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Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214084/il-10-and-tgf-%C3%AE-roles-in-chondroprotective-effects-of-glucosamine-in-experimental-osteoarthritis
#1
Nermien E Waly, Abeer Refaiy, Nora M Aborehab
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease of the whole joint. Glucosamine (GlcN) treatment may have a chondroprotective effect on OA. We investigated the mechanism of action of glucosamine treatment through interleukin-10 (Il-10) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF β-1). METHODS: Thirty male albino rats were used. A single intraarticular (i.a.) injection of 2mg of Monosodium Iodoacetate (MIA) was injected into the knee joint of anesthetized rats...
February 11, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214085/folic-acid-protects-against-lead-acetate-induced-hepatotoxicity-by-decreasing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-il-1%C3%AE-production-and-lipid-peroxidation-mediataed-cell-injury
#2
Eman S H Abd Allah, Dalia M Badary
Folic acid plays an important role in cellular metabolic activities. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of folic acid against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, six animals each. Negative control group received the vehicle, positive control group received 1mg/kg folic acid for five consecutive days/week for 4 weeks orally, lead-exposed group received 10mg/kg lead acetate intraperitoneally (IP) for five consecutive days/week for 4 weeks, and lead-treated group received 10mg/kg lead acetate IP and 1mg/kg folic acid orally for five consecutive days/week for 4 weeks concurrently...
February 10, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143686/vitamin-d-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-weight-gain-and-c-reactive-protein-increases-interleukin-10-and-reduces-cd86-and-caspase-3
#3
Asmaa M S Gomaa, Ebtihal A Abd El-Aziz
Obesity can be associated with dysfunction of the immune system. An increased risk of obesity has been reported among individuals with low levels of vitamin D. However, much is still unknown about the link between vitamin D and dysfunction of the spleen and immune system in obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) on the spleen and immune system and to determine the protective effects of chronic treatment with vitamin D in reversing the detrimental effects of HFD...
January 27, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126254/rotenone-impairs-hippocampal-neuronal-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
L V Darbinyan, L E Hambardzumyan, K V Simonyan, V A Chavushyan, L P Manukyan, V H Sarkisian
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology and characterized by motor symptoms of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Interactions between the dopaminergic systems and the hippocampus in synaptic plasticity and behavior are found. The rotenone-induced animal model is commonly used in research studies involved in PD. Administration of rotenone causes alterations of electrical neuronal activity. Rotenone (2.5 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally for 21 days to adult rats, and rotenone effects on rearing activity and electrophysiology were examined...
January 22, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027824/protective-effect-of-chamomile-matricaria-recutita-l-decoction-extract-against-alcohol-induced-injury-in-rat-gastric-mucosa
#5
Mohamed-Amine Jabri, Nadhem Aissani, Haifa Tounsi, Mohsen Sakly, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai
BACKGROUND: Matricaria recutita L. (Asteraceae), German chamomile, has been widely used in the traditional Tunisian medicine because of having the powerful health benefits. the current study was conducted to determine the protective effect of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction extract (CDE) in ethanol-induced ulcer and oxidative stress on gastric mucosa in rat. METHODS: Adult male wistar rats were used and divided into seven groups: Control, EtOH, EtOH+various doses of CDE (25, 50 and 100mg/kg, b...
December 21, 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038936/association-of-peripheral-nesfatin-1-with-early-stage-diabetic-nephropathy
#6
Amin Irannejad, Alireza Ghajar, Mohsen Afarideh, Elias Khajeh, Sina Noshad, Sadaf Esteghamati, Khashayar Afshari, Farima Kahe, Morsaleh Ganji, Mohammad Saadat, Manouchehr Nakhjavani, Alireza Esteghamati
BACKGROUND: Nesfatin-1 is a newly found anorectic neuropeptide with potent metabolic regulatory effects that its circulating levels are shown to be elevated in diabetes. We compared serum nesfatin-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria (30mg/day≤urinary albumin excretion (UAE) <300mg/day) with their control patients with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria (UAE <30mg/day). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a cross sectional setting, 44 adult patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria and 44 control patients with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria were evaluated...
December 13, 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964880/role-of-gpx4-in-human-vascular-endothelial-cells-and-the-compensatory-activity-of-brown-rice-on-gpx4-ablation-condition
#7
Osamu Sakai, Toshinori Yasuzawa, Yoshie Sumikawa, Takashi Ueta, Hirotaka Imai, Akiyoshi Sawabe, Shigeru Ueshima
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathologies of vascular endothelial cells. However, the importance of specific antioxidant enzymes in vascular endothelial cells is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the importance of Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), and the involvement of ferroptosis on cell death induced by GPx4 loss in human vascular endothelial cells. In addition, we examined the compensatory activity of brown rice on GPx4 ablation condition. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were transfected with GPx4 or scramble control siRNA...
