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Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838244/food-added-monosodium-glutamate-does-not-alter-brain-structure-or-antioxidant-status
#1
REVIEW
Miro Smriga
The International Glutamate Technical Committee (IGTC) comments on a recent publication in "Pathophysiology" entitled "Evidence of alterations in brain structure and antioxidant status following "low-dose" monosodium glutamate ingestion" (authored by Onaolapo, Onaolapo, Akanmu and Gbola) [1]. In particular, IGTC highlights that, in the view of published scientific literature [2-12], the methods of this study were inappropriate and did not support conclusions drawn by the authors.
October 28, 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793419/biochemical-and-physiological-effects-from-exhaust-emissions-a-review-of-the-relevant-literature
#2
REVIEW
Sergio Manzetti, Otto Andersen
Exhaust emissions are to date ranked among the most frequent causes of premature deaths worldwide. The combustion of fuels such as diesel, gasoline, and bio-blends provokes a series of pathophysiological responses in exposed subjects, which are associated with biochemical and immunological triggering. It is critical to understand these mechanisms, which are directly related to the levels of aerosol, liquid and gaseous components in fuel exhaust (e.g. nanoparticles, particulate matter, volatile compounds), so to cast attention on their toxicity and gradually minimize their use...
October 20, 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686729/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-fibrosis-and-elastin-destruction-in-childhood-interstitial-lung-diseases
#3
Enas A Hamed, Mostafa M El-Saied, Khaled Saad, Hazem Abu-Zeid Yousef, Amany O Mohamed, Dina Sabry
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate fibrosis and elastin destruction in childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) patients. METHODS: Sixty patients and twenty healthy children were recruited. On admission, evaluation of chILD severity was made using Fan chILD score. Participants provided urine and blood samples. Plasma levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, connective tissue growth factor (CCN2), soluble factor related apoptosis (sFas) and long non-coding RNAs and urinary levels of desmosine/urinary creatinine (UDes/UCr) were measured...
September 21, 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793418/omega-3-fatty-acids-decreases-oxidative-stress-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-interleukin-1-beta-in-hyperthyroidism-induced-hepatic-dysfunction-rat-model
#4
Asmaa M S Gomaa, Ebtihal A Abd El-Aziz
Hyperthyroidism is associated with abnormalities of the liver. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially their long-chain forms: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial health effects. The objectives of the present study were to assess hyperthyroidism-induced hepatic dysfunction in adult male rats and to evaluate the ameliorative effects of omega-3 on hyperthyroidism-induced hepatic dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms. Twenty four adult male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups; control group which received water for 6 weeks, hyperthyroid group which received L-thyroxine orally for 6 weeks and hyperthyroid omega-3 treated group which received L-thyroxine for 2 weeks and then co-treated with L-thyroxine and omega-3 oral compound containing 18% of EPA and 12% of DHA for 4 weeks...
December 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524473/reduced-expression-of-vacht-increases-renal-fibrosis
#5
Reinaldo Correia Silva, Fernanda Fernandes Terra, Yuri Felipe Guise, Marco Antônio Máximo Prado, Vânia Ferreira Prado, Meire Ioshie Hiyane, Denise Maria Avancini Costa Malheiros, Carla Maximo Prado, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara, Tarcio Teodoro Braga
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with several other long-lasting conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and it is a significant contributor to mortality worldwide. Obstructive kidney disease is one of the leading causes of CKD in children and may result from a wide variety of pathologic processes. Recent studies have shown that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) activation in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduces production of inflammatory mediators and consequently prevents tissue injury and death...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514460/elevated-cardiac-3-deoxyglucosone-a-highly-reactive-intermediate-in-glycation-reaction-in-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-rats
#6
Tomoyuki Moriyama, Masayuki Kemi, Toshiharu Horie
3-Deoxyglucosone (3-DG) is a highly reactive carbonyl intermediate in glycation reaction (also known as Maillard reaction) and plays an important role in diabetic complications. We investigated the potential involvement of 3-DG in doxorubicin (DXR)-induced cardiotoxicity. Male Crl:CD(SD) rats received intravenous injections of DXR at 2mg/kg, once weekly, for 6 weeks, with/without daily intraperitoneal treatment with 3-DG scavenging agents, i.e., aminoguanidine (AG, 25mg/kg/day) and pyridoxamine (PM, 60mg/kg/day)...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27480360/dynamics-of-early-stem-cell-recruitment-in-skin-flaps-subjected-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#7
Ya Hui Tang, Lindsey A Pennington, Jessica W Scordino, Jonathan Steven Alexander, Timothy Lian
OBJECTIVE: Bone marrow-derived stromal cell (BMSCs) therapy improves survival of skin flaps subject to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, very little is known about the trafficking and distribution of BMSCs in post-ischemic skin tissue following intravenous administration. The aim of this study was to assess the behavior of BMSCs in post-ischemic skin flaps and to compare the magnitude and kinetics of accumulation of BMSCs and leukocytes following I/R. METHODS: Cutaneous flaps perfused by the inferior epigastric vessels were created in C57Bl6 mice...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424529/goji-fruit-lycium-barbarum-protects-sciatic-nerve-function-against-crush-injury-in-a-model-of-diabetic-stress
#8
K V Simonyan, L G Avetisyan, V A Chavushyan
