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Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109051/shear-induced-platelet-aggregation-and-distribution-of-thrombogenesis-at-stenotic-vessels
#1
Hiroki Kamada, Yohsuke Imai, Masanori Nakamura, Takuji Ishikawa, Takami Yamaguchi
OBJECTIVE: Shear-induced platelet aggregation (SIPA), which is mediated by von Willebrand factor (vWF), is a key mechanism in arterial thrombosis under an abnormally high shear rate of blood flow. We investigated the influence of SIPA on thrombogenesis, focusing on alterations in blood flow at stenotic vessels. METHODS: We carried out a computer simulation of thrombogenesis in stenotic vessels at three different injury positions (i.e., upstream, apex, and downstream of the stenosis) to evaluate the effect of SIPA...
January 21, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106317/changes-in-vascular-reactivity-and-endothelial-ca-2-dynamics-with-chronic-low-flow
#2
Mark S Taylor, Chung-Sik Choi, Leith Bayazid, Katherine E Glosemeyer, Calvin C P Baker, David S Weber
Disruption of blood flow promotes endothelial dysfunction and predisposes vessels to remodeling and atherosclerosis. Recent findings suggest spatial and temporal tuning of local Ca(2+) signals along the endothelium is vital to vascular function. In the current study, we examined whether chronic flow disruption causes alteration of dynamic endothelial Ca(2+) signal patterning associated with changes in vascular structure and function. For these studies, we performed surgical partial-ligation (PL) of the left carotid arteries of mice to establish chronic low flow for 2 weeks; right carotid arteries remained open and served as controls (C)...
January 20, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106307/normal-saline-is-associated-with-increased-sickle-red-cell-stiffness-and-prolonged-transit-times-in-a-microfluidic-model-of-the-capillary-system
#3
Marcus A Carden, Meredith Fay, Yumiko Sakurai, Brynn McFarland, Sydney Blanche, Caleb Diprete, Clinton H Joiner, Todd Sulchek, Wilbur A Lam
Vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is a complex process that occurs in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and is often associated with pain and urgent hospitalization. A major instigator of VOC is microvascular obstruction by pathologically stiffened sickle red blood cells (RBCs), and thus therapy relies heavily on optimizing intravenous fluid (IVF) hydration to increase RBC deformability. However, no evidence-based guidelines regarding the choice of IVF currently exist. We therefore analyzed alterations in biomechanical properties of sickle RBCs isolated from patients with homozygous SCD (hemoglobin SS) after exposure to different osmolarities of clinical IVF formulations...
January 20, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075525/dynamic-remodeling-of-arteriolar-collaterals-after-acute-occlusion-in-chick-chorioallantoic-membrane
#4
Weiwei Xiang, Bettina Reglin, Bianca Nitzsche, Martin Maibier, Wenwei Rong, Björn Hoffmann, Alfredo Ruggeri, Pedro Guimarães, Timothy W Secomb, Axel R Pries
After arteriolar occlusion, collaterals enlarge and initially elevated wall shear stress (WSS) normalizes. While most previous studies focused on endpoints of such adaptive changes in larger collaterals the present investigation aimed to continuously determine the relation between WSS and diameter in microvascular collaterals during adaptive reactions METHODS: In Hamburger-Hamilton stage 40 chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs), junction points between arteriolar segments were identified and the third upstream segment on one side was occluded...
January 11, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071840/%C3%AE-adrenergic-blockade-does-not-impair-the-skin-blood-flow-sensitivity-to-local-heating-in-burned-and-non-burned-skin-under-neutral-and-hot-environments-in-children
#5
Eric Rivas, Serina J McEntire, David N Herndon, Ronald P Mlcak, Oscar E Suman
OBJECTIVE: Tested the hypothesis that propranolol, a drug given to burn patients to reduce hypermetabolism/cardiac stress, may inhibit heat dissipation by changing the sensitivity of skin blood flow (SkBF) to local heating under neutral and hot conditions. METHODS: In a randomized double-blind study, a placebo was given to 8 burned children while propranolol was given to 13 burned children with similar characteristics (mean ±SD: 11.9±3y, 147±20cm, 45±23kg, 56±12% TBSA)...
January 10, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036148/altered-distribution-of-adrenergic-constrictor-responses-contributes-to-skeletal-muscle-perfusion-abnormalities-in-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Kent Lemaster, Dwayne Jackson, Donald G Welsh, Steven D Brooks, Paul D Chantler, Jefferson C Frisbee
PURPOSE: Although studies suggest elevated adrenergic activity paralleling metabolic syndrome in obese Zucker rats (OZR), the moderate hypertension and modest impact on organ perfusion questions the multi-scale validity of these data. METHODS: To understand how adrenergic function contributes to vascular reactivity in OZR, we utilized a multi-scale approach to investigate pressure responses, skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular reactivity following adrenergic challenge...
