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Journal of Medical Screening

Aradhna Kaushal, Amanda J Ramirez, Fiona Warburton, Alice S Forster, Louise Linsell, Caroline Burgess, Lorraine Tucker, Lynne Omar, Lindsay Jl Forbes
Objective In a randomized controlled trial, the Promoting Early Presentation intervention increased older women's breast cancer awareness after two years. We investigated whether this increase was sustained at three years, and the effect on breast screening self-referral. Methods We randomly allocated 867 women attending their final invited breast screening appointment to the Promoting Early Presentation intervention or usual care. We examined breast cancer awareness after three years and breast screening self-referrals after four years...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
F Sloot, Eam Heijnsdijk, J H Groenewoud, F Goudsmit, E W Steyerberg, H J de Koning, H J Simonsz
Objective To estimate the effect of omitting an individual screen from a child vision screening programme on the detection of amblyopia in the Netherlands. A previous study (Rotterdam Amblyopia Screening Effectiveness Study) suggested that the three screens carried out between 6 and 24 months contributed little. Methods We developed a micro-simulation model that approximated the birth-cohort data from the previous study, in which 2964 children had completed follow-up at age 7, and 100 amblyopia cases were detected...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Jo Jacomelli, Lisa Summers, Anne Stevenson, Tim Lees, Jonothan J Earnshaw
Objectives To monitor the early effect of a national population screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysm in 65-year-old men. Setting The study used national statistics for death rates from abdominal aortic aneurysm (Office of National Statistics) and hospital admission data in England (Hospital Episode Statistics). Methods Information concerning deaths from abdominal aortic aneurysm (ruptured and non-ruptured) (1999-2014) and hospital admissions for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (2000-2015) was examined...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Geralyn M Lambert-Messerlian, Elizabeth E Eklund, Louis M Neveux, Glenn E Palomaki
Objectives To determine whether maternal plasma collected in cell-free DNA stabilizing tubes is suitable for measuring prenatal screening 'serum' markers. Methods Matched plasma and serum samples were collected from 41 second trimester and 42 first trimester non-Down's syndrome pregnancies. Second trimester samples were tested for alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, human chorionic gonadotropin, and inhibin-A (Beckman Coulter DxI immunoassay). First trimester samples were tested for human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Stephen W Duffy, Jonathan P Myles, Roberta Maroni, Abeera Mohammad
Objective Screening participation is spread differently across populations, according to factors such as ethnicity or socioeconomic status. We here review the current evidence on effects of interventions to improve cancer screening participation, focussing in particular on effects in underserved populations. Methods We selected studies to review based on their characteristics: focussing on population screening programmes, showing a quantitative estimate of the effect of the intervention, and published since 1990...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Paul F Pinsky, Barbara Dunn, David Gierada, P Hrudaya Nath, Reginald Munden, Lincoln Berland, Barnett S Kramer
Introduction Renal cancer incidence has increased markedly in the United States in recent decades, largely due to incidentally detected tumours from computed tomography imaging. Here, we analyze the potential for low-dose computed tomography lung cancer screening to detect renal cancer. Methods The National Lung Screening Trial randomized subjects to three annual screens with either low-dose computed tomography or chest X-ray. Eligibility criteria included 30 + pack-years, current smoking or quit within 15 years, and age 55-74...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Paula A van Luijt, Eveline Am Heijnsdijk, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Solveig Hofvind, Harry J de Koning
Objective Fluctuations in the incidence of breast cancer in Norway in the last three decades are partly explained by the use of hormone replacement therapy and mammography screening, but overdiagnosis has also been suggested as a cause. We assessed the trends in breast cancer incidence and overdiagnosis in Norway. Methods We calibrated our microsimulation model to Norwegian Cancer Registration data. The model takes into account the use of mammography (both within and outside the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme) and of hormone replacement therapy...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Matti Hakama, Sue M Moss, Ulf-Hakan Stenman, Monique J Roobol, Marco Zappa, Sigrid Carlsson, Marco Randazzo, Vera Nelen, Jonas Hugosson
Objectives To calculate design-corrected estimates of the effect of screening on prostate cancer mortality by centre in the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). Setting The ERSPC has shown a 21% reduction in prostate cancer mortality in men invited to screening with follow-up truncated at 13 years. Centres either used pre-consent randomisation (effectiveness design) or post-consent randomisation (efficacy design). Methods In six centres (three effectiveness design, three efficacy design) with follow-up until the end of 2010, or maximum 13 years, the effect of screening was estimated as both effectiveness (mortality reduction in the target population) and efficacy (reduction in those actually screened)...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
D Saraste, A Martling, P J Nilsson, J Blom, S Törnberg, M Janson
Objectives To compare preoperative staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment, and treatment in patients with screening detected and non-screening detected colorectal cancer. Methods Data on patient and tumour characteristics, staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment and treatment in patients with screening and non-screening detected colorectal cancer from 2008 to 2012 were collected from the Stockholm-Gotland screening register and the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry. Results The screening group had a higher proportion of stage I disease (41 vs...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
R Sutradhar, S Gu, L F Paszat
Objective Prior work on the disparities among women in breast cancer screening adherence has been methodologically limited. This longitudinal study determines and examines the factors associated with becoming adherent. Methods In a cohort of Canadian women aged 50-74, a three-state transitional model was used to examine adherence to screening for breast cancer. The proportion of time spent being non-adherent with screening was calculated for each woman during her observation window. Using age as the time scale, a relative rate multivariable regression was implemented under the three-state transitional model, to examine the association between covariates (all time-varying) and the rate of becoming adherent...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Jayne Digby, Callum G Fraser, Francis A Carey, Robert H Diament, Margaret Balsitis, Robert Jc Steele
