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Journal of Medical Screening

Andrew A Plumb, Alex Ghanouni, Sandra Rainbow, Natasha Djedovic, Sarah Marshall, Judith Stein, Stuart A Taylor, Steve Halligan, Georgios Lyratzopoulos, Christian von Wagner
Background Screening participants with abnormal faecal occult blood test results who do not attend further testing are at high risk of colorectal cancer, yet little is known about their reasons for non-attendance. Methods We conducted a medical record review of 170 patients from two English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme centres who had abnormal guaiac faecal occult blood test screening tests between November 2011 and April 2013 but did not undergo colonoscopy. Using information from patient records, we coded and categorized reasons for non-attendance...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Laszlo Tabar, Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen, Chen-Yang Hsu, Wendy Yi-Ying Wu, Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Sam Li-Sheng Chen, Sherry Yueh-Hsia Chiu, Jean Ching-Yuan Fann, Kerri Beckmann, Robert A Smith, Stephen W Duffy
Objectives To summarize debate and research in the Swedish Two-County Trial of mammographic screening on key issues of trial design, endpoint evaluation, and overdiagnosis, and from these to infer promising directions for the future. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled trial of the offer of breast cancer screening in Sweden, with a single screen of the control group at the end of the screening phase forms the setting for a historical review of investigations and debate on issues of design, analysis, and interpretation of results of the trial...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Nicholas J Wald, Johannes M Luteijn, Joan K Morris
Objective Age screening and preventive medication for future myocardial infarction and stroke has been previously described. We aimed to ascertain whether different age cut-offs are needed for males and females. Methods We determined five parameters for each sex according to age cut-off: detection rate (sensitivity), false-positive rate, proportion of the population eligible for treatment with a polypill, proportion who benefit from taking a polypill (simvastatin 20 mg, losartan 25 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 12...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
J P Bestwick, W J Huttly, N J Wald
Upper and lower truncation limits are commonly applied to quantitative markers used in medical screening tests. We here examine data on 375 trisomy 18 and 522,081 unaffected singleton pregnancies, to determine if the lower truncation limit should be set below the previously specified 0.2 multiples of the median. A lower truncation limit of 0.15 would reduce the underestimation of the risk of having a trisomy 18 pregnancy in about 50% of affected pregnancies and would lead to an estimated 10 percentage point increase in the detection rate, with only a very small increase in the false-positive rate...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Sanni Helander, Tytti Sarkeala, Nea Malila
Objective We previously found that administering a pre-screening lifestyle questionnaire lowered the subsequent attendance proportion in the first-ever colorectal cancer screening. We sought to determine whether the effect continued in subsequent screening rounds. Methods The eligible survey cohort ( n = 10,375) received a follow-up questionnaire in 2012, and in 2013, they were invited for colorectal cancer screening for the second time. For the third screening round, in 2015, no questionnaires were sent in the previous year...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Barbara Nemesure, April Plank, Lisa Reagan, Denise Albano, Michael Reiter, Thomas V Bilfinger
Objective Current lung cancer screening criteria based primarily on outcomes from the National Lung Screening Trial may not adequately capture all subgroups of the population at risk. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of lung cancer screening criteria recommended by the United States Preventive Services Task Force, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network in identifying known cases of lung cancer. Methods An investigation of the Stony Brook Cancer Center Lung Cancer Evaluation Center's database identified 1207 eligible, biopsy-proven lung cancer cases diagnosed between January 1996 and March 2016...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Elisa Carretta, Lucia Mangone, Susanna Baracco, Diego Serraino, Manuel Zorzi
Objective In Italy, colorectal screening programmes using the faecal immunochemical test from ages 50 to 69 every two years have been in place since 2005. We aimed to measure the incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test, and compare this with the pre-screening incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods Using data on colorectal cancers diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 collected by cancer registries in areas with active screening programmes, we identified cases that occurred within 24 months of negative screening tests...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Johannes Blom, Sven Törnberg
Objective To evaluate interval cancers in the population-based colorectal cancer screening programme of Stockholm/Gotland, Sweden. Methods From 2008, individuals aged 60-69 were invited to colorectal cancer screening using biennial guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (Hemoccult®). Interval cancers, defined as colorectal cancer among participants not diagnosed by the screening programme but registered in the Swedish cancer register, were evaluated by cross-checking the screening histories for all cancers in the region 2008-2012...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Sherry Yueh-Hsia Chiu, Nea Malila, Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Sam Li-Sheng Chen, Jean Ching-Yuan Fann, Matti Hakama
Objective Because colorectal cancer (CRC) has a long natural history, estimating the effectiveness of CRC screening programmes requires long-term follow-up. As an alternative, we here demonstrate the use of a temporal multi-state natural history model to predict the effectiveness of CRC screening. Methods In the Finnish population-based biennial CRC screening programme using faecal occult blood tests (FOBT), which was conducted in a randomised health services study, we estimated the pre-clinical incidence, the mean sojourn time (MST), and the sensitivity of FOBT using a Markov model to analyse data from 2004 to 2007...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Johannes Dm Otten, Guido van Schoor, Petronella Gm Peer, Gerard J den Heeten, Roland Holland, Mireille Jm Broeders, André Lm Verbeek