December 30, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036147/capillary-endothelial-cells-as-coordinators-of-skeletal-muscle-blood-flow-during-active-hyperaemia
#7
Coral L Murrant, Iain R Lamb, Nicole M Novielli
In this invited review we explore the burgeoning possibility of capillary endothelial cells as coordinators of skeletal muscle blood flow in response to muscle contraction. he idea that the capillary is an active vascular unit in the microcirculation starkly diverges from the traditional dogma that seats arterioles as the central controllers of blood flow during exercise, this review aims to incite discussion as we revisit and rethink the role of capillary endothelial cells in skeletal muscle. We discuss the potential for a mismatch in the architectural relationships between the arteriolar microvasculature and contracting motor units that would negate consistent communication between them...
December 30, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005306/non-enzymatic-glycation-interferes-with-fibronectin-integrin-interactions-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#8
Srijita Dhar, Zhe Sun, Gerald A Meininger, Michael A Hill
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether advanced non-enzymatic glycation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, fibronectin, impacts its normal integrin-mediated interaction with arteriolar vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). METHODS: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed on cultured VSMC from rat cremaster arterioles to study native and glycated fibronectin (FN and gFN) interactions with cellular integrins. AFM probes were functionalized with FN or gFN or with native or glycated albumin (gAlb) as controls...
December 22, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991711/a-computational-model-of-the-effect-of-capillary-density-variability-on-oxygen-transport-glucose-uptake-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-prediabetes
#9
Richard J Sové, Daniel Goldman, Graham M Fraser
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study was to model how capillary density (CD) variability effects tissue oxygenation under resting and exercise conditions. Additionally we examine how CD impacts glucose and insulin transport in skeletal muscle. METHODS: We applied an established 3D finite difference model of oxygen transport to predict tissue oxygenation using functional capillary density, hemodynamics, and SO2 measurements from a previous study. A 2D finite element model of glucose transport was applied to predict glucose and insulin uptake in post-prandial and fasting conditions using the same range of CD...
December 19, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987530/obesity-insulin-resistance-and-microvascular-adaptation
#10
Jefferson C Frisbee
Two of the primary risk factors for the progressive evolution of cardiovascular disease are obesity and impaired glycemic control - including both insulin resistance and overt type 2 diabetes mellitus, leading to increased research emphasis on these conditions, their mechanistic bases and their health outcomes. This Special Topics Issue of the journal Microcirculation summarizes a symposium at the recent Joint Meeting of the American Physiological Society and the Physiological Society, held in Dublin, Ireland on July 30, 2016...
December 17, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987383/model-based-inference-from-microvascular-measurements-combining-experimental-measurements-and-model-predictions-using-a-bayesian-probabilistic-approach
#11
Peter M Rasmussen, Amy F Smith, Sava Sakadžić, David A Boas, Axel R Pries, Timothy W Secomb, Leif Østergaard
In vivo imaging of the microcirculation and network-oriented modeling have emerged as powerful means of studying microvascular function and understanding its physiological significance. Network-oriented modeling may provide the means of summarizing vast amounts of data produced by high-throughput imaging techniques in terms of key, physiological indices. To estimate such indices with sufficient certainty, however, network-oriented analysis must be robust to the inevitable presence of uncertainty due to measurement errors as well as model errors METHODS: We propose the Bayesian probabilistic data analysis framework as a means of integrating experimental measurements and network model simulations into a combined and statistically coherent analysis...
December 17, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987377/retinal-vascular-caliber-associated-with-cardiac-and-renal-target-organ-damage-in-never-treated-hypertensive-patients
#12
Vincent Daien, Loic Granados, Ryo Kawasaki, Max Villain, Jean Ribstein, Guilhem Du Cailar, Albert Mimran, Pierre Fesler
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between retinal vascular caliber and target organ damage in hypertensive patients (HT). METHODS: Data were collected on cardiac, renal, vascular and retinal variables in 88 consecutive never-treated HT subjects. Retinal vascular calibers were measured from fundus photographs by using a semi-automated computer-assisted program and summarized as central retinal artery and vein equivalent (CRAE, CRVE)...
December 17, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976459/current-perspectives-in-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction
#13
Joy S Shome, Divaka Perera, Sven Plein, Amedeo Chiribiri
The coronary arterial system consists of large epicardial coronary arteries, pre-arterioles, and arterioles, which together closely regulate coronary blood flow. Structural, functional and extravascular abnormalities of the microcirculation lead to coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). CMD can present with symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease (CAD), often in the absence of significant obstructive epicardial CAD. Conventional invasive angiography does not allow direct visualization of the microcirculation...
