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Journal of Medical Screening

Maryam Doroudi, Barnett S Kramer, Paul F Pinsky
OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence about the performance characteristics and consequences of bimanual ovarian palpation. SETTING AND METHODS: The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial randomized 154,900 individuals to either an intervention or control arm. Enrolled eligible participants were aged 55-74, had no history of trial cancers, and no current treatment for cancer. Intervention arm women received CA-125 tests and transvaginal ultrasound...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Florence Molinié, Solenne Delacour-Billon, Brigitte Tretarre, Patricia Delafosse, Brigitte Seradour, Marc Colonna
OBJECTIVE: A decrease in advanced breast cancer incidence is considered an early indicator of breast cancer mortality reduction in a screening programme. We describe trends in breast cancer incidence according to tumour size and age in three French administrative areas, where an organized screening programme was implemented during the 1990s. METHODS: Our study included all 28,092 invasive breast cancers diagnosed from 2000 to 2010 in women living in three areas (Hérault, Isère, Loire-Atlantique)...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Daniel Hughes, Sunil Nair, John N Harvey
OBJECTIVES: To determine the necessary screening interval for retinopathy in diabetic patients with no retinopathy based on time to laser therapy and to assess long-term visual outcome following screening. METHODS: In a population-based community screening programme in North Wales, 2917 patients were followed until death or for approximately 12 years. At screening, 2493 had no retinopathy; 424 had mostly minor degrees of non-proliferative retinopathy. Data on timing of first laser therapy and visual outcome following screening were obtained from local hospitals and ophthalmology units...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Andrew Coldman, Dirk van Niekerk, Laurie Smith, Gina Ogilvie
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of increased participation in screening, and of the proposed change from Pap to human papillomavirus screening on the incidence of cervical cancer in British Columbia. METHODS: For invasive cervical cancer cases diagnosed in British Columbia between 2002 and 2011, data were extracted on age and cancer morphology from the British Columbia Cancer Registry, and Pap screening history was obtained from the British Columbia Cervical Cancer Screening Program database...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Stephen W Duffy, Jonathan P Myles, Roberta Maroni, Abeera Mohammad
OBJECTIVE: Screening participation is spread differently across populations, according to factors such as ethnicity or socioeconomic status. We here review the current evidence on effects of interventions to improve cancer screening participation, focussing in particular on effects in underserved populations. METHODS: We selected studies to review based on their characteristics: focussing on population screening programmes, showing a quantitative estimate of the effect of the intervention, and published since 1990...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Paula A van Luijt, Eveline Am Heijnsdijk, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Solveig Hofvind, Harry J de Koning
OBJECTIVE: Fluctuations in the incidence of breast cancer in Norway in the last three decades are partly explained by the use of hormone replacement therapy and mammography screening, but overdiagnosis has also been suggested as a cause. We assessed the trends in breast cancer incidence and overdiagnosis in Norway. METHODS: We calibrated our microsimulation model to Norwegian Cancer Registration data. The model takes into account the use of mammography (both within and outside the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme) and of hormone replacement therapy...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Basilio Passamonti, Daniela Gustinucci, Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Elena Cesarini, Simonetta Bulletti, Angela Carlani, Nadia Martinelli, Massimo Broccolini, Valentina D'Angelo, Maria Rosaria D'Amico, Eugenio Di Dato, Paola Galeazzi, Morena Malaspina, Nicoletta Spita, Beatrice Tintori, Maria Donata Giaimo
OBJECTIVE: To present the results of the first and second round human papilloma virus (HPV)-based screening programme in the Umbria region after three years. METHODS: From August 2010 to November 2011, the entire female population aged 35-64 in a local health district was invited for HPV testing (HPV-DNA cobas4800 on a liquid-based cytology sample). HPV-negative women were re-invited after three years. For HPV-positive women, a slide was prepared and interpreted...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Jessica Chubak, Rebecca Hubbard
BACKGROUND: The importance of cancer screening is well-recognized, yet there is great variation in how adherence is defined and measured. This manuscript identifies measures of screening adherence and discusses how to estimate them. DISCUSSION: We begin by describing why screening adherence is of interest: to anticipate long-term outcomes, to understand differences in outcomes across settings, and to identify areas for improvement. We outline questions of interest related to adherence, including questions about uptake, currency or being up-to-date, and longitudinal adherence, and then identify which measures are most appropriate for each question...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Dimitrios Michalopoulos, Stephen W Duffy
BACKGROUND: Estimating overdiagnosis in cancer screening is complicated. Using observational data, estimation of the expected incidence in the screening period and taking account of lead time are two major problems. METHODS: Using data from the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme, we estimated incidence trends, using age-specific trends by year in the pre-screening period (1985-95). We also estimated sojourn time and sensitivity using interval cancers only...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Deborah Saraste, Anna Martling, Per J Nilsson, Johannes Blom, Sven Törnberg, Rolf Hultcrantz, Martin Janson
OBJECTIVES: To report complications after colonoscopy and surgery in patients with neoplasia detected through a population based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme in the capital region of Sweden. METHODS: Patients who after a positive FOBT screening result underwent colonoscopy from 1 January 2008 to 30 June 2012 were included. Mortality and complications within 30 days after colonoscopy or subsequent surgery were identified through national registers, and complications were assessed through review of medical charts...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Sue Hudson, Debbie Brazil, William Teh, Stephen W Duffy, Jonathan P Myles
