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Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926994/microvessels-of-the-heart-formation-regeneration-and-dysfunction
#1
Ioakim Spyridopoulos, Helen M Arthur
This issue of Microcirculation focusses on the special topic of "microvessels of the heart" and contains five state-of-the-art reviews and one expert article that reflect current efforts to address the major gaps in our understanding of these key microvessels. In the adult heart, most attention until recently (especially among the clinical cardiology community) has been given to the main coronary arteries, which are the culprit vessels in patients with coronary artery disease, including its most serious manifestation, acute myocardial infarction (MI)...
December 7, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893186/the-relative-influence-of-hematocrit-and-red-blood-cell-velocity-on-oxygen-transport-from-capillaries-to-tissue
#2
Adrien Lücker, Timothy W Secomb, Bruno Weber, Patrick Jenny
OBJECTIVE: Oxygen transport to parenchymal cells occurs mainly at the microvascular level, and depends on convective red blood cell (RBC) flux, which is proportional in an individual capillary to the product of capillary hematocrit and red blood cell velocity. This study investigates the relative influence of these two factors on tissue oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ). METHODS: A simple analytical model is used to quantify the respective influences of hematocrit, RBC velocity and flow on tissue oxygenation around capillaries...
November 28, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889934/vascular-cell-transcriptomic-changes-to-exercise-training-differ-directionally-along-and-between-skeletal-muscle-arteriolar-trees
#3
M Harold Laughlin, Hsiao T Yang, Darla L Tharp, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, Douglas K Bowles
EXT-induced arteriolar adaptations in skeletal muscle are heterogeneous because of spatial variations in muscle fiber type composition and fiber recruitment patterns during exercise. The purpose of this report is to summarize a series of experiments conducted to test the hypothesis that changes in vascular gene expression are signaled by alterations in shear stress resulting from increases in blood flow, muscle fiber type composition and fiber recruitment patterns. We also report results from a follow-up study of Ankrd23, one gene whose expression was changed by EXT...
November 27, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859990/prospects-for-improving-neovascularisation-of-the-ischaemic-heart-lessons-from-development
#4
Nicola Smart
Neovascularisation of the ischaemic myocardium post-infarction is necessary to restore blood flow to vulnerable cardiomyocytes and will be indispensable for prospective regenerative strategies, to perfuse newly formed myocardium. Therapeutic attempts to enhance new vessel formation have, to date, yielded modest clinical benefits and innovative approaches are now needed. Intrinsic mechanisms are initiated by the heart in an attempt to rebuild injured vessels but these are poorly understood. Insight into the underlying mechanisms may reveal targets for therapeutically augmenting this low-level neovascular response...
November 17, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809400/structural-analysis-of-endothelial-projections-from-mesenteric-arteries
#5
Nadia Maarouf, Maria Sancho, Tobias Fürstenhaupt, Cam Ha Tran, Donald G Welsh
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial and smooth muscle cells must communicate with one another to regulate arterial diameter. A key structure driving heterocellular communication is the endothelial projection, a thin extension that crosses the internal elastic lamina (IEL) making contact with smooth muscle. This study sought to define the precise structural composition of endothelial projections in the mesenteric circulation. METHODS: Third and fourth order mesenteric arteries from hamster were prepared for electron microscopy...
November 3, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809397/flow-motion-dynamics-of-microvascular-blood-flow-and-oxygenation-evidence-of-adaptive-changes-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-insulin-resistance
#6
Geraldine F Clough, Katarzyna Z Kuliga, Andrew J Chipperfield
An altered spatial heterogeneity and temporal stability of network perfusion can give rise to a limited adaptive ability to meet metabolic demands. Derangement of local flow motion activity is associated with reduced microvascular blood flow and tissue oxygenation and it has been suggested that changes in flow motion activity may provide an early indicator of declining, endothelial, neurogenic and myogenic regulatory mechanisms and signal the onset and progression of microvascular pathophysiology. This short conference review article explores some of the evidence for altered flow motion dynamics of blood flux signals acquired using laser Doppler fluximetry in the skin in individuals at risk of developing or with cardio-metabolic disease...
November 3, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809396/redox-regulation-of-transient-receptor-potential-channels-in-the-endothelium
#7
REVIEW
Paulo Wagner Pires, Scott Earley
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are important mediators of signaling pathways in the endothelium. Specific members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of cation channels act as important Ca(2+) influx pathways in endothelial cells, and are involved in endothelium-dependent vasodilation, regulation of barrier permeability, and angiogenesis. ROS and RNS can modulate the activity of certain TRP channels mainly by modifying specific cysteine residues or by stimulating the production of second messengers...
