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Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307662/moringa-oleifera-phytochemicals-protect-the-brain-against-experimental-nicotine-induced-neurobehavioral-disturbances-and-cerebellar-degeneration
#1
Gabriel Olaiya Omotoso, Ismail Temitayo Gbadamosi, Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Shakirat Opeyemi Dada-Habeeb, Tolulope Timothy Arogundade, Emmanuel Olusola Yawson
Nicotine is a neuro-stimulant that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many brain diseases. The need to prevent or alleviate the resulting dysfunction is therefore paramount, which has also given way to the use of medicinal plants in the management of brain conditions. This study was designed to determine the histomorphological and neurobehavioural changes in the cerebellum of Wistar rats following nicotine insult and how such injuries respond to Moringa intervention. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups...
January 4, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306510/protective-effects-of-artemisia-campestris-extract-against-gastric-acid-reflux-induced-esophageal-mucosa-injuries
#2
Mohamed-Amine Jabri, Haifa Tounsi, Afifa Abdellaoui, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai
Artemisia campestris L. has been widely used in alternative medicine to treat digestive system diseases, particularly gastroesophageal disorders. In the present investigation, we studied the putative protective effect of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract (ACAE) against gastro-esophageal reflux (GER)-induced esophagitis in rats. The experimental ophagitis was induced by the ligation of the pylorus as well as the junction between the forestomach and the corpus. We firstly found that ACAE administration at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, b...
January 2, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269193/low-cd4-cells-and-viral-co-infection-increase-the-risk-of-vain-use-of-scca1-and-ki67-as-diagno-prognostic-biomarkers
#3
Jude Ogechukwu Okoye, Charles Erinle, Antony Ajuluchukwu Ngokere, Abimbola Jimoh
This study evaluated the correlation of SCCA1, Ki67 and CD4 cell expressions and classified vaginal smears in individuals co-infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Human Papilloma virus (HPV). This crossectional study included 173 participants within the age range of 20-70 years. Vaginal smears were stained by Papanicolaou technique and classified into high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and negative for intraepithelial lesion (NIL)...
December 16, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274871/glucocorticoid-receptor-activation-selectively-influence-performance-of-wistar-rats-in-y-maze
#4
Amin Abdulbasit, Fii Stephen Michael, Amusa Shukurat Onaopemipo, Alli-Oluwafuyi Abdulmusawwir, Imam Aminu, Asogwa Nnaemeka Tobechukwu, Abdulmajeed Wahab Imam, Adeyanju Oluwaseun Aremu, Olaseinde Folajimi, Abolarinwa Bilikis Aderonke, Ibrahim Ridwan Babatunde, Owoyele Victor Bamidele
Glucocorticoid receptors (GR) are ubiquitously expressed in metazoans. Different and contrasting phenotypes have been reported upon their activation. This study investigated the behavioral phenotypes characteristic of GR stimulation in male Wistar rats. Rats in each of the four groups of rats received one of the following treatments: distilled water (control) or one of three doses of dexamethasone (treatment) injected intraperitoneally for 7 days. The Rats were afterwards subjected to the Y maze, the elevated plus maze (EPM), the Morris water maze (MWM), and the novel object recognition (NOR) test...
December 9, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217084/oral-phenytoin-protects-against-experimental-cyclophosphamide-chemotherapy-induced-hair-loss
#5
A Y Onaolapo, A A Adebayo, O J Onaolapo
In the current study, effects of oral phenytoin on hair growth in cyclophosphamide-treated rats were assessed with the goal of evaluating the ability of phenytoin to suppress chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Thirty-six rats were randomly assigned to six groups (1k6) of six each (n=6). In all groups, anagen was induced in flank skin of rats by depilation. On day 9 (anagen VI), rats were injected once with either distilled water (groups 1-3) or cyclophoshamide (groups 4-6). From day 10, rats in group 1 and 4 received oral vehicle (distilled water), groups 2 and 5 received oral phenytoin (50mg/kg), while groups 3 and 6 also received oral phenytoin (100mg/kg)...
December 4, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153770/rats-exposed-to-2-45ghz-of-non-ionizing-radiation-exhibit-behavioral-changes-with-increased-brain-expression-of-apoptotic-caspase-3
#6
Rini Varghese, Anuradha Majumdar, Girish Kumar, Amit Shukla
In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in use of Wi-Fi devices along with mobile phones, globally. Wi-Fi devices make use of 2.4GHz frequency. The present study evaluated the impact of 2.45GHz radiation exposure for 4h/day for 45days on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in female Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests of anxiety, learning and memory were started from day 38. Oxidative stress parameters were estimated in brain homogenates after sacrificing the rats on day 45. In morris water maze, elevated plus maze and light dark box test, the 2...
