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Medical Oncology

Markus Kieler, Matthias Unseld, Johann Wojta, Alexandra Kaider, Daniela Bianconi, Svitlana Demyanets, Gerald W Prager
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) and its "decoy" receptor soluble ST2 (sST2) are involved in the development of chronic inflammation and cancer. We explored IL-33 and sST2 as a potential prognostic marker in patients with metastatic and locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). IL-33 and sST2 plasma levels were assessed in 20 patients with advanced PDAC before start of systemic chemotherapy and were analyzed in relation to clinical outcome. Kaplan Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazards model analysis revealed a significant association between sST2 plasma levels and survival (HR 2...
November 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
F De Felice, V Tombolini, M de Vincentiis, G Magliulo, A Greco, V Valentini, A Polimeni
Nowadays, the multidisciplinary team (MDT) is an essential component for oncologic disease management. Its benefit is also extensively recognized in head and neck cancer (HNC) community, due to tumor rarity and complex treatment. A well-defined MDT management serves as a stable point to define the better strategy and offers a chance to optimize HNC clinical outcomes and patient's quality of life. We explored both mandatory and additional requirements for establishing a high-quality MDT. Then we proposed an example of HNC MDT organization...
November 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
Luma Dayane de Carvalho Filiú-Braga, Teresa Raquel Tavares Serejo, Antonio Roberto Lucena-Araujo, Francisco Assis Rocha Neves, Juliana Lott de Carvalho, Eduardo Magalhaes Rego, Felipe Saldanha-Araujo
The acquisition of complex karyotypes is related to the progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and patients with this condition have a poor prognosis. Despite recent advances in the classification of prognosis in CLL patients, understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to genomic instability and progression of this disease remains inadequate. Interestingly, dysregulated expression of KDM4 members is involved in the progression of several cancer types and plays a role in the DNA damage response; however, the gene expression profile and the importance of KDM4 members in CLL are still unknown...
November 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
Małgorzata Poręba, Paweł Gać, Lidia Usnarska-Zubkiewicz, Witold Pilecki, Kazimierz Kuliczkowski, Grzegorz Mazur, Marzena Gonerska, Małgorzata Sobieszczańska, Rafał Poręba
High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) followed by stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a well-established method in patients with hematological malignancies, and for last few years, many efforts have been made to estimate short- and long-term efficacy of this method, as well as early and late complications. The present study concentrates on cardiotoxic effects, mainly early changes using biochemical markers such as N-terminal natriuretic peptide type B (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponins (cTn). Simultaneously, the analysis of 12-lead ECG was done before and after the procedure in which the novel repolarization markers: Tp-e and Tp-e /QT ratio were measured, together with standard markers: QT, QTc...
October 31, 2018: Medical Oncology
Viviane Palmeira da Silva, Carulina Bueno Mesquita, Júlia Silveira Nunes, Bianca de Bem Prunes, Pantelis Varvaki Rados, Fernanda Visioli
Metabolic alterations in the tumor microenvironment have a complex effect on cancer progression. Extracellular acidity is a consequence of metabolic switch in cancer and results in cell phenotypes with higher resistance to chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms underlying the relationship between the extracellular acidity and chemoresistance are not clearly understood. This systematic review was carried out by searching the databases PubMed and EMBASE using the keywords "cancer" and "acidosis" or "acidic" and "chemoresistance" or "drug resistance...
October 30, 2018: Medical Oncology
Antonio Mazzocca, Luca Maria Schönauer, Rosalba De Nola, Antonio Lippolis, Teresa Marrano, Matteo Loverro, Carlo Sabbà, Edoardo Di Naro
Endometrial cancer is the most common cancer of the female genital tract in Western Countries, with an incidence of 150.000 new cases/year. Despite high incidence, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of this tumor. Phospholipids including lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are involved in proliferation and dissemination of cancer. LPA is a potent bioactive phospholipid synthesized by autotaxin (ATX) through its lysophospholipase D activity. Recent evidence suggests that the ATX/LPA signaling axis plays a role in endometrial cancer...