Objective As breast cancer growth rate is associated with menopause, most screening programmes target mainly women aged 50-74. We studied the association between age at diagnosis and growth rate in this screening-specific age range. Methods We used data from breast cancer patients diagnosed in the screening programme in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The data were restricted to the screening rounds when analogue mammography was used in both the screening and clinical setting. Growth rate expressed as tumour volume doubling time was based on increasing tumour size in longitudinal series of mammograms...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Damien Bennett, Diane Stewart, Deirdre Kearns, Adrian Mairs, Peter Ellis
Objectives To compare abdominal aortic aneurysm screening outcomes of men with non-visualized aorta at original scan with subsequent scans and to determine predictors of non-visualized aorta. Methods In the Northern Ireland Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm screening programme, outcomes (discharge, annual surveillance, three-monthly surveillance, or vascular referral) and patient and programme characteristics (age, deprivation quintile, family history, technician experience, and screening location) for men with non-visualized aorta were investigated at original scan, and first and second rescans...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Maiju Pankakoski, Sirpa Heinävaara, Tytti Sarkeala, Ahti Anttila
Objective Regular screening and follow-up is an important key to cervical cancer prevention; however, screening inevitably detects mild or borderline abnormalities that would never progress to a more severe stage. We analysed the cumulative probability and recurrence of cervical abnormalities in the Finnish organized screening programme during a 22-year follow-up. Methods Screening histories were collected for 364,487 women born between 1950 and 1965. Data consisted of 1 207,017 routine screens and 88,143 follow-up screens between 1991 and 2012...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Erin L Symonds, Stephen R Cole, Dawn Bastin, Robert Jl Fraser, Graeme P Young
Objectives Faecal immunochemical test accuracy may be adversely affected when samples are exposed to high temperatures. This study evaluated the effect of two sample collection buffer formulations (OC-Sensor, Eiken) and storage temperatures on faecal haemoglobin readings. Methods Faecal immunochemical test samples returned in a screening programme and with ≥10 µg Hb/g faeces in either the original or new formulation haemoglobin stabilizing buffer were stored in the freezer, refrigerator, or at room temperature (22℃-24℃), and reanalysed after 1-14 days...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Enkeleint-Aggelos Mechili, Dimitra Sifaki-Pistolla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Jessica Chubak, Rebecca Hubbard
BACKGROUND: The importance of cancer screening is well-recognized, yet there is great variation in how adherence is defined and measured. This manuscript identifies measures of screening adherence and discusses how to estimate them. DISCUSSION: We begin by describing why screening adherence is of interest: to anticipate long-term outcomes, to understand differences in outcomes across settings, and to identify areas for improvement. We outline questions of interest related to adherence, including questions about uptake, currency or being up-to-date, and longitudinal adherence, and then identify which measures are most appropriate for each question...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Dimitrios Michalopoulos, Stephen W Duffy
BACKGROUND: Estimating overdiagnosis in cancer screening is complicated. Using observational data, estimation of the expected incidence in the screening period and taking account of lead time are two major problems. METHODS: Using data from the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme, we estimated incidence trends, using age-specific trends by year in the pre-screening period (1985-95). We also estimated sojourn time and sensitivity using interval cancers only...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Maryam Doroudi, Barnett S Kramer, Paul F Pinsky
OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence about the performance characteristics and consequences of bimanual ovarian palpation. SETTING AND METHODS: The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial randomized 154,900 individuals to either an intervention or control arm. Enrolled eligible participants were aged 55-74, had no history of trial cancers, and no current treatment for cancer. Intervention arm women received CA-125 tests and transvaginal ultrasound...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Florence Molinié, Solenne Delacour-Billon, Brigitte Tretarre, Patricia Delafosse, Brigitte Seradour, Marc Colonna
OBJECTIVE: A decrease in advanced breast cancer incidence is considered an early indicator of breast cancer mortality reduction in a screening programme. We describe trends in breast cancer incidence according to tumour size and age in three French administrative areas, where an organized screening programme was implemented during the 1990s. METHODS: Our study included all 28,092 invasive breast cancers diagnosed from 2000 to 2010 in women living in three areas (Hérault, Isère, Loire-Atlantique)...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Daniel Hughes, Sunil Nair, John N Harvey
OBJECTIVES: To determine the necessary screening interval for retinopathy in diabetic patients with no retinopathy based on time to laser therapy and to assess long-term visual outcome following screening. METHODS: In a population-based community screening programme in North Wales, 2917 patients were followed until death or for approximately 12 years. At screening, 2493 had no retinopathy; 424 had mostly minor degrees of non-proliferative retinopathy. Data on timing of first laser therapy and visual outcome following screening were obtained from local hospitals and ophthalmology units...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
Andrew Coldman, Dirk van Niekerk, Laurie Smith, Gina Ogilvie
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of increased participation in screening, and of the proposed change from Pap to human papillomavirus screening on the incidence of cervical cancer in British Columbia. METHODS: For invasive cervical cancer cases diagnosed in British Columbia between 2002 and 2011, data were extracted on age and cancer morphology from the British Columbia Cancer Registry, and Pap screening history was obtained from the British Columbia Cervical Cancer Screening Program database...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
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