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Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182312/microfluidic-approaches-to-the-study-of-angiogenesis-and-the-microcirculation
#1
Ehsan Akbari, Griffin B Spychalski, Jonathan W Song
Microfluidic systems have emerged as a new class of perfusable in vitro culture models that have helped advance and refine our understanding of microvascular function. Cutting-edge microfluidic models have successfully integrated principles from quantitative analysis of vascular function, in vitro flow chambers, microfabrication techniques, and 3-D tissue scaffolds. Here we review the evolution of microfluidic systems, namely their progression from 2-D planar microchannel arrays to 3-D microtissue analogues, and highlight their recent contributions in elucidating the role of biomolecular transport and fluid mechanical stimuli in controlling angiogenesis...
February 9, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177171/increased-survivability-of-ischemic-skin-flap-tissue-in-flk-1-mice-by-pellino-1-intervention
#2
Chandra K Rednam, Rickesha L Wilson, Vaithinathan Selvaraju, Muhammad T Rishi, Mahesh Thirunavukkarasu, Vladimir Coca-Soliz, Rajesh Lakshmanan, J Alexander Palesty, David W McFadden, Nilanjana Maulik
OBJECTIVE: Reduced skin flap survival due to ischemia is a serious concern during reconstructive cosmetic surgery. The absence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors during ischemia may lead to flap failure. We identified Pellino-1 (Peli1), a 46-kDa protein, as a proangiogenic molecule and is directly regulated by VEGF. Therefore, we hypothesized that Peli1 acts downstream of Flk-1/VEGFR2 and aids in skin flap survival during ischemia. METHODS: Scratch and matrigel assays were performed to observe cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro...
February 8, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164414/microfluidic-traction-force-microscopy-to-study-mechanotransduction-in-angiogenesis
#3
Luke Boldock, Claudia Wittkowske, Cecile M Perrault
The formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, angiogenesis, is driven by coordinated endothelial cell migration and matrix remodelling in response to local signals. Recently, a growing body of evidence has shown that mechanotransduction, along with chemotransduction, is a major regulator of angiogenesis. Mechanical signals, such as fluid shear stress and substrate mechanics, influence sprouting and network formation, but the mechanisms behind this relationship are still unclear. Here, we present cellular traction forces as possible effectors activated by mechanosensing to mediate matrix remodelling, and encourage the use of traction force microscopy to study mechanotransduction in angiogenesis...
February 6, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164421/tissue-engineered-3d-microvessel-and-capillary-network-models-for-the-study-of-vascular-phenomena
#4
Max I Bogorad, Jackson DeStefano, Andrew D Wong, Peter C Searson
Advances in tissue-engineering, cell biology, microfabrication, and microfluidics, have led to the development of a wide range of vascular models. Here we review platforms based on templated microvessel fabrication to generate increasingly complex vascular models of: (1) the tumor microenvironment, (2) occluded microvessels, and (3) perfused capillary networks. We outline fabrication guidelines and demonstrate a number of experimental methods for probing vascular function such as permeability measurements, tumor cell intravasation, flow characterization, and endothelial cell morphology and proliferation...
February 5, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135021/a-conceptual-framework-for-predicting-and-addressing-the-consequences-of-disease-related-microvascular-dysfunction
#5
P Mason McClatchey, Jefferson C Frisbee, Jane E B Reusch
OBJECTIVE: A growing body of evidence indicates that impaired microvascular perfusion plays a pathological role in a number of diseases. This manuscript aims to better define which aspects of microvascular perfusion are important, what mass transport processes (e.g. insulin action, tissue oxygenation) may be impacted, and what therapies might reverse these pathologies. METHODS: We derive a theory of microvascular perfusion and solute flux drawing from established relationships in mass transport and anatomy...
January 30, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129479/a-microfluidic-platform-to-study-the-effects-of-vascular-architecture-and-oxygen-gradients-on-sickle-blood-flow
#6
Xinran Lu, Michelle M Galarneau, John M Higgins, David K Wood
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to develop a model of the microvasculature that would allow us to quantify changes in the rheology of sickle blood as it traverses the varying vessel sizes and oxygen tensions in the microcirculation. METHODS: We designed and implemented a microfluidic model of the microcirculation that comprises a branching microvascular network and physiologic oxygen gradients. We used computational modeling to determine the parameters necessary to generate stable, linear gradients in our devices...
January 27, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129474/role-of-moesin-src-and-ros-in-advanced-glycation-end-product-induced-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction
#7
Wei-Jin Zhang, Pei-Xin Li, Xiao-Hua Guo, Qiao-Bing Huang
The disruption of endothelial integrity and the occurrence of angiogenesis in response to advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute greatly to micro- and macrovascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Among human dermal, brain and retinal vascular endothelial cells, activation of ERM protein (Ezrin, radixin and moesin protein), moesin, by phosphorylation of Threonine 558 (Thr-558) is involved in AGE-induced hyperpermeability and angiogenesis via the Rho and Rho-associated protein kinase (Rho/ROCK) and p38 pathways...