November 3, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801542/calcium-and-electrical-signaling-in-arterial-endothelial-tubes-new-insights-into-cellular-physiology-and-cardiovascular-function
#8
Erik J Behringer
The integral role of the endothelium during the coordination of blood flow throughout vascular resistance networks has been recognized for decades. Early examination of the distinct anatomy and physiology of the endothelium as a signaling conduit along the vascular wall has prompted development and application of an intact endothelial "tube" study model isolated from rodent skeletal muscle resistance arteries. Vasodilatory signals such as increased endothelial cell (EC) Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+) ]i ) signals and hyperpolarization can take place in single ECs while being shared between electrically coupled ECs through gap junctions up to distances of millimeters (≥ 2 mm)...
November 1, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749000/retinal-vascular-imaging-technology-to-monitor-disease-severity-and-complications-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review
#9
Ae Ra Kee, Tien Yin Wong, Ling-Jun Li
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a major disease affecting a large number of young patients. In the recent years, retinal vascular imaging has provided an objective assessment of vascular health in T1DM patients. Our study aims to review the current literature on retinal vascular parameters in T1DM young patients in order to understand: 1. How retinal vessels are affected in T1DM; 2. How such vascular changes can be predictive of future diabetic microvascular complications...
October 17, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736045/influence-of-stent-implantation-on-erythrocyte-aggregation-in-human-native-coronary-arteries-and-saphenous-vein-grafts
#10
Theodor Baars, Philipp Kahlert, Albert Baars, Heike Preibsch, Tienush Rassaf, Gerd Heusch, Petra Kleinbongard
OBJECTIVE: Stent implantation into atherosclerotic coronary vessels induces the release of particulate debris and soluble vasoactive substances, which impair downstream microvascular function. Microvascular perfusion, however, is also determined by hemorheological parameters. We therefore analyzed now changes in erythrocyte (RBC) aggregation in coronary arterial blood during stent implantation. METHODS: Symptomatic male patients with stable angina pectoris and stenosis in their native right coronary artery (RCA) or saphenous vein graft on right coronary artery (SVG-RCA) were enrolled...
October 13, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681957/skin-glucose-metabolism-and-microvascular-blood-flow-during-local-insulin-delivery-and-after-an-oral-glucose-load
#11
Fredrik Iredahl, Alexandra Högstedt, Joakim Henricson, Folke Sjöberg, Erik Tesselaar, Simon Farnebo
Insulin causes capillary recruitment in muscle and adipose tissue, but the metabolic and microvascular effects of insulin in the skin have not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to measure glucose metabolism and microvascular blood flow in the skin during local insulin delivery and after an oral glucose load using intracutaneous microdialysis and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). Within 15 minutes of local insulin delivery, microvascular blood flow in the skin increased (urea clearance: p=0...
September 28, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681821/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-vascular-regeneration
#12
Wenduo Gu, Xuechong Hong, Claire Potter, Aijuan Qu, Qingbo Xu
In recent years mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising therapeutic cell type in regenerative medicine. They hold great promise for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction and limb ischemia. MSCs may be utilized in both cell-based therapy and vascular graft engineering to restore vascular function, thereby providing therapeutic benefits to patients. The efficacy of MSCs lies in their multipotent differentiation ability towards vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and other cell types, as well as their capacity to secrete various trophic factors, which are potent in promoting angiogenesis, inhibiting apoptosis and modulating immunoreaction...
September 28, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681605/small-artery-mechanobiology-roles-of-cellular-and-non-cellular-elements
#13
Michael A Hill, Gerald A Meininger
Small arteries and their component cellular and non-cellular elements are continually subjected to, and interact with, mechanical forces. Such interactions are key in both short and long-term adaptation of the structure and function of the microcirculation to its local environment and metabolic requirements. Following this brief introduction is a series of papers presented as a symposium (Small Artery Mechanobiology: Roles of Cellular and Non-Cellular Elements) at the World Congress for Microcirculation, Kyoto 2015...
