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Journal of Medical Screening

Amanda J Chorley, Yasemin Hirst, Charlotte Vrinten, Christian von Wagner, Jane Wardle, Jo Waller
Objectives In examining informed choice in cancer screening, we investigated public awareness that some screening programmes aim to prevent cancer, while others seek to detect cancer at an early stage. Methods A population-based survey of adults aged 50-70 in England (n = 1433), including data on demographic characteristics and screening experience. Participants were asked to select the main purpose of cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening (both faecal occult blood testing and flexible sigmoidoscopy)...
June 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
H Kitchener, M Gittins, M Cruickshank, C Moseley, S Fletcher, R Albrow, A Gray, L Brabin, D Torgerson, E J Crosbie, A Sargent, C Roberts
Objectives To measure the feasibility and effectiveness of interventions to increase cervical screening uptake amongst young women. Methods A two-phase cluster randomized trial conducted in general practices in the NHS Cervical Screening Programme. In Phase 1, women in practices randomized to intervention due for their first invitation to cervical screening received a pre-invitation leaflet and, separately, access to online booking. In Phase 2, non-attenders at six months were randomized to one of: vaginal self-sample kits sent unrequested or offered; timed appointments; nurse navigator; or the choice between nurse navigator or self-sample kits...
June 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Aaron J Quyn, Callum G Fraser, Greig Stanners, Francis A Carey, Claire Carden, Aasma Shaukat, Robert Jc Steele
Objective Age, sex, and deprivation are known factors influencing colorectal (bowel) cancer screening uptake. We investigated the influence of these factors on uptake over time. Methods Data from the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme (SBoSP) were collected between 2007 and 2014. End-points for analysis were uptake, faecal occult blood test positivity, and disease detection, adjusted for age, sex, deprivation, and year of screening. Results From 5,308,336 individual screening episodes documented, uptake gradually increased with increasing age up to 65-69 and was lower in men than women (52...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Magdalene Antoine, Ketty Lee, Tyhiesia Donald, Yonni Belfon, Ali Drigo, Sharon Polson, Francis Martin, George Mitchell, Maryse Etienne-Julan, Marie-Dominique Hardy-Dessources
Objective To establish the birth prevalence of sickle cell disease in Grenada, with a view to assess the requirement for a population-based neonatal screening programme. Methods A two-year pilot neonatal screening programme, involving the Ministry of Health of Grenada, the Sickle Cell Association of Grenada, and the diagnostic laboratory of hemoglobinopathies of the University Hospital of Guadeloupe, was implemented in 2014-2015 under the auspices of the Caribbean Network of Researchers on Sickle Cell Disease and Thalassemia...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Grażyna Greczka, Monika Zych, Maciej Wróbel, Piotr Dąbrowski, Joanna Szyfter Harris, Witold Szyfter
Objectives Routine analysis showed that between 1 June and 30 November 2014, only 47.6% of expected follow-up visits at the diagnostic level were registered in the Polish Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening Programme central database. We attempted to detect and analyse the reasons for this low percentage. Methods A telephone survey questionnaire was developed for parents whose children had not registered for consultation at the diagnostic level, or had not received a final diagnosis according to the programme database...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Joyce C Harper
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was first successfully performed in 1989 as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis for couples at risk of transmitting a genetic or chromosomal abnormality, such as cystic fibrosis, to their child. From embryos generated in vitro, biopsied cells are genetically tested. From the mid-1990s, this technology has been employed as an embryo selection tool for patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation, screening as many chromosomes as possible, in the hope that selecting chromosomally normal embryos will lead to higher implantation and decreased miscarriage rates...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Giuliano Carrozzi, Antonio Federici, Pamela Mancuso, Letizia Sampaolo, Marco Zappa
Objectives In Italy, regional governments organize cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening programmes, but there are difficulties in regularly inviting all the target populations and participation remains low. We analysed the determinants associated with invitation coverage of and participation in these programmes. Methods We used data on screening programmes from annual Ministry of Health surveys, 1999-2012 for cervical, 1999-2011 for breast and 2005-2011 for colorectal cancer. For recent years, we linked these data to the results of the national routine survey on preventive behaviours to evaluate the effect of spontaneous screening at Province level...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Tina Beruchashwili, Rema Gvamichava, Stephen W Duffy
Objective To use results on recall rates from a regional non-population-based breast screening programme to inform practice in a planned national population-based programme. Methods We analysed data on rates of recall for further assessment in 27,327 mammographic screening episodes in 2015-2016 in the breast screening programme in the city of Tbilisi, Georgia. Screening was done by two-view digital mammography with double reading in women aged 40-70, and further assessment took place at the same clinic and during the same visit as the initial screening mammogram...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Anne Munck, Dominique Delmas, Marie-Pierre Audrézet, Lydie Lemonnier, David Cheillan, Michel Roussey
Objectives To evaluate the French cystic fibrosis newborn screening algorithm, based on data tracked by a centralized monitoring process, from 2002 to 2014. The programme aimed to attain European Standards in terms of positive predictive value, sensitivity, the ratio of screen positive patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis to infants who screen positive but with inconclusive diagnosis (CFSPID), and time to diagnosis. Methods Retrospective analysis of programme performance, compliance with the algorithm, and changes in screening strategy...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
J P Bestwick, W J Huttly, N J Wald
Upper and lower truncation limits are commonly applied to quantitative markers used in medical screening tests. We here examine data on 375 trisomy 18 and 522,081 unaffected singleton pregnancies, to determine if the lower truncation limit should be set below the previously specified 0.2 multiples of the median. A lower truncation limit of 0.15 would reduce the underestimation of the risk of having a trisomy 18 pregnancy in about 50% of affected pregnancies and would lead to an estimated 10 percentage point increase in the detection rate, with only a very small increase in the false-positive rate...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Sanni Helander, Tytti Sarkeala, Nea Malila
