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Journal of Medical Screening

P Sandiford, A Buckley, D Holdsworth, G Tozer, N Scott
OBJECTIVE: To test whether a telephone follow-up service for high-needs ethnic groups increases bowel screening participation in non-responders to postal invitations. METHODS: Māori, Pacific, and Asian ethnicity individuals who failed to return a bowel screening test kit within four weeks of it being posted were randomly allocated (1:1) to a telephone active follow-up service or a control group. The active follow-up service made multiple attempts to contact the invitee and provide support...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Stephen W Duffy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Sandro T Stoffel, Yasemin Hirst, Alex Ghanouni, Lesley M McGregor, Robert Kerrison, Wouter Verstraete, Ailish Gallagher, Jo Waller, Christian von Wagner
OBJECTIVES: A large proportion of women have a preference for a same-gender endoscopy practitioner. We tested how information about practitioner gender affected intention to have bowel scope screening in a sample of women disinclined to have the test. METHODS: In an online experimental survey, women aged 35-54 living in England who did not intend to participate in bowel scope screening (N = 1060) were randomised to one of four experimental conditions: (1) control (practitioner's gender is unknown), (2) opposite-gender (male practitioner by default), (3) same gender (female practitioner by default), and (4) active choice (the patient could choose the gender of the practitioner)...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Christopher R Gilbert, Alexander S Carlson, Candice L Wilshire, Ralph W Aye, Alexander S Farivar, Adam J Bograd, Jed A Gorden
OBJECTIVE: The National Lung Screening Trial demonstrated the benefits of lung cancer screening, but the potential high incidence of unnecessary invasive testing for ultimately benign radiologic findings causes concern. We aimed to review current biopsy patterns and outcomes in our community-based program, and retrospectively apply malignancy prediction models in a lung cancer screening population, to identify the potential impact these calculators could have on biopsy decisions. METHODS: Retrospective review of lung cancer-screening program participants from 2013 to 2016...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Ming Li, David Roder, Lisa J Whop, Abbey Diaz, Peter D Baade, Julia Ml Brotherton, Karen Canfell, Joan Cunningham, Gail Garvey, Suzanne P Moore, Dianne L O'Connell, Patricia C Valery, John R Condon
OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer mortality has halved in Australia since the national cervical screening program began in 1991, but elevated mortality rates persist for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women (referred to as Aboriginal women in this report). We investigated differences by Aboriginal status in abnormality rates predicted by cervical cytology and confirmed by histological diagnoses among screened women. METHODS: Using record linkage between cervical screening registry and public hospital records in South Australia, we obtained Aboriginal status of women aged 20-69 for 1993-2016 (this was not recorded by the registry)...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Claire Stevens, Samuel G Smith, Charlotte Vrinten, Jo Waller, Rebecca J Beeken
Objectives Population-based cancer screening has been described as a teachable moment for behaviour change. This research examined the effect of faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) participation on smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Setting Data were from screening-naïve men within the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, receiving their first FOBT invitation (n = 774). Four waves of data were included in analyses (wave 4, 2008/2009 - wave 7, 2014/2015)...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Johannes Blom, Christian Löwbeer, K Miriam Elfström, Marika Sventelius, Daniel Öhman, Deborah Saraste, Sven Törnberg
Objective Using quantitative Faecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) in colorectal cancer screening enables adjustment of the cut-off for a positive test. As men have higher stool blood levels and higher prevalence of colorectal neoplasia, different cut-off levels can be chosen for men and women. We evaluated participation and positivity rates switching from guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) (Hemoccult®) to FIT (OC-Sensor), using gender-specific cut-offs. Methods The colorectal cancer screening programme of Stockholm-Gotland, Sweden, started in 2008 and invited individuals aged 60-69 to biennial testing using gFOBT...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
David S Wald, Nicholas J Wald
Objective To integrate child-parent screening and cascade testing into a single pathway-child-parent cascade screening (CPCS), for the identification of familial hypercholesterolaemia in the population and to estimate the number of new familial hypercholesterolaemia cases identified per child screened and the associated costs. Methods We applied the results from the published MRC Child-Parent Screening Study to 10,000 children, together with cascade testing first degree relatives of parents with a familial hypercholesterolaemia mutation identified by child-parent screening...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Jeremy P Brown, Kate Wooldrage, Ines Kralj-Hans, Suzanne Wright, Amanda J Cross, Wendy S Atkin
Objective To investigate the outcomes of biennial guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) screening after once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening. Methods Between 1994 and 1999, as part of the UK FS Screening Trial (UKFSST), adults aged 55-64 were randomly allocated to an intervention group (offered FS screening) or a control group (not contacted). From 2006, a subset of UKFSST participants (20,895/44,041 intervention group; 41,497/87,149 control group) were invited to biennial gFOBT screening by the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Alejandra Castañon, Matejka Rebolj, Peter Sasieni
