing and killing various tumor cells. This study concerns a cohort of unselected patients aged < 18 years with metastatic OS, who were treated with IL-2, high-dose methotrexate, doxorubicin, cisplatin, ifosfamide, LAK reinfusion, and surgery, between 1995 and 2010...
November 1, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090390/cost-effectiveness-comparison-between-neoadjuvant-chemohormonal-therapy-and-extended-pelvic-lymph-node-dissection-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-radical-prostatectomy-a-multi-institutional-analysis
#8
Teppei Matsumoto, Shingo Hatakeyama, Teppei Ookubo, Koji Mitsuzuka, Shintaro Narita, Takamitsu Inoue, Shinichi Yamashita, Takuma Narita, Takuya Koie, Sadafumi Kawamura, Tatsuo Tochigi, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Tomonori Habuchi, Yoichi Arai, Chikara Ohyama
The aim of the present study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) compared to neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist/antagonist and estramustine. We retrospectively analyzed data within Michinoku Urological Cancer Study Group database containing 2971 PC patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) at four institutes between July 1996 and July 2017. We identified 237 and 403 high-risk patients who underwent RP and ePLND (ePLND group), and neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy followed by RP and limited PLND (neoadjuvant group), respectively...
October 31, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086115/molecular-imaging-of-advanced-thyroid-cancer-iodinated-radiotracers-and-beyond
#9
REVIEW
Prasanna Santhanam, Lilja B Solnes, Steven B Rowe
An important aspect of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) management is disease localization by imaging. Functional imaging of thyroid cancer with iodinated radiotracers has been employed for metastatic disease detection for long. More recently, 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), a non-iodinated ubiquitous PET tracer, has been used to detect non-radioiodine (RAI) avid disease. Advances in molecular imaging have led to the development of newer tracers like 18F-TFB (18F-tetrafluoroborate) that are transported through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) as well as 68 Ga-DOTATATE that image the somatostatin receptors sub-type 2 expressed in medullary thyroid cancer and some DTC...
October 30, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086041/primary-tumor-resection-in-stage-iv-unresectable-colorectal-cancer-what-has-changed
#10
REVIEW
Michał Pędziwiatr, Magdalena Mizera, Jan Witowski, Piotr Major, Grzegorz Torbicz, Natalia Gajewska, Andrzej Budzyński
Most current guidelines do not recommend primary tumor resection in stage IV unresectable colorectal cancer. Rapid chemotherapy development over the last decade has substantially changed the decision making. However, results of recently published trials and meta-analyses suggest that primary tumor resection may in fact be beneficial, principally in terms of prolonged survival. Additional factors, such as use of minimally invasive approach or protocols of enhanced recovery after surgery, affect clinical outcomes as well, but are often neglected when discussing the state of the art in this area...
October 30, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063301/significance-of-a-frozen-section-analysis-of-the-ureteral-margin-in-bladder-cancer-patients-treated-with-radical-cystectomy-and-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#11
Kyohei Hakozaki, Eiji Kikuchi, Keishiro Fukumoto, Suguru Shirotake, Yasumasa Miyazaki, Takahiro Maeda, Gou Kaneko, Shunsuke Yoshimine, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Kunimitsu Kanai, Masafumi Oyama, Yosuke Nakajima, Tetsuo Momma, Mototsugu Oya
Although the clinical utility of a frozen section analysis (FSA) at the time of radical cystectomy (RC) has already been established, its significance and utility in bladder cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have not yet been fully evaluated. We identified 458 patients (937 ureters) who underwent open RC for bladder cancer at our 7 Japanese institutions between 2004 and 2015. Among these patients, 139 (284 ureters) received NAC before RC (NAC group), while 319 (653 ureters) underwent RC alone (non-NAC group)...
October 23, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043514/efficacy-of-a-triplet-and-doublet-based-chemotherapy-as-first-line-therapy-in-patients-with-her2-negative-metastatic-gastric-cancer-a-retrospective-analysis-from-the-clinical-practice
#12
Maria Maddalena Laterza, Luca Pompella, Angelica Petrillo, Giuseppe Tirino, Annalisa Pappalardo, Michele Orditura, Teresa Troiani, Fortunato Ciardiello, Natale Di Martino, Ferdinando De Vita
The best choice of chemotherapy regimen for patients with metastatic gastric cancer is still debated. Although several studies support a superior efficacy of a triplet chemotherapy regimen over a doublet-based regimen, the magnitude of this benefit appears small and accompanied by an increased toxicity. Based on this background, we evaluated the outcome of patients with HER2-negative metastatic gastric cancer (mGC) who received in the clinical practice a triplet or doublet regimen as first-line therapy. A total of 165 patients (pts) with HER2-negative mGC treated outside of clinical trials at our department with FOLFOX-4 or ECX from 2012 and 2015 were included in our retrospective analysis: FOLFOX-4: 86 pts; ECX: 79 pts...