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effect on breast screening uptake of delayed, targeted, second timed appointments in women who did not take up an initial breast cancer screening appointment offer. METHODS: Non-attending women received a four-month delayed second timed appointment following non-response to the initial invitation and the normal open invitation sent to non-attenders. A comparison group was sent a four-month delayed additional open invitation. RESULTS: Response to the second timed appointments (percentage of re-invited women eventually attending in this episode) was 20%, corresponding to an estimated increase on total uptake of 6%...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Sharon Jb Hanley, Hiromasa Fujita, Susumu Yokoyama, Shiori Kunisawa, Akiko Tamakoshi, Peixin Dong, Noriko Kobayashi, Hidemichi Watari, Masataka Kudo, Noriaki Sakuragi
OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality is increasing in Japanese women under age 50. Screening uptake is low and proactive recommendations for human papillomavirus vaccination have been suspended. Other cervical cancer prevention initiatives are urgently needed. We assessed whether human papillomavirus self-sampling might be an acceptable alternative to physician-led screening, particularly in women with limited experience of tampon use. We also sought to identify any practical, logistical, or safety issues in women already attending for screening, before carrying out further large-scale studies in non-responders...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
S Hofvind, R L Bennett, J Brisson, W Lee, E Pelletier, A Flugelman, B Geller
OBJECTIVE: Providing feedback to mammography radiologists and facilities may improve interpretive performance. We conducted a web-based survey to investigate how and why such feedback is undertaken and used in mammographic screening programmes. METHODS: The survey was sent to representatives in 30 International Cancer Screening Network member countries where mammographic screening is offered. RESULTS: Seventeen programmes in 14 countries responded to the survey...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Nicholas J Wald, Peter Oppenheimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Fayza A Hassan, Fatma El-Mougy, Sahar A Sharaf, Iman Mandour, Marian F Morgan, Laila A Selim, Sawsan A Hassan, Fadia Salem, Azza Oraby, Marian Y Girgis, Iman G Mahmoud, Amira El-Badawy, Ibrahim El-Nekhely, Nadia Moharam, Dina A Mehaney, Mohamed A Elmonem
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the burden of metabolic disorders detectable by tandem mass spectrometry in Egypt, through a pilot expanded newborn screening programme at Cairo University Children's Hospital in 2008, and examining the results of 3,900 clinically at-risk children, investigated at Cairo University Children's Hospital for the same disorders over the past 7 years using the same technology. METHODS: Dried blood spots of 25,276 healthy newborns from three governorates in Upper, Middle, and Lower Egypt were screened, to give a representative sample of the Egyptian newborn population...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Jayne Digby, Callum G Fraser, Francis A Carey, Jaroslaw Lang, Greig Stanners, Robert Jc Steele
OBJECTIVES: Quantitative faecal immunochemical tests (FIT) for faecal haemoglobin (f-Hb) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening pose challenges when colonoscopy is limited. For low positivity rates, high f-Hb concentration cut-offs are required, but little is known about interval cancer (IC) proportions using FIT. We assessed IC proportions using an 80 µg Hb/g cut-off. METHODS: In two NHS Boards in the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme, f-Hb was estimated for 30,893 participants aged 50-75, of whom 753 participants with f-Hb ≥ 80 µg Hb/g were referred for colonoscopy...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Julie A Chambers, Kerry Gracie, Rosemary Millar, Julie Cavanagh, Debbie Archibald, Alan Cook, Ronan E O'Carroll
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a brief telephone support intervention could increase breast cancer screening uptake among lower socio-demographic women in Scotland, via eliciting and addressing barriers to screening attendance. METHODS: In a pilot randomized controlled trial, participants receiving a reminder letter for a missed screening appointment (February-June 2014) were randomized to four arms: No telephone call (control), Simple telephone reminder (TEL), Telephone support (TEL-SUPP), or Telephone support plus anticipated regret (TEL-SUPP-AR)...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Jonathan P Bestwick, Nicholas J Wald
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the performance of antenatal sequential Integrated screening for Down's syndrome (DS), trisomy 18 (T18) and trisomy 13 (T13), in which women have first trimester testing for each disorder; those above specified risk cut-offs are screen-positive, and the remainder continue to Integrated testing, using first and second trimester screening markers together. METHODS: Published screening marker parameters and Monte Carlo simulation were used to calculate detection rates (DR's) and risk cut-off levels for specified false-positive rates (FPR's), and DR's and FPR's for specified risk cut-offs...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Matti Hakama, Sue M Moss, Ulf-Hakan Stenman, Monique J Roobol, Marco Zappa, Sigrid Carlsson, Marco Randazzo, Vera Nelen, Jonas Hugosson
OBJECTIVES: To calculate design-corrected estimates of the effect of screening on prostate cancer mortality by centre in the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). SETTING: The ERSPC has shown a 21% reduction in prostate cancer mortality in men invited to screening with follow-up truncated at 13 years. Centres either used pre-consent randomisation (effectiveness design) or post-consent randomisation (efficacy design). METHODS: In six centres (three effectiveness design, three efficacy design) with follow-up until the end of 2010, or maximum 13 years, the effect of screening was estimated as both effectiveness (mortality reduction in the target population) and efficacy (reduction in those actually screened)...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
D Saraste, A Martling, P J Nilsson, J Blom, S Törnberg, M Janson
OBJECTIVES: To compare preoperative staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment, and treatment in patients with screening detected and non-screening detected colorectal cancer. METHODS: Data on patient and tumour characteristics, staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment and treatment in patients with screening and non-screening detected colorectal cancer from 2008 to 2012 were collected from the Stockholm-Gotland screening register and the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
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