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Medical Oncology

Juan Pablo Sade, Carlos Alberto Vargas Báez, Martin Greco, Carlos Humberto Martínez, Miguel Ángel Álvarez Avitia, Carlos Palazzo, Narciso Hernández Toriz, Patricia Isabel Bernal Trujillo, Diogo Assed Bastos, Fabio Augusto Schutz, Santiago Bella, Lucas Nogueira, Neal D Shore
Prostate cancer is a significant burden and cause of mortality in Latin America. This article reviews the treatment options for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and provides consensus recommendations to assist Latin American prostate cancer specialists with clinical decision making. A multidisciplinary expert panel from Latin America reviewed the available data and their individual experience to develop clinical consensus opinions for the use of life-prolonging agents in mCRPC, with consideration given to factors influencing patient selection and treatment monitoring...
March 19, 2018: Medical Oncology
Yuko Kanbayashi, Takeshi Ishikawa, Motohiro Kanazawa, Yuki Nakajima, Rumi Kawano, Yusuke Tabuchi, Tomoko Yoshioka, Norihiko Ihara, Toyoshi Hosokawa, Koichi Takayama, Keisuke Shikata, Tetsuya Taguchi
Although pegfilgrastim prophylaxis is expected to maintain the relative dose intensity (RDI) of chemotherapy and improve safety, information is limited. However, the optimal selection of patients eligible for pegfilgrastim prophylaxis is an important issue from a medical economics viewpoint. Therefore, this retrospective study identified factors that could predict these eligible patients to maintain the RDI. The participants included 166 cancer patients undergoing pegfilgrastim prophylaxis combined with chemotherapy in our outpatient chemotherapy center between March 2015 and April 2017...
March 16, 2018: Medical Oncology
Glaucia Resende Soares, Carolina Foot Gomes de Moura, Marcelo Jose Dias Silva, Wagner Vilegas, Aline Boveto Santamarina, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani, Debora Estadella, Daniel Araki Ribeiro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of purple carrot extract following rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). For this purpose, histopathological analysis, proliferative status, antioxidant activity and inflammatory status were investigated in this setting. A total of 20 male rats were distributed into four groups as follows (n = 5 per group): Group 1-free access to water and commercial diet for 12 weeks; Group 2-received 4NQO at 50 ppm dose in drinking water daily and commercial diet for 12 weeks; Group 3-free access to water and received diet supplemented with purple carrot extract (0...
March 15, 2018: Medical Oncology
Ikram Ul-Haq, Alessia Dalla Pria, Elisa Suardi, David J Pinato, Fieke Froeling, John Forni, Paul Randell, Mark Bower
In HIV-seronegative patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viraemia at diagnosis predicts a worse progression-free survival (PFS), independent of the International Prognostic Score. However, its role in HIV-associated HL is uncharacterised. We collected clinico-pathologic and treatment data from a prospective series of 44 HIV-associated HLs from 2000 to 2016. We evaluated circulating EBV DNA as a prognostic factor on uni- and multivariable analyses in relationship to the International Prognostic Index criteria...
March 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
Jonas Nilsson, Georg Holgersson, Jacob Järås, Stefan Bergström, Michael Bergqvist
Socioeconomic status (SES) and its association with cancer in general have been thoroughly studied in the last decades. Several studies have shown associations between SES and many types of cancer such as lung cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. For gliomas, no clear occupational or exposure risk factors have been identified, although some possible risk factors such as use of cellular telephone are still controversial. The aim in the present study is to analyze whether there is an association between SES and development of brain cancer...
March 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
Ryoma Igarashi, Takamitsu Inoue, Nobuhiro Fujiyama, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Kazuyuki Numakura, Hideaki Kagaya, Mitsuru Saito, Shintaro Narita, Shigeru Satoh, Takenori Niioka, Masatomo Miura, Tomonori Habuchi
Axitinib is a potent second-line molecular-targeted agent for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Axitinib pharmacokinetics and its relation with genetic polymorphisms were evaluated to predict the adverse events (AEs) and efficacy of axitinib. We analyzed 46 patients with mRCC who were treated with axitinib. The plasma axitinib level was measured at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after administration (C0 , C2 , C4 , C8 , and C12 ; ng/mL) on day 7 of the treatment. Genetic polymorphisms related to axitinib pharmacokinetics, including SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, SLCO2B1, ABCB1, ABCG2, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, and UGT1A1, were analyzed...