Excess fructose consumption causes changes in functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems, which increase the vulnerability of peripheral nerves to traumatic injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electrophysiological parameters of responses of motoneurons of the spinal cord at high-frequency stimulation of the distal part of the injured sciatic nerve in a model of diabetic stress under action of Lycium barbarum (LB). Male albino rats were given with drinking water with 50% concentration of dietary fructose for 6 weeks...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397900/ret-mouse-very-large-tumors-vlts-display-altered-ratios-of-infiltrating-memory-to-naive-t-cells-roles-in-tumor-expansion
#9
Mohammad W Khan, Viktor Umansky
Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer, however it is immunogenic. The size of the primary tumor is associated with the nodal metastases. Our goals were to characterize melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs) and tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes (TILs) subsets in the few very large tumors (VLTs) developing in ret transgenic mice of melanoma. Tumors >700mg (VLTs) were investigated for MAAs and subsets of TILs. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry-based studies were performed to determine the infiltration patterns of T-lymphocytes in VLTs...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354343/cortical-gene-expression-correlates-of-temporal-lobe-epileptogenicity
#10
Abigail P McCallum, Matthew J Gallek, Wyatt Ramey, Ann Manziello, Marlys H Witte, Michael J Bernas, David M Labiner, Martin E Weinand
INTRODUCTION: Despite being one of the most common neurological diseases, it is unknown whether there may be a genetic basis to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Whole genome analyses were performed to test the hypothesis that temporal cortical gene expression differs between TLE patients with high vs. low baseline seizure frequency. METHODS: Baseline seizure frequency was used as a clinical measure of epileptogenicity. Twenty-four patients in high or low seizure frequency groups (median seizures/month) underwent anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy for intractable TLE...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342760/regulation-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-insights-and-approaches-for-the-management-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#11
REVIEW
Abdullah Mohammad Tauheed, Joseph Olusegun Ayo, Mohammed Umaru Kawu
The development and maturation of oligodendrocyte require complex mechanisms that interact at different levels to regulate neuronal activities. This review examines specific functions and critical roles of oligodendrocyte, regulatory factors involved in its differentiation, including the involvement of glutamate and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Olig2, Id4, Wnt/β-catenin and histone deacetylase (HDAC) appear to play crucial roles in spatio-temporal regulation of the differentiation of oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, HDAC appears to be the rate-limiting factor that may be manipulated to promote myelination as it simultaneously allays contact inhibition of Id4 in the intrinsic pathway and Wnt/β-catenin in the extrinsic pathway...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342759/protective-effects-of-vitex-doniana-black-plum-against-ischemic-testes-torsion-injury-histological-and-morphometric-features
#12
Stephen Taiye Adelodun, Olarinde Stephen Adewole, Ronald Ayodele Bejide, David O Adeyemi, Babatunde Elijah Arayombo, Olusola Stephen Saka, Ahmed Afolabi Olayode
We evaluated the effects of Vitex doniana leaves on testes histology and morphometry in Wistar rats following testicular torsion. Thirty male Wistar rats (120-160g) were randomly assigned into six groups (n=5). Surgical procedures were performed under ketamine anaesthesia (5mg/kg i.m). Sham surgery was performed on group A rats and given distilled water for 7 days. Animals in other groups had their left testes twisted at 720° for one hour, sutured, and treated for 7 days. Group B rats were left untreated, groups C, D and E received 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg of extract respectively while group F received 100mg/kg of vitamin C...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339176/alligator-pepper-grain-of-paradise-aframomum-melegueta-modulates-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-activity-lipid-profile-and-oxidative-imbalances-in-a-rat-model-of-hypercholesterolemia
#13
Stephen A Adefegha, Ganiyu Oboh, Omowunmi M Adefegha, Thomas Henle
Alligator pepper [Aframomum melegueta Roscoe K. (Zingiberaceae)] seeds have been reportedly used in folkloric medicine in the management of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension with limited scientific basis for their action. This study was conducted to characterize the amino acids in Alligator pepper seeds (APS), assess their effects on lipid profile and enzyme linked to blood pressure regulation in hypercholesterolemic rat (rats fed 2% cholesterol diet) model. Free and total amino acids of APS were extracted and their various constituents were analyzed using the amino acid analyzer and ultra-performance liquid chromatography...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312658/evidence-of-alterations-in-brain-structure-and-antioxidant-status-following-low-dose-monosodium-glutamate-ingestion
#14
Olakunle James Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde Onaolapo, M A Akanmu, Olayiwola Gbola
OBJECTIVE: The study investigated the effects of low dose monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the brain, with a view to providing information on its effects on neuronal morphology and antioxidant status in mice. METHODOLOGY: Sixty male mice (20-22 g) were divided into six groups of ten animals each. Vehicle (distilled water), a standard (l-glutamate at 10mg/kg body weight) or MSG (10, 20, 40 and 80mg/kg body weight) were administered orally for 28days. Sections of the cerebrum, hippocampus and cerebellum were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin, examined under a microscope and captured images analysed...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596362/caffeine-plus-nicotine-improves-motor-function-spatial-and-non-spatial-working-memory-and-functional-indices-in-balb-c-male-mice
#15
P A Adeniyi, E P Omatsuli, A J Akinyemi, A O Ishola
There is a greater prevalence of cigarette smoking among caffeine dependent individuals. This study therefore sought to assess the effect of nicotine and/or caffeine on some key biochemical indices and neurobehavioural parameters associated with brain function in male mice. Forty male BALB/c mice were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each; Group A serve as the control and received normal saline (s.c), Group B received 2mg/kg body weight of nicotine (s.c), Group C received 2mg/kg body weight of caffeine (s...
