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Artificial Life

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150999/adaptive-local-information-transfer-in-random-boolean-networks
#1
Taichi Haruna
Living systems such as gene regulatory networks and neuronal networks have been supposed to work close to dynamical criticality, where their information-processing ability is optimal at the whole-system level. We investigate how this global information-processing optimality is related to the local information transfer at each individual-unit level. In particular, we introduce an internal adjustment process of the local information transfer and examine whether the former can emerge from the latter. We propose an adaptive random Boolean network model in which each unit rewires its incoming arcs from other units to balance stability of its information processing based on the measurement of the local information transfer pattern...
2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140632/what-is-morphological-computation-on-how-the-body-contributes-to-cognition-and-control
#2
Vincent C Müller, Matej Hoffmann
The contribution of the body to cognition and control in natural and artificial agents is increasingly described as "offloading computation from the brain to the body," where the body is said to perform "morphological computation." Our investigation of four characteristic cases of morphological computation in animals and robots shows that the "offloading" perspective is misleading. Actually, the contribution of body morphology to cognition and control is rarely computational, in any useful sense of the word...
2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140631/invasion-of-cooperation-in-scale-free-networks-accumulated-versus-average-payoffs
#3
Genki Ichinose, Hiroki Sayama
It is well known that cooperation cannot be an evolutionarily stable strategy for a non-iterative game in a well-mixed population. In contrast, structured populations favor cooperation, since cooperators can benefit each other by forming local clusters. Previous studies have shown that scale-free networks strongly promote cooperation. However, little is known about the invasion mechanism of cooperation in scale-free networks. To study microscopic and macroscopic behaviors of cooperators' invasion, we conducted computational experiments on the evolution of cooperation in scale-free networks where, starting from all defectors, cooperators can spontaneously emerge by mutation...
2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140630/quantifying-long-range-interactions-and-coherent-structure-in-multi-agent-dynamics
#4
Oliver M Cliff, Joseph T Lizier, X Rosalind Wang, Peter Wang, Oliver Obst, Mikhail Prokopenko
We develop and apply several novel methods quantifying dynamic multi-agent team interactions. These interactions are detected information-theoretically and captured in two ways: via (i) directed networks (interaction diagrams) representing significant coupled dynamics between pairs of agents, and (ii) state-space plots (coherence diagrams) showing coherent structures in Shannon information dynamics. This model-free analysis relates, on the one hand, the information transfer to responsiveness of the agents and the team, and, on the other hand, the information storage within the team to the team's rigidity and lack of tactical flexibility...
2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140629/evolution-of-joint-level-control-for-quadrupedal-locomotion
#5
Jared M Moore, Philip K McKinley
We investigate a hierarchical approach to robot control inspired by joint-level control in animals. The method combines a high-level controller, consisting of an artificial neural network (ANN), with joint-level controllers based on digital muscles. In the digital muscle model (DMM), morphological and control aspects of joints evolve concurrently, emulating the musculoskeletal system of natural organisms. We introduce and compare different approaches for connecting outputs of the ANN to DMM-based joints. We also compare the performance of evolved animats with ANN-DMM controllers with those governed by only high-level (ANN-only) and low-level (DMM-only) controllers...
2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140628/online-gait-learning-for-modular-robots-with-arbitrary-shapes-and-sizes
#6
Berend Weel, M D'Angelo, Evert Haasdijk, A E Eiben
Evolutionary robotics using real hardware is currently restricted to evolving robot controllers, but the technology for evolvable morphologies is advancing quickly. Rapid prototyping (3D printing) and automated assembly are the main enablers of robotic systems where robot offspring can be produced based on a blueprint that specifies the morphologies and the controllers of the parents. This article addresses the problem of gait learning in newborn robots whose morphology is unknown in advance. We investigate a reinforcement learning method and conduct simulation experiments using robot morphologies with different size and complexity...
2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472418/introduction-to-the-modeling-and-analysis-of-complex-systems-h-sayama-ed-2015-open-suny-textbooks-free-open-access-pdf-498-pp-isbn-978-1-942341-06-2-deluxe-color-edition-isbn-978-1-942341-08-6-print-edition-isbn-978-1-942341-09-3-ebook
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911620/reviewers-of-volume-22
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824500/programs-as-polypeptides
#9
Lance R Williams
Object-oriented combinator chemistry (OOCC) is an artificial chemistry with composition devices borrowed from object-oriented and functional programming languages. Actors in OOCC are embedded in space and subject to diffusion; since they are neither created nor destroyed, their mass is conserved. Actors use programs constructed from combinators to asynchronously update their own states and the states of other actors in their neighborhoods. The fact that programs and combinators are themselves reified as actors makes it possible to build programs that build programs from combinators of a few primitive types using asynchronous spatial processes that resemble chemistry as much as computation...
2016: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824499/evolvability-tradeoffs-in-emergent-digital-replicators
#10
Thomas LaBar, Arend Hintze, Christoph Adami
The role of historical contingency in the origin of life is one of the great unknowns in modern science. Only one example of life exists-one that proceeded from a single self-replicating organism (or a set of replicating hypercycles) to the vast complexity we see today in Earth's biosphere. We know that emergent life has the potential to evolve great increases in complexity, but it is unknown if evolvability is automatic given any self-replicating organism. At the same time, it is difficult to test such questions in biochemical systems...
