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Ana Cordeiro Gomes, Takahiro Hara, Vivian Y Lim, Dietmar Herndler-Brandstetter, Erin Nevius, Tatsuki Sugiyama, Shizue Tani-Ichi, Susan Schlenner, Ellen Richie, Hans-Reimer Rodewald, Richard A Flavell, Takashi Nagasawa, Koichi Ikuta, João Pedro Pereira
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) self-renew in bone marrow niches formed by mesenchymal progenitors and endothelial cells expressing the chemokine CXCL12, but whether a separate niche instructs multipotent progenitor (MPP) differentiation remains unclear. We show that MPPs resided in HSC niches, where they encountered lineage-instructive differentiation signals. Conditional deletion of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in MPPs reduced differentiation into common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), which decreased lymphopoiesis...
November 23, 2016: Immunity
Kenji Toyonaga, Shota Torigoe, Yoshitomo Motomura, Takane Kamichi, Jennifer M Hayashi, Yasu S Morita, Naoto Noguchi, Yasushi Chuma, Hideyasu Kiyohara, Kazuhiro Matsuo, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yoshiko Nakagawa, Tetsushi Sakuma, Masaki Ohmuraya, Takashi Yamamoto, Masayuki Umemura, Goro Matsuzaki, Yasunobu Yoshikai, Ikuya Yano, Tomofumi Miyamoto, Sho Yamasaki
Phosphatidyl-inositol mannosides (PIM) are glycolipids unique to mycobacteria and other related bacteria that stimulate host immune responses and are implicated in mycobacteria pathogenicity. Here, we found that the FcRγ-coupled C-type lectin receptor DCAR (dendritic cell immunoactivating receptor; gene symbol Clec4b1) is a direct receptor for PIM. Mycobacteria activated reporter cells expressing DCAR, and delipidation of mycobacteria abolished this activity. Acylated PIMs purified from mycobacteria were identified as ligands for DCAR...
November 16, 2016: Immunity
Katarzyna M Skrzypczynska, Jing W Zhu, Arthur Weiss
B1 and B2 B cells differ in their ability to respond to T-cell-independent (TI) antigens. Here we report that the Src-family kinase (SFK) regulator CD148 has a unique and critical role in the initiation of B1 but not B2 cell antigen receptor signaling. CD148 loss-of-function mice were found to have defective B1 B-cell-mediated antibody responses against the T-cell-independent antigens NP-ficoll and Pneumovax 23 and had impaired selection of the B1 B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire. These deficiencies were associated with a decreased ability of B1 B cells to induce BCR signaling downstream of the SFK Lyn...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
Caroline Stienne, Michaël F Michieletto, Mehdi Benamar, Nadège Carrié, Isabelle Bernard, Xuan-Hung Nguyen, Yannick Lippi, Fanny Duguet, Roland S Liblau, Stephen M Hedrick, Abdelhadi Saoudi, Anne S Dejean
The transcription factor Foxo3 plays a crucial role in myeloid cell function but its role in lymphoid cells remains poorly defined. Here, we have shown that Foxo3 expression was increased after T cell receptor engagement and played a specific role in the polarization of CD4(+) T cells toward pathogenic T helper 1 (Th1) cells producing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Consequently, Foxo3-deficient mice exhibited reduced susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
October 1, 2016: Immunity
Romain Daillère, Marie Vétizou, Nadine Waldschmitt, Takahiro Yamazaki, Christophe Isnard, Vichnou Poirier-Colame, Connie P M Duong, Caroline Flament, Patricia Lepage, Maria Paula Roberti, Bertrand Routy, Nicolas Jacquelot, Lionel Apetoh, Sonia Becharef, Sylvie Rusakiewicz, Philippe Langella, Harry Sokol, Guido Kroemer, David Enot, Antoine Roux, Alexander Eggermont, Eric Tartour, Ludger Johannes, Paul-Louis Woerther, Elisabeth Chachaty, Jean-Charles Soria, Encouse Golden, Silvia Formenti, Magdalena Plebanski, Mutsa Madondo, Philip Rosenstiel, Didier Raoult, Vincent Cattoir, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, Mathias Chamaillard, Laurence Zitvogel
The efficacy of the anti-cancer immunomodulatory agent cyclophosphamide (CTX) relies on intestinal bacteria. How and which relevant bacterial species are involved in tumor immunosurveillance, and their mechanism of action are unclear. Here, we identified two bacterial species, Enterococcus hirae and Barnesiella intestinihominis that are involved during CTX therapy. Whereas E. hirae translocated from the small intestine to secondary lymphoid organs and increased the intratumoral CD8/Treg ratio, B. intestinihominis accumulated in the colon and promoted the infiltration of IFN-γ-producing γδT cells in cancer lesions...
