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Journal of Medical Screening

Paul F Pinsky, Barbara Dunn, David Gierada, P Hrudaya Nath, Reginald Munden, Lincoln Berland, Barnett S Kramer
Introduction Renal cancer incidence has increased markedly in the United States in recent decades, largely due to incidentally detected tumours from computed tomography imaging. Here, we analyze the potential for low-dose computed tomography lung cancer screening to detect renal cancer. Methods The National Lung Screening Trial randomized subjects to three annual screens with either low-dose computed tomography or chest X-ray. Eligibility criteria included 30 + pack-years, current smoking or quit within 15 years, and age 55-74...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Paula A van Luijt, Eveline Am Heijnsdijk, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Solveig Hofvind, Harry J de Koning
Objective Fluctuations in the incidence of breast cancer in Norway in the last three decades are partly explained by the use of hormone replacement therapy and mammography screening, but overdiagnosis has also been suggested as a cause. We assessed the trends in breast cancer incidence and overdiagnosis in Norway. Methods We calibrated our microsimulation model to Norwegian Cancer Registration data. The model takes into account the use of mammography (both within and outside the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme) and of hormone replacement therapy...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Matti Hakama, Sue M Moss, Ulf-Hakan Stenman, Monique J Roobol, Marco Zappa, Sigrid Carlsson, Marco Randazzo, Vera Nelen, Jonas Hugosson
Objectives To calculate design-corrected estimates of the effect of screening on prostate cancer mortality by centre in the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). Setting The ERSPC has shown a 21% reduction in prostate cancer mortality in men invited to screening with follow-up truncated at 13 years. Centres either used pre-consent randomisation (effectiveness design) or post-consent randomisation (efficacy design). Methods In six centres (three effectiveness design, three efficacy design) with follow-up until the end of 2010, or maximum 13 years, the effect of screening was estimated as both effectiveness (mortality reduction in the target population) and efficacy (reduction in those actually screened)...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
D Saraste, A Martling, P J Nilsson, J Blom, S Törnberg, M Janson
Objectives To compare preoperative staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment, and treatment in patients with screening detected and non-screening detected colorectal cancer. Methods Data on patient and tumour characteristics, staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment and treatment in patients with screening and non-screening detected colorectal cancer from 2008 to 2012 were collected from the Stockholm-Gotland screening register and the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry. Results The screening group had a higher proportion of stage I disease (41 vs...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
R Sutradhar, S Gu, L F Paszat
Objective Prior work on the disparities among women in breast cancer screening adherence has been methodologically limited. This longitudinal study determines and examines the factors associated with becoming adherent. Methods In a cohort of Canadian women aged 50-74, a three-state transitional model was used to examine adherence to screening for breast cancer. The proportion of time spent being non-adherent with screening was calculated for each woman during her observation window. Using age as the time scale, a relative rate multivariable regression was implemented under the three-state transitional model, to examine the association between covariates (all time-varying) and the rate of becoming adherent...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Jayne Digby, Callum G Fraser, Francis A Carey, Robert H Diament, Margaret Balsitis, Robert Jc Steele
Objective To examine associations between faecal haemoglobin concentrations below the cut-off used in colorectal cancer screening and outcomes in the next screening round. Methods In the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme, faecal haemoglobin concentrations and diagnostic outcomes were investigated for participants with a negative result (faecal haemoglobin concentrations < 80.0 µg Hb/g faeces), followed by a positive result within two years. Results Of 37,780 participants with negative results, at the next screening round, 556 (1...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Alejandra Castanon, Rebecca Landy, Peter Sasieni
Objective The replacement of cytology with human papillomavirus testing as the primary cervical screening test in England is imminent. In light of newly available evidence, we revised our previous estimates of the likely impact of primary human papillomavirus testing on incidence of cervical cancer. Method and results Using screening data on women aged 25-64 diagnosed with cervical cancer in England between 1988 and 2012, we previously reported that 38.8% had a negative test six months to six years prior to diagnosis...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Nicholas Wald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Osama Y Al-Dirbashi, Nathan McIntosh, Pranesh Chakraborty
Background Newborn screening for propionic acidemia and methylmalonic acidurias using the marker propionylcarnitine (C3) is neither sensitive nor specific. Using C3 to acetylcarnitine (C3/C2) ratio, together with conservative C3 cut-offs, can improve screening sensitivity, but the false positive rate remains high. Incorporating the marker 2-methylcitric acid has been suggested, to improve the positive predictive value for these disorders without compromising the sensitivity. Methods Between July 2011 and December 2012 at the Newborn Screening Ontario laboratory, all neonatal dried blood spot samples that were reported as screen positive for propionic acidemia or methylmalonic acidurias based on elevated C3 and C3/C2 ratio were analyzed for 2-methylcitric acid, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Alicia Thiery, Cherif Akladios, Muriel Fender, François Severac, Jean-Jacques Baldauf
Objectives Although cervical cancer screening guidelines in France recommend a smear test every three years, many physicians order more regular screening. We aimed to assess the benefits or harms of shorter intervals between screenings, both for women and public health. Methods For a retrospective cohort of women aged 25-65 who had two normal smears and at least one additional smear, data were sourced from a regionally organized cervical cancer screening programme in France, with follow-up for nine years. Based on the interval between the second and third smear, two groups were formed; the first comprised overscreened women (interval <24 months), and the second of 'correctly' screened women (interval between 24 and 42 months)...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Andrew A Plumb, Alex Ghanouni, Sandra Rainbow, Natasha Djedovic, Sarah Marshall, Judith Stein, Stuart A Taylor, Steve Halligan, Georgios Lyratzopoulos, Christian von Wagner