2016: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824498/the-structure-of-ontogenies-in-a-model-protocell
#11
Eran Agmon, Alexander J Gates, Randall D Beer
Emergent individuals are often characterized with respect to their viability: their ability to maintain themselves and persist in variable environments. As such individuals interact with an environment, they undergo sequences of structural changes that correspond to their ontogenies. Ultimately, individuals that adapt to their environment, and increase their chances of survival, persist. This article provides an initial step towards a more formal treatment of these concepts. A network of possible ontogenies is uncovered by subjecting a model protocell to sequential perturbations and mapping the resulting structural configurations...
2016: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824497/partial-redundancy-and-morphological-homeostasis-reliable-development-through-overlapping-mechanisms
#12
Micah Brodsky
How might organisms grow into their desired physical forms in spite of environmental and genetic variation? How do they maintain this form in spite of physical insults? This article presents a case study in simulated morphogenesis, using a physics-based model for embryonic epithelial tissue. The challenges of the underlying physics force the introduction of closed-loop controllers for both spatial patterning and geometric structure. Reliable development is achieved not through elaborate control procedures or exact solutions, but through crude layering of independent, overlapping mechanisms...
2016: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824496/editorial-introduction-to-the-artificial-life-2015-conference-special-issue
#13
Simon Hickenbotham, Susan Stepney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824495/the-ulam-programming-language-for-artificial-life
#14
David H Ackley, Elena S Ackley
Traditional digital computing demands perfectly reliable memory and processing, so programs can build structures once then use them forever-but such deterministic execution is becoming ever more costly in large-scale systems. By contrast, living systems, viewed as computations, naturally tolerate fallible hardware by repairing and rebuilding structures even while in use-and suggest ways to compute using massive amounts of unreliable, merely best-effort hardware. However, we currently know little about programming without deterministic execution, in architectures where traditional models of computation-and deterministic ALife models such as the Game of Life-need not apply...
2016: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532608/introduction-to-the-modeling-and-analysis-of-complex-systems-h-sayama-ed-2015-open-suny-textbooks-free-open-access-pdf-498-pp-isbn-978-1-942341-06-2-deluxe-color-edition-isbn-978-1-942341-08-6-print-edition-isbn-978-1-942341-09-3-ebook
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472417/open-ended-evolution-perspectives-from-the-oee-workshop-in-york
#16
Tim Taylor, Mark Bedau, Alastair Channon, David Ackley, Wolfgang Banzhaf, Guillaume Beslon, Emily Dolson, Tom Froese, Simon Hickinbotham, Takashi Ikegami, Barry McMullin, Norman Packard, Steen Rasmussen, Nathaniel Virgo, Eran Agmon, Edward Clark, Simon McGregor, Charles Ofria, Glen Ropella, Lee Spector, Kenneth O Stanley, Adam Stanton, Christopher Timperley, Anya Vostinar, Michael Wiser
We describe the content and outcomes of the First Workshop on Open-Ended Evolution: Recent Progress and Future Milestones (OEE1), held during the ECAL 2015 conference at the University of York, UK, in July 2015. We briefly summarize the content of the workshop's talks, and identify the main themes that emerged from the open discussions. Two important conclusions from the discussions are: (1) the idea of pluralism about OEE-it seems clear that there is more than one interesting and important kind of OEE; and (2) the importance of distinguishing observable behavioral hallmarks of systems undergoing OEE from hypothesized underlying mechanisms that explain why a system exhibits those hallmarks...
2016: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472416/webal-comes-of-age-a-review-of-the-first-21-years-of-artificial-life-on-the-web
#17
Tim Taylor, Joshua E Auerbach, Josh Bongard, Jeff Clune, Simon Hickinbotham, Charles Ofria, Mizuki Oka, Sebastian Risi, Kenneth O Stanley, Jason Yosinski
We present a survey of the first 21 years of web-based artificial life (WebAL) research and applications, broadly construed to include the many different ways in which artificial life and web technologies might intersect. Our survey covers the period from 1994-when the first WebAL work appeared-up to the present day, together with a brief discussion of relevant precursors. We examine recent projects, from 2010-2015, in greater detail in order to highlight the current state of the art. We follow the survey with a discussion of common themes and methodologies that can be observed in recent work and identify a number of likely directions for future work in this exciting area...
2016: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472415/cyclic-incrementality-in-competitive-coevolution-evolvability-through-pseudo-baldwinian-switching-genes
#18
Rick Janssen, Stefano Nolfi, Pim Haselager, Ida Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper
Coevolving systems are notoriously difficult to understand. This is largely due to the Red Queen effect that dictates heterospecific fitness interdependence. In simulation studies of coevolving systems, master tournaments are often used to obtain more informed fitness measures by testing evolved individuals against past and future opponents. However, such tournaments still contain certain ambiguities. We introduce the use of a phenotypic cluster analysis to examine the distribution of opponent categories throughout an evolutionary sequence...
2016: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176602/artificial-life-journal-alife-14-special-issue
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176601/editorial-introduction-to-the-artificial-life-14-conference-special-issue
#20
Hiroki Sayama, John Rieffel, Sebastian Risi, René Doursat, Hod Lipson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Artificial Life
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