September 28, 2016: Immunity
Stephanie Gras, Jesseka Chadderton, Claudia M Del Campo, Carine Farenc, Florian Wiede, Tracy M Josephs, Xavier Y X Sng, Michiko Mirams, Katherine A Watson, Tony Tiganis, Kylie M Quinn, Jamie Rossjohn, Nicole L La Gruta
The anti-viral T cell response is drawn from the naive T cell repertoire. During influenza infection, the CD8(+) T cell response to an H-2D(b)-restricted nucleoprotein epitope (NP366) is characterized by preferential expansion of T cells bearing TRBV13(+) T cell receptors (TCRs) and avoidance of TRBV17(+) T cells, despite the latter dominating the naive precursor repertoire. We found two TRBV17(+) TCRs that bound H-2D(b)-NP366 with a 180° reversed polarity compared to the canonical TCR-pMHC-I docking...
September 24, 2016: Immunity
Christina J Groß, Ritu Mishra, Katharina S Schneider, Guillaume Médard, Jennifer Wettmarshausen, Daniela C Dittlein, Hexin Shi, Oliver Gorka, Paul-Albert Koenig, Stephan Fromm, Giovanni Magnani, Tamara Ćiković, Lara Hartjes, Joachim Smollich, Avril A B Robertson, Matthew A Cooper, Marc Schmidt-Supprian, Michael Schuster, Kate Schroder, Petr Broz, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Bruce Beutler, Bernhard Kuster, Jürgen Ruland, Sabine Schneider, Fabiana Perocchi, Olaf Groß
Imiquimod is a small-molecule ligand of Toll-like receptor-7 (TLR7) that is licensed for the treatment of viral infections and cancers of the skin. Imiquimod has TLR7-independent activities that are mechanistically unexplained, including NLRP3 inflammasome activation in myeloid cells and apoptosis induction in cancer cells. We investigated the mechanism of inflammasome activation by imiquimod and the related molecule CL097 and determined that K(+) efflux was dispensable for NLRP3 activation by these compounds...
September 24, 2016: Immunity
Noriyuki Fujikado, Alexander O Mann, Kushagra Bansal, Kimberly R Romito, Elise M N Ferre, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Michail S Lionakis, Christophe Benoist, Diane Mathis
Aire's primary mechanism of action is to regulate transcription of a battery of genes in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and, consequently, negative selection of effector T cells and positive selection of regulatory T cells. We found that Aire-deficient mice had expanded thymic and peripheral populations of perinatally generated IL-17A(+)Vγ6(+)Vδ1(+) T cells, considered to be "early responders" to tissue stress and drivers of inflammatory reactions. Aire-dependent control of Il7 expression in mTECs regulated the size of thymic IL-17A(+)Vγ6(+)Vδ1(+) compartments...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
Young-Jin Seo, Prithiviraj Jothikumar, Mehul S Suthar, Cheng Zhu, Arash Grakoui
T cells rapidly undergo contraction upon viral clearance, but how T cell function and fate are determined during this phase is unclear. During the contraction phase of an acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, we found that virus-specific CD8(+) T cells within the splenic red pulp (RP) had higher two-dimensional (2D) effective affinity than those within the white pulp (WP). This increased antigen recognition of RP-derived CD8(+) T cells correlated with more efficient target cell killing and improved control of viremia...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
Burkhard Becher, Sonia Tugues, Melanie Greter
The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was initially classified as a hematopoietic growth factor. However, unlike its close relatives macrophage CSF (M-CSF) and granulocyte CSF (G-CSF), the majority of myeloid cells do not require GM-CSF for steady-state myelopoiesis. Instead, in inflammation, GM-CSF serves as a communication conduit between tissue-invading lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Even though lymphocytes are in all likelihood the instigators of chronic inflammatory disease, GM-CSF-activated phagocytes are well equipped to cause tissue damage...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
Dean Franckaert, Adrian Liston
Variation in protein expression is a feature of all cell populations. Using T cell subsets as a proof-of-concept, Lu et al. (2016) develop a framework for dissecting out the contributors to this cell-to-cell expression variation from high-parameter flow cytometry studies.
November 15, 2016: Immunity
Devin Sok, Dennis R Burton
In this issue of Immunity, Huang et al. (2016) describe an exceptionally broad and potent neutralizing antibody to HIV. This antibody, N6, is capable of neutralizing up to 98% of global isolates with a potent median IC50 of 0.04 μg/mL, making it the current "best-in-class" for bNAbs targeting the CD4 binding site.
November 15, 2016: Immunity
Thomas Simon, Jonathan S Bromberg
The role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the induction of antigen-specific tolerance mediated by extrathymic regulatory T (Treg) cells remains incompletely defined. In this issue of Immunity, Jones et al. (2016) show that BTLA(+)DEC205(+)CD8(+)CD11c(+) DCs efficiently induce peripheral Treg cells via the engagement of HVEM, a receptor for BTLA.
