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Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732591/diabetic-retinopathy-breaking-the-barrier
#1
REVIEW
Randa S Eshaq, Alaa M Z Aldalati, J Steven Alexander, Norman R Harris
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains a major complication of diabetes and a leading cause of blindness among adults worldwide. DR is a progressive disease affecting both type I and type II diabetic patients at any stage of the disease, and targets the retinal microvasculature. DR results from multiple biochemical, molecular and pathophysiological changes to the retinal vasculature, which affect both microcirculatory functions and ultimately photoreceptor function. Several neural, endothelial, and support cell (e...
July 12, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712861/a-novel-golgi-cox-staining-method-for-detecting-and-characterizing-roles-of-the-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-liver-injury
#2
Ma de Jesús Gómez Villalobos, Susana Vidrio, Ruth Giles López, Gabriel Flores Gómez, Victoria Chagoya de Sánchez
The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the Golgi-Cox method to characterize the distribution and morphological changes of the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in CCl4 liver damaged rats. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were injected with CCl4 for ten weeks. The livers were processed with the Golgi-Cox method, reticuline, and Massońs Trichrome stains, and analyzed under light microscopy. Histological evaluation of livers was made through the METAVIR score. In normal livers, the HSCs show stellate form with abundant thin cytoplasmic processes, distributed into hepatic lobule, mainly in zone 1...
June 30, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697918/sausage-tree-kigelia-africana-flavonoid-extract-is-neuroprotective-in-alcl3-induced-experimental-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
John Adeolu Falode, Afolabi C Akinmoladun, M Tolulope Olaleye, Afolabi A Akindahunsi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a developmental neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no effective treatment or cure at present. In this study, the neuroprotective properties of a methanol extract of the leaves of Kigelia africana (KAE) and its flavonoid-rich fraction (FKAE) in aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced experimental AD was evaluated. Symptoms mimicking AD were induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by administering 17mg/kg AlCl3, orally, for six consecutive weeks. Pretreatment of animals with 50 and 100mg/kg KAE or FKAE for two weeks, followed by their co-administration with AlCl3 for a further four weeks ameliorated neurological deficits, cerebral oxidative stress, neurochemical disturbances and histoarchitectural alterations caused by AlCl3 intoxication...
June 28, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668512/h-pylori-infection-increases-gastric-mucosal-cox2-and-mtor-expression-in-chronic-gastritis-implications-for-cancer-progression
#4
Dalia M Badary, Mohammed Zakaria Ali Abu Rahma, Ahmed M Ashmawy, Mohamed Z Hafez
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter Pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects the human stomach and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis. H. pylori associated chronic gastritis affects various molecular markers related to gastric cancer development. The aim of this study to assess the effect of H. pylori infection on gastric mucosa and to explore its role in gastric carcinogenesis via COX2 and mTOR mucosal expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study comprised archival blocks from 60 dyspeptic patients who underwent gastric endoscopic biopsies for histopathological examination...
June 17, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629694/interleukin-6-participation-in-pathology-of-ocular-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Forouhe Zahir-Jouzdani, Fatemeh Atyabi, Nazanin Mojtabavi
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that affects a variety of cells in the body such as osteoclasts, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, white and red blood cells and etc. Elevated levels of IL-6 have been detected in many ocular diseases. Studies show that IL-6 has a major role in the pathology of glaucoma, CRVO, macular edema, ocular neovascularization, posterior capsule opacity formation, keratitis, dry eye disease, allergic eye disease, ocular autoimmune disease, corneal chemical burn, ocular inflammation and so on...
June 10, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601367/breast-cancer-biomarkers-at-niger-delta-university-hospital-comparisons-with-national-and-international-trends-and-clinical-significance
#6
Yibala I Oboma, Benjamin E Susan, Stephen O Elesha, Madukwe Jonathan
Breast cancer biology is heterogeneous and patients with the same diagnostic profile have markedly different clinical outcomes. Gene expression profiling and its surrogate IHC markers classified breast cancer into four molecular subtypes with different prognosis, targeted therapies, and/or clinical outcomes. The present study was conducted to investigate breast cancer subtypes among women in NDUTH Bayelsa state and compared them with similar studies in other populations of international and national origin...
June 3, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601366/peri-apneic-hemodynamic-reactions-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#7
Anu Muraja-Murro, Outi Nieminen, Petro Julkunen, Juha Töyräs, Tomi Laitinen, Esa Mervaala
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Little is known on acute peri-apneic hemodynamic alterations due to apneas. We assessed these rapid changes and how duration of apnea might contribute to them. Eight patients with severe OSA were studied with polysomnography including continuous blood pressure monitoring. Peri-apneic hemodynamic alterations, heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output and peripheral resistance, were assessed in short (<20s) and long (>27s) apneas...