Objective We previously found that administering a pre-screening lifestyle questionnaire lowered the subsequent attendance proportion in the first-ever colorectal cancer screening. We sought to determine whether the effect continued in subsequent screening rounds. Methods The eligible survey cohort ( n = 10,375) received a follow-up questionnaire in 2012, and in 2013, they were invited for colorectal cancer screening for the second time. For the third screening round, in 2015, no questionnaires were sent in the previous year...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Elisa Carretta, Lucia Mangone, Susanna Baracco, Diego Serraino, Manuel Zorzi
Objective In Italy, colorectal screening programmes using the faecal immunochemical test from ages 50 to 69 every two years have been in place since 2005. We aimed to measure the incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test, and compare this with the pre-screening incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods Using data on colorectal cancers diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 collected by cancer registries in areas with active screening programmes, we identified cases that occurred within 24 months of negative screening tests...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Johannes Dm Otten, Guido van Schoor, Petronella Gm Peer, Gerard J den Heeten, Roland Holland, Mireille Jm Broeders, André Lm Verbeek
Objective As breast cancer growth rate is associated with menopause, most screening programmes target mainly women aged 50-74. We studied the association between age at diagnosis and growth rate in this screening-specific age range. Methods We used data from breast cancer patients diagnosed in the screening programme in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The data were restricted to the screening rounds when analogue mammography was used in both the screening and clinical setting. Growth rate expressed as tumour volume doubling time was based on increasing tumour size in longitudinal series of mammograms...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Richard Taylor, Marli Gregory, Kerry Sexton, Jessica Wharton, Nisha Sharma, Georgina Amoyal, Stephen Morrell
Objective To investigate trends in breast cancer mortality in New Zealand women, to corroborate or negate a causal association with service screening mammography. Method Cumulated mortality rates from breast cancer deaths individually linked to incident cases diagnosed before and after screening commencement were compared, in women aged 50-64 (from 2001) and aged 45-49 and 65-69 (from 2006). Trends and differences in aggregate invasive breast cancer mortality (1975-2013) were assessed in relation to introduction of mammography screening targeting women aged 50-64 and 45-69...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Anneli Linné, Rebecka Hultgren, Daniel Öhman, Sven Törnberg, K Miriam Elfström
Objectives The organized population-based screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysm in Stockholm, Sweden, started in 2010. An examination fee was initially charged, but later removed because of a policy change. We examined the effect on screening attendance of removing the fee. Methods The periods before and after removing the examination fee were compared with regard to screening attendance, overall, by municipality and by district. Results Screening attendance was 79.2% in the period with an examination fee and 79...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Ioana Păvăleanu, Dumitru Gafiţanu, Nicolae Ioanid, Mihaela Grigore
Objective Cervical cancer represents a major health problem in Romania. A national population-based cervical cancer screening programme was launched in 2012. The aims of the study were to assess the participation rate and to estimate the prevalence of epithelial cell abnormalities in the first four years of the programme in North Eastern Romania. Methods The participation rate, representing the proportion of eligible women screened in the programme, was evaluated for 2012-2016. The prevalence of cytological abnormalities was estimated by age group and calendar year...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Noel S Weiss, Robyn McClelland, Michael H Criqui, Christina L Wassel, Richard Kronmal
Objective To determine the occurrence of clinical peripheral artery disease in a cohort of middle-aged and older persons who, though they initially had no symptoms of peripheral artery disease, had blood pressure levels in the arteries of their ankles and feet that were at least 10% lower than those in the arteries of their arms. Methods We analyzed data obtained in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, in which lower and upper extremity blood pressures were assessed in over 6000 Americans aged 45-84 and the ratio of these (the ankle-brachial index) was calculated...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Fayyaz Akbar, Aaron Quyn, Robert Steele
Objectives Population-based colorectal (bowel) cancer screening using faecal occult blood tests leads to a reduction in cause-specific mortality. However, in people where the colon is defunctioned, the use of standard faecal occult blood test is not appropriate. The aim of this study was to examine the current trends of clinical practice for colorectal cancer screening in people with defunctioned colons. Methods An online survey was performed using SurveyMonkey. All members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland were invited by email to participate...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Kirsty F Bennett, Jo Waller, Amanda J Chorley, Rebecca A Ferrer, Jessica B Haddrell, Laura Av Marlow
Objectives Understanding why some women actively decline cervical screening could contribute to tailored intervention development. We explored reasons for non-participation in cervical screening among women who had made an active decision not to attend in the future. We also explored interest in human papillomavirus self-sampling. Methods In a population-based survey of women in Great Britain, home-based computer-assisted interviews were carried out with screening eligible women. Women reported their intention to attend for screening when next invited...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Drahomira Springer, Jaroslav Loucky, Pavel Tesner, David Cutka, David Stejskal, Vladimir Gregor, Tomas Zima
Objective In the Czech Republic, over 97% of all pregnant women undergo some type of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome. In about 95% of cases with a confirmed fetal chromosomal abnormality, the pregnancy is terminated. The most commonly used test is the first trimester combined test. We investigated the impact of implementing an integrated sequential test to improve the detection of Down's syndrome pregnancies. Methods Data on the incidence of congenital defects, number of births, and affected pregnancies terminated are recorded in the National Registry of Congenital Anomalies...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
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