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Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316127/melatonin-pretreatment-improves-gastric-mucosal-blood-flow-and-maintains-intestinal-barrier-function-during-hemorrhagic-shock-in-dogs
#1
Christian Vollmer, Andreas P M Weber, Martin Wallenfang, Till Hoffmann, Tabea Mettler-Altmann, Richard Truse, Inge Bauer, Olaf Picker, Alexander M Mathes
OBJECTIVE: Melatonin improves hepatic perfusion after hemorrhagic shock and may reduce stress-induced gastric lesions. This study was designed to investigate whether pretreatment with melatonin may influence gastric mucosal microcirculatory perfusion (μflow), oxygenation (μHbO2 ) or intestinal barrier function during physiological and hemorrhagic conditions in dogs. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over study, five anesthetized foxhounds received melatonin 100 μg/kg or vehicle (ethanol 5%) intravenously in the absence or presence of hemorrhagic shock (60 min, -20% blood volume)...
March 18, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303623/endothelial-signaling-and-the-dynamic-regulation-of-arterial-tone-a-surreptitious-relationship
#2
Donald G Welsh, Thomas A Longden
The endothelium is an integrated layer of cells whose dynamic regulation governs arterial tone development and the matching of blood flow delivery to tissue energetic demand. Investigating the structural and electrical properties of native endothelial cells has been a challenging prospect, with efforts often restricted to traditional myographic techniques. Concerted experimental attention, along with recent technical advances, has broadened the investigative tool kit, deepening mechanistic insights. This overview in part of a Special Topics Issue centered on the endothelium and how key structural/electrical properties guide arterial tone development and integrated network behavior...
March 16, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296053/vasoactive-effect-of-fibronectin-derived-epiviosamine-1-and-related-peptides-in-quiescent-and-stress-models
#3
Mary D Frame, Fubao Lin, Anthony M Dewar, Richard Af Clark
OBJECTIVE: Following thermal burn injury, plasma fibronectin degrades within the interstitium; one possible product is epiviosamine-1 (EVA-1, PSHISKYILRWRPK) found within the first type III repeat of plasma fibronectin (FNIII1 ). EVA-1 ameliorates thermal burn injury progression, and binds to and enhances platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) in promoting cell metabolism, growth and survival; shorter related peptides lose these abilities. Here we study the effect of EVA-1 and shorter peptides for their vasoactivity under quiescent and stress conditions...
March 15, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295872/cellular-crosstalk-inflammatory-signals-and-enhanced-microvascular-permeability
#4
Jerome W Breslin
Microvascular leakage remains a significant clinical problem for which there is no specific therapeutic available. This Special Topics issue of the journal Microcirculation features reviews pertaining to the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control the integrity of the microvascular barrier. Meegan et al [1] summarize recent research findings about how neutrophil extracellular traps and how these can cause injury to the microvascular barrier. Zhang et al [2] highlight the microvascular response to advanced glycation end products that are formed as part of the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus...
March 14, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266749/the-effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-on-microcirculation-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Nikolaj Nerup, Rikard Ambrus, Joanna Lindhe, Michael P Achiam, Palle B Jeppesen, Lars B Svendsen
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and -2 (GLP-2) are gut-derived hormones used in the treatment of diabetes type-2 and short bowel syndrome, respectively. GLP-1 attenuates insulin resistance and GLP-2 reduces enterocyte apoptosis and enhances crypt cell proliferation in the small intestine. In addition, both hormones have vasoactive effects and may be useful in situations with impaired microcirculation. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the potential effects of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on microcirculation...
March 7, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261893/astrocyte-activation-and-capillary-remodeling-in-a-modified-bilateral-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-mice
#6
Jiangman Song, Di Nan, Qihua He, Lu Yang, Huailian Guo
OBJECTIVE: The cerebral ischemia leads to brain dysfunction with neuron degeneration and responses from astrocytes and vessels. The aim of this study was to study the changes of astrocyte and microvessel in a modified bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (modified BCCAO) mice. METHODS: Adult transgenic Tie-2 GFP mice were subject to modified BCCAO operation and cranial window implantation. Cerebral blood flow and neurological injury was examined after ischemia...
March 6, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236639/pericyte-modulation-by-a-functional-antibody-obtained-by-a-novel-single-cell-selection-strategy
#7
Jesper Just, Simon Lykkemark, Charlotte Høgsbjerg Nielsen, Ali Reza Roshenas, Kim Ryun Drasbek, Steen Vang Petersen, Toke Bek, Peter Kristensen
OBJECTIVE: Pericytes surround the endothelial cells of the microvasculature where they serve as active participants in crucial vascular functions such as angiogenesis, stability, and permeability. However, pericyte loss or dysfunction has been described in a number of pathologies. Targeting pericytes could therefore prove instrumental in the further development of vascular therapeutics. METHODS: In order to target the pericyte, a proteomic-based approach using antibody phage display was conducted...