May 31, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549769/variations-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-proteome-following-traumatic-brain-injury-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#8
David E Connor, Ganta V Chaitanya, Prashant Chittiboina, Paul McCarthy, L Keith Scott, Lisa Schrott, Alireza Minagar, Anil Nanda, J Steven Alexander
BACKGROUND: Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has shown great promise in identifying potential markers of injury in neurodegenerative diseases [1-13]. Here we compared CSF proteomes in healthy individuals, with patients diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in order to characterize molecular biomarkers which might identify these different clinical states and describe different molecular mechanisms active in each disease state. METHODS: Patients presenting to the Neurosurgery service at the Louisiana State University Hospital-Shreveport with an admitting diagnosis of TBI or SAH were prospectively enrolled...
May 13, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522356/association-between-matrix-metaloproteinases-2-1306c-t-polymorphism-and-the-risk-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-iranian-population
#9
Mahshid Sattari, Maryam Hassanzad, Seyed Hamid Jamaldini, Alireza Najafi, Mahdieh Imani, Mohammadreza Mohammadhassani, Mandana Hasanzad
BACKGROUND: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) represents the most important cause of sudden cardiac death. Interaction between genetic and environmental factors, individual susceptibility of the development of CAD is one of the MMP2 genes. Genetic variants' dysfunction of the MMP2 gene associated with the risk of CAD. The aim of the present study is to assess possible association between risk of Coronary Artery Disease and MMP2-1306C/T polymorphism. METHODS: This case-control study contains a total number of 344 subjects, including 215 patients with CAD and 129 of controls...
May 6, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254270/silymarin-attenuates-aspartame-induced-variation-in-mouse-behaviour-cerebrocortical-morphology-and-oxidative-stress-markers
#10
Yetunde Onaolapo Adejoke, Zayid Abdusalam Saratu, James Onaolapo Olakunle
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the impacts of silymarin co-administration on aspartame-induced changes in novelty-induced behaviours, memory, anxiety-related behaviours, cerebral antioxidant status and histomorphology in mice. METHOD: Six groups of mice were administered vehicle (distilled water), silymarin (25mg/kg), aspartame (at 160 or 320mg/kg), and silymarin (25mg/kg) co-administered with aspartame at 160 or 320mg/kg daily for 21days, via an oral cannula. Behaviours were assessed after the first and last dose of treatment...
June 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461089/vascular-lesions-of-the-female-genital-tract-clinicopathologic-findings-and-application-of-the-issva-classification
#11
Georgia Karpathiou, Celine Chauleur, Vanessa Da Cruz, Fabien Forest, Michel Peoc'h
INTRODUCTION: Vascular lesions of the female genital tract are extremely rare and their nomenclature does not widely follow the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of vascular lesions of the female genital tract and to apply the ISSVA classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 19 vascular lesions were diagnosed during a 20 year period...
April 23, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462800/pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-levels-tnf-%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-il-6-and-il-10-in-rat-model-of-neuroma
#12
Junad Khan, Noma Noboru, Andrew Young, Davis Thomas
Traumatic neuroma is neuronal tissue proliferation developed in a nerve injury site, often associated with increased sensitivity and spontaneous or evoked neuropathic pain. The mechanisms leading to the disorganized nerve proliferation are not completely understood, though inflammation in the injured nerve vicinity most likely has a role in the process. Inflammatory cytokines are also known to be involved in the maintenance and development of post-traumatic and neuropathic pain. The goal of this study was to quantify and compare pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) levels in nerves that formed neuromas and nerves that did not, following sciatic nerve transection...
April 11, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343891/an-investigation-on-the-effects-of-the-angles-between-the-mitral-and-aortic-orifice-during-diastolic-period-using-fsi
#13
Md Shamsul Arefin
BACKGROUND: It was well documented that the changes in the physiological structure of the heart can alter the hemodynamic behaviour of the human left ventricle. Although there were various imaging tools that can stipulate the blood flow characteristics inside the ventricle, but the effect of the variation in the angles between the mitral and aortic orifices were yet to be determined. Hence the primary focus of this paper was to use Fluid-Structure Interaction scheme throughout the diastolic phase to examine and determine the hemodynamic behaviour inside the cavity under various angles between the mitral and aortic orifices (50°, 55° and 60°)...