January 27, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120468/neutrophil-mediated-vascular-barrier-injury-role-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#8
Jamie E Meegan, Xiaoyuan Yang, Danielle C Coleman, Melanie Jannaway, Sarah Y Yuan
Neutrophils play an essential role in host defense against infection or injury. While neutrophil activation is necessary for pathogen clearance and tissue repair, a hyperactive response can lead to tissue damage and microcirculatory disorders, a process involving complex neutrophil-endothelium crosstalk. This review highlights recent research findings about neutrophil-mediated signaling and structural changes, including those induced by neutrophil extracellular traps, which ultimately lead to vascular barrier injury...
January 24, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116830/enterococcus-faecium-strain-r30-increases-red-blood-cell-velocity-and-prevents-capillary-regression-in-the-soleus-of-hindlimb-unloaded-rats-via-the-enos-vegf-pathway
#9
Yusuke Hirayama, Ryosuke Nakanishi, Airo Tategaki, Noriaki Maeshige, Hiroyo Kondo, Akihiko Ishihara, Roland R Roy, Hidemi Fujino
OBJECTIVE: A chronic decrease in neuromuscular activity results in atrophy and capillary regression in skeletal muscles. The purposes of the present study were to determine the effects of enterococcus faecium strain R30 (R30) administration on 1) the hemodynamics of the rat soleus muscle and 2) the capillary regression normally associated with hindlimb unloading (HU). METHODS: Experiment 1: the velocity of red blood cells (VRBC ) was measured for up to one hour after administration of R30 with or without the β-blocker propranolol...
January 24, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109051/shear-induced-platelet-aggregation-and-distribution-of-thrombogenesis-at-stenotic-vessels
#10
Hiroki Kamada, Yohsuke Imai, Masanori Nakamura, Takuji Ishikawa, Takami Yamaguchi
OBJECTIVE: Shear-induced platelet aggregation (SIPA), which is mediated by von Willebrand factor (vWF), is a key mechanism in arterial thrombosis under an abnormally high shear rate of blood flow. We investigated the influence of SIPA on thrombogenesis, focusing on alterations in blood flow at stenotic vessels. METHODS: We carried out a computer simulation of thrombogenesis in stenotic vessels at three different injury positions (i.e., upstream, apex, and downstream of the stenosis) to evaluate the effect of SIPA...
January 21, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106317/changes-in-vascular-reactivity-and-endothelial-ca-2-dynamics-with-chronic-low-flow
#11
Mark S Taylor, Chung-Sik Choi, Leith Bayazid, Katherine E Glosemeyer, Calvin C P Baker, David S Weber
Disruption of blood flow promotes endothelial dysfunction and predisposes vessels to remodeling and atherosclerosis. Recent findings suggest spatial and temporal tuning of local Ca(2+) signals along the endothelium is vital to vascular function. In the current study, we examined whether chronic flow disruption causes alteration of dynamic endothelial Ca(2+) signal patterning associated with changes in vascular structure and function. For these studies, we performed surgical partial-ligation (PL) of the left carotid arteries of mice to establish chronic low flow for 2 weeks; right carotid arteries remained open and served as controls (C)...
January 20, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106307/normal-saline-is-associated-with-increased-sickle-red-cell-stiffness-and-prolonged-transit-times-in-a-microfluidic-model-of-the-capillary-system
#12
Marcus A Carden, Meredith Fay, Yumiko Sakurai, Brynn McFarland, Sydney Blanche, Caleb Diprete, Clinton H Joiner, Todd Sulchek, Wilbur A Lam
Vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is a complex process that occurs in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and is often associated with pain and urgent hospitalization. A major instigator of VOC is microvascular obstruction by pathologically stiffened sickle red blood cells (RBCs), and thus therapy relies heavily on optimizing intravenous fluid (IVF) hydration to increase RBC deformability. However, no evidence-based guidelines regarding the choice of IVF currently exist. We therefore analyzed alterations in biomechanical properties of sickle RBCs isolated from patients with homozygous SCD (hemoglobin SS) after exposure to different osmolarities of clinical IVF formulations...
January 20, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075525/dynamic-remodeling-of-arteriolar-collaterals-after-acute-occlusion-in-chick-chorioallantoic-membrane
#13
Weiwei Xiang, Bettina Reglin, Bianca Nitzsche, Martin Maibier, Wenwei Rong, Björn Hoffmann, Alfredo Ruggeri, Pedro Guimarães, Timothy W Secomb, Axel R Pries
After arteriolar occlusion, collaterals enlarge and initially elevated wall shear stress (WSS) normalizes. While most previous studies focused on endpoints of such adaptive changes in larger collaterals the present investigation aimed to continuously determine the relation between WSS and diameter in microvascular collaterals during adaptive reactions METHODS: In Hamburger-Hamilton stage 40 chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs), junction points between arteriolar segments were identified and the third upstream segment on one side was occluded...