November 14, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033135/one-year-recombinant-growth-hormone-therapy-does-not-improve-hemoglobin-state-and-morphology-of-erythrocytes-in-growth-hormone-deficient-children
#7
Maria Pankratova, Alexander Yusipovich, Maria Vorontsova, Evgenia Parshina, Svetlana Bochkareva, Alexander Cherkashin, Adil Baizhumanov, Margarita Silicheva, Tatyana Shiryaeva, Georgy Maksimov, Valentina Peterkova
An increase in growth rates of children suffering from growth hormone deficiency (GHD) subjected to recombinant growth hormone treatment (rGHT) was shown to be accompanied by acceleration of metabolic processes that may stimulate oxygen consumption in various organs and tissues. Therefore, oxygen-transporting properties of RBC should undergo considerable changes during the rGHT. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of rGHT on erythrocyte shape and hemoglobin state in GHD children. The level of oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) in RBC was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy...
October 7, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102280/reperfusion-therapy-what-s-with-the-obstructed-leaky-and-broken-capillaries
#8
REVIEW
D Neil Granger, Peter R Kvietys
Microvascular dysfunction is well established as an early and rate-determining factor in the injury response of tissues to ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Severe endothelial cell dysfunction, which can develop without obvious morphological cell injury, is a major underlying cause of the microvascular abnormalities that accompany I/R. While I/R-induced microvascular dysfunction is manifested in different ways, two responses that have received much attention in both the experimental and clinical setting are impaired capillary perfusion (no-reflow) and endothelial barrier failure with a transition to hemorrhage...
September 21, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943112/update-on-food-safety-of-monosodium-l-glutamate-msg
#9
REVIEW
Helen Nonye Henry-Unaeze
OBJECTIVE: This evidence-based safety review of the flavor enhancer monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) was triggered by its global use and recent studies expressing some safety concerns. METHODOLOGY: This article obtained information through search of evidence-based scientific databases, especially the US National Library of Medicine NIH. RESULTS: (A) MSG is a water-soluble salt of glutamate, a non-essential amino acid, normally synthesized in the body and prevalent in protein foods...
September 18, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928060/rosemary-rosmarinus-officinalis-essential-oil-components-exhibit-anti-hyperglycemic-anti-hyperlipidemic-and-antioxidant-effects-in-experimental-diabetes
#10
Slimen Selmi, Kais Rtibi, Dhekra Grami, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
INTRODUCTION: The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oils (ROEO) against alloxan-induced diabetes and oxidative stress in rats. METHODS: The animals were divided into four groups: Healthy Control (HC); Diabetic Control (DC); Healthy+ROEO (H+ROEO) and Diabetic+ROEO (D+ROEO). RESULTS: The use of GC/MS technique has allowed us to identify fifteen compounds in ROEO. We have found that alloxan administration induced hyperglycaemia, lipid metabolic parameters deregulation as well as liver and kidney dysfunctions...
September 14, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928059/garlic-extract-increases-non-clipped-kidney-tubular-natriuresis-and-diuresis-in-the-2-kidney-1-clip-rat-model-significance-in-hypertension
#11
Khaled K Al-Qattan, Martha Thomson, Muslim Ali
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent modulator of vascular tone and renal clearance function. Raw garlic aqueous extract (RGAE) inhibits angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) dipeptidase activity and therefore AngII generation in the 2-kidney, 1-clip rat model (2K-1Cr). OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of RGAE on the non-clipped kidney clearance function and blood pressure (BP) in the 2 K-1Cr. METHOD: 2K-1Cr were anesthetized, cannulated and instrumentalized and the acute effect during the first hour post-administration of a single intravenous dose of RGAE (30mg/100gb...
September 12, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943113/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-a-clinical-overview-for-primary-care-physicians
#12
REVIEW
Sudha Pandit, Moheb Boktor, Jonathan S Alexander, Felix Becker, James Morris
OBJECTIVE: GERD is among the most common outpatient disease processes encountered by clinicians on a daily basis. This review provides insights about how to approach GERD in terms of disease management and treatment. METHODS: Review articles were searched using PUBMED and MEDLINE using criteria that included English language articles published in the last 5 years concerning studies carried out only in humans. The key words used in the searches were GERD, PPI, and erosive esophagitis...
September 11, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890147/obstructive-sleep-apnea-influence-of-hypertension-on-adiponectin-inflammatory-markers-and-dyslipidemia
#13
Mahmoud R Abdel-Fadeil, Azza S Abedelhaffez, Hoda A Makhlouf, Ghada A Al Qirshi
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common but often unrecognized condition with potentially serious complications. The aim of this study was to explore the possible mechanisms linking hypertension (HT), a common cardiovascular disease (CVD), with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by investigating the levels of morning and evening serum adiponectin, inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6), and lipid profiles in OSA patients with and without HT. Four groups were enrolled in this case-control analytic study: control, OSA, OSA+HT, and HT groups, each of which included 22 subjects...