Background Screening participants with abnormal faecal occult blood test results who do not attend further testing are at high risk of colorectal cancer, yet little is known about their reasons for non-attendance. Methods We conducted a medical record review of 170 patients from two English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme centres who had abnormal guaiac faecal occult blood test screening tests between November 2011 and April 2013 but did not undergo colonoscopy. Using information from patient records, we coded and categorized reasons for non-attendance...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Katja Kemp Jacobsen, My von Euler Chelpin, Ilse Vejborg, Elsebeth Lynge
Background The purpose of mammography screening is to decrease breast cancer mortality. To achieve this a high coverage by examination is needed. Within an organized screening programme, we examined the impact of changes in the invitation schedule on the interplay between coverage and participation. Method We studied nine cohorts aged 50-51 when first targeted by mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark. Population data were retrieved from the Danish Civil Registration System; invitation and attendance data from the screening programme database...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Laszlo Tabar, Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen, Chen-Yang Hsu, Wendy Yi-Ying Wu, Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Sam Li-Sheng Chen, Sherry Yueh-Hsia Chiu, Jean Ching-Yuan Fann, Kerri Beckmann, Robert A Smith, Stephen W Duffy
Objectives To summarize debate and research in the Swedish Two-County Trial of mammographic screening on key issues of trial design, endpoint evaluation, and overdiagnosis, and from these to infer promising directions for the future. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled trial of the offer of breast cancer screening in Sweden, with a single screen of the control group at the end of the screening phase forms the setting for a historical review of investigations and debate on issues of design, analysis, and interpretation of results of the trial...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Nicholas J Wald, Johannes M Luteijn, Joan K Morris
Objective Age screening and preventive medication for future myocardial infarction and stroke has been previously described. We aimed to ascertain whether different age cut-offs are needed for males and females. Methods We determined five parameters for each sex according to age cut-off: detection rate (sensitivity), false-positive rate, proportion of the population eligible for treatment with a polypill, proportion who benefit from taking a polypill (simvastatin 20 mg, losartan 25 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 12...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Gisela Lg Menezes, Gonneke Ao Winter-Warnars, Eva L Koekenbier, Emma J Groen, Helena M Verkooijen, Ruud M Pijnappel
Objectives To investigate the risk of malignancy following stereotactic breast biopsy of calcifications classified as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 3, 4, and 5. Methods The study included women with pure calcifications (not associated with masses or architectural distortions) who underwent stereotactic breast biopsy at the Dutch Cancer Institute between January 2011 and October 2013. Suspicious calcifications (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 3, 4, or 5) detected on mammography were biopsied...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Phu-Quoc Lê, Alina Ferster, Laurence Dedeken, Christiane Vermylen, Anna Vanderfaeillie, Laurence Rozen, Catherine Heijmans, Sophie Huybrechts, Christine Devalck, Frédéric Cotton, Olivier Ketelslegers, Marie-Françoise Dresse, Jean-François Fils, Béatrice Gulbis
Objectives To compare the outcomes of sickle cell disease patients diagnosed through neonatal screening with those who were not. Methods In an observational multicenter study in Belgium, 167 screened and 93 unscreened sickle cell disease patients were analyzed for a total of 1116 and 958 patient-years of follow-up, respectively. Both groups were compared with propensity score analysis, with patients matched on three covariates (gender, genotype, and central Africa origin). Bonferroni correction was applied for all comparisons...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Louise E Johns, Anthony J Swerdlow, Susan M Moss
Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of the NHS breast screening programme (NHSBSP) on breast cancer mortality in England and Wales and to compare findings with a cohort analysis of the same underlying population. Methods A nested case-control study within a cohort of 959,738 women in England and Wales aged 49-64 who were eligible for routine NHSBSP screening during 1991-2005. Cases who died from breast cancer in 1991-2005 were matched to controls without breast cancer at the case diagnosis date and alive when the case died...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Joyce C Harper
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was first successfully performed in 1989 as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis for couples at risk of transmitting a genetic or chromosomal abnormality, such as cystic fibrosis, to their child. From embryos generated in vitro, biopsied cells are genetically tested. From the mid-1990s, this technology has been employed as an embryo selection tool for patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation, screening as many chromosomes as possible, in the hope that selecting chromosomally normal embryos will lead to higher implantation and decreased miscarriage rates...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Giuliano Carrozzi, Antonio Federici, Pamela Mancuso, Letizia Sampaolo, Marco Zappa
Objectives In Italy, regional governments organize cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening programmes, but there are difficulties in regularly inviting all the target populations and participation remains low. We analysed the determinants associated with invitation coverage of and participation in these programmes. Methods We used data on screening programmes from annual Ministry of Health surveys, 1999-2012 for cervical, 1999-2011 for breast and 2005-2011 for colorectal cancer. For recent years, we linked these data to the results of the national routine survey on preventive behaviours to evaluate the effect of spontaneous screening at Province level...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Tina Beruchashwili, Rema Gvamichava, Stephen W Duffy
Objective To use results on recall rates from a regional non-population-based breast screening programme to inform practice in a planned national population-based programme. Methods We analysed data on rates of recall for further assessment in 27,327 mammographic screening episodes in 2015-2016 in the breast screening programme in the city of Tbilisi, Georgia. Screening was done by two-view digital mammography with double reading in women aged 40-70, and further assessment took place at the same clinic and during the same visit as the initial screening mammogram...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
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