August 26, 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645475/sleep-on-manned-space-flights-zero-gravity-reduces-sleep-duration
#16
Alain Gonfalone
The success of a manned space mission depends on the well-being of the crew. Sleep in space has been the concern of researchers from the earliest days of manned space flight. In the new frontier of space exploration one of the great problems to be solved relates to sleep. Although many reports indicate that sleep in space differs only in minor ways from terrestrial sleep, such as being somewhat less comfortable, a consistent finding has been that sleep duration in space is shorter than that on the ground. This review considers the accumulating evidence that the main reason for the shorter duration of sleep in space is the absence of gravity...
August 18, 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531185/from-trash-to-treasure-the-untapped-potential-of-endothelial-microparticles-in-neurovascular-diseases
#17
J Winny Yun, Adam Xiao, Ikuo Tsunoda, Alireza Minagar, J Steven Alexander
Discovered in 1947, microparticles (MP) represent a group of sub-micron cell-derived particles isolated by high speed centrifugation. Once regarded as cellular 'trash', in the past decade MP have gained tremendous attention in both basic sciences and medical research both as biomarkers and mediators of infection, injury and response to therapy. Because MP bear cell surface markers derived from parent cells, accumulate in extracellular fluids (plasma, serum, milk, urine, cerebrospinal fluid) MP based tests are being developed commercially as important components in 'liquid biopsy' approaches, providing valuable readouts in cardiovascular disease and cancer, as well as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and Multiple Sclerosis...
August 12, 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27156372/supplementation-with-l-arginine-stabilizes-plasma-arginine-and-nitric-oxide-metabolites-suppresses-elevated-liver-enzymes-and-peroxidation-in-sickle-cell-anaemia
#18
S I Jaja, S O Ogungbemi, M O Kehinde, C N Anigbogu
The effect of l-arginine on liver function in SCD has received little or no attention. The effect of a chronic, oral, low-dose supplementation with l-arginine (1gm/day for 6 weeks) on some liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites was studied in 20 normal (non-sickle cell anaemia; NSCA) subjects and 20 sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects. Ten milliliters of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), plasma total bilirubin concentration [TB], malondialdehyde concentration [MDA] and nitric oxide metabolites concentration [NOx]...
June 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133222/oral-magnesium-reduces-gastric-mucosa-susceptibility-to-injury-in-experimental-diabetes-mellitus
#19
A O Ige, E O Adewoye, N C Okwundu, O E Alade, P C Onuobia
This study investigated the effect of magnesium on the gastric defence mechanism in alloxan-diabetic male Wistar rats. Sixty rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, A (n=40) and B (n=20). Each group was subdivided into control, diabetic untreated (DU), diabetic magnesium (250mg/kg) treated (DMg250) and diabetic insulin (3IU/kgs.c) treated (DI). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120mg/kg) and both groups were treated for 14days. By day 14, group A rats were sacrificed, the stomach excised and evaluated for histopathology, mucus content, parietal and mucus cell counts...
June 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129398/exploration-of-screening-practices-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-stroke-medical-community-a-pilot-study
#20
Digvijaya D Navalkele, Kristian Barlinn, Alireza Minagar, Oleg Y Chernyshev
BACKGROUND: Frequency of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) among stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients ranges from 30-80% and is associated with poor neurological outcomes. Per current stroke prevention guidelines from American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA), SDB is included in the list of modifiable risk factors for stroke and TIA prevention. Goal of our study is to determine screening practices for SDB in stroke medical community. METHODS: A web-based survey was sent to physicians taking care of stroke patients across North America and Europe...
June 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
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