December 15, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976451/arteriogenesis-in-murine-adipose-tissue-is-contingent-on-cd68-cd206-macrophages
#14
Scott A Seaman, Yiqi Cao, Chris A Campbell, Shayn M Peirce
OBJECTIVE: The surgical transfer of skin, fat, and/or muscle from a donor site to a recipient site within the same patient, is a widely performed procedure in reconstructive surgeries. A surgical pre-treatment strategy that is intended to increase perfusion in the flap, termed "flap delay", is a commonly employed technique by plastic surgeons prior to flap transplantation. Here, we explored whether CD68(+) /CD206(+) macrophages are required for arteriogenesis within the flap by performing gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in a previously published flap delay murine model...
December 15, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926994/microvessels-of-the-heart-formation-regeneration-and-dysfunction
#15
Ioakim Spyridopoulos, Helen M Arthur
This issue of Microcirculation focusses on the special topic of "microvessels of the heart" and contains five state-of-the-art reviews and one expert article that reflect current efforts to address the major gaps in our understanding of these key microvessels. In the adult heart, most attention until recently (especially among the clinical cardiology community) has been given to the main coronary arteries, which are the culprit vessels in patients with coronary artery disease, including its most serious manifestation, acute myocardial infarction (MI)...
December 7, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893186/the-relative-influence-of-hematocrit-and-red-blood-cell-velocity-on-oxygen-transport-from-capillaries-to-tissue
#16
Adrien Lücker, Timothy W Secomb, Bruno Weber, Patrick Jenny
OBJECTIVE: Oxygen transport to parenchymal cells occurs mainly at the microvascular level, and depends on convective red blood cell (RBC) flux, which is proportional in an individual capillary to the product of capillary hematocrit and red blood cell velocity. This study investigates the relative influence of these two factors on tissue oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ). METHODS: A simple analytical model is used to quantify the respective influences of hematocrit, RBC velocity and flow on tissue oxygenation around capillaries...
November 28, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889934/vascular-cell-transcriptomic-changes-to-exercise-training-differ-directionally-along-and-between-skeletal-muscle-arteriolar-trees
#17
M Harold Laughlin, Hsiao T Yang, Darla L Tharp, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, Douglas K Bowles
EXT-induced arteriolar adaptations in skeletal muscle are heterogeneous because of spatial variations in muscle fiber type composition and fiber recruitment patterns during exercise. The purpose of this report is to summarize a series of experiments conducted to test the hypothesis that changes in vascular gene expression are signaled by alterations in shear stress resulting from increases in blood flow, muscle fiber type composition and fiber recruitment patterns. We also report results from a follow-up study of Ankrd23, one gene whose expression was changed by EXT...
November 27, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859990/prospects-for-improving-neovascularisation-of-the-ischaemic-heart-lessons-from-development
#18
Nicola Smart
Neovascularisation of the ischaemic myocardium post-infarction is necessary to restore blood flow to vulnerable cardiomyocytes and will be indispensable for prospective regenerative strategies, to perfuse newly formed myocardium. Therapeutic attempts to enhance new vessel formation have, to date, yielded modest clinical benefits and innovative approaches are now needed. Intrinsic mechanisms are initiated by the heart in an attempt to rebuild injured vessels but these are poorly understood. Insight into the underlying mechanisms may reveal targets for therapeutically augmenting this low-level neovascular response...
November 17, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809400/structural-analysis-of-endothelial-projections-from-mesenteric-arteries
#19
Nadia Maarouf, Maria Sancho, Tobias Fürstenhaupt, Cam Ha Tran, Donald G Welsh
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial and smooth muscle cells must communicate with one another to regulate arterial diameter. A key structure driving heterocellular communication is the endothelial projection, a thin extension that crosses the internal elastic lamina (IEL) making contact with smooth muscle. This study sought to define the precise structural composition of endothelial projections in the mesenteric circulation. METHODS: Third and fourth order mesenteric arteries from hamster were prepared for electron microscopy...
November 3, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809397/flow-motion-dynamics-of-microvascular-blood-flow-and-oxygenation-evidence-of-adaptive-changes-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-insulin-resistance
#20
Geraldine F Clough, Katarzyna Z Kuliga, Andrew J Chipperfield
An altered spatial heterogeneity and temporal stability of network perfusion can give rise to a limited adaptive ability to meet metabolic demands. Derangement of local flow motion activity is associated with reduced microvascular blood flow and tissue oxygenation and it has been suggested that changes in flow motion activity may provide an early indicator of declining, endothelial, neurogenic and myogenic regulatory mechanisms and signal the onset and progression of microvascular pathophysiology. This short conference review article explores some of the evidence for altered flow motion dynamics of blood flux signals acquired using laser Doppler fluximetry in the skin in individuals at risk of developing or with cardio-metabolic disease...
November 3, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
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