March 9, 2018: Medical Oncology
Andreas Jonsson, Claes Hjalmarsson, Peter Falk, Marie-Lois Ivarsson
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are believed to be of importance in the growth and spread of colorectal cancer (CRC). MMP-9 level has been suggested as a biological predictor of prognosis in CRC as well as in other types of cancer such as breast and cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability over time of MMP-9 in cryopreserved plasma, colorectal tumor tissue extract and macroscopically tumor-free colon mucosa tissue extract samples. Plasma and tissue samples were taken from patients at primary CRC surgery and analyzed for MMP-9...
March 9, 2018: Medical Oncology
Misato Okazaki, Yoshiya Horimoto, Masahiko Tanabe, Yuko Ichikawa, Emi Tokuda, Atsushi Arakawa, Toshiyuki Kobayashi, Mitsue Saito
Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is essentially incurable despite recent improvements in systemic therapies. We often encounter difficulties in choosing the most appropriate treatments, with optimal timing, for individual patients. Everolimus, one of the mTOR inhibitors, is usually used with endocrine therapy for MBC. Identification of predictive markers for everolimus-based treatment remains a major issue, but to date, no predictive markers have been established. We retrospectively investigated predictive markers for treatments with everolimus plus exemestane in patients with ER-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer...
March 8, 2018: Medical Oncology
Małgorzata Szostakowska, Michał Szymczyk, Kalina Badowska, Barbara Tudek, Anna Fabisiewicz
The main cause of death in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients is relapse due to undetermined minimal residual disease (MRD) and therefore monitoring MRD is crucial for making the best treatment decisions. The gold standard method for MRD analysis is the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The most commonly used molecular markers for measuring MRD in MCL are: t(11;14)(q13;p32) translocation or CCND1 expression and IGH rearrangement. Such markers can, however, be found in other B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas...
March 8, 2018: Medical Oncology
Abir Salwa Ali, Malin Grönberg, Seppo W Langer, Morten Ladekarl, Geir Olav Hjortland, Lene Weber Vestermark, Pia Österlund, Staffan Welin, Henning Grønbæk, Ulrich Knigge, Halfdan Sorbye, Eva Tiensuu Janson
High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs, G3) are aggressive cancers of the digestive system with poor prognosis and survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide) is considered the first-line palliative treatment. Etoposide is frequently administered intravenously; however, oral etoposide may be used as an alternative. Concerns for oral etoposide include decreased bioavailability, inter- and intra-patient variability and patient compliance. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients treated with oral etoposide compared to etoposide given as infusion...
March 6, 2018: Medical Oncology
Carsten Nieder, Ellinor Haukland, Adam Pawinski, Jan Norum
Recent research suggests that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 0.2 ng/dl at 7 months is prognostic for better survival with androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer regardless of chemotherapy with docetaxel. These results were derived from a group of clinical trial participants. Therefore, we performed a confirmatory analysis in patients treated outside of trials. Furthermore, we limited inclusion to those who presented with metastases at the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer (synchronous metastases)...
March 5, 2018: Medical Oncology
Yosuke Miura, Hisao Imai, Reiko Sakurai, Kyoichi Kaira, Noriaki Sunaga, Koichi Minato, Ryusei Saito, Takeshi Hisada
Recent studies have suggested that, among patients with advanced lung cancer, subsequent treatment after failure of first-line or second-line chemotherapy has a greater effect on overall survival (OS) than tumor shrinkage or progression-free survival (PFS). However, no studies have examined this issue among patients with sensitive relapse of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We retrospectively evaluate 77 patients with sensitive relapse of SCLC who received second-line chemotherapy after first-line platinum doublet chemotherapy between January 1999 and November 2013...
March 5, 2018: Medical Oncology
Kadri Altundag
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2018: Medical Oncology
Heidi Horstman, Joshua Gruhl, Lynette Smith, Apar K Ganti, Nicole A Shonka
Anticoagulation is thought to be associated with the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with brain metastases; however, the data on this topic are limited. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of ICH associated with anticoagulant use in adult patients with brain metastases. Consecutive patients with brain metastases occurring from 2006 to 2014 were identified from a single-institution database. Long-term anticoagulant therapy was defined as outpatient anticoagulation therapy of > 1 month...