Objective It often takes considerable time for sufficient evidence to accumulate to support implementation of new methods in routine screening. Where national screening programmes are already effective, switching to a more sensitive screening test may not be a priority. Although risk associated with overly rapid implementation exists, postponement is also associated with a (to date unquantified) missed opportunity to prevent deaths. This risk tends not to be addressed where effective screening methods are already in use...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Na Young Sung, Jae Kwan Jun, Youn Nam Kim, Inkyung Jung, Sohee Park, Gyu Ri Kim, Chung Mo Nam
Objective In evaluating the efficacy of cancer screening programmes, sojourn time (duration of the preclinical detectable phase) and sensitivity of the screening test are the two key parameters. Studies suggest that in breast cancer screening, both parameters may vary depending on age at the time of screening, but few studies have examined other cancers. We expanded an existing probability model for periodic screening by performing simultaneous estimation of age group-dependent and sensitivity at preclinical onset time, and tested the expanded model using data from the Korean National Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Geralyn Lambert-Messerlian, Glenn E Palomaki
Objective To quantify changes in the proportion of women aged 35 and older choosing serum screening for Down's syndrome over time and the effect on false positive and detection rates. Methods From Rhode Island hospital-based laboratory prenatal screening records (2013-2017) we extracted the test performed (Integrated, Combined, Quadruple), maternal age, and Down's syndrome risk; documented observed changes in maternal age distributions and false positive rates, and modelled the impact of varying proportions of older women choosing screening on each test's performance using the 2015 United States birth cohort as baseline...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Samantha L Quaife, Jo Waller, Christian von Wagner, Charlotte Vrinten
Objective Some degree of general worry about cancer may facilitate screening participation, but specific worries about the potential consequences (e.g. treatment, death) may act as deterrents. No studies have examined these associations in the same sample. We assessed associations between general versus specific cancer worries and cancer screening participation. Methods In 2016, a population-based cross-sectional survey of adults living in England was carried out. This paper reports analyses of a subsample (n = 1694)...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Yvonne Daniel, Joan Henthorn
Objective Beta thalassaemias are a group of hereditary red cell disorders resulting in a reduced or absent production of the main adult haemoglobin, adult haemoglobin. In England, the NHS Sickle Cell & Thalassaemia Screening Programme recommends reporting newborn beta thalassaemia disease as an incidental finding when detected whilst screening for sickle cell disease. The current action value to initiate further investigations is 1.5% adult haemoglobin, using high-performance liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Carlo Senore, Cesare Hassan, Daniele Regge, Eva Pagano, Gabriella Iussich, Loredana Correale, Nereo Segnan
Objective Several European countries are implementing organized colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes using faecal immunochemical test (FIT) and/or flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS), but the cost-effectiveness of these programmes is not yet available. We aimed to assess cost-effectiveness, based on data from the established Piedmont screening programme. Methods Using the Piedmont programme data, a Markov model was constructed comparing three strategies in a simulated cohort of 100,000 subjects: single FS, biennial FIT, or sequential strategy (FS + FIT offered to FS non-responders)...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Nicholas Wald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Nora Eisemann, Annika Waldmann, Bernd Holleczek, Alexander Katalinic
Objective The main purpose of skin cancer screening is melanoma mortality reduction. Before the implementation of nationwide German skin cancer screening, the pilot project SCREEN was conducted in Schleswig-Holstein in 2003-2004. We aimed to determine whether the pilot project had achieved a mortality reduction. Methods Using an incidence-based approach (patients with both melanoma diagnosis and death in 2003-2008), we compared the observed melanoma mortality of the SCREEN cohort to the melanoma mortality expected without screening in the general population of Saarland...
September 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Joonas Miettinen, Nea Malila, Matti Hakama, Janne Pitkäniemi
Objectives In colorectal cancer screening, randomized clinical trials have shown a 16% mean reduction in colorectal cancer mortality, but the Finnish randomized health services study showed no effect. We quantified spillover (the total indirect effect caused by the programme on the non-invited) and corrected the effectiveness estimate of the Finnish programme. Methods We retrieved from the Finnish Cancer Registry data on all non-invited colorectal cancer patients diagnosed in 1999-2013 in municipalities that adopted screening ( n = 18,948)...
September 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Nicholas J Wald Editor, Robert Old
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Martin J Yaffe, Nicole Mittmann, Oguzhan Alagoz, Amy Trentham-Dietz, Anna Na Tosteson, Natasha K Stout
Objectives Incidence-based mortality quantifies the distribution of cancer deaths and life-years lost, according to age at detection. We investigated the temporal distribution of the disease burden, and the effect of starting and stopping ages and interval between screening mammography examinations, on incidence-based mortality. Methods Incidence-based mortality was estimated using an established breast cancer simulation model, adapted and validated to simulate breast cancer incidence, screening performance, and delivery of therapies in Canada...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
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