September 1, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668512/h-pylori-infection-increases-gastric-mucosal-cox2-and-mtor-expression-in-chronic-gastritis-implications-for-cancer-progression
#14
Dalia M Badary, Mohammed Zakaria Ali Abu Rahma, Ahmed M Ashmawy, Mohamed Z Hafez
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter Pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects the human stomach and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis. H. pylori associated chronic gastritis affects various molecular markers related to gastric cancer development. The aim of this study to assess the effect of H. pylori infection on gastric mucosa and to explore its role in gastric carcinogenesis via COX2 and mTOR mucosal expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study comprised archival blocks from 60 dyspeptic patients who underwent gastric endoscopic biopsies for histopathological examination...
September 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629694/interleukin-6-participation-in-pathology-of-ocular-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Forouhe Zahir-Jouzdani, Fatemeh Atyabi, Nazanin Mojtabavi
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that affects a variety of cells in the body such as osteoclasts, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, white and red blood cells and etc. Elevated levels of IL-6 have been detected in many ocular diseases. Studies show that IL-6 has a major role in the pathology of glaucoma, CRVO, macular edema, ocular neovascularization, posterior capsule opacity formation, keratitis, dry eye disease, allergic eye disease, ocular autoimmune disease, corneal chemical burn, ocular inflammation and so on...
September 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601367/breast-cancer-biomarkers-at-niger-delta-university-hospital-comparisons-with-national-and-international-trends-and-clinical-significance
#16
Yibala I Oboma, Benjamin E Susan, Stephen O Elesha, Madukwe Jonathan
Breast cancer biology is heterogeneous and patients with the same diagnostic profile have markedly different clinical outcomes. Gene expression profiling and its surrogate IHC markers classified breast cancer into four molecular subtypes with different prognosis, targeted therapies, and/or clinical outcomes. The present study was conducted to investigate breast cancer subtypes among women in NDUTH Bayelsa state and compared them with similar studies in other populations of international and national origin...
September 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601366/peri-apneic-hemodynamic-reactions-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#17
Anu Muraja-Murro, Outi Nieminen, Petro Julkunen, Juha Töyräs, Tomi Laitinen, Esa Mervaala
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Little is known on acute peri-apneic hemodynamic alterations due to apneas. We assessed these rapid changes and how duration of apnea might contribute to them. Eight patients with severe OSA were studied with polysomnography including continuous blood pressure monitoring. Peri-apneic hemodynamic alterations, heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output and peripheral resistance, were assessed in short (<20s) and long (>27s) apneas...
September 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549769/variations-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-proteome-following-traumatic-brain-injury-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#18
David E Connor, Ganta V Chaitanya, Prashant Chittiboina, Paul McCarthy, L Keith Scott, Lisa Schrott, Alireza Minagar, Anil Nanda, J Steven Alexander
BACKGROUND: Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has shown great promise in identifying potential markers of injury in neurodegenerative diseases [1-13]. Here we compared CSF proteomes in healthy individuals, with patients diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in order to characterize molecular biomarkers which might identify these different clinical states and describe different molecular mechanisms active in each disease state. METHODS: Patients presenting to the Neurosurgery service at the Louisiana State University Hospital-Shreveport with an admitting diagnosis of TBI or SAH were prospectively enrolled...
September 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522356/association-between-matrix-metaloproteinases-2-1306c-t-polymorphism-and-the-risk-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-iranian-population
#19
Mahshid Sattari, Maryam Hassanzad, Seyed Hamid Jamaldini, Alireza Najafi, Mahdieh Imani, Mohammadreza Mohammadhassani, Mandana Hasanzad
BACKGROUND: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) represents the most important cause of sudden cardiac death. Interaction between genetic and environmental factors, individual susceptibility of the development of CAD is one of the MMP2 genes. Genetic variants' dysfunction of the MMP2 gene associated with the risk of CAD. The aim of the present study is to assess possible association between risk of Coronary Artery Disease and MMP2-1306C/T polymorphism. METHODS: This case-control study contains a total number of 344 subjects, including 215 patients with CAD and 129 of controls...
September 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462800/pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-levels-tnf-%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-il-6-and-il-10-in-rat-model-of-neuroma
#20
Junad Khan, Noma Noboru, Andrew Young, Davis Thomas
Traumatic neuroma is neuronal tissue proliferation developed in a nerve injury site, often associated with increased sensitivity and spontaneous or evoked neuropathic pain. The mechanisms leading to the disorganized nerve proliferation are not completely understood, though inflammation in the injured nerve vicinity most likely has a role in the process. Inflammatory cytokines are also known to be involved in the maintenance and development of post-traumatic and neuropathic pain. The goal of this study was to quantify and compare pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) levels in nerves that formed neuromas and nerves that did not, following sciatic nerve transection...
September 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
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