October 29, 2018: Medical Oncology
Justyna Gil, David Ramsey, Pawel Pawlowski, Elzbieta Szmida, Przemyslaw Leszczynski, Marek Bebenek, Maria M Sasiadek
Despite great progress in research on the subject, the involvement of autophagy in colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis (initiation, progression, metastasis) remains obscure and controversial. Autophagy is a catabolic process, fundamental to cell viability and connected with degradation/recycling of proteins and organelles. In this study, we aimed at investigating the relative expression level of mRNA via Real-Time PCR of 16 chosen genes belonging to Atg8 mammalian orthologs and their conjugation system, comprising GABARAP, GABARAPL1, GABARAPL2, MAP1LC3A, MAP1LC3B, MAP1LC3C, ATG3, ATG7, ATG10, ATG4A, ATG4B, ATG4C, ATG4D, and three genes encoding proteins building the multimeric ATG16L1 complex, namely ATG5, ATG12, and ATG16L1, in 73 colorectal tumors and paired adjacent normal colon mucosa...
October 29, 2018: Medical Oncology
Ido Stav, Bishal Gyawali, Daniel A Goldstein
The financial impact of an extensive duration of adjuvant immunotherapy is severe. The clinical and biological rationale for this extensive duration is unclear. This study aims to understand the biologic and clinical rationale for the duration of treatment in designing adjuvant trials and to assess the economic impact of different treatment durations in adjuvant therapy. We searched for adjuvant immunotherapy clinical trials. Based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified 47 trials targeting PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4...
October 29, 2018: Medical Oncology
Giuseppe A Colloca, Antonella Venturino, Domenico Guarneri
Inflammation is known to play an important role in the biology of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPDAC), and systemic inflammatory response (SIR) is reported to be closely related to outcome in mPDAC. The aim of the present paper is to assess the prognostic performance of SIR-related variables in patients with mPDAC receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. Data of patients with mPDAC, who were registered in the database of the division of Medical Oncology of the G. Borea Hospital in Sanremo, were retrospectively collected...
October 29, 2018: Medical Oncology
Pawel Wiechno, Jakub Kucharz, Malgorzata Sadowska, Wojciech Michalski, Bozena Sikora-Kupis, Joanna Jonska-Gmyrek, Grazyna Poniatowska, Karol Nietupski, Krzysztof Ossolinski, Tomasz Demkow
Renal cell carcinoma is the 14th most common cancer worldwide. It is a heterogeneous group of histopathological entities, of which the most common is clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Approximately 20-30% of patients present initially with metastatic disease and an additional 20% will progress after radical surgical treatment. Metastatic disease that is non-feasible for surgical treatment remains incurable. Numerous studies have demonstrated that-with the introduction of new drugs-the treatment outcomes of metastatic disease have improved...
October 27, 2018: Medical Oncology
Wojciech Michalski, Joanna Jonska-Gmyrek, Grazyna Poniatowska, Jakub Kucharz, Pawel Stelmasiak, Karol Nietupski, Malgorzata Sadowska, Tomasz Demkow, Pawel Wiechno
Testicular teratomas represent a specific entity within the group of germ-cell tumours. They may comprise elements of all three germ layers. In contrast to prepubertal benign teratomas observed in infants and adolescents, postpubertal teratomas originate from the malignant germ-cell precursor. Given the good prognosis and curability of most patients with germ-cell tumour, medical oncologists and urological surgeons must be well acquainted with the principles of teratomas management. Surgery plays the decisive part in teratomas treatment, as these tumours are resistant to radio- and, to some extent, chemotherapy...
October 26, 2018: Medical Oncology
Dasom Jung, Ji Min Han, Jeong Yee, Jae Youn Kim, Hye Sun Gwak
Crizotinib is an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor for patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite that crizotinib-induced hepatotoxicity may cause a dose reduction or interruption that can affect the patient's treatment, there is no study to investigate factors for crizotinib-induced hepatotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors affecting crizotinib-induced hepatotoxicity. From February 2012 to April 2018, a retrospective study was performed on NSCLC patients treated with crizotinib...
October 26, 2018: Medical Oncology
Zeng Zeng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2018: Medical Oncology
Rohit Mehra, Simpa S Salami, Robert Lonigro, Ritu Bhalla, Javed Siddiqui, Xuhong Cao, Daniel E Spratt, Ganesh S Palapattu, Nallasivam Palanisamy, John T Wei, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Scott A Tomlins
We have previously demonstrated a significant correlative relationship between PTEN deletion and ERG rearrangement, both in the development of clinically localized prostate cancers and metastases. Herein, we evaluate the cooperative role of ERG and PTEN in oncological outcomes after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. We evaluated ERG and PTEN status using three previously described cohorts. The first cohort included 235 clinically localized prostate cancer cases represented on tissue microarrays (TMA), evaluated using previously validated FISH assays for ERG and PTEN...