September 28, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653241/endothelial-smooth-muscle-cell-interactions-in-the-regulation-of-vascular-tone-in-skeletal-muscle
#14
Kim A Dora
The smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of skeletal muscle arterioles are intricately sensitive to changes in membrane potential. Upon increasing luminal pressure, the SMCs depolarize, thereby opening voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs), which leads to contraction. Mechanisms that oppose this myogenic tone can involve voltage-dependent and independent dilator pathways, and can be endothelium-dependent or independent. Of particular interest are the pathways leading to hyperpolarization of SMCs, as these can potentially evoke both local and conducted dilation...
September 21, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653183/does-serelaxin-treatment-alter-passive-mechanical-wall-properties-in-small-resistance-arteries
#15
Maria Jelinic, Nicola Kahlberg, Laura J Parry, Marianne Tare
The peptide hormone relaxin is recognised for its connective tissue remodelling actions in the reproductive tract during pregnancy and parturition, but it also has vascular remodelling actions independent of pregnancy. Recombinant human relaxin (serelaxin) treatment in male and non-pregnant female rodents enhances passive arterial compliance in the renal vasculature. This review focuses on serelaxin's actions on passive mechanical wall properties in small arteries and highlights the diversity of responses to serelaxin treatment in rodents...
September 21, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653024/retinal-microcirculation-in-association-with-caffeinated-and-alcoholic-drinks-in-subjects-at-increased-cardiovascular-risk
#16
K Karatzi, E K Aissopou, K Katsana, M Moiragia, N Tentolouris, P P Sfikakis, A D Protogerou
OBJECTIVES: The association of caffeinated and alcoholic drinks with microcirculation is poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of daily consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic drinks with retinal vessel calibers. METHODS: In consecutive adults at increased risk but free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus, (n=181, age: 51.32±12.42 years, 51.4% women), we determined central retinal arteriolar and venular equivalents and arteriolar to venular ratio (CRAE, CRVE and AVR, respectively)...
September 21, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652592/boosting-the-signal-endothelial-inward-rectifier-k-channels
#17
William F Jackson
Endothelial cells express a diverse array of ion channels including members of the strong inward rectifier family composed of KIR 2 subunits. These two-membrane-spanning-domain channels are modulated by their lipid environment, and exist in macromolecular signaling complexes with receptors, protein kinases and other ion channels. Inward rectifier K(+) channels (KIR ) currents display a region of negative slope conductance at membrane potentials positive to the K(+) equilibrium potential that allows outward current through the channels to be activated by membrane hyperpolarization, permitting KIR to amplify hyperpolarization induced by other K(+) channels and ion transporters...
September 21, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647737/a-statistical-model-of-the-penetrating-arterioles-and-venules-in-the-human-cerebral-cortex
#18
Wahbi K El-Bouri, Stephen J Payne
OBJECTIVE: Models of the cerebral microvasculature are required at many different scales in order to understand the effects of microvascular topology on CBF. There are, however, no data-driven models at the arteriolar/venular scale. In this paper, we develop a data-driven algorithm based on available data to generate statistically accurate penetrating arterioles and venules. METHODS: A novel order-based density-filling algorithm is developed, based on statistical data including bifurcating angles, LDRs, and area-ratios...
September 19, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647727/influence-of-red-blood-cell-aggregation-on-perfusion-of-an-artificial-microvascular-network
#19
Walter H Reinhart, Nathaniel Z Piety, Sergey S Shevkoplyas
Red blood cells (RBCs) suspended in plasma form multicellular aggregates under low flow conditions, increasing apparent blood viscosity at low shear rates. It has previously been unclear, however, if RBC aggregation affects microvascular perfusion. Here we analyzed the impact of RBC aggregation on perfusion and 'capillary' hematocrit in an artificial microvascular network (AMVN) at driving pressures ranging from 5 to 60 cmH2 O to determine if aggregation could improve tissue oxygenation. RBCs were suspended at 30% hematocrit in either 46...
September 19, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588564/doca-salt-hypertension-impairs-artery-function-in-rat-middle-cerebral-artery-and-parenchymal-arterioles
#20
Nusrat Matin, Paulo W Pires, Hannah Garver, William F Jackson, Anne M Dorrance
OBJECTIVE: Chronic hypertension induces detrimental changes in the structure and function of surface cerebral arteries. Very little is known about PAs, which perfuse distinct neuronal populations in the cortex and may play a role in cerebrovascular disorders. We investigated the effect of DOCA-salt induced hypertension on endothelial function and artery structure in PAs and MCAs. METHODS: Uninephrectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with a subcutaneous pellet containing DOCA (150 mg/kg b...
October 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
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