March 18, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400074/regulation-of-mitochondrial-structure-and-function-by-protein-import-a-current-review
#14
REVIEW
Kanchanjunga Prasai
By generating the majority of a cell's ATP, mitochondria permit a vast range of reactions necessary for life. Mitochondria also perform other vital functions including biogenesis and assembly of iron-sulfur proteins, maintenance of calcium homeostasis, and activation of apoptosis. Accordingly, mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked with the pathology of many clinical conditions including cancer, type 2 diabetes, cardiomyopathy, and atherosclerosis. The ongoing maintenance of mitochondrial structure and function requires the import of nuclear-encoded proteins and for this reason, mitochondrial protein import is indispensible for cell viability...
March 16, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143686/vitamin-d-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-weight-gain-and-c-reactive-protein-increases-interleukin-10-and-reduces-cd86-and-caspase-3
#15
Asmaa M S Gomaa, Ebtihal A Abd El-Aziz
Obesity can be associated with dysfunction of the immune system. An increased risk of obesity has been reported among individuals with low levels of vitamin D. However, much is still unknown about the link between vitamin D and dysfunction of the spleen and immune system in obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) on the spleen and immune system and to determine the protective effects of chronic treatment with vitamin D in reversing the detrimental effects of HFD...
March 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262306/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-pten-her2-neu-and-ki67-expression-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer-and-their-association-with-survival
#16
Dalia M Badary, Mostafa E Abdel-Wanis, Mohamed Z Hafez, Noha A Aboulhagag
BACKGROUND: Considering the poor prognosis of patients with gastric cancer, molecular diagnostic and prognostic markers for this cancer should be established. The aims of our study were to assess the correlations between PTEN, HER2/neu, and Ki67 expressions and clinicopathological factors of gastric cancer patients in upper Egypt, as well as their influence on OS and DFS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this descriptive-analytic study, 42 patients with gastric carcinoma treated by postioerative chemoradiation between 2004 and 2014...
February 24, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242287/chronic-administration-of-gabapentin-and-a-gabapentin-carbamazepine-combination-reversibly-suppress-testicular-function-in-male-wistar-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#17
Opeyemi Samson Osuntokun, Gbola Olayiwola, Ayowole Oladele, Idowu Ola, Oludele AyokaAbiodun
The effect of chronic administration of gabapentin, carbamazepine or a gabapentin-carbamazepine combination on testicular function in male rats was investigated to determine the effect of combining reduced doses of anti-epileptic drugs on the management of seizures, particularly with respect to the testis sequellae of chronic anti-epileptic administration. Male rats were randomized into four groups (n=10). Each group received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections for 28days as follows: Group I, normal saline 0...
February 13, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285737/lung-injury-induced-by-bisphenol-a-a-food-contaminant-is-ameliorated-by-selenium-supplementation
#18
Azza S Abedelhaffez, Ebtihal A Abd El-Aziz, Mohamed A Abdel Aziz, Asmaa M Ahmed
Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used industrial chemical, is known to disrupt endocrine function. This study aimed to investigate the impact of chronic exposure to BPA on the lung tissue of adult male rats as well as any possible alleviating effects resulting from selenium (Se) treatment. Chronic exposure to BPA resulted in prominent inflammation and oxidative stress responses as evidenced by an increase in levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and upregulation of Interleukin-18 (IL-18) expression in lung tissue...
February 12, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214084/il-10-and-tgf-%C3%AE-roles-in-chondroprotective-effects-of-glucosamine-in-experimental-osteoarthritis
#19
Nermien E Waly, Abeer Refaiy, Nora M Aborehab
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease of the whole joint. Glucosamine (GlcN) treatment may have a chondroprotective effect on OA. We investigated the mechanism of action of glucosamine treatment through interleukin-10 (Il-10) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF β-1). METHODS: Thirty male albino rats were used. A single intraarticular (i.a.) injection of 2mg of Monosodium Iodoacetate (MIA) was injected into the knee joint of anesthetized rats...
February 11, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245954/ceftriaxone-attenuates-glutamate-mediated-neuro-inflammation-and-restores-bdnf-in-mptp-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-rats
#20
Baninder Kaur, Atish Prakash
The present study is designed to investigate the role of glutamate transporter in neuroprotection of ceftriaxone against MPTP induced PD animal model. Young male Wistar rats were subjected to intra-nigral administration of MPTP for the induction of Parkinson's disease. Glutamate modulators like ceftriaxone (CFX), Memantine (MEM) and Dihydrokainate (DHK) were administered to MPTP-lesioned rats. Different behavioral alterations were assessed in between the study period. Animals were sacrificed immediately after behavioral session, and different biochemical parameters were measured...
February 10, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
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