October 5, 2018: Medical Oncology
Isabella Reccia, Jayant Kumar, Nagy Habib, Mikael Sodergren
Despite significant improvement in treatment, the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains poor as the biology of the tumour affects survival even when a radical resection has been performed. Pancreatic cancer remains resistant to currently available chemotherapeutic options. Recently, immunotherapy has achieved significant results in certain types of cancer. However, for pancreatic cancer, results were not initially encouraging as pancreatic cancer microenvironment is highly immunosuppressive...
October 4, 2018: Medical Oncology
Stefania Martini, Francesca Arcadipane, Paolo Strignano, Rosella Spadi, Viviana Contu, Christian Fiandra, Riccardo Ragona, Giorgia Catalano, Maria Antonietta Satolli, Michele Camandona, Renato Romagnoli, Umberto Ricardi, Pierfrancesco Franco
The aim of the study is to evaluate feasibility, safety, toxicity profile, and dosimetric results of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to deliver definitive or pre-operative radiation in locally advanced esophageal cancer patients. A total of 68 patients were treated with VMAT between March 2014 and March 2018 (44% vs 56% for definitive and neoadjuvant settings, respectively). Dose prescription differed depending on the clinical scenario (54-60 Gy in 30 fractions for definitive treatments; 41.4/45 Gy in 23-25 fractions in the pre-operative setting)...
October 4, 2018: Medical Oncology
Anchalee Tantiwetrueangdet, Ravat Panvichian, Sansanee Wongwaisayawan, Natthaporn Sueangoen, Panuwat Lertsithichai
Breast cancers with amplification and overexpression of human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are associated with poor prognosis, and targeted for anti-HER2 therapy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are currently the recommended methods to asses HER2 overexpression/amplification. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), a highly accurate method to quantify DNA copy number, is potentially a robust alternative for HER2 diagnostics. In the FISH assay and most of previous ddPCR reports, chromosome 17 centromere (CEP17) has been used as the reference control to determine HER2/CEP17 ratio...
October 3, 2018: Medical Oncology
Barbara Diletto, Nicola Dinapoli, Silvia Chiesa, Gian Carlo Mattiucci, Vincenzo Frascino, Carmelo Anile, Cesare Colosimo, Vincenzo Valentini, Mario Balducci
OBJECTIVES: Treatment of oligometastatic patients is a current challenge in radiation oncology. Aim of this study is to define a dose-response relationship for hypofractionated radiotherapy of oligometastases. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of metastases treated by hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy was performed. Delivered dose was calculated both as biological effective dose (BED10 ), and as ratio between BED10 and the logarithm of metastasis volume (BED10 logVolume Ratio, BVR)...
September 14, 2018: Medical Oncology
Filippo Pesapane, Marcin Czarniecki, Matteo Basilio Suter, Baris Turkbey, Geert Villeirs
The detection of distant metastases at the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) establishes the treatment approach and has a prognostic value, nevertheless it is not well established. Since proposed staging approaches often contradict each other, we aimed to compare the current imaging techniques for staging of advanced PCa, including future applications of the most innovative methods. Conventional imaging techniques, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) have been employed for metastatic staging (both N and M staging) of men with high-risk PCa, but surgical pelvic dissection remains the gold standard for N staging...
September 14, 2018: Medical Oncology
Hiroki Ishihara, Satoshi Yamashita, Satoshi Fujii, Kazunari Tanabe, Hirofumi Mukai, Toshikazu Ushijima
Estimation of the cancer cell fraction in breast cancer tissue is important for exclusion of samples unsuitable for multigene prognostic assays and a variety of molecular analyses for research. Here, we aimed to establish a breast cancer cell fraction marker based on DNA methylation. First, we screened genes unmethylated in non-cancerous mammary tissues and methylated in breast cancer tissues using microarray data from the TCGA database, and isolated 12 genes. Among them, four genes were selected as candidate marker genes without a high incidence of copy number alterations and with broad coverage across patients...
September 14, 2018: Medical Oncology
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