December 1, 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793419/biochemical-and-physiological-effects-from-exhaust-emissions-a-review-of-the-relevant-literature
#8
REVIEW
Sergio Manzetti, Otto Andersen
Exhaust emissions are to date ranked among the most frequent causes of premature deaths worldwide. The combustion of fuels such as diesel, gasoline, and bio-blends provokes a series of pathophysiological responses in exposed subjects, which are associated with biochemical and immunological triggering. It is critical to understand these mechanisms, which are directly related to the levels of aerosol, liquid and gaseous components in fuel exhaust (e.g. nanoparticles, particulate matter, volatile compounds), so to cast attention on their toxicity and gradually minimize their use...
December 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793418/omega-3-fatty-acids-decreases-oxidative-stress-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-interleukin-1-beta-in-hyperthyroidism-induced-hepatic-dysfunction-rat-model
#9
Asmaa M S Gomaa, Ebtihal A Abd El-Aziz
Hyperthyroidism is associated with abnormalities of the liver. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially their long-chain forms: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial health effects. The objectives of the present study were to assess hyperthyroidism-induced hepatic dysfunction in adult male rats and to evaluate the ameliorative effects of omega-3 on hyperthyroidism-induced hepatic dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms. Twenty four adult male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups; control group which received water for 6 weeks, hyperthyroid group which received L-thyroxine orally for 6 weeks and hyperthyroid omega-3 treated group which received L-thyroxine for 2 weeks and then co-treated with L-thyroxine and omega-3 oral compound containing 18% of EPA and 12% of DHA for 4 weeks...
December 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838244/food-added-monosodium-glutamate-does-not-alter-brain-structure-or-antioxidant-status
#10
REVIEW
Miro Smriga
The International Glutamate Technical Committee (IGTC) comments on a recent publication in "Pathophysiology" entitled "Evidence of alterations in brain structure and antioxidant status following "low-dose" monosodium glutamate ingestion" (authored by Onaolapo, Onaolapo, Akanmu and Gbola) [1]. In particular, IGTC highlights that, in the view of published scientific literature [2-12], the methods of this study were inappropriate and did not support conclusions drawn by the authors.
October 28, 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686729/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-fibrosis-and-elastin-destruction-in-childhood-interstitial-lung-diseases
#11
Enas A Hamed, Mostafa M El-Saied, Khaled Saad, Hazem Abu-Zeid Yousef, Amany O Mohamed, Dina Sabry
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate fibrosis and elastin destruction in childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) patients. METHODS: Sixty patients and twenty healthy children were recruited. On admission, evaluation of chILD severity was made using Fan chILD score. Participants provided urine and blood samples. Plasma levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, connective tissue growth factor (CCN2), soluble factor related apoptosis (sFas) and long non-coding RNAs and urinary levels of desmosine/urinary creatinine (UDes/UCr) were measured...
September 21, 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524473/reduced-expression-of-vacht-increases-renal-fibrosis
#12
Reinaldo Correia Silva, Fernanda Fernandes Terra, Yuri Felipe Guise, Marco Antônio Máximo Prado, Vânia Ferreira Prado, Meire Ioshie Hiyane, Denise Maria Avancini Costa Malheiros, Carla Maximo Prado, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara, Tarcio Teodoro Braga
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with several other long-lasting conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and it is a significant contributor to mortality worldwide. Obstructive kidney disease is one of the leading causes of CKD in children and may result from a wide variety of pathologic processes. Recent studies have shown that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) activation in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduces production of inflammatory mediators and consequently prevents tissue injury and death...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514460/elevated-cardiac-3-deoxyglucosone-a-highly-reactive-intermediate-in-glycation-reaction-in-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-rats
#13
Tomoyuki Moriyama, Masayuki Kemi, Toshiharu Horie
3-Deoxyglucosone (3-DG) is a highly reactive carbonyl intermediate in glycation reaction (also known as Maillard reaction) and plays an important role in diabetic complications. We investigated the potential involvement of 3-DG in doxorubicin (DXR)-induced cardiotoxicity. Male Crl:CD(SD) rats received intravenous injections of DXR at 2mg/kg, once weekly, for 6 weeks, with/without daily intraperitoneal treatment with 3-DG scavenging agents, i.e., aminoguanidine (AG, 25mg/kg/day) and pyridoxamine (PM, 60mg/kg/day)...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27480360/dynamics-of-early-stem-cell-recruitment-in-skin-flaps-subjected-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Ya Hui Tang, Lindsey A Pennington, Jessica W Scordino, Jonathan Steven Alexander, Timothy Lian