February 25, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231612/the-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibits-lymphatic-pumping-via-activation-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inos-signaling-pathway
#8
Yingxuan Chen, Sonia Rehal, Simon Roizes, Hai-Lei Zhu, William C Cole, Pierre-Yves von der Weid
OBJECTIVE: Mesenteric lymphatic vessels pumping, important to propel lymph and immune cells from the intestinal interstitium to the mesenteric lymph nodes, is compromised during intestinal inflammation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), is a significant contributor to the inflammation-induced lymphatic contractile dysfunction, and to determine its mode of action. METHODS: Contractile parameters were obtained form isolated rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels mounted on a pressure myograph after 24-h incubation with or without TNF-α...
February 23, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182312/microfluidic-approaches-to-the-study-of-angiogenesis-and-the-microcirculation
#9
Ehsan Akbari, Griffin B Spychalski, Jonathan W Song
Microfluidic systems have emerged as a new class of perfusable in vitro culture models that have helped advance and refine our understanding of microvascular function. Cutting-edge microfluidic models have successfully integrated principles from quantitative analysis of vascular function, in vitro flow chambers, microfabrication techniques, and 3-D tissue scaffolds. Here we review the evolution of microfluidic systems, namely their progression from 2-D planar microchannel arrays to 3-D microtissue analogues, and highlight their recent contributions in elucidating the role of biomolecular transport and fluid mechanical stimuli in controlling angiogenesis...
February 9, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177171/increased-survivability-of-ischemic-skin-flap-tissue-in-flk-1-mice-by-pellino-1-intervention
#10
Chandra K Rednam, Rickesha L Wilson, Vaithinathan Selvaraju, Muhammad T Rishi, Mahesh Thirunavukkarasu, Vladimir Coca-Soliz, Rajesh Lakshmanan, J Alexander Palesty, David W McFadden, Nilanjana Maulik
OBJECTIVE: Reduced skin flap survival due to ischemia is a serious concern during reconstructive cosmetic surgery. The absence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors during ischemia may lead to flap failure. We identified Pellino-1 (Peli1), a 46-kDa protein, as a proangiogenic molecule and is directly regulated by VEGF. Therefore, we hypothesized that Peli1 acts downstream of Flk-1/VEGFR2 and aids in skin flap survival during ischemia. METHODS: Scratch and matrigel assays were performed to observe cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro...
February 8, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164414/microfluidic-traction-force-microscopy-to-study-mechanotransduction-in-angiogenesis
#11
Luke Boldock, Claudia Wittkowske, Cecile M Perrault
The formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, angiogenesis, is driven by coordinated endothelial cell migration and matrix remodelling in response to local signals. Recently, a growing body of evidence has shown that mechanotransduction, along with chemotransduction, is a major regulator of angiogenesis. Mechanical signals, such as fluid shear stress and substrate mechanics, influence sprouting and network formation, but the mechanisms behind this relationship are still unclear. Here, we present cellular traction forces as possible effectors activated by mechanosensing to mediate matrix remodelling, and encourage the use of traction force microscopy to study mechanotransduction in angiogenesis...
February 6, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164421/tissue-engineered-3d-microvessel-and-capillary-network-models-for-the-study-of-vascular-phenomena
#12
Max I Bogorad, Jackson DeStefano, Andrew D Wong, Peter C Searson
Advances in tissue-engineering, cell biology, microfabrication, and microfluidics, have led to the development of a wide range of vascular models. Here we review platforms based on templated microvessel fabrication to generate increasingly complex vascular models of: (1) the tumor microenvironment, (2) occluded microvessels, and (3) perfused capillary networks. We outline fabrication guidelines and demonstrate a number of experimental methods for probing vascular function such as permeability measurements, tumor cell intravasation, flow characterization, and endothelial cell morphology and proliferation...
February 5, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135021/a-conceptual-framework-for-predicting-and-addressing-the-consequences-of-disease-related-microvascular-dysfunction
#13
P Mason McClatchey, Jefferson C Frisbee, Jane E B Reusch
OBJECTIVE: A growing body of evidence indicates that impaired microvascular perfusion plays a pathological role in a number of diseases. This manuscript aims to better define which aspects of microvascular perfusion are important, what mass transport processes (e.g. insulin action, tissue oxygenation) may be impacted, and what therapies might reverse these pathologies. METHODS: We derive a theory of microvascular perfusion and solute flux drawing from established relationships in mass transport and anatomy...
January 30, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129479/a-microfluidic-platform-to-study-the-effects-of-vascular-architecture-and-oxygen-gradients-on-sickle-blood-flow
#14
Xinran Lu, Michelle M Galarneau, John M Higgins, David K Wood
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to develop a model of the microvasculature that would allow us to quantify changes in the rheology of sickle blood as it traverses the varying vessel sizes and oxygen tensions in the microcirculation. METHODS: We designed and implemented a microfluidic model of the microcirculation that comprises a branching microvascular network and physiologic oxygen gradients. We used computational modeling to determine the parameters necessary to generate stable, linear gradients in our devices...