October 17, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986775/timeline-metastatic-progression-in-the-wake-of-the-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-seed-and-soil%C3%A2-%C3%A2-theory
#13
Aymeric Amelot, Louis-Marie Terrier, Jean-Jacques Mazeron, Charles-Ambroise Valery, Philippe Cornu, Alexandre Carpentier, Marc Leveque
Little is known about the natural history of cancer and its evolution to metastasis. Paget was the first to postulate the important role played by microenvironment in metastasis progression. Since, the concept of his "seed and soil" theory has been supported and confirmed. Understanding the chronology and natural course that underlie metastasis is mandatory to deepen this concept and to progress in the development of novel therapeutic strategies. A total of 413 patients who underwent treatment for brain metastasis (2013-2016) were included...
October 6, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986753/toward-a-new-and-noninvasive-diagnostic-method-of-papillary-thyroid-cancer-by-using-peptide-vectorized-contrast-agents-targeted-to-galectin-1
#14
Deborah Fanfone, Nadège Despretz, Dimitri Stanicki, Jenifer Rubio-Magnieto, Mathieu Fossépré, Mathieu Surin, Sandrine Rorive, Isabelle Salmon, Luce Vander Elst, Sophie Laurent, Robert N Muller, Sven Saussez, Carmen Burtea
The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer has increased these last decades due to a better detection. High prevalence of nodules combined with the low incidence of thyroid cancers constitutes an important diagnostic challenge. We propose to develop an alternative diagnostic method to reduce the number of useless and painful thyroidectomies using a vectorized contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. Galectin-1 (gal-1), a protein overexpressed in well-differentiated thyroid cancer, has been targeted with a randomized linear 12-mer peptide library using the phage display technique...
October 6, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929441/retraction-note-to-metabolic-syndrome-factors-and-risk-of-postoperative-depression-in-high-grade-glioma-patients-in-a-1-5-year-prospective-study
#15
Jian-Tong Jiao, Chen Jiang, Jin Huang, Min-Chao Dai, Cheng Wang, Chao Cheng, Jun-Fei Shao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956261/kefir-a-powerful-probiotics-with-anticancer-properties
#16
REVIEW
Mohammadreza Sharifi, Abbas Moridnia, Deniz Mortazavi, Mahsa Salehi, Marzieh Bagheri, Abdolkarim Sheikhi
Probiotics and fermented milk products have attracted the attention of scientists from various fields, such as health care, industry and pharmacy. In recent years, reports have shown that dietary probiotics such as kefir have a great potential for cancer prevention and treatment. Kefir is fermented milk with Caucasian and Tibet origin, made from the incubation of kefir grains with raw milk or water. Kefir grains are a mixture of yeast and bacteria, living in a symbiotic association. Antibacterial, antifungal, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects are some of the health beneficial properties of kefir grains...
September 27, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952134/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-gliomas-and-glioblastoma-pathogenesis-revealed-by-bioinformatics-analysis-of-microarray-data
#17
Basavaraj Vastrad, Chanabasayya Vastrad, Ashok Godavarthi, Raghu Chandrashekar
The aim of this study was to identify key genes associated with gliomas and glioblastoma and to explore the related signaling pathways. Gene expression profiles of three glioma stem cell line samples, three normal astrocyte samples, three astrocyte overexpressing 4 iPSC-inducing and oncogenic factors (myc(T58A), OCT-4, p53DD, and H-Ras(G12V)) samples, three astrocyte overexpressing 7 iPSC-inducing and oncogenic factors (OCT4, H-Ras(G12V), myc(T58A), p53DD, cyclin D1, CDK4(RC24) and hTERT) samples and three glioblastoma cell line samples were downloaded from the ArrayExpress database (accession: E-MTAB-4771)...
September 26, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918490/notch-signaling-pathway-networks-in-cancer-metastasis-a-new-target-for-cancer-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Li Li, Ping Tang, Shun Li, Xiang Qin, Hong Yang, Chunhui Wu, Yiyao Liu
Notch signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved in mammals, which plays an important role in cell development and differentiation. In recent years, increasing evidence has shown that aberrant activation of Notch is associated with tumor process. Aberrant activation of Notch signaling pathway has been found in many different solid tumors can induce cell proliferation, metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Notch receptor and its ligand are both single transmembrane protein, and Notch is activated when it binds to the Notch ligand of neighbor cells...
September 16, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905228/genetic-susceptibility-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#19
REVIEW
Angela Gutierrez-Camino, Idoia Martin-Guerrero, Africa García-Orad
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy and a leading cause of death due to disease in children. The genetic basis of ALL susceptibility has been supported by its association with certain congenital disorders and, more recently, by several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These GWAS identified common variants in ARID5B, IKZF1, CEBPE, CDKN2A, PIP4K2A, LHPP and ELK3 influencing ALL risk. However, the risk variants of these SNPs were not validated in all populations, suggesting that some of the loci could be population specific...
September 13, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887613/theoretical-method-for-evaluation-of-therapeutic-effects-and-adverse-effects-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-clinical-treatment
#20
Koji Kimura, Risa Takayanagi, Tomoki Fukushima, Yasuhiko Yamada
Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are used for non-small cell lung cancer patients with an EGFR gene mutation. However, skin disorders are known as adverse events. In the present study, we investigated whether EGFR-TK occupancy is useful as an index for assessing clinical efficacy and adverse events for the proper use and development of EGFR-TKIs. Average binding occupancies (Φ ss) of EGFR-TKIs, gefitinib and erlotinib, for the EGFR-TK of cancer or skin cells were calculated...
September 8, 2017: Medical Oncology
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