Objective To examine associations between faecal haemoglobin concentrations below the cut-off used in colorectal cancer screening and outcomes in the next screening round. Methods In the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme, faecal haemoglobin concentrations and diagnostic outcomes were investigated for participants with a negative result (faecal haemoglobin concentrations < 80.0 µg Hb/g faeces), followed by a positive result within two years. Results Of 37,780 participants with negative results, at the next screening round, 556 (1...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Alejandra Castanon, Rebecca Landy, Peter Sasieni
Objective The replacement of cytology with human papillomavirus testing as the primary cervical screening test in England is imminent. In light of newly available evidence, we revised our previous estimates of the likely impact of primary human papillomavirus testing on incidence of cervical cancer. Method and results Using screening data on women aged 25-64 diagnosed with cervical cancer in England between 1988 and 2012, we previously reported that 38.8% had a negative test six months to six years prior to diagnosis...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Nicholas Wald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Osama Y Al-Dirbashi, Nathan McIntosh, Pranesh Chakraborty
Background Newborn screening for propionic acidemia and methylmalonic acidurias using the marker propionylcarnitine (C3) is neither sensitive nor specific. Using C3 to acetylcarnitine (C3/C2) ratio, together with conservative C3 cut-offs, can improve screening sensitivity, but the false positive rate remains high. Incorporating the marker 2-methylcitric acid has been suggested, to improve the positive predictive value for these disorders without compromising the sensitivity. Methods Between July 2011 and December 2012 at the Newborn Screening Ontario laboratory, all neonatal dried blood spot samples that were reported as screen positive for propionic acidemia or methylmalonic acidurias based on elevated C3 and C3/C2 ratio were analyzed for 2-methylcitric acid, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Alicia Thiery, Cherif Akladios, Muriel Fender, François Severac, Jean-Jacques Baldauf
Objectives Although cervical cancer screening guidelines in France recommend a smear test every three years, many physicians order more regular screening. We aimed to assess the benefits or harms of shorter intervals between screenings, both for women and public health. Methods For a retrospective cohort of women aged 25-65 who had two normal smears and at least one additional smear, data were sourced from a regionally organized cervical cancer screening programme in France, with follow-up for nine years. Based on the interval between the second and third smear, two groups were formed; the first comprised overscreened women (interval <24 months), and the second of 'correctly' screened women (interval between 24 and 42 months)...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Andrew A Plumb, Alex Ghanouni, Sandra Rainbow, Natasha Djedovic, Sarah Marshall, Judith Stein, Stuart A Taylor, Steve Halligan, Georgios Lyratzopoulos, Christian von Wagner
Background Screening participants with abnormal faecal occult blood test results who do not attend further testing are at high risk of colorectal cancer, yet little is known about their reasons for non-attendance. Methods We conducted a medical record review of 170 patients from two English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme centres who had abnormal guaiac faecal occult blood test screening tests between November 2011 and April 2013 but did not undergo colonoscopy. Using information from patient records, we coded and categorized reasons for non-attendance...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Katja Kemp Jacobsen, My von Euler Chelpin, Ilse Vejborg, Elsebeth Lynge
Background The purpose of mammography screening is to decrease breast cancer mortality. To achieve this a high coverage by examination is needed. Within an organized screening programme, we examined the impact of changes in the invitation schedule on the interplay between coverage and participation. Method We studied nine cohorts aged 50-51 when first targeted by mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark. Population data were retrieved from the Danish Civil Registration System; invitation and attendance data from the screening programme database...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Laszlo Tabar, Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen, Chen-Yang Hsu, Wendy Yi-Ying Wu, Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Sam Li-Sheng Chen, Sherry Yueh-Hsia Chiu, Jean Ching-Yuan Fann, Kerri Beckmann, Robert A Smith, Stephen W Duffy
Objectives To summarize debate and research in the Swedish Two-County Trial of mammographic screening on key issues of trial design, endpoint evaluation, and overdiagnosis, and from these to infer promising directions for the future. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled trial of the offer of breast cancer screening in Sweden, with a single screen of the control group at the end of the screening phase forms the setting for a historical review of investigations and debate on issues of design, analysis, and interpretation of results of the trial...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Nicholas J Wald, Johannes M Luteijn, Joan K Morris
Objective Age screening and preventive medication for future myocardial infarction and stroke has been previously described. We aimed to ascertain whether different age cut-offs are needed for males and females. Methods We determined five parameters for each sex according to age cut-off: detection rate (sensitivity), false-positive rate, proportion of the population eligible for treatment with a polypill, proportion who benefit from taking a polypill (simvastatin 20 mg, losartan 25 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 12...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
Isabel Ibarra-González, Felix-Julián Campos-Garcia, Luz Del Alba Herrera-Pérez, Patricia Martínez-Cruz, Claudia-Margarita Moreno-Graciano, Silvina-Noemí Contreras-Capetillo, Verónica León-Burgos, Felipe-Angel Maldonado-Solis, Miguel Angel Alcántara-Ortigoza, Ariadna González Del Angel, Marcela Vela-Amieva
Objective To use the results of the first five years of a cystic fibrosis newborn screening program to estimate the cystic fibrosis birth prevalence and spectrum of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR) gene variants in Yucatan, Mexico. Methods Screening was performed from 2010 to 2015, using two-tier immunoreactive trypsinogen testing, followed by a sweat test. When sweat test values were >30 mmol/L, the CFTR gene was analyzed. Results Of 96,071 newborns screened, a second sample was requested in 119 cases...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
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