January 27, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129474/role-of-moesin-src-and-ros-in-advanced-glycation-end-product-induced-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction
#15
Wei-Jin Zhang, Pei-Xin Li, Xiao-Hua Guo, Qiao-Bing Huang
The disruption of endothelial integrity and the occurrence of angiogenesis in response to advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute greatly to micro- and macrovascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Among human dermal, brain and retinal vascular endothelial cells, activation of ERM protein (Ezrin, radixin and moesin protein), moesin, by phosphorylation of Threonine 558 (Thr-558) is involved in AGE-induced hyperpermeability and angiogenesis via the Rho and Rho-associated protein kinase (Rho/ROCK) and p38 pathways...
January 27, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120468/neutrophil-mediated-vascular-barrier-injury-role-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#16
Jamie E Meegan, Xiaoyuan Yang, Danielle C Coleman, Melanie Jannaway, Sarah Y Yuan
Neutrophils play an essential role in host defense against infection or injury. While neutrophil activation is necessary for pathogen clearance and tissue repair, a hyperactive response can lead to tissue damage and microcirculatory disorders, a process involving complex neutrophil-endothelium crosstalk. This review highlights recent research findings about neutrophil-mediated signaling and structural changes, including those induced by neutrophil extracellular traps, which ultimately lead to vascular barrier injury...
January 24, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116830/enterococcus-faecium-strain-r30-increases-red-blood-cell-velocity-and-prevents-capillary-regression-in-the-soleus-of-hindlimb-unloaded-rats-via-the-enos-vegf-pathway
#17
Yusuke Hirayama, Ryosuke Nakanishi, Airo Tategaki, Noriaki Maeshige, Hiroyo Kondo, Akihiko Ishihara, Roland R Roy, Hidemi Fujino
OBJECTIVE: A chronic decrease in neuromuscular activity results in atrophy and capillary regression in skeletal muscles. The purposes of the present study were to determine the effects of enterococcus faecium strain R30 (R30) administration on 1) the hemodynamics of the rat soleus muscle and 2) the capillary regression normally associated with hindlimb unloading (HU). METHODS: Experiment 1: the velocity of red blood cells (VRBC ) was measured for up to one hour after administration of R30 with or without the β-blocker propranolol...
January 24, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109051/shear-induced-platelet-aggregation-and-distribution-of-thrombogenesis-at-stenotic-vessels
#18
Hiroki Kamada, Yohsuke Imai, Masanori Nakamura, Takuji Ishikawa, Takami Yamaguchi
OBJECTIVE: Shear-induced platelet aggregation (SIPA), which is mediated by von Willebrand factor (vWF), is a key mechanism in arterial thrombosis under an abnormally high shear rate of blood flow. We investigated the influence of SIPA on thrombogenesis, focusing on alterations in blood flow at stenotic vessels. METHODS: We carried out a computer simulation of thrombogenesis in stenotic vessels at three different injury positions (i.e., upstream, apex, and downstream of the stenosis) to evaluate the effect of SIPA...
January 21, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106317/changes-in-vascular-reactivity-and-endothelial-ca-2-dynamics-with-chronic-low-flow
#19
Mark S Taylor, Chung-Sik Choi, Leith Bayazid, Katherine E Glosemeyer, Calvin C P Baker, David S Weber
Disruption of blood flow promotes endothelial dysfunction and predisposes vessels to remodeling and atherosclerosis. Recent findings suggest spatial and temporal tuning of local Ca(2+) signals along the endothelium is vital to vascular function. In the current study, we examined whether chronic flow disruption causes alteration of dynamic endothelial Ca(2+) signal patterning associated with changes in vascular structure and function. For these studies, we performed surgical partial-ligation (PL) of the left carotid arteries of mice to establish chronic low flow for 2 weeks; right carotid arteries remained open and served as controls (C)...
January 20, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106307/normal-saline-is-associated-with-increased-sickle-red-cell-stiffness-and-prolonged-transit-times-in-a-microfluidic-model-of-the-capillary-system
#20
Marcus A Carden, Meredith Fay, Yumiko Sakurai, Brynn McFarland, Sydney Blanche, Caleb Diprete, Clinton H Joiner, Todd Sulchek, Wilbur A Lam
Vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is a complex process that occurs in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and is often associated with pain and urgent hospitalization. A major instigator of VOC is microvascular obstruction by pathologically stiffened sickle red blood cells (RBCs), and thus therapy relies heavily on optimizing intravenous fluid (IVF) hydration to increase RBC deformability. However, no evidence-based guidelines regarding the choice of IVF currently exist. We therefore analyzed alterations in biomechanical properties of sickle RBCs isolated from patients with homozygous SCD (hemoglobin SS) after exposure to different osmolarities of clinical IVF formulations...
January 20, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
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