November 15, 2016: Immunity
Greg M Delgoffe
Previous studies suggest mitochondrial metabolic pathways are essential for the generation of memory T cells. In this issue of Immunity, Phan et al. (2016) describe the formation of memory in T cells with constitutive glycolytic metabolism, suggesting that fuel does not necessarily dictate function.
November 15, 2016: Immunity
Amanda Monahan, Anni Kleino, Neal Silverman
Contradictory to previous reports, Iatsenko et al. (2016) reveal that PGRP-SD regulates the Imd signaling pathway rather than the Toll pathway in Drosophila and shed light on a decade-old mystery of conflicting structural and phenotypic data.
November 15, 2016: Immunity
Brandon J Thomas, Stephen T Smale
The diversity of mononuclear phagocytes has made it difficult to ascribe cellular functions to sub-populations using conventional loss-of-function approaches. In this issue of Immunity, Thomas et al. (2016) highlight the value of excising enhancer domains, effectively depleting defined lineages without altering other cellular physiology.
November 15, 2016: Immunity
Avery D Posey, Henrik Clausen, Carl H June
Genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) demonstrate potent clinical antitumor effects in a variety of blood cancers. However, clinical activity in solid tumors has been disappointing and toxicity has been a serious concern (Lamers et al., 2013; Morgan et al., 2010). We recently found that a CAR composed of a scFv antibody fragment specific for the Tn-glycoform of MUC1 had potent activity in preclinical models of blood cancer and adenocarcinoma (Posey et al., 2016).
November 15, 2016: Immunity
John Maher, Scott Wilkie, David M Davies, Sefina Arif, Gianfranco Picco, Sylvain Julien, Julie Foster, Joy Burchell, Joyce Taylor-Papadimitriou
We read with interest the manuscript by June and colleagues published recently in Immunity in which they describe targeting of aberrantly glycosylated tumor-associated cell membrane mucin MUC1 using chimeric antigen receptor-engineered human T cells (Posey et al., 2016). In that study, the authors used a second generation 4-1BB costimulatory-molecule-based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) (Imai et al., 2004) in which targeting was achieved using a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from the 5E5 antibody...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
Yong Lu, Angelique Biancotto, Foo Cheung, Elaine Remmers, Naisha Shah, J Philip McCoy, John S Tsang
Cell-to-cell expression variation (CEV) is a prevalent feature of even well-defined cell populations, but its functions, particularly at the organismal level, are not well understood. Using single-cell data obtained via high-dimensional flow cytometry of T cells as a model, we introduce an analysis framework for quantifying CEV in primary cell populations and studying its functional associations in human cohorts. Analyses of 840 CEV phenotypes spanning multiple baseline measurements of 14 proteins in 28 T cell subpopulations suggest that the quantitative extent of CEV can exhibit substantial subject-to-subject differences and yet remain stable within healthy individuals over months...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
Pawel Durek, Karl Nordström, Gilles Gasparoni, Abdulrahman Salhab, Christopher Kressler, Melanie de Almeida, Kevin Bassler, Thomas Ulas, Florian Schmidt, Jieyi Xiong, Petar Glažar, Filippos Klironomos, Anupam Sinha, Sarah Kinkley, Xinyi Yang, Laura Arrigoni, Azim Dehghani Amirabad, Fatemeh Behjati Ardakani, Lars Feuerbach, Oliver Gorka, Peter Ebert, Fabian Müller, Na Li, Stefan Frischbutter, Stephan Schlickeiser, Carla Cendon, Sebastian Fröhler, Bärbel Felder, Nina Gasparoni, Charles D Imbusch, Barbara Hutter, Gideon Zipprich, Yvonne Tauchmann, Simon Reinke, Georgi Wassilew, Ute Hoffmann, Andreas S Richter, Lina Sieverling, Hyun-Dong Chang, Uta Syrbe, Ulrich Kalus, Jürgen Eils, Benedikt Brors, Thomas Manke, Jürgen Ruland, Thomas Lengauer, Nikolaus Rajewsky, Wei Chen, Jun Dong, Birgit Sawitzki, Ho-Ryun Chung, Philip Rosenstiel, Marcel H Schulz, Joachim L Schultze, Andreas Radbruch, Jörn Walter, Alf Hamann, Julia K Polansky
The impact of epigenetics on the differentiation of memory T (Tmem) cells is poorly defined. We generated deep epigenomes comprising genome-wide profiles of DNA methylation, histone modifications, DNA accessibility, and coding and non-coding RNA expression in naive, central-, effector-, and terminally differentiated CD45RA(+) CD4(+) Tmem cells from blood and CD69(+) Tmem cells from bone marrow (BM-Tmem). We observed a progressive and proliferation-associated global loss of DNA methylation in heterochromatic parts of the genome during Tmem cell differentiation...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
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