March 1, 2018: Medical Oncology
Dorota Ciołczyk-Wierzbicka, Piotr Laidler
N-cadherin seems to promote cell migration and invasion in many types of cancers. The object of this study is recognition of the possible role of N-cadherin and selected downstream protein kinases: PI3K, ERK1/2, and mTOR in cell invasion in malignant melanoma. Melanoma cells were transfected with the small interfering RNA (siRNA) that targets human N-cadherin gene (CDH2). Inhibitors LY294002 (PI3K), U0126 (ERK1/2), and everolimus (mTOR) were used to inhibit selected kinases of signalling pathways. In vitro cell invasion was studied using Matrigel and an analysis of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity by gelatinase zymogram assay...
February 28, 2018: Medical Oncology
Hirotaka Horiguchi, Takahiro Yoneyama, Shingo Hatakeyama, Noriko Tokui, Tendo Sato, Naoki Fujita, Hayato Yamamoto, Yuki Tobisawa, Tohru Yoneyama, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Takuya Koie, Kazuaki Yoshikawa, Satoshi Narita, Toshiaki Kawaguchi, Chikara Ohyama
The clinical benefits of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy for the management of upper urinary tract carcinoma in situ (CIS) remain unclear. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of BCG therapy for upper urinary tract CIS with those of radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Of 490 patients with upper urinary tract carcinoma, we retrospectively reviewed the post-treatment course of 58 patients with upper urinary tract CIS who underwent either RNU (RNU group) or BCG therapy (BCG group). Efficacy and safety were compared between the RNU and BCG groups...
February 26, 2018: Medical Oncology
Inês Margarida Gomes, Sandra Moreira Rocha, Carlos Gaspar, Maria Inês Alvelos, Cecília Reis Santos, Sílvia Socorro, Cláudio Jorge Maia
Six transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 1 (STEAP1) is overexpressed in numerous types of tumors, especially in prostate cancer. STEAP1 is located in the plasma membrane of epithelial cells and may play an important role in inter- and intracellular communication. Several studies suggest STEAP1 as a potential biomarker and an immunotherapeutic target for prostate cancer. However, the role of STEAP1 in cell proliferation and apoptosis remains unclear. Therefore, the role of STEAP1 in prostate cancer cells proliferation and apoptosis was determined by inducing STEAP1 gene knockdown in LNCaP cells...
February 20, 2018: Medical Oncology
Michihide Tokuhira, Yuta Kimura, Keiji Sugimoto, Tomonori Nakazato, Maho Ishikawa, Isao Fujioka, Tomoiku Takaku, Noriyoshi Iriyama, Eriko Sato, Hiroyuki Fujita, Yoshihiro Hatta, Norio Komatsu, Norio Asou, Masahiro Kizaki, Tatsuya Kawaguchi
ABL1-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have led to dramatic changes in treatment strategies for chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP). However, clinical studies have highlighted increasing numbers of adverse events (AE) with TKIs. Although TKI modification plays a key role in AE management, this process is poorly understood, particularly in terms of the TKI nilotinib. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed the records of 70 patients with newly diagnosed (ND)-CML-CP who were treated with nilotinib to investigate the drug potency of nilotinib and treatment management...
February 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
Roberto Orecchia, Damaris Patricia Rojas, Federica Cattani, Rosalinda Ricotti, Luigi Santoro, Anna Morra, Raffaella Cambria, Rosa Luraschi, Samantha Dicuonzo, Sara Ronchi, Alessia Surgo, Veronica Dell' Acqua, Paolo Veronesi, Francesca De Lorenzi, Cristiana Fodor, Maria Cristina Leonardi, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa
The aim of this study was to evaluate the dosimetry and toxicity of hypofractionation in postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in breast cancer (BC) patients. Stage II-III BC patients with implant-based immediate breast reconstruction received PMRT to the chest wall (CW) and to the infra/supraclavicular nodal region (NR) using a 15-fraction schedule (2.67 Gy/fraction) and helical IMRT (Tomotherapy®System, Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA). A score was assigned to each treatment plan in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage of CW and NR and the sparing of the organs at risk (OARs)...
February 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
Alessandro Guidi, Carla Codecà, Daris Ferrari
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a fatal malignancy with an overall long-term survival of about 50% for all stages. The diagnosis is not rarely delayed, and the majority of patients present with loco-regionally advanced disease. The rate of second primary tumors after a diagnosis of HNC is about 3-7% per year, the highest rate among solid tumors. Currently, a single-modality or a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy (CHT), is the standard treatment for stage III-IV HNC. For the recurrent/metastatic setting, in the last 40 years great efforts have been made in order to develop a more effective CHT regimen, from the use of methotrexate alone, to the combination of cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracile (5FU) or paclitaxel...
February 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
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