January 11, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071840/%C3%AE-adrenergic-blockade-does-not-impair-the-skin-blood-flow-sensitivity-to-local-heating-in-burned-and-non-burned-skin-under-neutral-and-hot-environments-in-children
#14
Eric Rivas, Serina J McEntire, David N Herndon, Ronald P Mlcak, Oscar E Suman
OBJECTIVE: Tested the hypothesis that propranolol, a drug given to burn patients to reduce hypermetabolism/cardiac stress, may inhibit heat dissipation by changing the sensitivity of skin blood flow (SkBF) to local heating under neutral and hot conditions. METHODS: In a randomized double-blind study, a placebo was given to 8 burned children while propranolol was given to 13 burned children with similar characteristics (mean ±SD: 11.9±3y, 147±20cm, 45±23kg, 56±12% TBSA)...
January 10, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036148/altered-distribution-of-adrenergic-constrictor-responses-contributes-to-skeletal-muscle-perfusion-abnormalities-in-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Kent Lemaster, Dwayne Jackson, Donald G Welsh, Steven D Brooks, Paul D Chantler, Jefferson C Frisbee
PURPOSE: Although studies suggest elevated adrenergic activity paralleling metabolic syndrome in obese Zucker rats (OZR), the moderate hypertension and modest impact on organ perfusion questions the multi-scale validity of these data. METHODS: To understand how adrenergic function contributes to vascular reactivity in OZR, we utilized a multi-scale approach to investigate pressure responses, skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular reactivity following adrenergic challenge...
December 30, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036147/capillary-endothelial-cells-as-coordinators-of-skeletal-muscle-blood-flow-during-active-hyperaemia
#16
Coral L Murrant, Iain R Lamb, Nicole M Novielli
In this invited review we explore the burgeoning possibility of capillary endothelial cells as coordinators of skeletal muscle blood flow in response to muscle contraction. he idea that the capillary is an active vascular unit in the microcirculation starkly diverges from the traditional dogma that seats arterioles as the central controllers of blood flow during exercise, this review aims to incite discussion as we revisit and rethink the role of capillary endothelial cells in skeletal muscle. We discuss the potential for a mismatch in the architectural relationships between the arteriolar microvasculature and contracting motor units that would negate consistent communication between them...
December 30, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005306/non-enzymatic-glycation-interferes-with-fibronectin-integrin-interactions-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#17
Srijita Dhar, Zhe Sun, Gerald A Meininger, Michael A Hill
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether advanced non-enzymatic glycation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, fibronectin, impacts its normal integrin-mediated interaction with arteriolar vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). METHODS: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed on cultured VSMC from rat cremaster arterioles to study native and glycated fibronectin (FN and gFN) interactions with cellular integrins. AFM probes were functionalized with FN or gFN or with native or glycated albumin (gAlb) as controls...
December 22, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991711/a-computational-model-of-the-effect-of-capillary-density-variability-on-oxygen-transport-glucose-uptake-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-prediabetes
#18
Richard J Sové, Daniel Goldman, Graham M Fraser
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study was to model how capillary density (CD) variability effects tissue oxygenation under resting and exercise conditions. Additionally we examine how CD impacts glucose and insulin transport in skeletal muscle. METHODS: We applied an established 3D finite difference model of oxygen transport to predict tissue oxygenation using functional capillary density, hemodynamics, and SO2 measurements from a previous study. A 2D finite element model of glucose transport was applied to predict glucose and insulin uptake in post-prandial and fasting conditions using the same range of CD...
December 19, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987530/obesity-insulin-resistance-and-microvascular-adaptation
#19
Jefferson C Frisbee
Two of the primary risk factors for the progressive evolution of cardiovascular disease are obesity and impaired glycemic control - including both insulin resistance and overt type 2 diabetes mellitus, leading to increased research emphasis on these conditions, their mechanistic bases and their health outcomes. This Special Topics Issue of the journal Microcirculation summarizes a symposium at the recent Joint Meeting of the American Physiological Society and the Physiological Society, held in Dublin, Ireland on July 30, 2016...
December 17, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987383/model-based-inference-from-microvascular-measurements-combining-experimental-measurements-and-model-predictions-using-a-bayesian-probabilistic-approach
#20
Peter M Rasmussen, Amy F Smith, Sava Sakadžić, David A Boas, Axel R Pries, Timothy W Secomb, Leif Østergaard
In vivo imaging of the microcirculation and network-oriented modeling have emerged as powerful means of studying microvascular function and understanding its physiological significance. Network-oriented modeling may provide the means of summarizing vast amounts of data produced by high-throughput imaging techniques in terms of key, physiological indices. To estimate such indices with sufficient certainty, however, network-oriented analysis must be robust to the inevitable presence of uncertainty due to measurement errors as well as model errors METHODS: We propose the Bayesian probabilistic data analysis framework as a means of integrating experimental measurements and network model simulations into a combined and statistically coherent analysis...
December 17, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
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