OBJECTIVE: Bone marrow-derived stromal cell (BMSCs) therapy improves survival of skin flaps subject to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, very little is known about the trafficking and distribution of BMSCs in post-ischemic skin tissue following intravenous administration. The aim of this study was to assess the behavior of BMSCs in post-ischemic skin flaps and to compare the magnitude and kinetics of accumulation of BMSCs and leukocytes following I/R. METHODS: Cutaneous flaps perfused by the inferior epigastric vessels were created in C57Bl6 mice...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424529/goji-fruit-lycium-barbarum-protects-sciatic-nerve-function-against-crush-injury-in-a-model-of-diabetic-stress
#15
K V Simonyan, L G Avetisyan, V A Chavushyan
Excess fructose consumption causes changes in functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems, which increase the vulnerability of peripheral nerves to traumatic injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electrophysiological parameters of responses of motoneurons of the spinal cord at high-frequency stimulation of the distal part of the injured sciatic nerve in a model of diabetic stress under action of Lycium barbarum (LB). Male albino rats were given with drinking water with 50% concentration of dietary fructose for 6 weeks...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397900/ret-mouse-very-large-tumors-vlts-display-altered-ratios-of-infiltrating-memory-to-naive-t-cells-roles-in-tumor-expansion
#16
Mohammad W Khan, Viktor Umansky
Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer, however it is immunogenic. The size of the primary tumor is associated with the nodal metastases. Our goals were to characterize melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs) and tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes (TILs) subsets in the few very large tumors (VLTs) developing in ret transgenic mice of melanoma. Tumors >700mg (VLTs) were investigated for MAAs and subsets of TILs. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry-based studies were performed to determine the infiltration patterns of T-lymphocytes in VLTs...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354343/cortical-gene-expression-correlates-of-temporal-lobe-epileptogenicity
#17
Abigail P McCallum, Matthew J Gallek, Wyatt Ramey, Ann Manziello, Marlys H Witte, Michael J Bernas, David M Labiner, Martin E Weinand
INTRODUCTION: Despite being one of the most common neurological diseases, it is unknown whether there may be a genetic basis to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Whole genome analyses were performed to test the hypothesis that temporal cortical gene expression differs between TLE patients with high vs. low baseline seizure frequency. METHODS: Baseline seizure frequency was used as a clinical measure of epileptogenicity. Twenty-four patients in high or low seizure frequency groups (median seizures/month) underwent anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy for intractable TLE...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342760/regulation-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-insights-and-approaches-for-the-management-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#18
REVIEW
Abdullah Mohammad Tauheed, Joseph Olusegun Ayo, Mohammed Umaru Kawu
The development and maturation of oligodendrocyte require complex mechanisms that interact at different levels to regulate neuronal activities. This review examines specific functions and critical roles of oligodendrocyte, regulatory factors involved in its differentiation, including the involvement of glutamate and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Olig2, Id4, Wnt/β-catenin and histone deacetylase (HDAC) appear to play crucial roles in spatio-temporal regulation of the differentiation of oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, HDAC appears to be the rate-limiting factor that may be manipulated to promote myelination as it simultaneously allays contact inhibition of Id4 in the intrinsic pathway and Wnt/β-catenin in the extrinsic pathway...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342759/protective-effects-of-vitex-doniana-black-plum-against-ischemic-testes-torsion-injury-histological-and-morphometric-features
#19
Stephen Taiye Adelodun, Olarinde Stephen Adewole, Ronald Ayodele Bejide, David O Adeyemi, Babatunde Elijah Arayombo, Olusola Stephen Saka, Ahmed Afolabi Olayode
We evaluated the effects of Vitex doniana leaves on testes histology and morphometry in Wistar rats following testicular torsion. Thirty male Wistar rats (120-160g) were randomly assigned into six groups (n=5). Surgical procedures were performed under ketamine anaesthesia (5mg/kg i.m). Sham surgery was performed on group A rats and given distilled water for 7 days. Animals in other groups had their left testes twisted at 720° for one hour, sutured, and treated for 7 days. Group B rats were left untreated, groups C, D and E received 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg of extract respectively while group F received 100mg/kg of vitamin C...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339176/alligator-pepper-grain-of-paradise-aframomum-melegueta-modulates-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-activity-lipid-profile-and-oxidative-imbalances-in-a-rat-model-of-hypercholesterolemia
#20
Stephen A Adefegha, Ganiyu Oboh, Omowunmi M Adefegha, Thomas Henle
Alligator pepper [Aframomum melegueta Roscoe K. (Zingiberaceae)] seeds have been reportedly used in folkloric medicine in the management of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension with limited scientific basis for their action. This study was conducted to characterize the amino acids in Alligator pepper seeds (APS), assess their effects on lipid profile and enzyme linked to blood pressure regulation in hypercholesterolemic rat (rats fed 2% cholesterol diet) model. Free and total amino acids of APS were extracted and their various constituents were analyzed using the amino acid analyzer and ultra-performance liquid chromatography...
September 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
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